Since then-President Obamas announcement in early 2015, precision medicine has been an even bigger buzzword in medical research. Its one of those terms you hear frequently, but what exactly is it? And what makes it so important for future health care?
Its both, but definitely not average. The term replaces the older description, personalized medicine. Although they mean roughly the same thing, precision medicine is the preferred term for developing treatment and preventive medicine for individuals based on genetic, environmental and lifestyle factors. In translation: instead of a one-size-fits-all approach for an average patient, the precision approach looks at individual variability when mapping out the treatment plan that has the best chance of success. Doctors base the drug choices on the individual patients genetics.
So, apart from maximizing success, what makes precision medicine so important?
Consider cancer, one of the short-term goals outlined in Mr. Obamas 2015 initiative. Characterizing a patients cancer helps clinicians design an effective treatment plan. Tissue profiling reveals cell markers that are useful when choosing chemotherapeutic drugs. For example, breast cancers that overexpress the HER2 receptor respond very well to trastuzumab (Herceptin) treatment, whereas those with abundant estrogen receptors respond better to hormone therapy. This kind of approach can also customize treatment for other conditions.
How do doctors know what works?
Omics is shorthand for a suite of biotechnologies devoted to uncovering the secrets of the genome (DNA), the proteome (proteins), the transcriptome (how genes translate into proteins) and more. Essentially, omics researchers study the basic machinery of the cell and how growth, aging, disease and nutrition affect it. These technologies underpin most research into precision medicine. By studying thousands of individuals, researchers build a picture of health, disease and risk.
Cataloging the genomic information from thousands of individuals in large population cohorts, and then matching it up with health, environmental and lifestyle records shows genes associated with specific diseases. In tumors, it shows how sensitive they are to chemotherapy.
Omics technology is advancing very rapidly and generating vast amounts of data. Sequencing a persons genome first took almost 10 years and $3 billion; current next generation sequencing (NGS) instruments will whiz through around 18,000 individuals or more in a year. Proteomics technology is catching up rapidly.
One genome generates around 780 MB of data out of around 30 terabytes of raw NGS data; typical proteome datasets run into many gigabytes in size. Studying thousands of individuals for population studies generates terabytes of data approximately 40, according to one article. And that takes a lot of processing power to analyze for clinically relevant results more than can be done manually, so biomathematicians develop algorithms and other software tools to tease the answers from the digital soup. Bioinformatics for storing and accessing electronic health records is vital for precision medicine research. Furthermore, IT systems such as the Northrop Grumman-supported MedDRA initiative encode health information consistently ensure that data banks can talk to each other, with advances in cybersecurity ensuring patient privacy despite the cross talk.
Yes. Just think of where all that data comes from.
Population studies are as big as they sound; the Million Veteran Program collects biosamples from U.S. veterans, around 400,000 so far. It aims to generate omics data that in conjunction with information on health, lifestyle and environment will translate into clinical practice. Thats a lot of samples to handle, store and analyze.
Furthermore, microelectronics advances mean that omics instruments handle more samples at a faster rate. Next-generation sequencers such as the Illumina HiSeq and the Thermo Fisher Ion Torrent use chip-based and semiconductor technology to decode genomic materials. A simple flash of fluorescence or change in pH zaps DNA base pair information into a digital format much faster than old-school gel-based Sanger sequencing.
In order to exploit the speed of these tools, robotic handling manages everything from sample aliquots for biobank storage, to 384-well plate assay wrangling. Their speed and automation bring faster results with fewer errors.
Robotic or automated workflows are also important for nanotechnology and microfluidics where the miniaturization that reduces instrument footprint and sample volume also precludes manual input. Even though they will benefit from precision medicine, our clumsy fingers and thumbs are not as welcome in the lab as they once were.
See original here:
- Precision Medicine Informs Cost-Effective Heart Disease Treatments - HealthITAnalytics.com - May 19th, 2020
- Colonizing Mars may require humanity to tweak its DNA - Space.com - May 19th, 2020
- Complement genes add to sex-based vulnerability in lupus and schizophrenia - Newswise - May 19th, 2020
- 23andMe Is Trying to Crack the Genetic Code Behind the Coronavirus - Motley Fool - May 19th, 2020
- Global Molecular Diagnostics Industry 2019-2029: Genetic Disorders, Cardiovascular Disorders, Infections and Cancer - Yahoo Finance UK - May 19th, 2020
- Prominent Cancer Researcher to Join DRI and Renown Health - GlobeNewswire - May 19th, 2020
- Research Roundup: HIV vaccination, diabetes two-in-one injection, hybrid fish genetics - The Stanford Daily - May 19th, 2020
- Singapore researches discover specific gene linked to Asian Lung Cancer - BSA bureau - May 19th, 2020
- Grant will help scientists break new ground in gene editing - Newswise - May 19th, 2020
- Genomic Medicine Market 2020 | Know the Latest COVID19 Impact Analysis And Strategies of Key Players: Ingersoll Rand, Johnson Controls, Daikin, United... - May 19th, 2020
- Dyne Therapeutics Accelerates Programs in Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy (FSHD) with Exclusive Licensing of Technologies to Target Genetic... - May 19th, 2020
- Coronavirus immunity passports could create a world of 'us and them'. But here's why they make sense - Genetic Literacy Project - May 19th, 2020
- New Stem Cell-Based Topical Solution Helps Bald People Regrow Hair - SciTechDaily - May 19th, 2020
- Scientists race to find a cure or vaccine for the coronavirus. Here are the top drugs in development - CNBC - May 19th, 2020
- WHITEHALL ANALYTICA THE AI SUPERSTATE: Part 2 Is COVID-19 Fast-Tracking a Eugenics-Inspired Genomics Programme in the NHS? - Byline Times - May 19th, 2020
- CRISPR And CRISPR-Associated (Cas) Genes Market Size, Share, Trends and Forecast 2026 by Major Players and Business Opportunities Caribou... - May 19th, 2020
- Researchers: Disease affecting kids could be in the genes - Newsday - May 19th, 2020
- From Competition To Sharing: How Her Childrens Rare Disease Led Sharon Terry To Revolutionize Medical Research - Forbes - May 9th, 2020
- Infection rates may have links to cancer - Medical News Today - May 9th, 2020
- Twin peeks: Stanford inherits twin registry, expanding research options - Stanford Medical Center Report - May 9th, 2020
- Management of Fertility and Hormonal Health in Women at Risk for Hereditary Gynecologic Cancers - Endocrinology Advisor - May 9th, 2020
- Individualized mosaics of microbial strains transfer from the maternal to the infant gut - Newswise - May 9th, 2020
- The Falsehoods of the 'Plandemic' Video - FactCheck.org - May 9th, 2020
- Its in your genes Whether Covid lands you in hospital or not depends on your body - ThePrint - May 9th, 2020
- FDA approves Tabrecta, first targeted therapy to treat metastatic NSCLC - The Cancer Letter - May 9th, 2020
- Research into the health of unborn babies receives government funding - UNSW Newsroom - May 9th, 2020
- Genetics and Weight: Is There an Obesity Gene? - LIVESTRONG.COM - May 9th, 2020
- New medical foundation invests in COVID-19 research funding - News - The University of Sydney - May 9th, 2020
- What Do Your Genetics Have to Do With Your Chances of Dying From Coronavirus? - Vanity Fair - May 3rd, 2020
- Scientists Find New Way to Inject Plants With Medicine, And It May Help Save Our Crops - ScienceAlert - May 3rd, 2020
- Sarepta Therapeutics Announces Research Agreement with US Department of Defense to Evaluate Multiple Constructs From its Proprietary RNA Platform as... - May 3rd, 2020
- Evanston hospitals expand to antibody testing - The Daily Northwestern - May 3rd, 2020
- Profits and Pride at Stake, the Race for a Vaccine Intensifies - The New York Times - May 3rd, 2020
- Data On Thousands Of Twins Reveals How Genetics Influences Covid-19 Symptoms - IFLScience - May 3rd, 2020
- The pieces of the puzzle of covid-19s origin are coming to light - The Economist - May 3rd, 2020
- LIST: UW awards $2.2 million to groups, scientists fighting the coronavirus in Wisconsin - WMTV - May 3rd, 2020
- World Laughter Day 2020: Why we must remember that laughter is indeed the best medicine - Hindustan Times - May 3rd, 2020
- When COVID-19 Mutates, What Are the Risks? - MedicineNet - May 3rd, 2020
- Facts that China is trying to suppress about origin of COVID-19 - WION - May 3rd, 2020
- COVID-19: What's RNA research got to do with it? - University of Rochester - May 3rd, 2020
- Medical, tech investments pay off in Covid-19 war - The Straits Times - May 3rd, 2020
- Welcome to the kingdom of the sick - Salon - May 3rd, 2020
- Safety considerations with chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin in the management of SARS-CoV-2 infection - CMAJ - May 3rd, 2020
- XBiotech Identifies Super Bloods for the Development of a True Human COVID-19 Therapy - GlobeNewswire - May 3rd, 2020
- On National DNA Day, scientists are trying to take the colonialism out of genetics - Massive Science - April 26th, 2020
- Turning On the 'Off Switch' in Cancer Cells - Michigan Medicine - April 26th, 2020
- Turkey's top scientific body invests TL 2.3 billion on 16 vaccine projects over 5 years | Daily Sabah - Daily Sabah - April 26th, 2020
- Covid-19 will pass. What about the racism it has illuminated? - STAT - April 26th, 2020
- Infection Rate May Indicate a Future Diagnosis of Cancer - Cancer Network - April 26th, 2020
- Misleading coronavirus information falsely attributed to Johns Hopkins - AFP Factcheck - April 26th, 2020
- He signed up for a coronavirus vaccine trial using a method that's never been used in humans. Here's why. - CNN - April 26th, 2020
- New study could lead to therapeutic interventions to treat cocaine addiction - Newswise - April 26th, 2020
- As Cuomo Issues New Executive Order, Weill Cornell Medicine Ramps Up COVID-19 Testing - Cornell University The Cornell Daily Sun - April 26th, 2020
- Another Step Towards Earlier Detection of Pancreatic Cancer - MedPage Today - April 26th, 2020
- UW president, biochemistry chair and mathematics professor named to American Academy of Arts and Sciences - UW News - April 26th, 2020
- Mustang Bio Receives Advanced Therapy Medicinal Product Classification from European Medicines Agency for MB-107 Lentiviral Gene Therapy for X-Linked... - April 26th, 2020
- Childhood Psychopathology Linked to Higher Levels of Genetic Vulnerability of Adult Depression - Clinical OMICs News - April 26th, 2020
- Gdask scientist makes crucial headway in understanding killer virus by isolating COVID-19 DNA from infected patient - The First News - April 26th, 2020
- Ethiopia's Ministry of Health Holds Webinar With Diaspora on COVID-19 Response at Tadias Magazine - Tadias Magazine - April 26th, 2020
- Immunity and our DNA: Why women are the stronger sex - The Age - April 26th, 2020
- Nobel laureate Luc Montagnier inaccurately claims that the novel coronavirus is man-made and contains genetic material from HIV - Health Feedback - April 26th, 2020
- Concert Genetics Presents Real-World Data on Utilization of NGS-Based Diagnostic Tests in NCCN 2020 Abstract - news-herald.net - April 2nd, 2020
- What scientists know about COVID-19 -- and what they don't - PBS NewsHour - April 2nd, 2020
- UVA Finds Way to Improve Cancer Outcomes by Examining Patients' Genes - University of Virginia - April 2nd, 2020
- Brown Alpert Medical School Autism Expert on Latest Advances in Research and Testing - GoLocalProv - April 2nd, 2020
- Coronavirus testing is ramping up. Here are the new tests and how they work. - Livescience.com - April 2nd, 2020
- Muscular Dystrophy Association Announces Formation of Strategic Medical Advisory Team of Experts in Neuromuscular Care and Research - PRNewswire - April 2nd, 2020
- Modalis Obtains Access to Foundational CRISPR IP - BioSpace - April 2nd, 2020
- Group behind NYC COVID-19 tent hospital is forcing medical workers to abide by anti-gay statement of faith - Metro Weekly - April 2nd, 2020
- What is coronavirus and Covid-19? An explainer - CNN - April 2nd, 2020
- COVID-19 Vaccine: Here Are Steps It Will Need to Go Through During Development | Medicine - Sci-News.com - April 2nd, 2020
- Coronavirus morning update: SA deaths now 5, but 50 recoveries in CT, and lifesaving lockdown - Health24 - April 2nd, 2020
- Can India be an outlier in the spread of Covid-19? | Opinion - Hindustan Times - April 2nd, 2020
- Genetic Medicine | Department of Medicine - March 31st, 2020
- Institute of Genetic Medicine | Johns Hopkins Medicine - March 31st, 2020
- Biotech innovations to spur next phase of personalized care - ModernHealthcare.com - March 31st, 2020
- What is genomic medicine? An introduction to genetics in ... - March 31st, 2020
- Patients with Severe Forms of Coronavirus Disease Could Offer Clues to Treatment - Howard Hughes Medical Institute - March 31st, 2020
- Battelle and Wexner Medical Center create new diagnostic test for COVID-19 - The Ohio State University News - March 31st, 2020
- 8 strains of the coronavirus are circling the globe. Here's what clues they're giving scientists. - USA TODAY - March 31st, 2020