Eugenics – Wikipedia

Theory and practice aiming to improve the genetic quality of the human population through selective breeding

Eugenics (; from Greek eugenes 'well-born' from eu, 'good, well' and genos, 'race, stock, kin')[2][3] is a set of beliefs and practices that aim to improve the genetic quality of a human population by excluding (through a variety of morally criticized means) certain genetic groups judged to be inferior, and promoting other genetic groups judged to be superior.[4][5] The definition of eugenics has been a matter of debate since the term was coined by Francis Galton in 1883. The concept predates the term; Plato suggested applying the principles of selective breeding to humans around 400BC.

While eugenic principles have been practiced as early as ancient Greece, the contemporary history of eugenics began in the early 20th century, when a popular eugenics movement emerged in the United Kingdom,[6] and then spread to many countries, including the United States, Canada,[7] and most European countries. In this period, eugenic ideas were espoused across the political spectrum. Consequently, many countries adopted eugenic policies, intended to improve the quality of their populations' genetic stock. Such programs included both positive measures, such as encouraging individuals deemed particularly "fit" to reproduce, and negative measures, such as marriage prohibitions and forced sterilization of people deemed unfit for reproduction. Those deemed "unfit to reproduce" often included people with mental or physical disabilities, people who scored in the low ranges on different IQ tests, criminals and "deviants," and members of disfavored minority groups.

The eugenics movement became associated with Nazi Germany and the Holocaust when many of the defendants at the Nuremberg trials attempted to justify their human rights abuses by claiming there was little difference between the Nazi eugenics programs and the U.S. eugenics programs.[8] In the decades following World War II, with the institution of human rights, many countries gradually began to abandon eugenics policies, although some Western countries, the United States, Canada, and Sweden among them, continued to carry out forced sterilizations.

Since the 1980s and 1990s, with new assisted reproductive technology procedures available, such as gestational surrogacy (available since 1985), preimplantation genetic diagnosis (available since 1989), and cytoplasmic transfer (first performed in 1996), fear has emerged about the possible revival of a more potent form of eugenics after decades of promoting human rights.

A major criticism of eugenics policies is that, regardless of whether negative or positive policies are used, they are susceptible to abuse because the genetic selection criteria are determined by whichever group has political power at the time. Furthermore, negative eugenics in particular is criticized by many as a violation of basic human rights, which include the right to reproduce. Another criticism is that eugenics policies eventually lead to a loss of genetic diversity, thereby resulting in inbreeding depression due to a loss of genetic variation. Yet another criticism of contemporary eugenics policies is that they propose to permanently and artificially disrupt millions of years of evolution, and that attempting to create genetic lines "clean" of "disorders" can have far-reaching ancillary downstream effects in the genetic ecology, including negative effects on immunity and species resilience.

Seneca the Younger

The concept of positive eugenics to produce better human beings has existed at least since Plato suggested selective mating to produce a guardian class.[10] In Sparta, every Spartan child was inspected by the council of elders, the Gerousia, which determined if the child was fit to live or not. In the early years of ancient Rome, a Roman father was obliged by law to immediately kill his child if they were physically disabled.[11] Among the ancient Germanic tribes, people who were cowardly, unwarlike or "stained with abominable vices" were put to death, usually by being drowned in swamps.[12][13]

The first formal negative eugenics, that is a legal provision against the birth of allegedly inferior human beings, was promulgated in Western European culture by the Christian Council of Agde in 506, which forbade marriage between cousins.[14]This idea was also promoted by William Goodell (18291894) who advocated the castration and spaying of the insane.[15][16]

The idea of a modern project of improving the human population through a statistical understanding of heredity used to encourage good breeding was originally developed by Francis Galton and, initially, was closely linked to Darwinism and his theory of natural selection.[18] Galton had read his half-cousin Charles Darwin's theory of evolution, which sought to explain the development of plant and animal species, and desired to apply it to humans. Based on his biographical studies, Galton believed that desirable human qualities were hereditary traits, although Darwin strongly disagreed with this elaboration of his theory.[19] In 1883, one year after Darwin's death, Galton gave his research a name: eugenics.[20] With the introduction of genetics, eugenics became associated with genetic determinism, the belief that human character is entirely or in the majority caused by genes, unaffected by education or living conditions. Many of the early geneticists were not Darwinians, and evolution theory was not needed for eugenics policies based on genetic determinism.[18] Throughout its recent history, eugenics has remained controversial.

Eugenics became an academic discipline at many colleges and universities and received funding from many sources.[22] Organizations were formed to win public support and sway opinion towards responsible eugenic values in parenthood, including the British Eugenics Education Society of 1907 and the American Eugenics Society of 1921. Both sought support from leading clergymen and modified their message to meet religious ideals.[23] In 1909 the Anglican clergymen William Inge and James Peile both wrote for the British Eugenics Education Society. Inge was an invited speaker at the 1921 International Eugenics Conference, which was also endorsed by the Roman Catholic Archbishop of New York Patrick Joseph Hayes.[23] The book The Passing of the Great Race (Or, The Racial Basis of European History) by American eugenicist, lawyer, and amateur anthropologist Madison Grant was published in 1916. Though influential, the book was largely ignored when it first appeared, and it went through several revisions and editions. Nevertheless, the book was used by people who advocated restricted immigration as justification for what became known as scientific racism.[24]

Three International Eugenics Conferences presented a global venue for eugenists with meetings in 1912 in London, and in 1921 and 1932 in New York City. Eugenic policies were first implemented in the early 1900s in the United States.[25] It also took root in France, Germany, and Great Britain.[26] Later, in the 1920s and 1930s, the eugenic policy of sterilizing certain mental patients was implemented in other countries including Belgium,[27] Brazil,[28] Canada,[29] Japan and Sweden. Frederick Osborn's 1937 journal article "Development of a Eugenic Philosophy" framed it as a social philosophya philosophy with implications for social order.[30] That definition is not universally accepted. Osborn advocated for higher rates of sexual reproduction among people with desired traits ("positive eugenics") or reduced rates of sexual reproduction or sterilization of people with less-desired or undesired traits ("negative eugenics").

In addition to being practiced in a number of countries, eugenics was internationally organized through the International Federation of Eugenics Organizations. Its scientific aspects were carried on through research bodies such as the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics, the Cold Spring Harbour Carnegie Institution for Experimental Evolution, and the Eugenics Record Office. Politically, the movement advocated measures such as sterilization laws. In its moral dimension, eugenics rejected the doctrine that all human beings are born equal and redefined moral worth purely in terms of genetic fitness. Its racist elements included pursuit of a pure "Nordic race" or "Aryan" genetic pool and the eventual elimination of "unfit" races.

Early critics of the philosophy of eugenics included the American sociologist Lester Frank Ward,[39] the English writer G. K. Chesterton, the German-American anthropologist Franz Boas, who argued that advocates of eugenics greatly over-estimate the influence of biology,[40] and Scottish tuberculosis pioneer and author Halliday Sutherland. Ward's 1913 article "Eugenics, Euthenics, and Eudemics", Chesterton's 1917 book Eugenics and Other Evils, and Boas' 1916 article "Eugenics" (published in The Scientific Monthly) were all harshly critical of the rapidly growing movement. Sutherland identified eugenists as a major obstacle to the eradication and cure of tuberculosis in his 1917 address "Consumption: Its Cause and Cure",[41] and criticism of eugenists and Neo-Malthusians in his 1921 book Birth Control led to a writ for libel from the eugenist Marie Stopes. Several biologists were also antagonistic to the eugenics movement, including Lancelot Hogben.[42] Other biologists such as J. B. S. Haldane and R. A. Fisher expressed skepticism in the belief that sterilization of "defectives" would lead to the disappearance of undesirable genetic traits.[43]

Among institutions, the Catholic Church was an opponent of state-enforced sterilizations.[44] Attempts by the Eugenics Education Society to persuade the British government to legalize voluntary sterilization were opposed by Catholics and by the Labour Party.[45] The American Eugenics Society initially gained some Catholic supporters, but Catholic support declined following the 1930 papal encyclical Casti connubii.[23] In this, Pope Pius XI explicitly condemned sterilization laws: "Public magistrates have no direct power over the bodies of their subjects; therefore, where no crime has taken place and there is no cause present for grave punishment, they can never directly harm, or tamper with the integrity of the body, either for the reasons of eugenics or for any other reason."[46]

As a social movement, eugenics reached its greatest popularity in the early decades of the 20th century, when it was practiced around the world and promoted by governments, institutions, and influential individuals. Many countries enacted[47] various eugenics policies, including: genetic screenings, birth control, promoting differential birth rates, marriage restrictions, segregation (both racial segregation and sequestering the mentally ill), compulsory sterilization, forced abortions or forced pregnancies, ultimately culminating in genocide. By 2014, gene selection (rather than "people selection") was made possible through advances in genome editing,[48] leading to what is sometimes called new eugenics, also known as "neo-eugenics", "consumer eugenics", or "liberal eugenics".

The scientific reputation of eugenics started to decline in the 1930s, a time when Ernst Rdin used eugenics as a justification for the racial policies of Nazi Germany. Adolf Hitler had praised and incorporated eugenic ideas in Mein Kampf in 1925 and emulated eugenic legislation for the sterilization of "defectives" that had been pioneered in the United States once he took power. Some common early 20th century eugenics methods involved identifying and classifying individuals and their families, including the poor, mentally ill, blind, deaf, developmentally disabled, promiscuous women, homosexuals, and racial groups (such as the Roma and Jews in Nazi Germany) as "degenerate" or "unfit", and therefore led to segregation, institutionalization, sterilization, euthanasia, and even mass murder. The Nazi practice of euthanasia was carried out on hospital patients in the Aktion T4 centers such as Hartheim Castle.

By the end of World War II, many discriminatory eugenics laws were abandoned, having become associated with Nazi Germany.[51] H. G. Wells, who had called for "the sterilization of failures" in 1904,[52] stated in his 1940 book The Rights of Man: Or What are we fighting for? that among the human rights, which he believed should be available to all people, was "a prohibition on mutilation, sterilization, torture, and any bodily punishment".[53] After World War II, the practice of "imposing measures intended to prevent births within [a national, ethnical, racial or religious] group" fell within the definition of the new international crime of genocide, set out in the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide.[54] The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union also proclaims "the prohibition of eugenic practices, in particular those aiming at selection of persons".[55] In spite of the decline in discriminatory eugenics laws, some government mandated sterilizations continued into the 21st century. During the ten years President Alberto Fujimori led Peru from 1990 to 2000, 2,000 persons were allegedly involuntarily sterilized.[56] China maintained its one-child policy until 2015 as well as a suite of other eugenics based legislation to reduce population size and manage fertility rates of different populations.[57][58][59] In 2007 the United Nations reported coercive sterilizations and hysterectomies in Uzbekistan.[60] During the years 2005 to 2013, nearly one-third of the 144 California prison inmates who were sterilized did not give lawful consent to the operation.[61]

Developments in genetic, genomic, and reproductive technologies at the end of the 20th century have raised numerous questions regarding the ethical status of eugenics, effectively creating a resurgence of interest in the subject.Some, such as UC Berkeley sociologist Troy Duster, claim that modern genetics is a back door to eugenics.[62] This view is shared by White House Assistant Director for Forensic Sciences, Tania Simoncelli, who stated in a 2003 publication by the Population and Development Program at Hampshire College that advances in pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) are moving society to a "new era of eugenics", and that, unlike the Nazi eugenics, modern eugenics is consumer driven and market based, "where children are increasingly regarded as made-to-order consumer products".[63] In a 2006 newspaper article, Richard Dawkins said that discussion regarding eugenics was inhibited by the shadow of Nazi misuse, to the extent that some scientists would not admit that breeding humans for certain abilities is at all possible. He believes that it is not physically different from breeding domestic animals for traits such as speed or herding skill. Dawkins felt that enough time had elapsed to at least ask just what the ethical differences were between breeding for ability versus training athletes or forcing children to take music lessons, though he could think of persuasive reasons to draw the distinction.[64]

Lee Kuan Yew, the Founding Father of Singapore, started promoting eugenics as early as 1983.[65][66]

In October 2015, the United Nations' International Bioethics Committee wrote that the ethical problems of human genetic engineering should not be confused with the ethical problems of the 20th century eugenics movements. However, it is still problematic because it challenges the idea of human equality and opens up new forms of discrimination and stigmatization for those who do not want, or cannot afford, the technology.[67]

Transhumanism is often associated with eugenics, although most transhumanists holding similar views nonetheless distance themselves from the term "eugenics" (preferring "germinal choice" or "reprogenetics")[68] to avoid having their position confused with the discredited theories and practices of early-20th-century eugenic movements.

Prenatal screening can be considered a form of contemporary eugenics because it may lead to abortions of children with undesirable traits.[69] The State of California Legislature and Governor passed a form of negative eugenics into law via SB 1095 (2016), resulting in a State law requiring the screening for "any disease" (...) "detectable in the blood" prior to birth.[70] The bill, still law in California, has been widely regarded as a form of scientific racism, though its proponents continue to claim that it is necessary. A system was proposed by California Senator Skinner to compensate victims of the well-documented examples of prison sterilizations resulting from California's eugenics programs, but this did not pass by the bill's 2018 deadline in the Legislature.[71]

The term eugenics and its modern field of study were first formulated by Francis Galton in 1883,[72] drawing on the recent work of his half-cousin Charles Darwin.[73][74] Galton published his observations and conclusions in his book Inquiries into Human Faculty and Its Development.

The origins of the concept began with certain interpretations of Mendelian inheritance and the theories of August Weismann. The word eugenics is derived from the Greek word eu ("good" or "well") and the suffix -gens ("born"), and was coined by Galton in 1883 to replace the word "stirpiculture", which he had used previously but which had come to be mocked due to its perceived sexual overtones.[76] Galton defined eugenics as "the study of all agencies under human control which can improve or impair the racial quality of future generations".[77]

Historically, the term eugenics has referred to everything from prenatal care for mothers to forced sterilization and euthanasia.[78] To population geneticists, the term has included the avoidance of inbreeding without altering allele frequencies; for example, J. B. S. Haldane wrote that "the motor bus, by breaking up inbred village communities, was a powerful eugenic agent."[79] Debate as to what exactly counts as eugenics continues today.[80]

Edwin Black, journalist and author of War Against the Weak, claims eugenics is often deemed a pseudoscience because what is defined as a genetic improvement of a desired trait is often deemed a cultural choice rather than a matter that can be determined through objective scientific inquiry.[81] The most disputed aspect of eugenics has been the definition of "improvement" of the human gene pool, such as what is a beneficial characteristic and what is a defect. Historically, this aspect of eugenics was tainted with scientific racism and pseudoscience.[82][83][84]

Early eugenists were mostly concerned with factors of perceived intelligence that often correlated strongly with social class. Some of these early eugenists include Karl Pearson and Walter Weldon, who worked on this at the University College London.[19]

Eugenics also had a place in medicine. In his lecture "Darwinism, Medical Progress and Eugenics", Karl Pearson said that everything concerning eugenics fell into the field of medicine. He basically placed the two words as equivalents. He was supported in part by the fact that Francis Galton, the father of eugenics, also had medical training.[85]

Eugenic policies have been conceptually divided into two categories.[78] Positive eugenics is aimed at encouraging reproduction among the genetically advantaged; for example, the reproduction of the intelligent, the healthy, and the successful. Possible approaches include financial and political stimuli, targeted demographic analyses, in vitro fertilization, egg transplants, and cloning.[86] The movie Gattaca provides a fictional example of a dystopian society that uses eugenics to decide what people are capable of and their place in the world. Negative eugenics aimed to eliminate, through sterilization or segregation, those deemed physically, mentally, or morally "undesirable". This includes abortions, sterilization, and other methods of family planning.[86] Both positive and negative eugenics can be coercive; abortion for fit women, for example, was illegal in Nazi Germany.[87]

Jon Entine claims that eugenics simply means "good genes" and using it as synonym for genocide is an "all-too-common distortion of the social history of genetics policy in the United States". According to Entine, eugenics developed out of the Progressive Era and not "Hitler's twisted Final Solution".[88]

According to Richard Lynn, eugenics may be divided into two main categories based on the ways in which the methods of eugenics can be applied.[89]

The first major challenge to conventional eugenics based on genetic inheritance was made in 1915 by Thomas Hunt Morgan. He demonstrated the event of genetic mutation occurring outside of inheritance involving the discovery of the hatching of a fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) with white eyes from a family with red eyes, demonstrating that major genetic changes occurred outside of inheritance. Additionally, Morgan criticized the view that certain traits, such as intelligence and criminality, were hereditary because these traits were subjective.[127] Despite Morgan's public rejection of eugenics, much of his genetic research was adopted by proponents of eugenics.[128][129]

The heterozygote test is used for the early detection of recessive hereditary diseases, allowing for couples to determine if they are at risk of passing genetic defects to a future child.[130] The goal of the test is to estimate the likelihood of passing the hereditary disease to future descendants.[130]

Recessive traits can be severely reduced, but never eliminated unless the complete genetic makeup of all members of the pool was known, as aforementioned. As only very few undesirable traits, such as Huntington's disease, are dominant, it could be argued[by whom?] from certain perspectives that the practicality of "eliminating" traits is quite low.[citation needed]

There are examples of eugenic acts that managed to lower the prevalence of recessive diseases, although not influencing the prevalence of heterozygote carriers of those diseases. The elevated prevalence of certain genetically transmitted diseases among the Ashkenazi Jewish population (TaySachs, cystic fibrosis, Canavan's disease, and Gaucher's disease), has been decreased in current populations by the application of genetic screening.[131]

Pleiotropy occurs when one gene influences multiple, seemingly unrelated phenotypic traits, an example being phenylketonuria, which is a human disease that affects multiple systems but is caused by one gene defect.[132] Andrzej Pkalski, from the University of Wrocaw, argues that eugenics can cause harmful loss of genetic diversity if a eugenics program selects a pleiotropic gene that could possibly be associated with a positive trait. Pekalski uses the example of a coercive government eugenics program that prohibits people with myopia from breeding but has the unintended consequence of also selecting against high intelligence since the two go together.[133]

Eugenic policies may lead to a loss of genetic diversity. Further, a culturally-accepted "improvement" of the gene pool may result in extinction, due to increased vulnerability to disease, reduced ability to adapt to environmental change, and other factors that may not be anticipated in advance. This has been evidenced in numerous instances, in isolated island populations. A long-term, species-wide eugenics plan might lead to such a scenario because the elimination of traits deemed undesirable would reduce genetic diversity by definition.[134]

Edward M. Miller claims that, in any one generation, any realistic program should make only minor changes in a fraction of the gene pool, giving plenty of time to reverse direction if unintended consequences emerge, reducing the likelihood of the elimination of desirable genes.[135] Miller also argues that any appreciable reduction in diversity is so far in the future that little concern is needed for now.[135]

While the science of genetics has increasingly provided means by which certain characteristics and conditions can be identified and understood, given the complexity of human genetics, culture, and psychology, at this point no agreed objective means of determining which traits might be ultimately desirable or undesirable.[original research?] Some diseases such as sickle-cell disease and cystic fibrosis respectively confer immunity to malaria and resistance to cholera when a single copy of the recessive allele is contained within the genotype of the individual.[citation needed] Reducing the instance of sickle-cell disease genes in Africa where malaria is a common and deadly disease could have severe consequences.[original research?]

Societal and political consequences of eugenics call for a place in the discussion on the ethics behind the eugenics movement.[136] Many of the ethical concerns regarding eugenics arise from its controversial past, prompting a discussion on what place, if any, it should have in the future. Advances in science have changed eugenics. In the past, eugenics had more to do with sterilization and enforced reproduction laws.[137] Now, in the age of a progressively mapped genome, embryos can be tested for susceptibility to disease, gender, and genetic defects, and alternative methods of reproduction such as in vitro fertilization are becoming more common.[138] Therefore, eugenics is no longer ex post facto regulation of the living but instead preemptive action on the unborn.[139]

With this change, however, there are ethical concerns which lack adequate attention, and which must be addressed before eugenic policies can be properly implemented in the future. Sterilized individuals, for example, could volunteer for the procedure, albeit under incentive or duress, or at least voice their opinion. The unborn fetus on which these new eugenic procedures are performed cannot speak out, as the fetus lacks the voice to consent or to express his or her opinion.[140] Philosophers disagree about the proper framework for reasoning about such actions, which change the very identity and existence of future persons.[141]

A common criticism of eugenics is that "it inevitably leads to measures that are unethical".[142] Some fear future "eugenics wars" as the worst-case scenario: the return of coercive state-sponsored genetic discrimination and human rights violations such as compulsory sterilization of persons with genetic defects, the killing of the institutionalized and, specifically, segregation and genocide of races perceived as inferior.[143] Health law professor George Annas and technology law professor Lori Andrews are prominent advocates of the position that the use of these technologies could lead to such human-posthuman caste warfare.[144][145]

In his 2003 book Enough: Staying Human in an Engineered Age, environmental ethicist Bill McKibben argued at length against germinal choice technology and other advanced biotechnological strategies for human enhancement. He writes that it would be morally wrong for humans to tamper with fundamental aspects of themselves (or their children) in an attempt to overcome universal human limitations, such as vulnerability to aging, maximum life span and biological constraints on physical and cognitive ability. Attempts to "improve" themselves through such manipulation would remove limitations that provide a necessary context for the experience of meaningful human choice. He claims that human lives would no longer seem meaningful in a world where such limitations could be overcome with technology. Even the goal of using germinal choice technology for clearly therapeutic purposes should be relinquished, since it would inevitably produce temptations to tamper with such things as cognitive capacities. He argues that it is possible for societies to benefit from renouncing particular technologies, using as examples Ming China, Tokugawa Japan and the contemporary Amish.[146]

Some, for example Nathaniel C. Comfort from Johns Hopkins University, claim that the change from state-led reproductive-genetic decision-making to individual choice has moderated the worst abuses of eugenics by transferring the decision-making from the state to the patient and their family.[147] Comfort suggests that "the eugenic impulse drives us to eliminate disease, live longer and healthier, with greater intelligence, and a better adjustment to the conditions of society; and the health benefits, the intellectual thrill and the profits of genetic bio-medicine are too great for us to do otherwise."[148] Others, such as bioethicist Stephen Wilkinson of Keele University and Honorary Research Fellow Eve Garrard at the University of Manchester, claim that some aspects of modern genetics can be classified as eugenics, but that this classification does not inherently make modern genetics immoral. In a co-authored publication by Keele University, they stated that "[e]ugenics doesn't seem always to be immoral, and so the fact that PGD, and other forms of selective reproduction, might sometimes technically be eugenic, isn't sufficient to show that they're wrong."[149]

In their book published in 2000, From Chance to Choice: Genetics and Justice, bioethicists Allen Buchanan, Dan Brock, Norman Daniels and Daniel Wikler argued that liberal societies have an obligation to encourage as wide an adoption of eugenic enhancement technologies as possible (so long as such policies do not infringe on individuals' reproductive rights or exert undue pressures on prospective parents to use these technologies) in order to maximize public health and minimize the inequalities that may result from both natural genetic endowments and unequal access to genetic enhancements.[150]

Original position, a hypothetical situation developed by American philosopher John Rawls, has been used as an argument for negative eugenics.[151][152]

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Eugenics - Wikipedia

Eugenics in the United States – Wikipedia

Eugenics, the set of beliefs and practices which aims at improving the genetic quality of the human population,[2][3] played a significant role in the history and culture of the United States prior to its involvement in World War II.[4]

Eugenics was practiced in the United States many years before eugenics programs in Nazi Germany,[5] which were largely inspired by the previous American work.[6][7][8] Stefan Khl has documented the consensus between Nazi race policies and those of eugenicists in other countries, including the United States, and points out that eugenicists understood Nazi policies and measures as the realization of their goals and demands.[9]

During the Progressive Era of the late 19th and early 20th century, eugenics was considered a method of preserving and improving the dominant groups in the population; it is now generally associated with racist and nativist elements, as the movement was to some extent a reaction to a change in emigration from Europe, rather than scientific genetics.[10]

The American eugenics movement was rooted in the biological determinist ideas of Sir Francis Galton, which originated in the 1880s. Galton studied the upper classes of Britain, and arrived at the conclusion that their social positions were due to a superior genetic makeup.[11] Early proponents of eugenics believed that, through selective breeding, the human species should direct its own evolution. They tended to believe in the genetic superiority of Nordic, Germanic and Anglo-Saxon peoples; supported strict immigration and anti-miscegenation laws; and supported the forcible sterilization of the poor, disabled and "immoral".[12] Eugenics was also supported by African American intellectuals such as W. E. B. Du Bois, Thomas Wyatt Turner, and many academics at Tuskegee University, Howard University, and Hampton University; however, they believed the best blacks were as good as the best whites and "The Talented Tenth" of all races should mix.[citation needed] W. E. B. Du Bois believed "only fit blacks should procreate to eradicate the race's heritage of moral iniquity."[13][14]

The American eugenics movement received extensive funding from various corporate foundations including the Carnegie Institution, Rockefeller Foundation, and the Harriman railroad fortune.[7] In 1906 J.H. Kellogg provided funding to help found the Race Betterment Foundation in Battle Creek, Michigan.[11] The Eugenics Record Office (ERO) was founded in Cold Spring Harbor, New York in 1911 by the renowned biologist Charles B. Davenport, using money from both the Harriman railroad fortune and the Carnegie Institution. As late as the 1920s, the ERO was one of the leading organizations in the American eugenics movement.[11][15] In years to come, the ERO collected a mass of family pedigrees and concluded that those who were unfit came from economically and socially poor backgrounds. Eugenicists such as Davenport, the psychologist Henry H. Goddard, Harry H. Laughlin, and the conservationist Madison Grant (all well respected in their time) began to lobby for various solutions to the problem of the "unfit". Davenport favored immigration restriction and sterilization as primary methods; Goddard favored segregation in his The Kallikak Family; Grant favored all of the above and more, even entertaining the idea of extermination.[16] The Eugenics Record Office later became the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory.

Eugenics was widely accepted in the U.S. academic community.[7] By 1928, there were 376 separate university courses in some of the United States' leading schools, enrolling more than 20,000 students, which included eugenics in the curriculum.[17] It did, however, have scientific detractors (notably, Thomas Hunt Morgan, one of the few Mendelians to explicitly criticize eugenics), though most of these focused more on what they considered the crude methodology of eugenicists, and the characterization of almost every human characteristic as being hereditary, rather than the idea of eugenics itself.[18]

By 1910, there was a large and dynamic network of scientists, reformers, and professionals engaged in national eugenics projects and actively promoting eugenic legislation. The American Breeder's Association was the first eugenic body in the U.S., established in 1906 under the direction of biologist Charles B. Davenport. The ABA was formed specifically to "investigate and report on heredity in the human race, and emphasize the value of superior blood and the menace to society of inferior blood." Membership included Alexander Graham Bell, Stanford president David Starr Jordan and Luther Burbank.[19][20] The American Association for the Study and Prevention of Infant Mortality was one of the first organizations to begin investigating infant mortality rates in terms of eugenics.[21] They promoted government intervention in attempts to promote the health of future citizens.[22][verification needed]

Several feminist reformers advocated an agenda of eugenic legal reform. The National Federation of Women's Clubs, the Woman's Christian Temperance Union, and the National League of Women Voters were among the variety of state and local feminist organization that at some point lobbied for eugenic reforms.[23]

One of the most prominent feminists to champion the eugenic agenda was Margaret Sanger, the leader of the American birth control movement. Margaret Sanger saw birth control as a means to prevent unwanted children from being born into a disadvantaged life, and incorporated the language of eugenics to advance the movement.[24][25] Sanger also sought to discourage the reproduction of persons who, it was believed, would pass on mental disease or serious physical defects. She advocated sterilization in cases where the subject was unable to use birth control.[24] She rejected euthanasia.[26] For Sanger, it was individual women and not the state who should determine whether or not to have a child.[27][28]

In the Deep South, women's associations played an important role in rallying support for eugenic legal reform. Eugenicists recognized the political and social influence of southern clubwomen in their communities, and used them to help implement eugenics across the region.[29] Between 1915 and 1920, federated women's clubs in every state of the Deep South had a critical role in establishing public eugenic institutions that were segregated by sex.[30] For example, the Legislative Committee of the Florida State Federation of Women's Clubs successfully lobbied to institute a eugenic institution for the mentally retarded that was segregated by sex.[31] Their aim was to separate mentally retarded men and women to prevent them from breeding more "feebleminded" individuals.

Public acceptance in the U.S. was the reason eugenic legislation was passed.Almost 19 million people attended the PanamaPacific International Exposition in San Francisco, open for 10 months from 20 February to 4 December 1915.[32][33] The PPIE was a fair devoted to extolling the virtues of a rapidly progressing nation, featuring new developments in science, agriculture, manufacturing and technology. A subject that received a large amount of time and space was that of the developments concerning health and disease, particularly the areas of tropical medicine and race betterment (tropical medicine being the combined study of bacteriology, parasitology and entomology while racial betterment being the promotion of eugenic studies). Having these areas so closely intertwined, it seemed that they were both categorized in the main theme of the fair, the advancement of civilization. Thus in the public eye, the seemingly contradictory[clarification needed] areas of study were both represented under progressive banners of improvement and were made to seem like plausible courses of action to better American society.[34][35]

Beginning with Connecticut in 1896, many states enacted marriage laws with eugenic criteria, prohibiting anyone who was "epileptic, imbecile or feeble-minded"[36] from marrying.[37]

The first state to introduce a compulsory sterilization bill was Michigan, in 1897 but the proposed law failed to garner enough votes by legislators to be adopted. Eight years later Pennsylvania's state legislators passed a sterilization bill that was vetoed by the governor. Indiana became the first state to enact sterilization legislation in 1907,[38] followed closely by Washington and California in 1909. Sterilization rates across the country were relatively low (California being the sole exception) until the 1927 Supreme Court case Buck v. Bell which legitimized the forced sterilization of patients at a Virginia home for the mentally retarded. The number of sterilizations performed per year increased until another Supreme Court case, Skinner v. Oklahoma, 1942, complicated the legal situation by ruling against sterilization of criminals if the equal protection clause of the constitution was violated. That is, if sterilization was to be performed, then it could not exempt white-collar criminals.[39] The state of California was at the vanguard of the American eugenics movement, performing about 20,000 sterilizations or one third of the 60,000 nationwide from 1909 up until the 1960s.[40]

While California had the highest number of sterilizations, North Carolina's eugenics program which operated from 1933 to 1977, was the most aggressive of the 32 states that had eugenics programs.[41] An IQ of 70 or lower meant sterilization was appropriate in North Carolina.[42] The North Carolina Eugenics Board almost always approved proposals brought before them by local welfare boards.[42] Of all states, only North Carolina gave social workers the power to designate people for sterilization.[41] "Here, at last, was a method of preventing unwanted pregnancies by an acceptable, practical, and inexpensive method," wrote Wallace Kuralt in the March 1967 journal of the N.C. Board of Public Welfare. "The poor readily adopted the new techniques for birth control."[42]

The Immigration Restriction League was the first American entity associated officially with eugenics. Founded in 1894 by three recent Harvard University graduates, the League sought to bar what it considered inferior races from entering America and diluting what it saw as the superior American racial stock (upper class Northerners of Anglo-Saxon heritage). They felt that social and sexual involvement with these less-evolved and less-civilized races would pose a biological threat to the American population. The League lobbied for a literacy test for immigrants, based on the belief that literacy rates were low among "inferior races". Literacy test bills were vetoed by Presidents in 1897, 1913 and 1915; eventually, President Wilson's second veto was overruled by Congress in 1917. Membership in the League included: A. Lawrence Lowell, president of Harvard, William DeWitt Hyde, president of Bowdoin College, James T. Young, director of Wharton School and David Starr Jordan, president of Stanford University.[43]

The League allied themselves with the American Breeder's Association to gain influence and further its goals and in 1909 established a Committee on Eugenics chaired by David Starr Jordan with members Charles Davenport, Alexander Graham Bell, Vernon Kellogg, Luther Burbank, William Ernest Castle, Adolf Meyer, H. J. Webber and Friedrich Woods. The ABA's immigration legislation committee, formed in 1911 and headed by League's founder Prescott F. Hall, formalized the committee's already strong relationship with the Immigration Restriction League. They also founded the Eugenics Record Office, which was headed by Harry H. Laughlin.[44] In their mission statement, they wrote:

Society must protect itself; as it claims the right to deprive the murderer of his life so it may also annihilate the hideous serpent of hopelessly vicious protoplasm. Here is where appropriate legislation will aid in eugenics and creating a healthier, saner society in the future.[44]

Money from the Harriman railroad fortune was also given to local charities, in order to find immigrants from specific ethnic groups and deport, confine, or forcibly sterilize them.[7]

With the passage of the Immigration Act of 1924, eugenicists for the first time played an important role in the Congressional debate as expert advisers on the threat of "inferior stock" from eastern and southern Europe.[45][46] The new act, inspired by the eugenic belief in the racial superiority of "old stock" white Americans as members of the "Nordic race" (a form of white supremacy), strengthened the position of existing laws prohibiting race-mixing.[47] Eugenic considerations also lay behind the adoption of incest laws in much of the U.S. and were used to justify many anti-miscegenation laws.[48]

Stephen Jay Gould asserted that restrictions on immigration passed in the United States during the 1920s (and overhauled in 1965 with the Immigration and Nationality Act) were motivated by the goals of eugenics. During the early 20th century, the United States and Canada began to receive far higher numbers of Southern and Eastern European immigrants. Influential eugenicists like Lothrop Stoddard and Harry Laughlin (who was appointed as an expert witness for the House Committee on Immigration and Naturalization in 1920) presented arguments they would pollute the national gene pool if their numbers went unrestricted.[49][50] It has been argued that this stirred both Canada and the United States into passing laws creating a hierarchy of nationalities, rating them from the most desirable Anglo-Saxon and Nordic peoples to the Chinese and Japanese immigrants, who were almost completely banned from entering the country.[47][51]

Both class and race factored into eugenic definitions of "fit" and "unfit." By using intelligence testing, American eugenicists asserted that social mobility was indicative of one's genetic fitness.[52] This reaffirmed the existing class and racial hierarchies and explained why the upper-to-middle class was predominantly white. Middle-to-upper class status was a marker of "superior strains."[31] In contrast, eugenicists believed poverty to be a characteristic of genetic inferiority, which meant that those deemed "unfit" were predominantly of the lower classes.[31]

Because class status designated some more fit than others, eugenicists treated upper and lower class women differently. Positive eugenicists, who promoted procreation among the fittest in society, encouraged middle class women to bear more children. Between 1900 and 1960, Eugenicists appealed to middle class white women to become more "family minded," and to help better the race.[53] To this end, eugenicists often denied middle and upper class women sterilization and birth control.[54]

Since poverty was associated with prostitution and "mental idiocy," women of the lower classes were the first to be deemed "unfit" and "promiscuous."[31]

In 1907, Indiana passed the first eugenics-based compulsory sterilization law in the world. Thirty U.S. states would soon follow their lead.[55][56] Although the law was overturned by the Indiana Supreme Court in 1921,[57] the U.S. Supreme Court, in Buck v. Bell, upheld the constitutionality of the Virginia Sterilization Act of 1924, allowing for the compulsory sterilization of patients of state mental institutions in 1927.[58]

Some states sterilized "imbeciles" for much of the 20th century. Although compulsory sterilization is now considered an abuse of human rights, Buck v. Bell was never overturned, and Virginia did not repeal its sterilization law until 1974.[59] The most significant era of eugenic sterilization was between 1907 and 1963, when over 64,000 individuals were forcibly sterilized under eugenic legislation in the United States.[60] Beginning around 1930, there was a steady increase in the percentage of women sterilized, and in a few states only young women were sterilized. From 1930 to the 1960s, sterilizations were performed on many more institutionalized women than men.[31] By 1961, 61 percent of the 62,162 total eugenic sterilizations in the United States were performed on women.[31] A favorable report on the results of sterilization in California, the state with the most sterilizations by far, was published in book form by the biologist Paul Popenoe and was widely cited by the Nazi government as evidence that wide-reaching sterilization programs were feasible and humane.[61][62]

Men and women were compulsorily sterilized for different reasons. Men were sterilized to treat their aggression and to eliminate their criminal behavior, while women were sterilized to control the results of their sexuality.[31] Since women bore children, eugenicists held women more accountable than men for the reproduction of the less "desirable" members of society.[31] Eugenicists therefore predominantly targeted women in their efforts to regulate the birth rate, to "protect" white racial health, and weed out the "defectives" of society.[31]

A 1937 Fortune magazine poll found that 2/3 of respondents supported eugenic sterilization of "mental defectives", 63% supported sterilization of criminals, and only 15% opposed both.[63][64]

In the 1970s, several activists and women's rights groups discovered several physicians to be performing coerced sterilizations of specific ethnic groups of society. All were abuses of poor, nonwhite, or mentally retarded women, while no abuses against white or middle-class women were recorded.[65] Several court cases such as Madrigal v. Quilligan, a class action suit regarding forced or coerced postpartum sterilization of Latina women following cesarean sections, and Relf v. Weinberger,[66] the sterilization of two young black girls by tricking their illiterate mother into signing a waiver, helped bring to light some of the widespread abuses of sterilization supported by federal funds.[67][68]

After World War II, Dr. Clarence Gamble revived the eugenics movement in the United States through sterilization. Gamble supported the eugenics movement throughout his life. He worked as a researcher at Harvard Medical school and was well-off financially, as the inheritor of the Procter and Gamble fortune. Gamble, a proponent of birth control, contributed to the founding of public birth control clinics. These were the first public clinics in the United States. Until the 1960s and 1970s, Gamble's ideal form of eugenics, sterilization, was seen in various cases. Doctors told mothers that their daughters needed shots, but they were actually sterilizing them. Hispanic women were often sterilized due to the fact that they could not read the consent forms that doctors had given them. Poorer white people, African Americans, and Native American people were also targeted for forced sterilization.[69]

The number of eugenic sterilizations is agreed upon by most scholars and journalists. They claim that there were 64,000 cases of eugenic sterilization in the United States, but this number does not take into account the sterilizations that took place after 1963. Around this time was when women from different minority groups were singled out for sterilization. If the sterilizations after 1963 are taken into account, the number of eugenic sterilizations in the United States increases to 80,000. Half of these sterilizations took place after World War II. Sterilization still occurs today, in some states, drug addicts can get paid to be sterilized. Eugenic sterilization programs before World War II were mostly conducted on prisoners, or people in mental hospitals. After the war, eugenic sterilization was aimed more towards poor people and minorities. There were even judges who would force people on parole to be sterilized. People supported this revival of eugenic sterilizations because they thought it would help bring an end to some issues, like poverty and mental illness. Supporters also thought that these programs would save taxpayer money and boost the economy.[70]

In 1972, United States Senate committee testimony brought to light that at least 2,000 involuntary sterilizations had been performed on poor black women without their consent or knowledge.[71] An investigation revealed that the surgeries were all performed in the South, and were all performed on black welfare mothers with multiple children.[71] Testimony revealed that many of these women were threatened with an end to their welfare benefits until they consented to sterilization.[71] These surgeries were instances of sterilization abuse, a term applied to any sterilization performed without the consent or knowledge of the recipient, or in which the recipient is pressured into accepting the surgery. Because the funds used to carry out the surgeries came from the U.S. Office of Economic Opportunity, the sterilization abuse raised older suspicions, especially amongst the black community, that "federal programs were underwriting eugenicists who wanted to impose their views about population quality on minorities and poor women."[31]

Native American women were also victims of sterilization abuse up into the 1970s.[72] The organization WARN (Women of All Red Nations) publicized that Native American women were threatened that, if they had more children, they would be denied welfare benefits. The Indian Health Service also repeatedly refused to deliver Native American babies until their mothers, in labor, consented to sterilization. Many Native American women unknowingly gave consent, since directions were not given in their native language. According to the General Accounting Office, an estimate of 3,406 Indian women were sterilized.[72] The General Accounting Office stated that the Indian Health Service had not followed the necessary regulations, and that the "informed consent forms did not adhere to the standards set by the United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW)."[73]

In 2013, it was reported that 148 female prisoners in two California prisons were sterilized between 2006 and 2010 in a supposedly voluntary program, but it was determined that the prisoners did not give consent to the procedures.[74] In September 2014, California enacted Bill SB1135 that bans sterilization in correctional facilities, unless the procedure is required to save an inmate's life.[75]

Edwin Black wrote that one of the methods that was suggested to get rid of "defective germ-plasm in the human population" was euthanasia.[7] A 1911 Carnegie Institute report explored eighteen methods for removing defective genetic attributes, and method number eight was euthanasia.[7] The most commonly suggested method of euthanasia was to set up local gas chambers.[7] However, many in the eugenics movement did not believe that Americans were ready to implement a large-scale euthanasia program, so many doctors had to find clever ways of subtly implementing eugenic euthanasia in various medical institutions.[7] For example, a mental institution in Lincoln, Illinois fed its incoming patients milk infected with tuberculosis (reasoning that genetically fit individuals would be resistant), resulting in 3040% annual death rates.[7] Other doctors practiced euthanasia through various forms of lethal neglect.[7]

In the 1930s, there was a wave of portrayals of eugenic "mercy killings" in American film, newspapers, and magazines. In 1931, the Illinois Homeopathic Medicine Association began lobbying for the right to euthanize "imbeciles" and other defectives.[76] The Euthanasia Society of America was founded in 1938.[77]

Overall, however, euthanasia was marginalized in the U.S., motivating people to turn to forced segregation and sterilization programs as a means for keeping the "unfit" from reproducing.[7]

Mary deGormo, a former teacher, was the first person to combine ideas about health and intelligence standards with competitions at state fairs, in the form of baby contests. She developed the first such contest, the "Scientific Baby Contest" for the Louisiana State Fair in Shreveport, in 1908. She saw these contests as a contribution to the "social efficiency" movement, which was advocating for the standardization of all aspects of American life as a means of increasing efficiency.[21] DeGarmo was assisted by Doctor Jacob Bodenheimer, a pediatrician who helped her develop grading sheets for contestants, which combined physical measurements with standardized measurements of intelligence.[78]

The contest spread to other U.S. states in the early twentieth century. In Indiana, for example, Ada Estelle Schweitzer, a eugenics advocate and director of the Indiana State Board of Health's Division of Child and Infant Hygiene, organized and supervised the state's Better Baby contests at the Indiana State Fair from 1920 to 1932. It was among the fair's most popular events. During the contest's first year at the fair, a total of 78 babies were examined; in 1925 the total reached 885. Contestants peaked at 1,301 infants in 1930, and the following year the number of entrants was capped at 1,200. Although the specific impact of the contests was difficult to assess, statistics helped to support Schweitzer's claims that the contests helped reduce infant mortality.[79]

The intent of the contest was to educate the public about raising healthier children; however, its exclusionary practices reinforced social class and racial discrimination. In Indiana, for example, the contestants were limited to white infants; African American and immigrant children were barred from the competition for ribbons and cash prizes. In addition, the scoring was biased toward white, middle-class babies.[80][81] The contest procedure included recording each child's health history, as well as evaluations of each contestant's physical and mental health and overall development using medical professionals. Using a process similar to the one introduced at the Louisiana State Fair, and contest guidelines that the AMA and U.S. Children's Bureau recommended, scoring for each contestant began with 1,000 points. Deductions were made for defects, including a child's measurements below a designated average. The contestant with the most points (and the fewest defections) was declared the winner.[82][83][84]

Standardization through scientific judgment was a topic that was very serious in the eyes of the scientific community, but has often been downplayed as just a popular fad or trend. Nevertheless, a lot of time, effort, and money was put into these contests and their scientific backing, which would influence cultural ideas as well as local and state government practices.[85][86]

The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People promoted eugenics by hosting "Better Baby" contests and the proceeds would go to its anti-lynching campaign.[13]

First appearing in 1920 at the Kansas Free Fair, "Fitter Families for Future Firesides" competitions continued all the way up to World War II. Mary T. Watts and Dr. Florence Brown Sherbon,[87][88] both initiators of the Better Baby Contests in Iowa, took the idea of positive eugenics for babies and combined it with a determinist concept of biology to come up with fitter family competitions.[89]

There were several different categories that families were judged in: size of the family, overall attractiveness, and health of the family, all of which helped to determine the likelihood of having healthy children. These competitions were simply a continuation of the Better Baby contests that promoted certain physical and mental qualities.[90] At the time, it was believed that certain behavioral qualities were inherited from one's parents. This led to the addition of several judging categories including: generosity, self-sacrificing, and quality of familial bonds. Additionally, there were negative features that were judged: selfishness, jealousy, suspiciousness, high-temperedness, and cruelty. Feeblemindedness, alcoholism, and paralysis were few among other traits that were included as physical traits to be judged when looking at family lineage.[91]

Doctors and specialists from the community would offer their time to judge these competitions, which were originally sponsored by the Red Cross.[91] The winners of these competitions were given a Bronze Medal as well as champion cups called "Capper Medals." The cups were named after then Governor and Senator, Arthur Capper and he would present them to "Grade A individuals".[92]

The perks of entering into the contests were that the competitions provided a way for families to get a free health check up by a doctor as well as some of the pride and prestige that came from winning the competitions.[91]

By 1925 the Eugenics Records Office was distributing standardized forms for judging eugenically fit families, which were used in contests in several U.S. states.[93]

Concerns about eugenics arose in the African American community after the implementation of the Negro Project of 1939, which was proposed by Margaret Sanger who was the founder of Planned Parenthood.[94] In this plan, Sanger offered birth control to Black families in the United States to give them the chance to have a better life than what the group had been experiencing in the United States.[95] She also noted that the project was proposed to empower women. The Project often sought after prominent African American leaders to spread knowledge regarding birth control and the perceived positive effects it would have on the African American community, such as poverty and the lack of education.[96] Because of this, Sanger believed that African American ministers in the South would be useful to gain the trust of people within disadvantaged, African American communities as the Church was a pillar within the community.[96] Also, political leaders such as W.E.B. Dubois were quoted in the Project proposal criticizing Black people in the United States for having many children and for being less intelligent than their white counterparts:

... the mass of ignorant Negroes still breed carelessly and disastrously, so that the increase among Negroes, even more than the increase among Whites, is from that part of the population least intelligent and fit, and least able to rear their children properly.[95]

Even though The Negro Project received a lot of praise from white leaders and eugenicists of the time, it is important to note that Margaret Sanger wanted to clear concerns that this was not a project to terminate African Americans.[96] To add to the clarification, she received support from prominent African American leaders such as Mary McLeod Bethune and Adam Clayton Powell Jr.[95] These leaders and many more would later serve on the Negro National Advisory Council of Planned Parenthood Federation of America in 1942.

Some African-Americans have been proponents of eugenics. Thomas Wyatt Turner, a professor at Howard University and a well respected scientist incorporated eugenics into his classes. The NAACP founder asked his students how eugenics can affect society in a good way in 1915. W.E.B DuBois, a historian and civil rights leader had some beliefs that lined up with eugenics. He believed in developing the best versions of African Americans in order for his race to succeed.[97]

After the eugenics movement was well established in the United States, it spread to Germany. California eugenicists began producing literature promoting eugenics and sterilization and sending it overseas to German scientists and medical professionals.[7] By 1933, California had subjected more people to forceful sterilization than all other U.S. states combined. The forced sterilization program engineered by the Nazis was partly inspired by California's.[8]

The Rockefeller Foundation helped develop and fund various German eugenics programs,[98] including the one that Josef Mengele worked in before he went to Auschwitz.[7]

Upon returning from Germany in 1934, where more than 5,000 people per month were being forcibly sterilized, the California eugenics leader C. M. Goethe bragged to a colleague:

You will be interested to know that your work has played a powerful part in shaping the opinions of the group of intellectuals who are behind Hitler in this epoch-making program. Everywhere I sensed that their opinions have been tremendously stimulated by American thought ... I want you, my dear friend, to carry this thought with you for the rest of your life, that you have really jolted into action a great government of 60 million people.[7]

Eugenics researcher Harry H. Laughlin often bragged that his Model Eugenic Sterilization laws had been implemented in the 1935 Nuremberg racial hygiene laws.[99] In 1936, Laughlin was invited to an award ceremony at Heidelberg University in Germany (scheduled on the anniversary of Hitler's 1934 purge of Jews from the Heidelberg faculty), to receive an honorary doctorate for his work on the "science of racial cleansing". Due to financial limitations, Laughlin was unable to attend the ceremony and had to pick it up from the Rockefeller Institute. Afterwards, he proudly shared the award with his colleagues, remarking that he felt that it symbolized the "common understanding of German and American scientists of the nature of eugenics."[100]

Henry Friedlander wrote that although the German and American eugenics movements were similar, the US did not follow the same slippery slope as Nazi eugenics because American "federalism and political heterogeneity encouraged diversity even with a single movement." In contrast, the German eugenics movement was more centralized and had fewer diverse ideas.[101] Unlike the American movement, one publication and one society, the German Society for Racial Hygiene, represented all German eugenicists in the early 20th century.[101][102]

After 1945, however, historians began to try to portray the US eugenics movement as distinct and distant from Nazi eugenics.[103] Jon Entine wrote that eugenics simply means "good genes" and using it as synonym for genocide is an "all-too-common distortion of the social history of genetics policy in the United States." According to Entine, eugenics developed out of the Progressive Era and not "Hitler's twisted Final Solution."[104]

After Hitler's advanced idea of eugenics, the movement lost its place in society for a bit of time. Although eugenics was not thought about much, aspects like sterilization were still going on, just not at such a public level. Although as technology developed so did the movement, the new technologies made way for genetic engineering. Instead of sterilizing people to ultimately get rid of "undesirable" people, genetic engineering "changes or removes genes to prevent disease or improve the body in some significant way."[105]

One positive of genetic engineering is its ability to cure and prevent life-threatening diseases. Genetic engineering began in the 1970s, this is when scientists began to clone and engineer genes. From this scientists were able to create human insulin, the first-ever genetically-engineered drug. Because of this development, over the years scientists were able to create new drugs to treat devastating diseases. For example, in the early 1990s, a group of scientists were able to use a gene-drug to treat severe combined immunodeficiency in a little girl. This disease forces victims to live inside a sanitized bubble. Due to the gene therapy, the girl was cured and able to live outside of her plastic bubble.[106] Developments like this are being made constantly because of genetic engineering, however genetic engineering also has many negatives.

One negative of genetic engineering is the practice of eliminating "undesirable traits" within humans and its ethics. This ultimately causes a link between genetic engineering and eugenics. This practice creates many social issues in society. Many people believe using genetic engineering to essentially "perfect" the human race is a damaging practice. For example, with current genetic tests, parents are able to test a fetus for any life-threatening diseases that may impact the child's life and then choose to abort the baby.[105] The public fears this will cause issues due to the fact that practices like these may be used to eliminate entire groups of people, like the way Hitler used the idea. The basis of Hitler's movement was to create a superior Aryan race, he wanted to eliminate every other race. While he did not have the genetic engineering technology then, this technology could be used with similar tactics as Hitler with permanent modifications to human germ lines and the ability to terminate a pregnancy that won't produce the best baby.[107] Genetic engineering can also lead to trait selection and enhancement in embryos. One dilemma with this application is that most genes have an effect on more than one area of the body. For example, there is a gene that deals with memory, when scientists altered this gene to improve memory and learning in mice, it also increased their sensitivity to pain. There is also the issue of whether it is ethical to do such a thing to embryos because they cannot consent to the procedure. This also leads to issues within a socio-economic standpoint. Many people see this as an opportunity for the rich to continue to improve their children when the poor are left to "suffer" with their "undesirable" genes.[108]

The 1978 Federal Sterilization Regulations, created by the United States Department of Health, Education and Welfare or HEW, (now the United States Department of Health and Human Services) outline a variety of prohibited sterilization practices that were often used previously to coerce or force women into sterilization.[109] These were intended to prevent such eugenics and neo-eugenics as resulted in the involuntary sterilization of large groups of poor and minority women. Such practices include: not conveying to patients that sterilization is permanent and irreversible, in their own language (including the option to end the process or procedure at any time without conceding any future medical attention or federal benefits, the ability to ask any and all questions about the procedure and its ramifications, the requirement that the consent seeker describes the procedure fully including any and all possible discomforts and/or side-effects and any and all benefits of sterilization); failing to provide alternative information about methods of contraception, family planning, or pregnancy termination that are nonpermanent and/or irreversible (this includes abortion); conditioning receiving welfare and/or Medicaid benefits by the individual or his/her children on the individuals "consenting" to permanent sterilization; tying elected abortion to compulsory sterilization (cannot receive a sought out abortion without "consenting" to sterilization); using hysterectomy as sterilization; and subjecting minors and the mentally incompetent to sterilization.[109][67][110] The regulations also include an extension of the informed consent waiting period from 72 hours to 30 days (with a maximum of 180 days between informed consent and the sterilization procedure).[67][109][110]

However, several studies have indicated that the forms are often dense and complex and beyond the literacy aptitude of the average American, and those seeking publicly funded sterilization are more likely to possess below-average literacy skills.[111] High levels of misinformation concerning sterilization still exist among individuals who have already undergone sterilization procedures, with permanence being one of the most common gray factors.[111][112] Additionally, federal enforcement of the requirements of the 1978 Federal Sterilization Regulation is inconsistent and some of the prohibited abuses continue to be pervasive, particularly in underfunded hospitals and lower income patient hospitals and care centers.[67][110]

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Eugenics in the United States - Wikipedia

Eugenics – New World Encyclopedia

Eugenics is a social philosophy which advocates the improvement of human hereditary traits through various forms of intervention. The purported goals have variously been to create healthier, more intelligent people, save society's resources, and lessen human suffering.

Earlier proposed means of achieving these goals focused on selective breeding, while modern ones focus on prenatal testing and screening, genetic counseling, birth control, in vitro fertilization, and genetic engineering. Opponents argue that eugenics is immoral and is based on, or is itself, pseudoscience. Historically, eugenics has been used as a justification for coercive state-sponsored discrimination and human rights violations, such as forced sterilization of persons with genetic defects, the killing of the institutionalized and, in some cases, genocide of races perceived as inferior. Today, however, the ideas developed from eugenics are used to identify genetic disorders that are either fatal or result in severe disabilities. While there is still controversy, some of this research and understanding may prove beneficial.

The word eugenics etymologically derives from the Greek words eu (good) and gen (birth), and was coined by Francis Galton in 1883.

The term eugenics is often used to refer to movements and social policies that were influential during the early twentieth century. In a historical and broader sense, eugenics can also be a study of "improving human genetic qualities." It is sometimes broadly applied to describe any human action whose goal is to improve the gene pool. Some forms of infanticide in ancient societies, present-day reprogenetics, preemptive abortions, and designer babies have been (sometimes controversially) referred to as eugenic.

Eugenicists advocate specific policies that (if successful) would lead to a perceived improvement of the human gene pool. Since defining what improvements are desired or beneficial is, by many, perceived as a cultural choice rather than a matter that can be determined objectively (by empirical, scientific inquiry), eugenics has often been deemed a pseudoscience. The most disputed aspect of eugenics has been the definition of "improvement" of the human gene pool, such as what comprises a beneficial characteristic and what makes a defect. This aspect of eugenics has historically been tainted with scientific racism.

Early eugenicists were mostly concerned with perceived intelligence factors that often correlated strongly with social class. Many eugenicists took inspiration from the selective breeding of animals (where purebreds are valued) as their analogy for improving human society. The mixing of races (or miscegenation) was usually considered as something to be avoided in the name of racial purity. At the time this concept appeared to have some scientific support, and it remained a contentious issue until the advanced development of genetics led to a scientific consensus that the division of the human species into unequal races is unjustifiable. Some see this as an ideological consensus, since equality, just like inequality, is a cultural choice rather than a matter that can be determined objectively.

Eugenics has also been concerned with the elimination of hereditary diseases such as haemophilia and Huntington's disease. However, there are several problems with labeling certain factors as "genetic defects." In many cases there is no scientific consensus on what a "genetic defect" is. It is often argued that this is more a matter of social or individual choice. What appears to be a "genetic defect" in one context or environment may not be so in another. This can be the case for genes with a heterozygote advantage, such as sickle cell anemia or Tay-Sachs disease, which in their heterozygote form may offer an advantage against, respectively, malaria and tuberculosis. Many people can succeed in life with disabilities. Many of the conditions early eugenicists identified as inheritable (pellagra is one such example) are currently considered to be at least partially, if not wholly, attributed to environmental conditions. Similar concerns have been raised when a prenatal diagnosis of a congenital disorder leads to abortion.

Eugenic policies have been conceptually divided into two categories: Positive eugenics, which encourage a designated "most fit" to reproduce more often; and negative eugenics, which discourage or prevent a designated "less fit" from reproducing. Negative eugenics need not be coercive. A state might offer financial rewards to certain people who submit to sterilization, although some critics might reply that this incentive along with social pressure could be perceived as coercion. Positive eugenics can also be coercive. Abortion by "fit" women was illegal in Nazi Germany.

During the twentieth century, many countries enacted various eugenics policies and programs, including:

Most of these policies were later regarded as coercive, restrictive, or genocidal, and now few jurisdictions implement policies that are explicitly labeled as eugenic or unequivocally eugenic in substance (however labeled). However, some private organizations assist people in genetic counseling, and reprogenetics may be considered as a form of non-state-enforced "liberal" eugenics.

Selective breeding was suggested at least as far back as Plato, who believed human reproduction should be controlled by government. He recorded these ideals in The Republic: "The best men must have intercourse with the best women as frequently as possible, and the opposite is true of the very inferior." Plato proposed that the process be concealed from the public via a form of lottery. Other ancient examples include the polis of Sparta's purported practice of infanticide. However, they would leave all babies outside for a length of time, and the survivors were considered stronger, while many "weaker" babies perished.[1]

During the 1860s and 1870s, Sir Francis Galton systematized his ideas and practices according to new knowledge about the evolution of humans and animals provided by the theory of his cousin Charles Darwin. After reading Darwin's Origin of Species, Galton noticed an interpretation of Darwin's work whereby the mechanisms of natural selection were potentially thwarted by human civilization. He reasoned that, since many human societies sought to protect the underprivileged and weak, those societies were at odds with the natural selection responsible for extinction of the weakest. Only by changing these social policies, Galton thought, could society be saved from a "reversion towards mediocrity," a phrase that he first coined in statistics and which later changed to the now common "regression towards the mean."[2]

According to Galton, society already encouraged dysgenic conditions, claiming that the less intelligent were out-reproducing the more intelligent. Galton did not propose any selection methods; rather, he hoped that a solution would be found if social mores changed in a way that encouraged people to see the importance of breeding.

Galton first used the word eugenic in his 1883 Inquiries into Human Faculty and Its Development, a book in which he meant "to touch on various topics more or less connected with that of the cultivation of race, or, as we might call it, with 'eugenic' questions." He included a footnote to the word "eugenic" which read:

That is, with questions bearing on what is termed in Greek, eugenes namely, good in stock, hereditarily endowed with noble qualities. This, and the allied words, eugeneia, etc., are equally applicable to men, brutes, and plants. We greatly want a brief word to express the science of improving stock, which is by no means confined to questions of judicious mating, but which, especially in the case of man, takes cognisance of all influences that tend in however remote a degree to give to the more suitable races or strains of blood a better chance of prevailing speedily over the less suitable than they otherwise would have had. The word eugenics would sufficiently express the idea; it is at least a neater word and a more generalized one than viriculture which I once ventured to use.[3]

Eugenics differed from what would later be known as Social Darwinism. This school of thought was developed independently of Darwin by such writers as Herbert Spencer and William Graham Sumner. Social Darwinism includes a range of political ideologies which are held to be compatible with the concept that Charles Darwin's theory of evolution of biological traits in a population by natural selection can also be applied to competition between human societies or groups within a society. It is based on ideas of the "survival of the fittest" (a term coined by Herbert Spencer) to human society, saying that those humans with superior genes would be better placed to succeed in society, as evidenced by wealth and status. Social Darwinism, like eugenics, fell out of favor as it become increasingly associated with racism. While both claimed intelligence was hereditary, eugenics asserted that new policies were needed to actively change the status quo towards a more "eugenic" state, while the Social Darwinists argued society itself would naturally "check" the problem of "dysgenics" if no welfare policies were in place (for example, the poor might reproduce more but would have higher mortality rates).

The United States was home to a large eugenics movement in the 1890s. Beginning with Connecticut, in 1896, many states enacted marriage laws with eugenic criteria, prohibiting anyone who was "epileptic, imbecile, or feeble-minded" from marrying. In 1898, Charles B. Davenport, a prominent American biologist, began as director of a biological research station based in Cold Spring Harbor, where he experimented with evolution in plants and animals. In 1904, Davenport received funds from the Carnegie Institution to found the Station for Experimental Evolution. The Eugenics Record Office opened in 1910, while Davenport and Harry H. Laughlin began to promote eugenics.[4]

Though eugenics is today often associated with racism, it was not always so; both W.E.B. DuBois and Marcus Garvey supported eugenics or ideas resembling eugenics as a way to reduce African American suffering and improve their stature.[5] Many legal methods of eugenics include state laws against miscegenation or prohibitions of interracial marriage. The U.S. Supreme Court overturned those state laws in 1967, and declared anti-miscegenation laws unconstitutional.

During the twentieth century, researchers became interested in the idea that mental illness could run in families and conducted a number of studies to document the heritability of such illnesses as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and clinical depression. Their findings were used by the eugenics movement as proof for its cause. State laws were written in the late 1800s and early 1900s to prohibit marriage and force sterilization of the mentally ill in order to prevent the "passing on" of mental illness to the next generation. These laws were upheld by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1927, and were not abolished until the mid-twentieth century. By 1945, over 45,000 mentally ill individuals in the United States had been forcibly sterilized.

With the passage of the Immigration Act of 1924, eugenicists for the first time played a central role in the Congressional debate as expert advisers on the threat of "inferior stock" from eastern and southern Europe. This reduced the number of immigrants from abroad to 15 percent of previous years, to control the number of "unfit" individuals entering the country. The new act strengthened existing laws prohibiting race mixing in an attempt to maintain the gene pool.[6] Eugenic considerations also lay behind the adoption of incest laws in much of the U.S. and were used to justify many antimiscegenation laws.[7]

Some states sterilized "imbeciles" for much of the twentieth century. The U.S. Supreme Court ruled in the 1927 Buck v. Bell case that the state of Virginia could sterilize those it thought unfit. The most significant era of eugenic sterilization was between 1907 and 1963, when over 64,000 individuals were forcibly sterilized under eugenic legislation in the United States.[8] A favorable report on the results of sterilization in California, by far the state with the most sterilizations, was published in book form by the biologist Paul Popenoe and was widely cited by the Nazi government as evidence that wide-reaching sterilization programs were feasible and humane. When Nazi administrators went on trial for war crimes in Nuremberg after World War II, they justified the mass sterilizations (over 450,000 in less than a decade) by citing the United States as their inspiration.[9]

Nazi Germany under Adolf Hitler was infamous for eugenics programs which attempted to maintain a "pure" German race through a series of programs that ran under the banner of "racial hygiene." Among other activities, the Nazis performed extensive experimentation on live human beings to test their genetic theories, ranging from simple measurement of physical characteristics to the horrific experiments carried out by Josef Mengele for Otmar von Verschuer on twins in the concentration camps. During the 1930s and 1940s, the Nazi regime forcibly sterilized hundreds of thousands of people whom they viewed as mentally and physically "unfit," an estimated 400,000 between 1934 and 1937. The scale of the Nazi program prompted American eugenics advocates to seek an expansion of their program, with one complaining that "the Germans are beating us at our own game."[10] The Nazis went further, however, killing tens of thousands of the institutionalized disabled through compulsory "euthanasia" programs.[11]

They also implemented a number of "positive" eugenics policies, giving awards to "Aryan" women who had large numbers of children and encouraged a service in which "racially pure" single women were impregnated by SS officers (Lebensborn). Many of their concerns for eugenics and racial hygiene were also explicitly present in their systematic killing of millions of "undesirable" people including Jews, gypsies, Jehovah's Witnesses, and homosexuals during the Holocaust (much of the killing equipment and methods employed in the death camps were first developed in the euthanasia program). The scope and coercion involved in the German eugenics programs along with a strong use of the rhetoric of eugenics and so-called "racial science" throughout the regime created an indelible cultural association between eugenics and the Third Reich in the postwar years.[12]

After the experience of Nazi Germany, many ideas about "racial hygiene" and "unfit" members of society were publicly renounced by politicians and members of the scientific community. The Nuremberg Trials against former Nazi leaders revealed to the world many of the regime's genocidal practices and resulted in formalized policies of medical ethics and the 1950 UNESCO statement on race. Many scientific societies released their own similar "race statements" over the years, and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, developed in response to abuses during the Second World War, was adopted by the United Nations in 1948, and affirmed, "Men and women of full age, without any limitation due to race, nationality or religion, have the right to marry and to found a family."[13] In continuation, the 1978 UNESCO declaration on race and racial prejudice states that the fundamental equality of all human beings is the ideal toward which ethics and science should converge.[14]

In reaction to Nazi abuses, eugenics became almost universally reviled in many of the nations where it had once been popular (however, some eugenics programs, including sterilization, continued quietly for decades). Many pre-war eugenicists engaged in what they later labeled "crypto-eugenics," purposefully taking their eugenic beliefs "underground" and becoming respected anthropologists, biologists, and geneticists in the postwar world (including Robert Yerkes in the U.S. and Otmar von Verschuer in Germany). Californian eugenicist Paul Popenoe founded marriage counseling during the 1950s, a career change which grew from his eugenic interests in promoting "healthy marriages" between "fit" couples.[15]

High school and college textbooks from the 1920s through the 1940s often had chapters touting the scientific progress to be had from applying eugenic principles to the population. Many early scientific journals devoted to heredity in general were run by eugenicists and featured eugenics articles alongside studies of heredity in nonhuman organisms. After eugenics fell out of scientific favor, most references to eugenics were removed from textbooks and subsequent editions of relevant journals. Even the names of some journals changed to reflect new attitudes. For example, Eugenics Quarterly became Social Biology in 1969 (the journal still exists today, though it looks little like its predecessor). Notable members of the American Eugenics Society (192294) during the second half of the twentieth century included Joseph Fletcher, originator of Situational ethics; Dr. Clarence Gamble of the Procter & Gamble fortune; and Garrett Hardin, a population control advocate and author of The Tragedy of the Commons.

Despite the changed postwar attitude towards eugenics in the U.S. and some European countries, a few nations, notably, Canada and Sweden, maintained large-scale eugenics programs, including forced sterilization of mentally handicapped individuals, as well as other practices, until the 1970s. In the United States, sterilizations capped off in the 1960s, though the eugenics movement had largely lost most popular and political support by the end of the 1930s.[16]

Despite the ill repute of eugenics, there still exists a debate regarding its use or abuse.

While the science of genetics has increasingly provided means by which certain characteristics and conditions can be identified and understood, given the complexity of human genetics, culture, and psychology, there is at this point no agreed objective means of determining which traits might be ultimately desirable or undesirable. Eugenic manipulations that reduce the propensity for criminality and violence, for example, might result in the population being enslaved by an outside aggressor it can no longer defend itself against. On the other hand, genetic diseases like hemochromatosis can increase susceptibility to illness, cause physical deformities, and other dysfunctions. Eugenic measures against many of these diseases are already being undertaken in societies around the world, while measures against traits that affect more subtle, poorly understood traits, such as criminality, are relegated to the realm of speculation and science fiction. The effects of diseases are essentially wholly negative, and societies everywhere seek to reduce their impact by various means, some of which are eugenic in all but name.

In modern bioethics literature, the history of eugenics presents many moral and ethical questions. Commentators have suggested the new "eugenics" will come from reproductive technologies that will allow parents to create so-called "designer babies" (what the biologist Lee M. Silver prominently called "reprogenetics"). It has been argued that this "non-coercive" form of biological "improvement" will be predominantly motivated by individual competitiveness and the desire to create "the best opportunities" for children, rather than an urge to improve the species as a whole, which characterized the early twentieth century forms of eugenics. Because of this non-coercive nature, lack of involvement by the state, and a difference in goals, some commentators have questioned whether such activities are eugenics or something else altogether.

Some disability activists argue that, although their impairments may cause them pain or discomfort, what really disables them as members of society is a sociocultural system that does not recognize their right to genuinely equal treatment. They express skepticism that any form of eugenics could be to the benefit of the disabled considering their treatment by historical eugenic campaigns.

James D. Watson, the first director of the Human Genome Project, initiated the Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications Program (ELSI) which has funded a number of studies into the implications of human genetic engineering (along with a prominent website on the history of eugenics), because:

In putting ethics so soon into the genome agenda, I was responding to my own personal fear that all too soon critics of the Genome Project would point out that I was a representative of the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory that once housed the controversial Eugenics Record Office. My not forming a genome ethics program quickly might be falsely used as evidence that I was a closet eugenicist, having as my real long-term purpose the unambiguous identification of genes that lead to social and occupational stratification as well as genes justifying racial discrimination.[17]

Distinguished geneticists including Nobel Prize-winners John Sulston ("I don't think one ought to bring a clearly disabled child into the world")[18] and Watson ("Once you have a way in which you can improve our children, no one can stop it")[19] support genetic screening. Which ideas should be described as "eugenic" are still controversial in both public and scholarly spheres. Some observers such as Philip Kitcher have described the use of genetic screening by parents as making possible a form of "voluntary" eugenics.[20]

Some modern subcultures advocate different forms of eugenics assisted by human cloning and human genetic engineering, sometimes even as part of a new cult (see Ralism, Cosmotheism, or Prometheism). These groups also talk of "neo-eugenics." "conscious evolution," or "genetic freedom."

Behavioral traits often identified as potential targets for modification through human genetic engineering include intelligence, clinical depression, schizophrenia, alcoholism, sexual behavior (and orientation), and criminality.

In a 2005 United Kingdom court case, the Crown v. James Edward Whittaker-Williams, arguably set a precedent of banning sexual contact between people with "learning difficulties." The accused, a man suffering learning disabilities, was jailed for kissing and hugging a woman with learning disabilities. This was done under the 2003 Sexual Offences Act, which redefines kissing and cuddling as sexual and states that those with learning difficulties are unable to give consent regardless of whether or not the act involved coercion. Opponents of the act have attacked it as bringing in eugenics through the backdoor under the guise of a requirement of "consent."[21]

A common criticism of eugenics is that it inevitably leads to measures that are unethical. In the hypothetical scenario where it's scientifically proven that one racial minority group making up 5 percent of the population is on average less intelligent than the majority racial group it's more likely that the minority racial group will be submitted to a eugenics program, opposed to the five percent least intelligent members of the population as a whole. For example, Nazi Germany's eugenic program within the German population resulted in protests and unrest, while the persecution of the Jews was met with silence.

Steven Pinker has stated that it is "a conventional wisdom among left-leaning academics that genes imply genocide." He has responded to this "conventional wisdom" by comparing the history of Marxism, which had the opposite position on genes to that of Nazism:

But the twentieth century suffered "two" ideologies that led to genocides. The other one, Marxism, had no use for race, didn't believe in genes and denied that human nature was a meaningful concept. Clearly, it's not an emphasis on genes or evolution that is dangerous. It's the desire to remake humanity by coercive means (eugenics or social engineering) and the belief that humanity advances through a struggle in which superior groups (race or classes) triumph over inferior ones.[22]

Richard Lynn has argued that any social philosophy is capable of ethical misuse. Though Christian principles have aided in the abolition of slavery and the establishment of welfare programs, he notes that the Christian church has also burned many dissidents at the stake and waged wars against nonbelievers in which Christian crusaders slaughtered large numbers of women and children. Lynn argued the appropriate response is to condemn these killings, but believing that Christianity "inevitably leads to the extermination of those who do not accept its doctrines" is unwarranted.[23]

Eugenic policies could also lead to loss of genetic diversity, in which case a culturally accepted improvement of the gene pool may, but would not necessarily, result in biological disaster due to increased vulnerability to disease, reduced ability to adapt to environmental change and other factors both known and unknown. This kind of argument from the precautionary principle is itself widely criticized. A long-term eugenics plan is likely to lead to a scenario similar to this because the elimination of traits deemed undesirable would reduce genetic diversity by definition.

Related to a decrease in diversity is the danger of non-recognition. That is, if everyone were beautiful and attractive, then it would be more difficult to distinguish between different individuals, due to the wide variety of ugly traits and otherwise non-attractive traits and combinations thereof that people use to recognize each other.

The possible elimination of the autism genotype is a significant political issue in the autism rights movement, which claims autism is a form of neurodiversity. Many advocates of Down Syndrome rights also consider Down Syndrome (Trisomy-21) a form of neurodiversity, though males with Down Syndrome are generally infertile.

In some instances, efforts to eradicate certain single-gene mutations would be nearly impossible. In the event the condition in question was a heterozygous recessive trait, the problem is that by eliminating the visible unwanted trait, there are still as many genes for the condition left in the gene pool as were eliminated according to the Hardy-Weinberg principle, which states that a population's genetics are defined as pp+2pq+qq at equilibrium. With genetic testing it may be possible to detect all of the heterozygous recessive traits, but only at great cost with the current technology. Under normal circumstances it is only possible to eliminate a dominant allele from the gene pool. Recessive traits can be severely reduced, but never eliminated unless the complete genetic makeup of all members of the pool was known, as aforementioned. As only very few undesirable traits, such as Huntington's disease, are dominant, the practical value for "eliminating" traits is quite low.

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Eugenics - New World Encyclopedia

10 of The World’s Most Bizarre Cults – EListMania

10 of The Worlds Most Bizarre Cults

Cults are eerie and carry weird practices which are not welcomed in the day to day routine of the average human being who lives a normal life. A cult can be extreme in nature with rituals that are beyond bizarre to say the least. The followers in certain cases have been known to pay the ultimate price by giving their lives for a belief fabricated by their charismatic ascetics and leaders. Heres a list of some of the worlds most bizarre cults.

The Ordo Templi Orientis(O.T.O), also known as the Order of the Temple of the East and Order of Oriental Templers, is a fraternal international and religious group which was created in the beginning of the 20th century. Aleister Crowley, an English author and a known Satanist occultist is one of the most renowned members of the order.

Initially the cult was anticipated to be modeled after and connected to Freemasonry, a form of a Gnostic Order, however, under the headship of Aleister Crowley; O.T.O has been documented around the Law of Thelma as its fundamental religious principal. This law is expressed as Do what thou wilt shall be the whole of the Law and Love is the law, love under will. These laws for the cult were promulgated in 1904 with the dictation of The Book of the Law.

The O.T.O is well known for practicing Black Magic. The creepy cult is branded to include sexual rituals that are both heterosexual and homosexual in nature. Many of the practices that O.T.O teaches are related to magical orders which enlighten the system of Masonic style of sexual magic. However, the O.T.O still restricts access to its inner secrets. The controversial book, Secret Rituals of the O.T.O, was withdrawn from print by the publisher after receiving a threat of legal action by the O.T.O. Nevertheless, as there has been a growing interest in the writings of Aleister Crowley, his work has been reprinted due to which various new societies have come into existence and have modeled themselves as the new generation of O.T.O.

The Aghori or Aghouri is a Hindu cult that is considered to have split off from the Kapalika order in the fourteenth century AD. Many Hindus condemn the Aghorias non-Hindu due to their cannibalistic rituals. The streets of northern Indian cities are littered with followers of this cult carrying a kapala, which is a cup made from a skull! These bizarre people will eat anything from rotten food to animal faeces. In order to achieve the highest citadel of enlightenment, the Aghori will perform horrendously crude rituals. The finality of their rituals is attained from eating the decaying flesh of a human.

According to Hindu mythology and practiced beliefs, everything emanates from Brahman. Therefore, there is no evil. The Aghori believe everything to be god itself and to abandon anything would be equivalent of abandoning god. This is the bizarre philosophy followed by the Aghori Babas.

The roots of the Aghori date back to ancient times. An Aghori ascetic who went by the name of Kinaram is responsible for the present-day rituals and beliefs of the cult. Since the Aghori worship lord Shiva with all their fervor, they believe that Kinaram was a reincarnation of lord Shiva.

The Aghori cult dwells on cremation grounds, daubing themselves with the ashes of the corpses and eating from a cranial begging bowl or a kapala. Many Aghori opt to roam around baring all. This is their representation of their detachment from the ways of life that normal people abide by. A strong belief which surrounds them is that by doing so they are above and beyond the normal worldly emotions of human beings.

Ralism is a UFO cult that was formed in 1974 by Claude Vorilhon. The cult is famous for believing that all life on Earth was formed in scientific labs by species of extraterrestrials. Members of this species materialized into the human form when having personal contacts with the humans that they created. They believe that these species were mistaken for angels, cherubim or gods. The cult fervently believes in scientifically advanced humanoid extraterrestrials known by our archaic ancestors as Elohim (meaning: those who came from the sky).

Ralism has been described as the largest UFO religion in the world. Ralism mainly focuses on the social ideology of sexual self-determination, individualism and humanitarianism. Some of the women, who are members of this cult, are strong advocates of refinement and erotic sensualistic activities. They participate in groups within such as Raels Girls and the Order of Angels.

Furthermore, the Ralians believe that the Elohim will visit the Earth authoritatively when more than half of the worlds population is peaceful and come to know about them. They also believe that this has been foretold in nearly all the religious texts as the predicted Age of Apocalypse or Revelation.

From time to time extremely bizarre and weird cults are born. One baffling insertion in the list of bizarre cults is the Sect of the Gadget Hackwrench. The members of this cult believe in a Disney cartoon that is Gadget Hackwrenchfrom the famous the Disneys Rescue Ranger TV show,as being a divine being. She is considered to be the most untouched and perfect sibling of the great god on Earth. The members of the Gadget Hackwrench cult fervently believe that she is some sort of a goddess. They consider her to be firm, adorable and sanguine and that her degree of technical knowledge is practically unachievable for any existing mortal being. These are just a few of the testimonies of the sect followers.

What is completely bizarre is the fact that this hero or goddess that they believe in is a Disney cartoon. The members of the cult burn candles around a poster size image of the cartoon and chant to her to grant their wishes.

The philosophy of this cult revolves around the fact that it is a combination of every religion possible on the planet. The supposed scetic of the cult is Saint Germain. The founders Guy and Edna Ballard likened themselves to the Illuminati. Guy Ballard had supposedly met this Saint while on a trip to the Mount Shasta in California. It is believed that this cult was based on the premise of destroying the individuality of people. What makes it so creepy is the fact that this cult tries to manipulate the human mind into believing that one has the ability to become a millionaire over night only by using the power of the mind. In other words, proclaiming every follower to be a demigod himself. In the earlier part of the 20th century, the cult had more than a million followers. The followers were made to believe that Ballard was taken to a mystical place while on his trip to California and that his spirit went to a different realm, the realm of Saint Germain. Saint Germain is the main character of worship for the followers. His myths are strikingly hard to swallow. The reason for holding him in such high esteem was due to the fact that the founders claimed he was a direct descendant of Will-I-Am-Shaker-Spear (William Shakespeare), Rasputin and Merlin.

The Body of Christ is a diminutive authoritarian group that focuses on direct revelation and not the Bible for its direction. As of late this cult has been in the news as two children have died pointlessly. Samuel, the ten month old baby of the founders son, Jacques, died of malnutrition. The little baby was not fed, because the cult believed that they were going to get a sign from God to feed him. The other child who died was Jeremiah, son of Rebecca Corneau. The baby died shortly after the mother gave birth. The reason for the death of the baby has been attributed to the lack of medical care provided.

Ten years ago, Dennis Mingo a former member of the cult, left the group. He gave a diary to the police in which he described the deaths of the two babies in depth. Regardless of the effort the police has put into finding the bodies of the children, they have remained to be unsuccessful.

The cult denounces the seven systems of a conventional society. These primarily, include: education, government, banking, religion, medicine, science and entertainment. The members of the group have consistently denied any cooperation with civil and governmental authorities. They have also refused any forms of legal counsel. They have constantly been refusing to assert their primary constitutional right against self-incrimination. This bizarre cult expects that the world will soon erupt in outrageous violence and turmoil, and that they alone will be the sole survivors of the disaster that they predict.

This Japanese cult was created by Hogen Fukunaga. It is often referred to as the foot reading cult, as the founder of this cult believed that he could make a diagnosis by examining peoples feet. The group was created in 1987 after a supposed spiritual event where Fukunaga declared that he was the reincarnation of Jesus Christ and the Buddha.

The Ho Na Hana Sanpoygo cult had nearly 30,000 followers not so long ago. However, Fukunaga charged $900 for the foot readings and a widespread doubt arose that he used money to profit himself. He had been accused of bagging money from housewives which resulted in a massive disproof from the cults followers. Fukunaga had to pay over 200 million yen in damages to followers of the cult who had been swindled.

The Ho Na Hana Sanpoygo declared openly in court, to the people who stood against their practices that their only salvation was to go through the cults expensive training sessions and to buy lucky charms.

The Creativity Movement is a xenophobic and White-supremacist cult which advocates a religion known as the White Religion called Creativity. Though, in the contemporary sense, the cult is Anti-Christian, yet the Creativity Movement is a proxy of Positive Christianity. It is directed by elements of a pseudo-Christian racial mechanism. The cult also denies the Holocaust; it embraces racial neo-eugenics with a religious mission that is devoted to the survival, expansion and the advancement of the White Race completely.

The cult was founded as the Church of the Creator by Ben Klassen in 1973. In the summer of 1993, Klassen committed suicide. After the demise of its creator, Mathew F. Hale led the cult until his incarceration on 8th January, 2003 for scheming with an FBI informant Anthony Evola to murder a federal judge. On 22nd July, 2002, two of the cults followers were found guilty in a federal court of plotting to blow up Jewish and Black landmarks around the area of Boston. The prosecutors deemed this to be a scheme to spark a racial holy war by the cult.

A few of the 16 Commandments of Creativity include: It is our sacred goal to populate the lands of this earth with White people exclusively. Inferior colored races are our deadly enemies, and that the most dangerous of all is the Jewish race. Destroy and banish all Jewish thought and influence from society.

The Iglesia Maradoniana (Spanish for Maradonian Church) was founded by the fans of the retired Argentine footballer, Diego Maradona. The members of this cult believe Maradona to have been the best player of all time. On 30th October 1998, this cult was formed. The day also commemorated the 30th birthday of the athlete. The group held its first official meeting in the year 2001. Today, they reportedly have more than 80,000 members from 60 countries around the globe.

The formation of this cult can be viewed as a type of syncretism. Unlike other normal fan clubs, this cult has many rituals like naming their children Diego to literally worshipping him. Arguably the best footballer to have lived, he is officially a god in Argentina. The passion for the group between its different members is what glues them together. Supporters of the Maradonian Church, allegedly from all corners of the world, count the years since Maradonas birth in 1960. It is very popular amid the followers of this cult and also amongst other football fans, the use of neo-Tetragrammaton D10S as one of the names of Maradona. D10S is a portmanteau word which blends 10 (diez in Spanish), Maradonas shirt number and dios, the Spanish word for god. The cult has its own commandments, one of which states, Spread news of Dieogos miracles and apart from naming your son Diego, it is a commandment as well to change your middle name to Diego.

The cargo cult is primarily a religious practice and has had numerous followers over the years. The term cargo is aimed at obtaining the advancements in technology used in foreign cultures. The cargo cults are bizarre because they believe that the technological advancement man has made over the years is actually their property left to them by their ancestors. So your laptop basically belongs to one of the followers of the cargo cult. These cults thrived in the southwestern Pacific and New Guinea. A substantial increase in the followers came during World War II. Immense logistic support and manpower would throng these islands and hence their beliefs turned into reality. Once the war ended, the ascetics of the cult ordered building of false landing sites and military equipment, so as to keep the gods interested in sending goods their way. The most publicized and prolonged cult is that of John Frum. It started well before the war and still thrives in Tannu, a small Island of Vanuata.

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10 of The World's Most Bizarre Cults - EListMania

New eugenics – Wikipedia

New eugenics, also known as neo-eugenics, consumer eugenics, liberal eugenics, and libertarian eugenics, is an ideology that advocates the use of reproductive and genetic technologies where the choice of enhancing human characteristics and capacities is left to the individual preferences of parents acting as consumers, rather than the public health policies of the state. The term "liberal eugenics" was coined by bioethicist Nicholas Agar.[1] Since around the year 2000, criticism has risen preferring to call the theory "libertarian eugenics" because of its intention to keep the role of the state minimal in the advocated eugenics program.[2]

The term refers to an ideology of eugenics influenced by liberal theory and contrasted from the coercive state eugenics programs of the first half of the 20th century.[3] The sterilization of individuals alleged to have undesirable genes is the most controversial aspect of those programs.[1]

Historically, eugenics is often broken into the categories of positive (encouraging reproduction among the designated "fit") and negative (discouraging reproduction among the designated "unfit"). According to Edwin Black, many positive eugenic programs were advocated and pursued during the early 20th century, but the negative programs were responsible for the compulsory sterilization of hundreds of thousands of persons in many countries, and were contained in much of the rhetoric of Nazi eugenic policies of racial hygiene and genocide.[4] New eugenics belongs to the "positive eugenics" category allowing parents to select desirable traits in an unborn child.[5]

Dov Fox, a law professor at the University of San Diego, argues that liberal eugenics cannot be justified on the basis of the underlying liberal theory which inspires it. He introduces an alternative to John Rawls's social primary goods that might be called natural primary goods: heritable mental and physical capacities and dispositions that are valued across a range of projects and pursuits. He suggests that reprogenetic technologies like embryo selection, cellular surgery, and human genetic engineering, which aim to enhance "general purpose" traits in offspring are less like childrearing practices a liberal government leaves to the discretion of parents than like practices the state makes compulsory.[6]

Fox argues that if the liberal commitment to autonomy is important enough for the state to mandate childrearing practices such as health care and basic education, that very same interest is important enough for the state to mandate safe, effective, and functionally integrated genetic practices that act on analogous all-purpose traits such as resistance to disease and general cognitive functioning. He concludes that the liberal case for compulsory eugenics is a reductio ad absurdum against liberal theory.[6]

According to health care public policy analyst RJ Eskow, "libertarian eugenics" is the term that would more accurately describe the form of eugenics promoted by some notable proponents of liberal eugenics, in light of their strong opposition to even minimal state intervention in eugenic family planning, which would be expected of a social liberal state that assumes some responsibility for the welfare of its future citizens.[2]

The United Nations International Bioethics Committee wrote that liberal eugenics should not be confused with the ethical problems of the 20th century eugenics movements, but that it is still problematic because it challenges the idea of human equality and opens up new ways of discrimination and stigmatization against those who do not want or cannot afford the enhancements.[7]

Liberal eugenics is known as new eugenics, consumer eugenics, reprogenetics, or designer progeny. The connotations of liberal eugenics are negative due to the history of eugenics being associated with dark historical times. According to the Harvard Law Review, the eugenics of the early 20th century were part of a false scientific justification for racism, class-ism, and colonial subjugation falsely concerned with genetic fitness. The new model of eugenics of the 21st century, called liberal eugenics, allegedly advocates for genetic modification including the screening of genes that cause serious disabilities and engineering children to be born with more desirable physical and mental traits.[8] Liberal eugenics is aimed at "improving" the genotypes of future generations through screening and genetic modification to eliminate "undesirable" traits.

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New eugenics - Wikipedia

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TitleLengthColor Rating Early 20th Century Eugenics as part of Modernism - As the sun was setting on the 19th century, a new theory, called eugenics was just beginning to rise. Eugenics is the idea that human mental, moral, temperamental and physiological traits are passed down through generations, and that society should attempt to foster the reproduction of those with favorable traits and discourage or eliminate those with less than favorable traits. In the early parts of the 20th century, eugenics was put into practice across the rich world. This increase, not only in popularity but in application is best viewed when part of the greater context of modernity.... [tags: Eugenics]:: 5 Works Cited 1047 words(3 pages)Strong Essays[preview] The History of Eugenics in America - Eugenics is the study of the agencies under social control that may improve or impair the racial qualities of future generations either physically or mentally. After the major turn of the century, eugenics developed into a world- wide movement. (Vermont University, 2003) It was led by scientist and scholars in several diverse fields, and funded by wealthy philanthropists, also supported by statesmen. Eugenics played a very vital and central role in the political, social, and intellectual history of numerous diverse peoples and nations.... [tags: The Eugenics Movement]:: 5 Works Cited 2148 words(6.1 pages)Research Papers[preview] Eugenics: A Controversial Science - Eugenics has been a very controversial science that has existed in the world for centuries. 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The beginning of the Eugenics Movement all started at Cold Spring Harbor, New York. The United States coined the term Eugenics from Great Britain in the early 1900s. In the year 1910, a man by the name of Charles B. Davenport founded the Eugenics Records Office (ERO).... [tags: Eugenics, ERO, sterilization]:: 3 Works Cited 1539 words(4.4 pages)Powerful Essays[preview] Eugenics -Not the Way of the Future - Eugenics in the world today has become an issue because of its many positive uses furthermore its possible consequences. It is believed by many that eugenics does more harm than good, on the other hand there are exceptions; it is not the way of the future. There is no doubt that it could be extremely useful for preventing diseases such as cancer and others before we are even born. But, with this also comes the ability to give children genes before their born that will give them talent to run faster, jump higher, use more of their brain which will strictly discriminate them from the rest of society in a way where they will always stand out, the reason being is their extraordinary talents due... [tags: Eugenics, Genetic Engineering]722 words(2.1 pages)Good Essays[preview] The Ethics and Morality of Eugenics in Society - My research revolves around the ethics and morality of eugenics (Science of heredity and good breeding), and whether society should be in favor of influencing genetics in order to create a more favorable genetic pool. This topic interests me because I find great interest in political and cultural issues, and I have always been fascinated by whether eugenics would actually work and if governments should be in support of it. The sources I found were all scientific journals from credible books. I did this to because I needed to gain information on studies that have taken place in the name of eugenics as well as establish that eugenics is high priority within the scientific community.Taking this... [tags: disabled, eugenics, influencing genetics]:: 7 Works Cited 1598 words(4.6 pages)Powerful Essays[preview] The Three Stooges: Charles Darwin, Adolf Hitler and Margaret Sanger - Only the most imaginative mind could fathom the thought of human beings being selected or disregarded and even killed based on biological protocol. This scientific theory is responsible for the reproduction of superior genes through heredity by controversial means. This idea is based on the evolution of the human species or basically survival of the fittest. Charles Darwin who is the greatest known scientist to ever live popularized this theory and is responsible for the brutality and death of well over 100 million human beings.... 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Supporters of positive eugenics believed in promoting childbearing by a class who was genetically superior. On the contrary, proponents of negative eugenics tried to monitor societys flaws through the sterilization of the inferior. Due to an increased surge of criminality in many cities during the 1900s, eugenicists began to focus on the role of genes in determining criminal behavior.... [tags: genetics, violence, psychopathy]569 words(1.6 pages)Good Essays[preview] Eugenics: Solving Social Problems? - The melting pot was a movement to solve social problems of the population with the use of technology. Eugenics is the use of science to solve social problems. 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[tags: Exploratory Essays Research Papers]:: 6 Works Cited 3149 words(9 pages)Strong Essays[preview] To What Extent are American Scientist and Institutions Responsible for Nazi Eugenics? - During Adolf Hitlers reign many American companies and scientist contributed towards advances in eugenic studies, are they to blame for the atrocities that occurred in the Second World War. It started in the late 1800s by Francis Galton who believed that to raise the present miserably low standard of the human race breeding the best with the best had to happen. Although the United States had a large amount of involvement, many European scientists and governments aided the research. In the late 1800s many rich businessmen and prior slave owners were most likely upset as slavery had been abolished, so through science they wanted to make Africans and Asians an inferior race.... [tags: adolf hitler, second world war, racism]:: 7 Works Cited 1043 words(3 pages)Strong Essays[preview] Josef Mengele and The Inhumane Experiments in Auschwitz - He cut into me, without anesthetic, . . .The pain was indescribable. I felt every slice of the knife. Then I saw my kidney pulsating in his hand. I cried like a madman, I cried out the prayer; Hear, O Israel: the Lord our God, the Lord is one . . . And I prayed to die, that I might not suffer this agony any more (Hall). This was said by a patient of Dr. Josef Mengele, Mr.Yitzhak Ganon. Mr. Ganon was of the survivors of the inhumane experiments that took place in Auschwitz by the hand of the abominable man that is Josef Mengele.... [tags: angel of death, evil, eugenics]:: 10 Works Cited 1323 words(3.8 pages)Strong Essays[preview] The Humanities of Science - The philosophy of science is to improve our knowledge about the world and how our bodies behave to enhance our well-being. Science has aid us in many ways such as increasing our lifespan, improving medicine, and advancing technology. Provided that the government of Canada and Quebec want to improve the quality of life for its people and encourage the growth of scientific discoveries, they should invest in scientific research that will continue to expand our knowledge and use that newly acquired knowledge to continue improving our quality of life.... [tags: lifespan, medicine, technology, eugenics]817 words(2.3 pages)Better Essays[preview] Stereotypes where the Mentally Handicapped People are Ignorant - In history, stereotypes in society have been negative towards people with disabilities and that often led to discrimination. Colonial Americans, in the 1700s, referred to people with handicaps as lunatics. Lunatic by todays definition is someone crazy or insane. However, the root word, lunar, means, moons. Back then, people thought that a full moon had something to do with the mental illness that the child was born with. Some thought that the baby could be affected by being conceived, being born under, or sleeping in the light of a full moon.... [tags: disabilities, lunatic, eugenics]627 words(1.8 pages)Better Essays[preview] Eugenics: An Excuse To Be A Racist Or A Means To A Better Tomorrow? - Eugenics: An Excuse to be a Racist or a Means to a Better Tomorrow. The term eugenics was coined in the late 19th century. Its goal was to apply the breeding practices and techniques used in plants and animals to human reproduction. Francis Galton stated in his Essays in Eugenics that he wished to influence "the useful classes" in society to put more of their DNA in the gene pool. The goal was to collect records of families who were successful by virtue of having three or more adult male children who have gain superior positions to their peers.... [tags: essays research papers]1102 words(3.1 pages)Strong Essays[preview] American Eugenics: Race, Queer Anatomy, and the Science of Nationalism - American Eugenics: Race, Queer Anatomy, and the Science of Nationalism Works Cited Missing Nancy Ordover argues that current attempts to regulate marginalized social groups are eugenicist movements couched in new language. While "today, the preoccupation with immigrant fertility is couched in concerns over expenditures rather than in classic eugenicist worries over the depletion of the national gene pool" (54), that supposed strain on the national economy presented by immigration is still located in immigrant's reproduction, although it is less frequently explicitly the "whiteness" of the nation that is threatened.... [tags: Sociology Sociological Essays]1123 words(3.2 pages)Strong Essays[preview] Methods of Experimentation and Research in the Natural Sciences that are Limited due to Ethical Considerations - The production of knowledge, the theoretical or practical understanding of a subject (New Oxford), has constantly been accomplished throughout the history of man as a result of the characteristics of creativity and curiosity. These attributes, besides ethics, have set humans apart from the other species allowing for constant and rapid development. According to (Rest), an ethical judgment is the process by which an individual determines that one alternative is morally right and another alternative is morally wrong.... [tags: eugenics, animal testing, ethical judgement]:: 8 Works Cited 1459 words(4.2 pages)Powerful Essays[preview] Altering Human Genome - Altering Human Genome The gene pool could use a little chlorine. -Bumper Sticker Consider Gods handiwork; who can straighten what He hath made crooked? -Ecclesiastes 7:13, from Gattaca I not only think that we will tamper with Mother Nature. I think Mother wants us to. -Willard Gaylin, from Gattaca With the scientific breakthroughs of the recent decades the humans have become more powerful than ever in their mastery of Nature. The genetic engineering that allows extracting and modifying the genetic makeup of the future person or animal is in a sense the power of Creation.... [tags: Eugenics Genetics Science Essays]:: 14 Works Cited 1425 words(4.1 pages)Powerful Essays[preview] Genetic Engineering: Pros and Cons - Our world has finally begun its long-predicted descent into the depths of chaos. We may not yet realize it, but more and more problems plague the very state of our humanity with each passing day, such as cancer, famine, genetic disorders, and social elitism. It seems as though there is little hope, although a new solution has finally emerged, in the form of genetic engineering. It is apparent, however, that currently we cannot proceed, because while there are an abundant amount of advantages to genetic engineering, it is not a utopian process; criticism includes its practicality, theological implications, and changes in modern social structure.... [tags: Eugenics, Ethics]:: 5 Works Cited 1212 words(3.5 pages)Strong Essays[preview] Allegiance and Loyalty to Totaltarian Society in The Anthem by Ayn Rand - Totalitarian societies include government control over every part of life of the people in that society. The government often has a ruler who is a dictator and has absolute control over the public and private life of the citizens. The leaders of these societies, both real and fictionalized, enforce the rule that children have to live apart from their families because they want loyalty and allegiance to the government, collectivism among the people, and the practice of eugenics. Allegiance to the government is the most important factor in totalitarian societies because it helps dictatorial leaders manipulate the people of the society.... [tags: governement, eugenic, collectivism]629 words(1.8 pages)Better Essays[preview] History and culture of Never Let Me Go - Kazuo Ishiguro's novel Never Let me Go uses a dystopian fantasy world to illustrate the author's view that our real world practice of eugenics is as equally immoral and degrading as the world he describes. The eugenic-soaked world of Never Let me Go is dystopian, and our real world, with its quiet adoption of 'soft' eugenics, is equally dystopian. Ishiguro's point is that utopia can never be attained in either realm if it contains the contagion of eugenics. By depicting unfair struggles that eugenics rigged "pre-destination" imposes on his oh so human characters, Ishiguro portrays the Eugenist's utopian wet dream as a nightmarish perversion of humanity's social contract.... [tags: Literature]:: 1 Works Cited 1330 words(3.8 pages)Strong Essays[preview] Trying to Improve the Human Race by Controlling Reproduction - Trying to Improve the Human Race by Controlling Reproduction THE idea of "Natural Equality" is one of the most deluded ideas that have ever afflicted itself upon mankind. It is simply a figment of the human imagination. Nature knows no equality. She thrives on the idea of the survival of the fittest. The exact definition of eugenics is "The study of methods to improve the human race by controlling reproduction." Therefor eugenics is a pseudo science. It is about the selective prevention or encouragement of births for social, racial, or political ends.... [tags: Papers]390 words(1.1 pages)Strong Essays[preview] Review of a Website - If you want to understand today, you have to search yesterday, quoted Pearl Buck. Most everyone has a time in their life where history becomes important to them. Whether that be tracing back family heritage, writing a research essay, or just out of curiosity. All and all, history is very influential to peoples lives and what better way to learn about history then to visit the website Image Archive on the American Eugenics Movement. This credible website offers an opportunity for the public to learn more about our American history in an interactive and creative way.... [tags: Website Review, Reliable Sources]973 words(2.8 pages)Better Essays[preview] Role of Doctors Under Nazis - Role of Doctors in Nazis Racial Hygiene Germany was out to establish a new utopian world order where everything worked in harmony. They wanted to become a healthy and vibrant organism of healthy Aryans. The German doctors were mobilized to create this new world. The German bureaucrats believed all their social burdens were brought on by the handicapped, incurables and homosexuals as well as the Jews and gypsies. The physicians were to use all their medical knowledge and scientific expertise in the treatment for their new world.... [tags: essays research papers fc]:: 2 Works Cited 2232 words(6.4 pages)Strong Essays[preview] Genetic Engineering in Humans - Author Chuck Klosterman said, The simple truth is that were all already cyborgs more or less. Our mouths are filled with silver. Our nearsighted pupils are repaired with surgical lasers. We jam diabetics full of delicious insulin. Almost 40 percent of Americans now have prosthetic limbs. We see to have no qualms about making post-birth improvements to our feeble selves. Why are we so uncomfortable with pre-birth improvement? Despite Klostermans accurate observation, there are reasons people are wearisome toward pre-birth enhancement.... [tags: Genetic Engineering ]859 words(2.5 pages)Better Essays[preview] The High Cost of Genetic Engineering - The High Cost of Genetic Engineering Genetic research on human embryos, in correlation with the human genome, is the key to gene therapy, genetic diagnosis, and even to genetically engineered human beings. Knowing which gene controls what trait and causes what genetic disease will arm doctors with a powerful tool to treat their patients at the molecular level. On the other hand, this allows people to possibly manipulate genes to enhance specific traits or create the perfect baby. Genetic research on human embryos has two implications. A practical one in therapeutic research (to detect, and hopefully correct gene flaws), and then the potentiality of allowing parents to decide how the... [tags: Persuasive Argumentative Essay Examples]:: 9 Works Cited 1197 words(3.4 pages)Strong Essays[preview] An Enhanced Genotype: Ethical Issues Involved with Genetic Engineering and their Impact as Revealed by Brave New World - An Enhanced Genotype: Ethical Issues Involved with Genetic Engineering and their Impact as Revealed by Brave New World Human society always attempts to better itself through the use of technology. Thus far, as a species, we have already achieved much: mastery of electronics, flight, and space travel. However, the field in which the most progress is currently being made is Biology, specifically Genetic Engineering. In Aldous Huxleys Brave New World, humanity has taken control of reproduction and biology in the same way that we have mastered chemistry and physics.... [tags: Genetic Engineering ]:: 6 Works Cited 2288 words(6.5 pages)Term Papers[preview] History And Procedures of Gene Therapy - The History And Procedures of Gene Therapy Abstract: Over the course of history there has been the idea of gene therapy has inspired many great scientists. The history of eugenics is important to the history of gene therapy because it is how gene therapy originated. Eugenics has driven many people to take extreme measures to try and make a better human race, this includes the Nazi party and the movement in the 1930s inspired by Francis Galton. After that, research in eugenics continued and the human genome project sprung from the minds of scientists.... [tags: Biology Medical Biomedical Genetics]:: 2 Works Cited 1810 words(5.2 pages)Term Papers[preview] The indoctrination of the Concept of Racial Hygiene: The Begining of t - The Indoctrination of the Concept of Racial Hygiene: The Beginning of the End The idea of biological degeneration had been studied by doctors, psychiatrists, and scientists many decades before the 1930s and the Nazi regime were ever in power. The idea that the integrity of populations was being undermined by behaviors of alcoholism, criminality, or mental deficiency was a topic for researchers before anyone even knew who Adolf Hitler was. In this essay I will discuss the evolution of a concept that would become known as racial hygiene.... [tags: essays research papers fc]:: 2 Works Cited 2296 words(6.6 pages)Strong Essays[preview] Engineering the Perfect Human - For centuries, mankind has been fascinated by the idea of perfection. In recent decades, the issue has been raised regarding the perfect human and whether scientists are able to engineer and create this. Attempts have been made in the past to engineer this said perfect human, through eugenics and scientific racism, but until now, these attempts have been ineffective. Only now, with modern technology, are scientists able to make more significant progress in altering the human genome to the produce desired characteristics of perfection.... [tags: Genetic Engineering ]:: 21 Works Cited 1831 words(5.2 pages)Term Papers[preview] Whats Genetic Engineering? - You are unique. Born into a family, you are the culmination of months worth of waiting and patience from your parents. The moment you are born may very well be the best day of their lives. Though you may not be very respectful at times, they still love you just as much as they did before. If they could change you thoughif they could have put you together before you were bornwould they. In the society of today, technology and human intellect are increasing at an astonishing rate. While the two may be equal at this moment, there will come a time where technology will overtake human intellect and may very well change the way we look at society today more than it ever has before.... [tags: biotechnology, scientific breakthroughs]:: 9 Works Cited 1281 words(3.7 pages)Strong Essays[preview] The Truth Behind The Holocaust - The twentieth century was a time of change. With two world wars occurring within roughly three decades, it was no surprise that society became forever changed. These two world wars, however, resulted in perhaps one of the most significant and catastrophic events in history - the Holocaust. The Holocaust saw about six million Jews killed by command of German dictator Adolf Hitler. Despite resulting from World War II, however, Hitlers massive genocide of European Jews was planned before the Second World War, and therefore was intentionalism, because of the blame from post-World War I Germany, the twentieth century movement of eugenics as a racial hygiene, and the actions to exterminate Jews... [tags: adolf hitler, nazis, treaty of versailles,germany]:: 9 Works Cited 1675 words(4.8 pages)Powerful Essays[preview] A Comparison of Myself to Adolf Hitler - Struggle is the father of all things. It is not by the principles of humanity that man lives or is able to preserve himself above the animal world, but solely by means of the most brutal struggle. If you do not fight, life will never be won. (Hitler) For most of the world, Adolf Hitler's name is synonymous with thoughts of hatred, criminality, and pure evil. Although he is responsible for the greatest genocide known to humanity, Hitler is now known to be one of the most influential World leaders weve ever known.... [tags: Essay About Myself]:: 5 Works Cited 1230 words(3.5 pages)Strong Essays[preview] Atwood's Oryx and Crake: Chaos Then, Chaos Now, Chaos Later - One brilliant man alone tore down the world, in an attempt to create the perfect people. Instead of creating his ideal world, he created utter chaos, where the number of healthy and living humans fell rapidly. After the complete disorder came to an end, destruction and damage were not the only remnants left behind. A new world was begun with the end of the human race and the birth of the perfect race, which was made up of creatures of flawlessness and excellence. Margaret Atwood tells a story of an end, revolving in the time of a society of the future.... [tags: Literature]:: 6 Works Cited 1489 words(4.3 pages)Powerful Essays[preview] Perfect Society: The Effects of Human Genetic Engineering - Many citizens strive to make our society a better one for everyone. By attempting to filter out genetic inferiorities, many believed there were positive effects to the idea of eugenics. Many historic eugenicists thought society would be better by preventing the births of people afflicted with these inheritable diseases. This sterilization movement was very flawed in the early 20th century. Much of the data collected and methods used by eugenicists determined why certain individuals were malleable to a society.... [tags: eugencies, sterilization, diversity]1451 words(4.1 pages)Powerful Essays[preview] Darwin and History - Following 1859, The Origin of Species had at last entered public consciousness. While the theories presented by Darwin were simultaneously being celebrated, condemned or challenged, it triggered a new form of self-awareness. Because Darwin initially avoided addressing the ultimate question of human evolution until The Descent of Man published in 1871, it would lead others to pursue the matter with diverse explanations. Known as the father of German Darwinism, Ernst Haeckels Natrliche Schpfungsgeschichte (The History of Creation) was first published in German in 1868 and translated into English in 1876.... [tags: Scientific Research ]:: 6 Works Cited 1149 words(3.3 pages)Strong Essays[preview] Euthanasia: An End to Misery - Thomas More, in describing a utopian community, envisaged such a community as one that would facilitate the death of those whose lives had become burdensome as a result of torturing and lingering pain (Voluntary Euthanasia). Euthanasia is an act that would be used to relieve suffering patients. Before one can argue for or against the legalization of euthanasia, he must understand the difference between the different types of euthanasia: active versus passive, voluntary versus non-voluntary and involuntary, and euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide.... [tags: Ethics ]:: 6 Works Cited 1369 words(3.9 pages)Strong Essays[preview] Genetic Discrimination - In the 1920s the United States became the world center of eugenic activity and social policy. From 1907-1960 more than 100,000 innocent Americans were sterilized in more than 30 states. The American eugenics movements of the 1920s and 1930s recognized human beings as being either cherished or substandard. They established degeneration programs to improve races of low grade causing racism to intend more rapidly. The main targets of degeneration were the usual victims of racism Jews, Indians, Blacks, and many more minorities.... [tags: Discrimination ]584 words(1.7 pages)Good Essays[preview] The Nazi Euthanasia Programme Based on Racial Purity Theories - The Nazi Euthanasia Programme Based on Racial Purity Theories While the actual program of 'euthanasia' was initiated by Hitler in 1939 the whole idea of racial purity, Social Darwinism and eugenics had been on the rise In Europe and more importantly Germany for quite some years. The issue that called for the commencement of the program was in fact written at the end of October but was predated 1st of September to coincide with the start of the war, as it was interestingly enough seen as a paralleled war by the Nazis.... [tags: Papers]2513 words(7.2 pages)Powerful Essays[preview] Main Points of an Essay by an Author Regarding Racism in the South - The essays of the authors in this book focus on the different views of racial segregation in the south. There are many different dimensions of racial discrimination brought to the light by these well-educated authors. This book shows the perspective of segregation of blacks and whites in the south. Over all this book of essays assess the costs of segregations impact on the entire nation. The author of this book, a civil rights historian, recounts the pilgrimage of black teachers in the south. This book gives a comprehensive understanding of how blacks and whites exist side-by-side after slavery is abolished.... [tags: Civil Rights, Discrimination]587 words(1.7 pages)Good Essays[preview] Genetic Engineering is Unethical - Genetic engineering is a technology that has been created to alter DNA of different species to try and make them more improved. This essay will discuss the eugenics, the religious point of view about genetic engineering, genetically modified food and the genetic screening of embryos. In this essay it will be said wether genetic engineering is ethical or unethical. During 1924 Hitler said that everyone needs to be blond hair, blue eyes and white. This is known as Eugenics, thanks to a new science known as biotechnology in a few decades.... [tags: Genetic Engineering Essays]492 words(1.4 pages)Strong Essays[preview] Franz Boas Discuss the Contribution of Anthropology - Franz Boas has been considered by many as the "Father of American Anthropology", as he was a pioneer in breaking down the American isolationism, intolerance and misinformation about and biological diversity and linguistics. Born in Minden, Westphalia, Germany, in 1858, from a Jewish family, Boas early thinking was based on the ideals of the 1848 German revolution and followed his parents intellectual freedom (Stocking, 1974). However, Boas did not set out with the specific ambition to study human cultures, and after attending the universities of Heidelberg, Bonn and Kiel, in 1881 he earned a PhD.... [tags: Deconstructing, Discrediting, Concept of Race ]:: 14 Works Cited 1247 words(3.6 pages)Strong Essays[preview]

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Free eugenics Essays and Papers - 123HelpMe

Free eugenics Essays and Papers

Title Length Color Rating Early 20th Century Eugenics as part of Modernism - As the sun was setting on the 19th century, a new theory, called eugenics was just beginning to rise. Eugenics is the idea that human mental, moral, temperamental and physiological traits are passed down through generations, and that society should attempt to foster the reproduction of those with favorable traits and discourage or eliminate those with less than favorable traits. In the early parts of the 20th century, eugenics was put into practice across the rich world. This increase, not only in popularity but in application is best viewed when part of the greater context of modernity.... [tags: Eugenics]:: 5 Works Cited 1047 words(3 pages)Strong Essays[preview] The History of Eugenics in America - Eugenics is the study of the agencies under social control that may improve or impair the racial qualities of future generations either physically or mentally. After the major turn of the century, eugenics developed into a world- wide movement. (Vermont University, 2003) It was led by scientist and scholars in several diverse fields, and funded by wealthy philanthropists, also supported by statesmen. Eugenics played a very vital and central role in the political, social, and intellectual history of numerous diverse peoples and nations.... [tags: The Eugenics Movement]:: 5 Works Cited 2148 words(6.1 pages)Research Papers[preview] Eugenics: A Controversial Science - Eugenics has been a very controversial science that has existed in the world for centuries. Eugenics is defined as the study of or belief in the possibility of improving the qualities of the human species or a human population by such means as discouraging reproduction by persons having genetic defects or presumed to have inheritable undesirable traits (negative eugenics) or encouraging reproduction by persons presumed to have inheritable desirable traits (positive eugenics)(Dictionary.com, 2005). Its base came from the idea that the human race could be perfected by getting rid of its undesirable traits and the desirable ones could be multiplied.... [tags: Eugenics Essays]1168 words(3.3 pages)Better Essays[preview] The Eugenics Movement - In the 1920s, a company in New York started a movement known as The Eugenics Movement. The idea of eugenics was eventually picked up by Germany, China, Peru, India and Bangladesh. The movement is still in effect till this day; however, it is not as prevalent as it once was. The beginning of the Eugenics Movement all started at Cold Spring Harbor, New York. The United States coined the term Eugenics from Great Britain in the early 1900s. In the year 1910, a man by the name of Charles B. Davenport founded the Eugenics Records Office (ERO).... [tags: Eugenics, ERO, sterilization]:: 3 Works Cited 1539 words(4.4 pages)Powerful Essays[preview] Eugenics -Not the Way of the Future - Eugenics in the world today has become an issue because of its many positive uses furthermore its possible consequences. It is believed by many that eugenics does more harm than good, on the other hand there are exceptions; it is not the way of the future. There is no doubt that it could be extremely useful for preventing diseases such as cancer and others before we are even born. But, with this also comes the ability to give children genes before their born that will give them talent to run faster, jump higher, use more of their brain which will strictly discriminate them from the rest of society in a way where they will always stand out, the reason being is their extraordinary talents due... [tags: Eugenics, Genetic Engineering]722 words(2.1 pages)Good Essays[preview] The Ethics and Morality of Eugenics in Society - My research revolves around the ethics and morality of eugenics (Science of heredity and good breeding), and whether society should be in favor of influencing genetics in order to create a more favorable genetic pool. This topic interests me because I find great interest in political and cultural issues, and I have always been fascinated by whether eugenics would actually work and if governments should be in support of it. The sources I found were all scientific journals from credible books. I did this to because I needed to gain information on studies that have taken place in the name of eugenics as well as establish that eugenics is high priority within the scientific community.Taking this... [tags: disabled, eugenics, influencing genetics]:: 7 Works Cited 1598 words(4.6 pages)Powerful Essays[preview] The Three Stooges: Charles Darwin, Adolf Hitler and Margaret Sanger - Only the most imaginative mind could fathom the thought of human beings being selected or disregarded and even killed based on biological protocol. This scientific theory is responsible for the reproduction of superior genes through heredity by controversial means. This idea is based on the evolution of the human species or basically survival of the fittest. Charles Darwin who is the greatest known scientist to ever live popularized this theory and is responsible for the brutality and death of well over 100 million human beings.... [tags: Eugenics]:: 41 Works Cited 1299 words(3.7 pages)Strong Essays[preview] A Look at Eugenics - Introduction Eugenics is the conviction and practice of enhancing the hereditary nature of the human population. It is a social theory upholding the change of human hereditary qualities through the advancement of higher proliferation of individuals with coveted characteristics and decreased multiplication of individuals with less-wanted or undesired attributes. It alludes to the investigation of or faith in the likelihood of enhancing the characteristics of the human species or a human populace, especially by embracing varied hereditary qualities or pessimistic selective breeding.... [tags: Heredity Nature, Human Heredity Qualities]:: 4 Works Cited 1221 words(3.5 pages)Strong Essays[preview] The ethics of eugenics - The theory of eugenics has changed throughout time from its conception by Sir Francis Galton to its modern technological interpretation in the 21st century. The term has been embraced by Social Darwinists, Progressives, human genetic engineers, and Nazis, to just name a few. The theorys popularity has undergone cycles of approval and upheaval as it is a fairly conceptually fluid idea. Today its definition is still hazy, with both sides of its controversial spectrum debating what it really means.... [tags: Social Darwinists, Sir Francis Galton]:: 28 Works Cited 1675 words(4.8 pages)Powerful Essays[preview] The Misapplication of Eugenics - The concept of eugenics has to do with the belief or practice of improving the genetic quality of the human race (Eugenics 2010). The concept was first introduced by Francis Galton, a researcher who wished to apply Darwins theory of evolution to the human race. Much like many endeavors that start off with good intentions, the results of applying this concept in real life were gross crimes against humanity. The eugenics movement in the early 20th century perverted the original concept by employing morally objectionable techniques including forced sterilization, marriage restrictions, segregation, internment camps, and genocide (Black 2012).... [tags: Humans, Genetic Quality, Francis Galton]:: 4 Works Cited 1023 words(2.9 pages)Strong Essays[preview] The Downfall of Eugenics - In the twentieth-century politics has played a vital role in the way disease is perceived by the average person. Every aspect of disease became a political concern with eugenics publically taking on a major role in public policy. Giving credit to eugenics, many Americans began to worry more about their personal genetic traits as well as the traits that they may pass on to their children. Later society became interested with eugenics on a more community-oriented basis. The downfall of Eugenics came when reformers began to use it as a program of social control, promoting government intervention and coercion in human reproduction. Masturbation was once seen as degenerative disease that led... [tags: Medical Ethics]:: 4 Works Cited 1192 words(3.4 pages)Strong Essays[preview] Edwin Black's War Against the Weak: Eugenics and America's Campaign to Create a Master Race - Edwin Black's War Against the Weak: Eugenics and America's Campaign to Create a Master Race To the average American it seems unfathomable that US based research into the "scientific" practice of eugenics could have been the foundation and impetus for Hitler's Nazi genocide and atrocities. In addition, notions of racial superiority and the scientific quest for the development of a pure Aryan nation, both by the United States and foreign countries, particularly Germany, were funded and fueled by monies from such prominent families as the Rockefellers, Carnegies and Harriman's.... [tags: Edwin Black Eugenics Master Race Essays]1983 words(5.7 pages)Strong Essays[preview] What is Eugenics? - Introduction Eugenics is defined as a science that deals with the improvement (as by control of human mating) of hereditary qualities of a race or breed (1). The principles of eugenics have been used in many different countries for various reasons. In the United States, eugenics reached its peak in the pre-World War II period. It was believed that the most efficient way to deal with social problems, such as mental illness, poverty and crime, was to inhibit reproduction among people with such characteristics.... [tags: Science, Improving Hereditary Traits. Human]:: 20 Works Cited 1713 words(4.9 pages)Powerful Essays[preview] The Eugenics Movement - ... Both women selected Gregory Pincus to develop the contraceptive pill. Once the birth control pill was created, Pincus began collaborating with John Rock because the next step was to start human trials ("People & Events: Gregory Pincus"). The first study of the pill was conducted in 1954 (People & Events: The Pill and the Women's Liberation Movement). The test was successful, and showed a 100% effectiveness rate. Not a single woman who took part in the trials ovulated while taking the pill.... [tags: criminals, poverty, women, social class]2040 words(5.8 pages)Better Essays[preview] The Practice of Positive Eugenics - Since its inception in 1883, eugenics has long since been the subject of controversy and a forum for discussion on ethics and morality. Positive eugenics, defined as, "encouraging reproduction by persons presumed to have inheritable desirable traits," is considered a benevolent form of eugenics, but can be used for sinister purposes. Negative eugenics, officially defined as, "discouraging reproduction by persons having genetic defects or presumed to have inheritable undesirable traits," is perhaps the more well-known variety of eugenics, with notable examples such as the Holocaust and forced sterilization.... [tags: ethics and morality, reproduction]:: 13 Works Cited 1178 words(3.4 pages)Strong Essays[preview] Eugenics: Improving The Human Race? - The idea that one can improve the human race by careful selection of those who mate and produce offspring is called eugenics. It is better understood as the process of selective breeding can improve human society. The term eugenics is from the greek, meaning well-born. The idea of eugenics is to have a society be abundant with many wanted traits, during a movement called the melting pot where people tried to solve their problems with the use of technology. Inquiries into Human Faculty and Its Development, is the book in which Sir Francis Galton first mentioned the term eugenics.... [tags: Scientific Research ]:: 5 Works Cited 1135 words(3.2 pages)Better Essays[preview] Eugenics - Eugenics, the word that got its bad reputation years ago through an event that changed history: the Holocaust. First dubbed by Francis Galton in the 1880s, the word Eugenics stemmed from the words good and generation. (Eugenics-Meanings) Eugenics means the study of or belief in the possibility of improving the qualities of the human species or a human population. This improvement is done through discouraging reproduction by persons having genetic defects or presumed to have inheritable undesirable traits (negative eugenics); or encouraging reproduction by persons presumed to have inheritable desirable traits (positive eugenics).... [tags: Genetic Engineering]:: 6 Works Cited 1552 words(4.4 pages)Powerful Essays[preview] Eugenics - Taken from the Greek word eugenes meaning good in stock the term eugenics was coined in 1883 By Francis Galton (1822-1911). Today it is defined by the OED as Pertaining or adapted to the production of fine offspring, esp. in the human race. We will attempt to explain what eugenics was within in the context of its time and how it was to be applied to humans. We will also attempt to identify who its supporters were and the many different reasons why the eugenic doctrine appealed to them. The problem of what to do about the urban poor had been a continuing worry for the middle classes since the mid nineteenth century.... [tags: Sociology]2214 words(6.3 pages)Powerful Essays[preview] Eugenics or Forced Sterilization Programs - Heredity: Like begets like. Eugenics or force sterilization programs were government policies that attempted to force people to undergo surgical sterilization, and also aim to assimilate any genetic deficiency (Keith 2011). The pseudo-science behind eugenics was based on a misconception of heredity that assumed that the deficient inevitably passed down their pathology to their progeny, and with this misconception, heredity became related to the crude term like begets like (Grekul 2008). This term was the foundation of what shaped the Eugenics movement into a dark and horrific period (McLaren 1990).... [tags: Sexual Sterilization Act, Canadian history]1630 words(4.7 pages)Better Essays[preview] The Eugenics Movement for Criminality - The eugenics movement started in the early 1900s and was adopted by doctors and the general public during the 1920s. The movement aimed to create a better society through the monitoring of genetic traits through selective heredity. Over time, eugenics took on two different views. Supporters of positive eugenics believed in promoting childbearing by a class who was genetically superior. On the contrary, proponents of negative eugenics tried to monitor societys flaws through the sterilization of the inferior. Due to an increased surge of criminality in many cities during the 1900s, eugenicists began to focus on the role of genes in determining criminal behavior.... [tags: genetics, violence, psychopathy]569 words(1.6 pages)Good Essays[preview] Eugenics: Solving Social Problems? - The melting pot was a movement to solve social problems of the population with the use of technology. Eugenics is the use of science to solve social problems. It is defined as the study of or belief in the possibility of improving the qualities of the human species or a human population, especially by such means as discouraging reproduction by persons having genetic defects or presumed to have inheritable undesirable traits or encouraging reproduction by persons presumed to have inheritable desirable traits.... [tags: Scientific Research ]:: 9 Works Cited 1201 words(3.4 pages)Strong Essays[preview] Nazi Eugenics and Racial Hygiene - The Nazis perpetrated many horrors during the Holocaust. They enacted many cruel laws. They brainwashed millions into foolishly following them and believing their every word using deceitful propaganda tactics. They forced many to suffer doing embarrassing jobs and to live in crowded ghettos. They created mobile killing squads to exterminate their enemies. Finally, as part of The Final Solution to the Jewish Question, they made concentration and killing camps. Another thing the Nazis did was to use eugenics as another mean to micromanage the population.... [tags: Holocaust, Nazi Germany, Adolf Hitler]:: 7 Works Cited 1198 words(3.4 pages)Strong Essays[preview] Eugenics: Man versus God - Eugenics: Man vs God The most merciful thing that a family does to one of its infant members is to kill it. -Margaret Sanger, Woman and the New Race Seven-foot, blonde haired, blue-eyed super-humans bearing the swastika and marching in perfect Aryan rhythm, bred to be smarter, stronger, superior. This is a typical image when people hear the word eugenics, but there are two distinct branches: negative eugenics, which looks at removing undesirables and degenerates from society, and positive eugenics, which looks to promote the positive hereditary traits within society.... [tags: improving genetic qualities of a population]974 words(2.8 pages)Strong Essays[preview] IVF and the New Eugenics - The addition of a child into a familys home is a happy occasion. Unfortunately, some families are unable to have a child due to unforeseen problems, and they must pursue other means than natural pregnancy. Some couples adopt and other couples follow a different path; they utilize in vitro fertilization or surrogate motherhood. The process is complicated, unreliable, but ultimately can give the parents the gift of a child they otherwise could not have had. At the same time, as the process becomes more and more advanced and scientists are able to predict the outcome of the technique, the choice of what child is born is placed in the hands of the parents.... [tags: Infertility]:: 8 Works Cited 1509 words(4.3 pages)Powerful Essays[preview] Eugenics and Genetic Testing - The history of harmful eugenic practices, spurring from the Nazi implementations of discrimination towards biologically inferior people has given eugenics a negative stigma (1,Kitcher, 190). Genetic testing, as Kitcher sees it through a minimalistic perspective, should be restrained to aiding future children with extremely low qualities of life (2,Kitcher, 190). He believes that genetic engineering should only be used to avoid disease and illness serving the role of creating a healthier human race.... [tags: Morality, Society, Science]1752 words(5 pages)Strong Essays[preview] Eugenics and Planned Parenthood - When one contemplates the concept of eugenics, few think of modern contraception and abortion when in reality they are one in the same. The American Eugenics Society, founded in 1923, proudly proclaimed that men with incurable conditions should be sterilized. However these conditions were often none that could be helped, such as, ones intelligence, race, and social class (Schweikart and Allen 529-532). The purpose of the society was to create the perfect class of men; elite in all ways.... [tags: Birth Control Movement]:: 12 Works Cited 1395 words(4 pages)Powerful Essays[preview] Was Eugenics Ever Moral? - Eugenics is the study or belief in the possibility of improving the qualities of the human species. Sounds good, right. But the question here is, is it moral to sacrifice someones life or the ability for someone to create life in the name of science. Surely Francis Galton and Gregor Mendel thought so. In the nineteenth century, biology was at its peak. Charles Darwin, who just happens to be Galtons cousin, had just introduced his idea of survival of the fittest. Galton then took that thesis and dissected it.... [tags: human species, charles darwin]:: 7 Works Cited 1043 words(3 pages)Strong Essays[preview] International Eugenics - Throughout the history of international relations, the study of human diversity has held a key role in establishing the political principles and recognized shared culture that defines nationhood. Nations have traditionally been associated with a specific geographic location and political ideology, but they also have ethnical identifiers associated with this shared culture. These ethnical identifiers were thrust onto the world stage during the end of the nineteenth century with the introduction of the study of eugenics.... [tags: Sociology ]:: 13 Works Cited 1825 words(5.2 pages)Term Papers[preview] Social Darwinism: History of the Study of Eugenics - The study of eugenics has been around for many years. China has one of the leading birth control systems containing the one child policy and Eugenics. Eugenics is a system of improving human population by promoting the most socially desirable individuals to reproduce while preventing the socially undesirables from reproduction. Eugenics comes from the Greek word meaning good or well born. It is the belief that some people are genetically superior to others; and that one inherits their relatives mental and psychological traits.... [tags: one child policy, china]724 words(2.1 pages)Better Essays[preview] The Rise and Fall of the Eugnics Movement - Introduction According to Merriam-Webster.com, eugenics is defined as the theory dealing with the production or treatment of a fine, healthy race. Despite this seemingly innocent representation, eugenics is an extremely controversial science. Some even debate whether or not it is worthy of the label of science, or if its just a form of intellectual racism. Nevertheless, eugenics was greatly embraced and was behind a scientific and social revolution during the late 19th century through the Second World War.... [tags: A Historical Analysis of Eugenics]:: 10 Works Cited 3924 words(11.2 pages)Term Papers[preview] How the US introduced Eugenics to the World - Eugenics is defined as human improvement by genetic means to improve the hereditary qualities of a race or breed and it was coined by Francis Galton in 1869. Throughout history, the World has borne witness to such atrocities as genocide, where the roots of these movements have been to eliminate the undesirables to allow the strongest and purest an opportunity to thrive and exist. Many would believe that the eugenics movement first started in Europe when the Nazis tried to eradicate Jews, Gays, Gypsys or anyone else they deemed not a part of the master race dreamed up by Hitler.... [tags: sterilization, genetics, Germany, race]:: 10 Works Cited 1022 words(2.9 pages)Strong Essays[preview] Eugenics: America's Dark Past and Future - The idea of a blonde-haired, blue-eyed race is often credited to Adolf Hitler. The not as well-known part is that this idea was around before Hitler and actually was spread to Germany by eugenics scientists in the United States. In this paper we will look into the full history of eugenics and how the idea was spread across the world. Along the journey we will encounter many major donors that may be of surprise to some of us. Eugenics has been a dark presence in the history of America and will continue to be until real strides are made to end racism.... [tags: blonde-haired, blue-eyed race, hitler]:: 9 Works Cited 1460 words(4.2 pages)Powerful Essays[preview] Genetic Engineering: Cloning: Dolly and Eugenics - Cloning is vital in American society because it will help us further our knowledge in genetics. Also cloning will make us realize how much scientists can actually accomplish knowing how to clone. Scientists were able to clone an animal in 1997. That accomplishment made all the scientists theories about cloning possible. It gave the scientists hope that one day they will maybe be able to clone a human because they were able to clone a mammal. Eugenics is also vital to American society. Eugenics is the practice of improving humans genetic quality of the human population as a whole.... [tags: dna, science, god]:: 13 Works Cited 1691 words(4.8 pages)Powerful Essays[preview] Eugenics in America - Eugenics in America Eugenics profoundly impacted the culture of the twentieth century. Coined in 1893 by Sir Francis Galton, it studied the heredity and selection of favorable traits. Born out of the social tumults of the late nineteenth century, it represented the Western elites attempt to protect itself from so called inferior cultures of the colonies and new wave immigration. The late eighteenth century was a turbulent time throughout America. An influx of immigrants packed into massive cities such as New York and Chicago.... [tags: Sociology Essays Research Papers]710 words(2 pages)Better Essays[preview] Reprogenetics and Eugenics - Reprogenetics and Eugenics Advantages: Reprogenetics will enable parents to give their children genes that they themselves do not carry, thereby increasing their offspring's chances for health, longevity, happiness, and success -- this is an appalling prospect for many bio ethicists. Eugenics embodies the desire and attempts of a society's leaders to control the breeding practices of its citizens, including the forcible sterilization or murder of those deemed as carrying undesirable genes.... [tags: Papers]862 words(2.5 pages)Better Essays[preview] Eugenic Decision-Making - Eugenics is defined, in some way or the other, as the process of reshaping the human race by determining the kinds of people who will be born. As such, there is much debate in the field of eugenics, with authors, like Philip Kitcher, who support laissez-faire or a minimalist approach of eugenics in which eugenic decision-making should be limited only to avoid neurological illnesses and in which parental free choice is valued. Gregory Stocks essay, The Enhanced and Un-Enhanced, presents otherwise by supporting the position of maximalist eugenics, allowing individuals the full extent in the selection of genes.... [tags: Gattaca, Laissez-Faire, Maximalist Eugenics]1482 words(4.2 pages)Strong Essays[preview] The Understanding of Eugenics, and the Move Forward from Past Failures. - The Understanding of Eugenics, and the Move Forward from Past Failures. Eugenics, from the Greek word Eu-genes, which means well-born or of good stock, In 1869 was the name given to the work produced by scientist Sir Francis Galton (1822-1911). Sir Francis Galtons work was based primarily on the theories of biological evolution, first developed by Charles Darwin, and was published in his book The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, 1859. Charles Darwin theorized that all species of life descended from common ancestors, and that natural selection had a profound effect by using selective breeding to enhance its worth.... [tags: Sir Francis Galton, Bilogical Evolution, Biology]:: 4 Works Cited 938 words(2.7 pages)Better Essays[preview] Atrocities Associated with the Eugenics Movement - Atrocities Associated with the Eugenics Movement Among the fears of many environmentalists is that of overpopulation. Acutely aware of the finite resources that the planet possesses and the limitations of renewable resources, there are concerns that the planet may soon reach its maximum caring capacity. Since the First Great Transition ten thousand years ago, the planet has experienced an astounding increase in population. Generations later, the planet is beginning to feel the effects of continual population expansion.... [tags: Exploratory Essays Research Papers]:: 4 Works Cited 1243 words(3.6 pages)Strong Essays[preview] Eugenics - The roots of eugenics can be traced back to Britain in the early 1880s when Sir Francis Galton generated the term from the Greek word for well-born. He defined eugenics as the science of improving stock, whether human or animal. According to the American Eugenics Movement, todays study of eugenics has many similarities to studies done in the early 20th century. Back then, Eugenics was, quite literally, an effort to breed better human beings by encouraging the reproduction of people with "good" genes and discouraging those with "bad" genes. (www.eugenicsarchive.org) According to Merriam-Webster, the modern day definition of eugenics is, a science that deals with t... [tags: essays research papers]1049 words(3 pages)Strong Essays[preview] Neo-Eugenics The Social and Biological Ethics of Designer Babies - Neoeugenics is the idea of new, neo, eugenics or a new way of creating a healthier race. Eugenics was first defined in the late 1800s by a man named Sir Francis Galton who said that it was basically the study of traits that will cause an advantage or disadvantage in the traits of future generations. Eugenics soon turned from being about the use of artificial selection of breeding to create a stronger species, to being about the advancement of certain races over others. When talking about neo eugenics, it is believed that it may turn into something similar to that of eugenics in that the use of artificial selection would now be used to bring the upper class higher in standards of health and... [tags: Healthier Reace, Future Generations]:: 2 Works Cited 1586 words(4.5 pages)Powerful Essays[preview] Eugenics - Eugenics President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863, as the nation approached its third year of bloody civil war. The proclamation declared "that all persons held as slaves" within the rebellious states "are, and henceforward shall be free." The Civil War was fought to save the republic and free the enslaved. World War II was fought to save the world and stop a group which thought they were a superior race. What do these two wars have in common. They were fought, in part, for equality.... [tags: Papers]1119 words(3.2 pages)Good Essays[preview] Eugenics Should be Abolished - Eugenics Should be Abolished Since the end of the 19th century, eugenics has had a significant role in the development of Western society. There have been laws established by its presence and a war fought to cease its progress. To analyze the philosophy of and the actions due to eugenics, one must look at the past and see what contributions eugenics has made to events in history. One must also look at the present applications of eugenics and how they affect the lives of people. With these two directions, one can see that because it is racist, encourages immoral actions and is biologically unsound, eugenics is iniquitous and should be abolished from modern medical and political thought.... [tags: Papers]3259 words(9.3 pages)Powerful Essays[preview] Ethics of Genocide and Eugenics - Gene Therapy: Genocide and Eugenics or Striving for a More Perfect Population Controversy and Ethics Just as there are different types of people who look at one glass of water and describe it as half full or half empty, the public has many different views on the future of our society. Gene therapy is also a glass that can be viewed in different angles different perspectives. Some say it has great potential to shape the ideals of our future, while others believe it signifies intolerance for disabilities, imperfections that supposedly deplete from a persons interests, opportunities and welfare (quoted by Peter Singer, xviii).... [tags: Biology Medical Biomedical Genetics]:: 2 Works Cited 1413 words(4 pages)Powerful Essays[preview] Euthanasia Essay: Eugenics To Euthanasia - Eugenics To Euthanasia This essay presents the appeal which euthanasia has to modern society. What is this appeal based on. Is it a valid appeal. These and other questions are addressed in this paper. See if this story sounds familiar: A happily married couple - she is a pianist; he a rising scientist - have their love suddenly tested by a decline in the wife's health. Diagnosed with multiple sclerosis, she falls victim to a steady loss of muscle control and paralysis. The desperate husband uses all his professional skills to save her.... [tags: Free Euthanasia Essay]:: 1 Works Cited 1001 words(2.9 pages)Strong Essays[preview] Genetic Engineering and Eugenics - Genetic Engineering and Eugenics The idea of genetic engineering has been a very heated topic of discussion lately. The possibilities of this topic range from cloning to gene therapy and eugenics. The most recent type, eugenics through gene therapy has created a lot of controversy. Eugenics is the study of how to improve human genetic heritage. This basically is the engineering of babies. The thought of these new designer babies raises many new questions. What are the consequences of these advances.... [tags: Exploratory Essays Research Papers]1108 words(3.2 pages)Strong Essays[preview] The American Eugenics Movement - The idea of eugenics was first introduced by Sir Francis Galton, who believed that the breeding of two wealthy and successful members of society would produce a child superior to that of two members of the lower class. This assumption was based on the idea that genes for success or particular excellence were present in our DNA, which is passed from parent to child. Despite the blatant lack of research, two men, Georges Vacher de Lapouge and Jon Alfred Mjoen, played to the white supremacists desires and claimed that white genes were inherently superior to other races, and with this base formed the first eugenics society.... [tags: essays research papers fc]:: 3 Works Cited 1421 words(4.1 pages)Strong Essays[preview] In Opposition of Eugenics and Human Embryo Research - In Opposition of Eugenics and Human Embryo Research There are a variety of views of eugenics and all that it entails. The definition of eugenics is "the science of improving the physical and mental qualities of human beings through control of the factors influencing heredity," ( Funk and Wagnall's, 1984). Others think eugenics is the social control of human genetic evolution, an ideology of racism and genocide, thought to improve society and halt disease while others think only of the Nazi Regime (Saetz, 1985 and McGee, 1997).... [tags: Argumentative Persuasive Essays]667 words(1.9 pages)Better Essays[preview] Ethical Complications of Genetic Engineering and Eugenics - Genetic engineering is currently the fastest growing and perhaps most controversial field of science. Genetic engineering is decoding and manipulating DNA to use for scientific and medical purposes. "The discovery that human cells can be grown in a petri dish has opened up breathtaking possibilities for curing disease - and a morass of ethical complications" (Allen 9). Genetic engineering has already started to be most helpful in the field of medicine. The map of the human genome offers many cures and potentially successful medical procedures.... [tags: Exploratory Essays Research Papers]:: 6 Works Cited 3149 words(9 pages)Strong Essays[preview] To What Extent are American Scientist and Institutions Responsible for Nazi Eugenics? - During Adolf Hitlers reign many American companies and scientist contributed towards advances in eugenic studies, are they to blame for the atrocities that occurred in the Second World War. It started in the late 1800s by Francis Galton who believed that to raise the present miserably low standard of the human race breeding the best with the best had to happen. Although the United States had a large amount of involvement, many European scientists and governments aided the research. In the late 1800s many rich businessmen and prior slave owners were most likely upset as slavery had been abolished, so through science they wanted to make Africans and Asians an inferior race.... [tags: adolf hitler, second world war, racism]:: 7 Works Cited 1043 words(3 pages)Strong Essays[preview] Josef Mengele and The Inhumane Experiments in Auschwitz - He cut into me, without anesthetic, . . .The pain was indescribable. I felt every slice of the knife. Then I saw my kidney pulsating in his hand. I cried like a madman, I cried out the prayer; Hear, O Israel: the Lord our God, the Lord is one . . . And I prayed to die, that I might not suffer this agony any more (Hall). This was said by a patient of Dr. Josef Mengele, Mr.Yitzhak Ganon. Mr. Ganon was of the survivors of the inhumane experiments that took place in Auschwitz by the hand of the abominable man that is Josef Mengele.... [tags: angel of death, evil, eugenics]:: 10 Works Cited 1323 words(3.8 pages)Strong Essays[preview] The Humanities of Science - The philosophy of science is to improve our knowledge about the world and how our bodies behave to enhance our well-being. Science has aid us in many ways such as increasing our lifespan, improving medicine, and advancing technology. Provided that the government of Canada and Quebec want to improve the quality of life for its people and encourage the growth of scientific discoveries, they should invest in scientific research that will continue to expand our knowledge and use that newly acquired knowledge to continue improving our quality of life.... [tags: lifespan, medicine, technology, eugenics]817 words(2.3 pages)Better Essays[preview] Stereotypes where the Mentally Handicapped People are Ignorant - In history, stereotypes in society have been negative towards people with disabilities and that often led to discrimination. Colonial Americans, in the 1700s, referred to people with handicaps as lunatics. Lunatic by todays definition is someone crazy or insane. However, the root word, lunar, means, moons. Back then, people thought that a full moon had something to do with the mental illness that the child was born with. Some thought that the baby could be affected by being conceived, being born under, or sleeping in the light of a full moon.... [tags: disabilities, lunatic, eugenics]627 words(1.8 pages)Better Essays[preview] Eugenics: An Excuse To Be A Racist Or A Means To A Better Tomorrow? - Eugenics: An Excuse to be a Racist or a Means to a Better Tomorrow. The term eugenics was coined in the late 19th century. Its goal was to apply the breeding practices and techniques used in plants and animals to human reproduction. Francis Galton stated in his Essays in Eugenics that he wished to influence "the useful classes" in society to put more of their DNA in the gene pool. The goal was to collect records of families who were successful by virtue of having three or more adult male children who have gain superior positions to their peers.... [tags: essays research papers]1102 words(3.1 pages)Strong Essays[preview] American Eugenics: Race, Queer Anatomy, and the Science of Nationalism - American Eugenics: Race, Queer Anatomy, and the Science of Nationalism Works Cited Missing Nancy Ordover argues that current attempts to regulate marginalized social groups are eugenicist movements couched in new language. While "today, the preoccupation with immigrant fertility is couched in concerns over expenditures rather than in classic eugenicist worries over the depletion of the national gene pool" (54), that supposed strain on the national economy presented by immigration is still located in immigrant's reproduction, although it is less frequently explicitly the "whiteness" of the nation that is threatened.... [tags: Sociology Sociological Essays]1123 words(3.2 pages)Strong Essays[preview] Methods of Experimentation and Research in the Natural Sciences that are Limited due to Ethical Considerations - The production of knowledge, the theoretical or practical understanding of a subject (New Oxford), has constantly been accomplished throughout the history of man as a result of the characteristics of creativity and curiosity. These attributes, besides ethics, have set humans apart from the other species allowing for constant and rapid development. According to (Rest), an ethical judgment is the process by which an individual determines that one alternative is morally right and another alternative is morally wrong.... [tags: eugenics, animal testing, ethical judgement]:: 8 Works Cited 1459 words(4.2 pages)Powerful Essays[preview] Altering Human Genome - Altering Human Genome The gene pool could use a little chlorine. -Bumper Sticker Consider Gods handiwork; who can straighten what He hath made crooked? -Ecclesiastes 7:13, from Gattaca I not only think that we will tamper with Mother Nature. I think Mother wants us to. -Willard Gaylin, from Gattaca With the scientific breakthroughs of the recent decades the humans have become more powerful than ever in their mastery of Nature. The genetic engineering that allows extracting and modifying the genetic makeup of the future person or animal is in a sense the power of Creation.... [tags: Eugenics Genetics Science Essays]:: 14 Works Cited 1425 words(4.1 pages)Powerful Essays[preview] Genetic Engineering: Pros and Cons - Our world has finally begun its long-predicted descent into the depths of chaos. We may not yet realize it, but more and more problems plague the very state of our humanity with each passing day, such as cancer, famine, genetic disorders, and social elitism. It seems as though there is little hope, although a new solution has finally emerged, in the form of genetic engineering. It is apparent, however, that currently we cannot proceed, because while there are an abundant amount of advantages to genetic engineering, it is not a utopian process; criticism includes its practicality, theological implications, and changes in modern social structure.... [tags: Eugenics, Ethics]:: 5 Works Cited 1212 words(3.5 pages)Strong Essays[preview] Allegiance and Loyalty to Totaltarian Society in The Anthem by Ayn Rand - Totalitarian societies include government control over every part of life of the people in that society. The government often has a ruler who is a dictator and has absolute control over the public and private life of the citizens. The leaders of these societies, both real and fictionalized, enforce the rule that children have to live apart from their families because they want loyalty and allegiance to the government, collectivism among the people, and the practice of eugenics. Allegiance to the government is the most important factor in totalitarian societies because it helps dictatorial leaders manipulate the people of the society.... [tags: governement, eugenic, collectivism]629 words(1.8 pages)Better Essays[preview] History and culture of Never Let Me Go - Kazuo Ishiguro's novel Never Let me Go uses a dystopian fantasy world to illustrate the author's view that our real world practice of eugenics is as equally immoral and degrading as the world he describes. The eugenic-soaked world of Never Let me Go is dystopian, and our real world, with its quiet adoption of 'soft' eugenics, is equally dystopian. Ishiguro's point is that utopia can never be attained in either realm if it contains the contagion of eugenics. By depicting unfair struggles that eugenics rigged "pre-destination" imposes on his oh so human characters, Ishiguro portrays the Eugenist's utopian wet dream as a nightmarish perversion of humanity's social contract.... [tags: Literature]:: 1 Works Cited 1330 words(3.8 pages)Strong Essays[preview] Trying to Improve the Human Race by Controlling Reproduction - Trying to Improve the Human Race by Controlling Reproduction THE idea of "Natural Equality" is one of the most deluded ideas that have ever afflicted itself upon mankind. It is simply a figment of the human imagination. Nature knows no equality. She thrives on the idea of the survival of the fittest. The exact definition of eugenics is "The study of methods to improve the human race by controlling reproduction." Therefor eugenics is a pseudo science. It is about the selective prevention or encouragement of births for social, racial, or political ends.... [tags: Papers]390 words(1.1 pages)Strong Essays[preview] Review of a Website - If you want to understand today, you have to search yesterday, quoted Pearl Buck. Most everyone has a time in their life where history becomes important to them. Whether that be tracing back family heritage, writing a research essay, or just out of curiosity. All and all, history is very influential to peoples lives and what better way to learn about history then to visit the website Image Archive on the American Eugenics Movement. This credible website offers an opportunity for the public to learn more about our American history in an interactive and creative way.... [tags: Website Review, Reliable Sources]973 words(2.8 pages)Better Essays[preview] Role of Doctors Under Nazis - Role of Doctors in Nazis Racial Hygiene Germany was out to establish a new utopian world order where everything worked in harmony. They wanted to become a healthy and vibrant organism of healthy Aryans. The German doctors were mobilized to create this new world. The German bureaucrats believed all their social burdens were brought on by the handicapped, incurables and homosexuals as well as the Jews and gypsies. The physicians were to use all their medical knowledge and scientific expertise in the treatment for their new world.... [tags: essays research papers fc]:: 2 Works Cited 2232 words(6.4 pages)Strong Essays[preview] Genetic Engineering in Humans - Author Chuck Klosterman said, The simple truth is that were all already cyborgs more or less. Our mouths are filled with silver. Our nearsighted pupils are repaired with surgical lasers. We jam diabetics full of delicious insulin. Almost 40 percent of Americans now have prosthetic limbs. We see to have no qualms about making post-birth improvements to our feeble selves. Why are we so uncomfortable with pre-birth improvement? Despite Klostermans accurate observation, there are reasons people are wearisome toward pre-birth enhancement.... [tags: Genetic Engineering ]859 words(2.5 pages)Better Essays[preview] The High Cost of Genetic Engineering - The High Cost of Genetic Engineering Genetic research on human embryos, in correlation with the human genome, is the key to gene therapy, genetic diagnosis, and even to genetically engineered human beings. Knowing which gene controls what trait and causes what genetic disease will arm doctors with a powerful tool to treat their patients at the molecular level. On the other hand, this allows people to possibly manipulate genes to enhance specific traits or create the perfect baby. Genetic research on human embryos has two implications. A practical one in therapeutic research (to detect, and hopefully correct gene flaws), and then the potentiality of allowing parents to decide how the... [tags: Persuasive Argumentative Essay Examples]:: 9 Works Cited 1197 words(3.4 pages)Strong Essays[preview] An Enhanced Genotype: Ethical Issues Involved with Genetic Engineering and their Impact as Revealed by Brave New World - An Enhanced Genotype: Ethical Issues Involved with Genetic Engineering and their Impact as Revealed by Brave New World Human society always attempts to better itself through the use of technology. Thus far, as a species, we have already achieved much: mastery of electronics, flight, and space travel. However, the field in which the most progress is currently being made is Biology, specifically Genetic Engineering. In Aldous Huxleys Brave New World, humanity has taken control of reproduction and biology in the same way that we have mastered chemistry and physics.... [tags: Genetic Engineering ]:: 6 Works Cited 2288 words(6.5 pages)Term Papers[preview] History And Procedures of Gene Therapy - The History And Procedures of Gene Therapy Abstract: Over the course of history there has been the idea of gene therapy has inspired many great scientists. The history of eugenics is important to the history of gene therapy because it is how gene therapy originated. Eugenics has driven many people to take extreme measures to try and make a better human race, this includes the Nazi party and the movement in the 1930s inspired by Francis Galton. After that, research in eugenics continued and the human genome project sprung from the minds of scientists.... [tags: Biology Medical Biomedical Genetics]:: 2 Works Cited 1810 words(5.2 pages)Term Papers[preview] The indoctrination of the Concept of Racial Hygiene: The Begining of t - The Indoctrination of the Concept of Racial Hygiene: The Beginning of the End The idea of biological degeneration had been studied by doctors, psychiatrists, and scientists many decades before the 1930s and the Nazi regime were ever in power. The idea that the integrity of populations was being undermined by behaviors of alcoholism, criminality, or mental deficiency was a topic for researchers before anyone even knew who Adolf Hitler was. In this essay I will discuss the evolution of a concept that would become known as racial hygiene.... [tags: essays research papers fc]:: 2 Works Cited 2296 words(6.6 pages)Strong Essays[preview] Engineering the Perfect Human - For centuries, mankind has been fascinated by the idea of perfection. In recent decades, the issue has been raised regarding the perfect human and whether scientists are able to engineer and create this. Attempts have been made in the past to engineer this said perfect human, through eugenics and scientific racism, but until now, these attempts have been ineffective. Only now, with modern technology, are scientists able to make more significant progress in altering the human genome to the produce desired characteristics of perfection.... [tags: Genetic Engineering ]:: 21 Works Cited 1831 words(5.2 pages)Term Papers[preview] Whats Genetic Engineering? - You are unique. Born into a family, you are the culmination of months worth of waiting and patience from your parents. The moment you are born may very well be the best day of their lives. Though you may not be very respectful at times, they still love you just as much as they did before. If they could change you thoughif they could have put you together before you were bornwould they. In the society of today, technology and human intellect are increasing at an astonishing rate. While the two may be equal at this moment, there will come a time where technology will overtake human intellect and may very well change the way we look at society today more than it ever has before.... [tags: biotechnology, scientific breakthroughs]:: 9 Works Cited 1281 words(3.7 pages)Strong Essays[preview] The Truth Behind The Holocaust - The twentieth century was a time of change. With two world wars occurring within roughly three decades, it was no surprise that society became forever changed. These two world wars, however, resulted in perhaps one of the most significant and catastrophic events in history - the Holocaust. The Holocaust saw about six million Jews killed by command of German dictator Adolf Hitler. Despite resulting from World War II, however, Hitlers massive genocide of European Jews was planned before the Second World War, and therefore was intentionalism, because of the blame from post-World War I Germany, the twentieth century movement of eugenics as a racial hygiene, and the actions to exterminate Jews... [tags: adolf hitler, nazis, treaty of versailles,germany]:: 9 Works Cited 1675 words(4.8 pages)Powerful Essays[preview] A Comparison of Myself to Adolf Hitler - Struggle is the father of all things. It is not by the principles of humanity that man lives or is able to preserve himself above the animal world, but solely by means of the most brutal struggle. If you do not fight, life will never be won. (Hitler) For most of the world, Adolf Hitler's name is synonymous with thoughts of hatred, criminality, and pure evil. Although he is responsible for the greatest genocide known to humanity, Hitler is now known to be one of the most influential World leaders weve ever known.... 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By attempting to filter out genetic inferiorities, many believed there were positive effects to the idea of eugenics. Many historic eugenicists thought society would be better by preventing the births of people afflicted with these inheritable diseases. This sterilization movement was very flawed in the early 20th century. Much of the data collected and methods used by eugenicists determined why certain individuals were malleable to a society.... [tags: eugencies, sterilization, diversity]1451 words(4.1 pages)Powerful Essays[preview] Darwin and History - Following 1859, The Origin of Species had at last entered public consciousness. While the theories presented by Darwin were simultaneously being celebrated, condemned or challenged, it triggered a new form of self-awareness. Because Darwin initially avoided addressing the ultimate question of human evolution until The Descent of Man published in 1871, it would lead others to pursue the matter with diverse explanations. Known as the father of German Darwinism, Ernst Haeckels Natrliche Schpfungsgeschichte (The History of Creation) was first published in German in 1868 and translated into English in 1876.... [tags: Scientific Research ]:: 6 Works Cited 1149 words(3.3 pages)Strong Essays[preview] Euthanasia: An End to Misery - Thomas More, in describing a utopian community, envisaged such a community as one that would facilitate the death of those whose lives had become burdensome as a result of torturing and lingering pain (Voluntary Euthanasia). Euthanasia is an act that would be used to relieve suffering patients. Before one can argue for or against the legalization of euthanasia, he must understand the difference between the different types of euthanasia: active versus passive, voluntary versus non-voluntary and involuntary, and euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide.... [tags: Ethics ]:: 6 Works Cited 1369 words(3.9 pages)Strong Essays[preview] Genetic Discrimination - In the 1920s the United States became the world center of eugenic activity and social policy. From 1907-1960 more than 100,000 innocent Americans were sterilized in more than 30 states. The American eugenics movements of the 1920s and 1930s recognized human beings as being either cherished or substandard. They established degeneration programs to improve races of low grade causing racism to intend more rapidly. The main targets of degeneration were the usual victims of racism Jews, Indians, Blacks, and many more minorities.... [tags: Discrimination ]584 words(1.7 pages)Good Essays[preview] The Nazi Euthanasia Programme Based on Racial Purity Theories - The Nazi Euthanasia Programme Based on Racial Purity Theories While the actual program of 'euthanasia' was initiated by Hitler in 1939 the whole idea of racial purity, Social Darwinism and eugenics had been on the rise In Europe and more importantly Germany for quite some years. The issue that called for the commencement of the program was in fact written at the end of October but was predated 1st of September to coincide with the start of the war, as it was interestingly enough seen as a paralleled war by the Nazis.... [tags: Papers]2513 words(7.2 pages)Powerful Essays[preview] Main Points of an Essay by an Author Regarding Racism in the South - The essays of the authors in this book focus on the different views of racial segregation in the south. There are many different dimensions of racial discrimination brought to the light by these well-educated authors. This book shows the perspective of segregation of blacks and whites in the south. Over all this book of essays assess the costs of segregations impact on the entire nation. The author of this book, a civil rights historian, recounts the pilgrimage of black teachers in the south. This book gives a comprehensive understanding of how blacks and whites exist side-by-side after slavery is abolished.... [tags: Civil Rights, Discrimination]587 words(1.7 pages)Good Essays[preview] Genetic Engineering is Unethical - Genetic engineering is a technology that has been created to alter DNA of different species to try and make them more improved. This essay will discuss the eugenics, the religious point of view about genetic engineering, genetically modified food and the genetic screening of embryos. In this essay it will be said wether genetic engineering is ethical or unethical. During 1924 Hitler said that everyone needs to be blond hair, blue eyes and white. This is known as Eugenics, thanks to a new science known as biotechnology in a few decades.... [tags: Genetic Engineering Essays]492 words(1.4 pages)Strong Essays[preview] Franz Boas Discuss the Contribution of Anthropology - Franz Boas has been considered by many as the "Father of American Anthropology", as he was a pioneer in breaking down the American isolationism, intolerance and misinformation about and biological diversity and linguistics. Born in Minden, Westphalia, Germany, in 1858, from a Jewish family, Boas early thinking was based on the ideals of the 1848 German revolution and followed his parents intellectual freedom (Stocking, 1974). However, Boas did not set out with the specific ambition to study human cultures, and after attending the universities of Heidelberg, Bonn and Kiel, in 1881 he earned a PhD.... [tags: Deconstructing, Discrediting, Concept of Race ]:: 14 Works Cited 1247 words(3.6 pages)Strong Essays[preview]

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AMERICA LATINA REBELDE | Spectacle Theater

The conquest of the Americas did not end with the defeat of the Aztecs and Incas, it was only the initiation of a procession of protests, strikes, and uprisings between the indigenous peoples and colonizers, immigrant workers and landowners, slaves and masters, mass movements and dictatorships. The films that retell these struggles portray a dramatic history fixed in flux.

The ability for South American artists to capture such struggles changes with the regimesif one favorable to the people manages to obtain power, the heroism and atrocities of previous generations may finally be told. Argentinian director Hector Olivera is a case in point, his sometimes satirical but always deadly serious work focuses on the individuals who struggle through dark times of political violence. In 1973 he made a REBELLION IN PATAGONIA, a film telling the story of a Patagonian wool farmers strike in the 1920s, based on a previously banned book by the anarchist writer Osvaldo Bayer. When the dictatorship returned the book and its adaptation were once again banned. With a renewal of democracy in the 1980s Olivera was free to make political work again, telling the story of the dictatorships torture and execution of student activists in NIGHT OF THE PENCILS.

With a majority indigenous population, many of whom continue to live a largely traditional lifestyle, landlocked Bolivia historically lagged behind the economic advances of its neighbors. In the 20th century, the States solution to lagging modernization occasionally relied on neo-eugenics, and Jorge Sanjiness BLOOD OF THE CONDOR tells of an uprising of an indigenous village against North American Progress Corp volunteers who they believe sterilized women without their consent.

Together with the indigenous at the lowest rung of the caste system was the African slave, who, likewise, had a long history of struggle against their masters. The Maroon culture developed independently in Brazil with the Quilombos, the Black Seminoles in Floria, and Palenques in Colombia and Cuba. In the Cuban film MALUALA, a village of runaway slaves is depicted in colorful detail, both in terms of their music, traditions, and fashion, and their lifestyle of constant resistance to renewed subjugation.

REBELLION IN PATAGONIA(aka LA PATAGONIA REBELDE)Dir. Hector Olivera, 1974.Argentina. 110 minutes.In Spanish with English subtitles.

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 1 7:30PMWEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 7 7:30PMFRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 23 7:30PMSATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 24 10PMMONDAY, SEPTEMBER 26 10PM

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Oswaldo Bayers historical novel Patagonia Rebelde, about an anarcho-syndicalist labor unions insurrectionary uprising against the Argentinian elite in the 1920s, was banned and publicly burned in the 70s before becoming a bestseller and feature film. The story begins with a hotel workers strike so successful one forgets why the working class would ever lose given its objective strength. But as the victorious anarchists sing their anthem, a group of Chilean laborers, immigrants among immigrants, sit quietly in the back of the labor hall. Although they have been elevated to equals by the principal of international solidarity, their silence foreshadows the bloodshed to come.

For decades, Argentinian politics swung between the Nationalist populism of Juan Peron and a series of military coups, eventually centrally coordinated under Operation Condor, aimed at suppressing the socialist elements that made him so widely popular.

In 1970 Bayers book was banned and publicly burned, but with Perons return in 1973, the leftist Jorge Cepernic was elected governor of the Patagonian state of Santa Cruz. He worked with Bayer and director Hector Olivera to create an epic film version of Patagonia Rebelde, featuring large scale protest and battle sequences. In 1976 the military seized power once again, ushering in a brutal 7 year dictatorship in which the film was banned, Bayer, Olivera, and several of the films actors were blacklisted, and Cepernic was imprisoned. In jail, he asked his warden if he deserved such cruel treatment simply for being a member of a Left-of-center party. No, youre not a prisoner because of your affiliation, the warden reportedly said. Youre a prisoner because you allowed Rebellion in Patagonia to be filmed.

THE NIGHT OF THE PENCILS(aka EL NOCHE DE LOS LAPICES)Dir. Hector Olivera, 1986.Argentina. 105 minutes.In Spanish with English subtitles.

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The repression of Operation Condor was centrally organized by military commanders of Chile, Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, Broliva, and Brazil, aiming to finally wipe out any traces of marxist or revolutionary thought. Argentina saw the highest numbers of disappeared and executed leftists, between 15-30,000. When democracy returned to Argentina in 1983, Olivera was free to make films about the State terror he witnessed. El Noche de los Lapices depicts the organization of a student strike against increased bus fares in La Plata. Only a few months into the dictatorship, some of these students were kidnapped, raped, tortured, starved, and killed.

Beginning with an seemingly innocent protest against the increase of bus fares in La Plata, a student march is attacked by police. In the night, several of the organizers are rounded up by men posing as police and taken to a dungeon. Used as test subjects for torture, the fate of the students would mirror tens of thousands of others in the coming years. A cultural element in the process for justice and reconciliation, which included the imprisonment of some of the students torturers in 1985, Olivera used the testimony of one of the few survivors for his adaptation.

BLOOD OF THE CONDOR(aka YAWAR MALLKU)Dir. Jorge Sanjines, 1969.Bolivia. 70 minutes.In Quechua, English, and Spanish with English subtitles.

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Ignacio, the tragic hero of Jorge Sajiness first film, was a perfect stand-in for the utterly impotent situation Bolivias indigenous population faced in the 1960s. When his wifes third consercutive pregnancy terminates, he is driven into a rage, and she is the target. A series of flashbacks and flashforwards shows more violence in every direction. We soon find out the reason for all of it is the sketchy, but outwardly well-meaning American aid workers who recently appeared in the village.

Inspired by anti-Imperialist Marxism and new wave European cinema, this was the first feature of Sanjines, who would become one of Bolivias most awarded directors and a central figure in Latin Americas Third Cinema movement. The heavy-handed villainy of the Progress Corps gringos and the obedient facilitation of their schemes against the indigenous population by Bolivian authorities represents a political cosmology that radiates through the history of post-Colonial South America.

Sanjines worked with native actors and audiences alike, designing the film to be watched in indigenous communities that were not yet familiar with cinema. The results were mixed, as many did not understand narrative motifs such as the flashback sequences. Overall, the film was influential enough that repelling Peace Corps volunteers became a cause of cultural autonomism, and they were expelled altogether in 1971. Although its unlikely the Peace Corps was running a sterilization program, the history of condescension, instrumentalisation, and exploitation of indigenous people made the allegations ring true. Their very presence, along with the self-congratulatory Western doctor character, were symptomatic of an all-pervasive imperialist influence, alluded to by use of rock music and the culturally assimilated but still helplessly subservient Sixto, ensuring repressive hierarchies, and the violence inherent within them, remain firmly in place at every level.

MALUALADir. Sergio Giral, 1979.Cuba. 95 minutes.In Spanish with English subtitles.

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With several historical films reflecting on the experience of slavery in Cuba, Sergio Giral is perhaps Cubas best known Afro-Cuban director. In Maluala, he takes up the subject of Cubas Palenques, a network of about 30 communities hidden in Cubas Eastern coast mountains comprised of runaway slaves with different ethnic origins, but a common cultural rejection of the bondage that brought them across the Atlantic.

Among these was Maluala, whose chief, Gallo, present a petition to be left alone by the Colonial government. The counteroffer is for the habitants of the Palenques to turn themselves in before being formally freed, a proposition three other chiefs accept, but Gallo refuses in a conflict reminiscent of Gillo Pontecorvos divide-and-conquer epic BURN!, only from the colonizeds perspective.

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Free gattaca Essays and Papers

Title Length Color Rating Gattaca, A Film by Andrew Niccol - Gattaca, A Film by Andrew Niccol Exactly five seconds after he came into the world, Vincent Freeman was already considered to be a loser. His first genetic test revealed high probabilities of hyperactivity, sight troubles and serious heart diseases, a life expectancy of 30 years and 2 months and quite low intellectual faculties. At that time, the artificial insemination of test tube babies selected according to their genetic potential had become for many people the natural way of making children.... [tags: Movie Films Gattaca Niccol Essays]1596 words(4.6 pages)Powerful Essays[preview] A Brave New World and Gattaca - Anti-humanity; people arent even people. Could you possibly visualize that type of world. A world where people are invented and controlled. That type of world is inhuman, and inhumanity is an interesting concept pointed out in the perfect/not so perfect world that Aldous Huxley describes in his classic novel, Brave New World, and what Andrew Niccol describes in his famous film Gattaca. In the stories presented by both of these writers, viewers and readers witness a dystopian world where the government controls the people, and people are conditioned to like the social class set for them, whether it be lower, middle, or upper class.... [tags: science fiction film vs utopian-dystopian fiction]1219 words(3.5 pages)Better Essays[preview] General Science and GATTACA - General Science is a study involving biology, chemistry, physics and environmental sciences. Students from Year 7 to Year 10 are introduced to these various disciplines to gain general knowledge about science and can later be develop into deeper concepts. 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Gattaca is a film about a man, Vincent Freeman, overcoming his genetic disadvantage to become an astronaut. Jurassic Park on the other hand is a film about bringing dinosaurs back to life, while also causing massive chaos. However, despite these major differences in plot, both films are based on a similar idea, genetic engineering. Genetic engineering is defined as the process of directly affecting the genetic makeup of an individual using biotechnology.... [tags: film, andrew niccol, stephen spielberg]:: 3 Works Cited 1110 words(3.2 pages)Strong Essays[preview] The Debate for Genetic Engineering Exposed in Gattaca - ... The child will get fed up and decide to leave. I believe that children should be left to chance or be genetically modified. There can be no in between; it puts too much pressure on society and on individual parents and kids. 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They do this by genetically cloning individuals for organ harvesting and attempting to create a perfect world by creating perfect humans. Living in a world where they have successfully created human clones for organ donations, is not a great achievement to mankind in any way, shape, or form. It makes you wonder, where exactly do you draw the... [tags: genetics, cloning, humans, perfect]828 words(2.4 pages)Better Essays[preview] Gattaca - Gattaca is a movie directed by Andrew Niccol and the film is set in the "not too distant future." Andrew Niccol's perception of the future isn't what most people expect, but once thought about carefully it seems quite believable. This movie presents us with a new method in which society strives for perfection and it also makes us wonder if genetic engineering is morally correct. Your place in society in Gattaca is based on your genetic makeup and the way you were born. People born the way we know as natural are "in-valids".... 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MSNBC In Cover-Up Of Manifestly Provable Population …

Paul Joseph WatsonPrison Planet.comWednesday, June 16, 2010

As part of his obsessive drive to smear anti-big government activists as insanely paranoid and dangerous radicals, Chris Matthews and his guest, establishment neo-lib David Corn, previewed tonights Rise of the New Right hit piece by claiming that the elites agenda to enact dictatorial population control measures was a conspiracy theory.

As we have documented on numerous occasions, while Matthews points fingers at his political adversaries for preparing to engage in violence, the only real violence were witnessing out on the streets is being committed by Obama supporters, MSNBC thugs and other leftists who refuse to tolerate free speech that counters their propaganda.

However, MSNBCs goal is not just to demonize the Tea Party and anti-big government activists as dangerous radicals as an avenue through which to sick the police state on them and crush their free speech, theyre also desperate to prevent Americans from lending any credence to what people like Alex Jones have to say by acting as gatekeepers to prevent such information from becoming mainstream.

A perfect example of an issue that Matthews and his ilk want to sideline is the manifestly provable fact that elitists have for decades publicly stated their desire to reduce global population by around 80 per cent and as much as 99 per cent.

During MSNBCs Hardball show on Tuesday, Corn characterized the notion that there is a planetary elite that literally has a secret plan to kill 80 to 99 percent of the population, as a conspiracy theory.

Watch the clip.

Corns role in covering-up the depopulation agenda is unsurprising given his habitual tactic of trying to discredit anyone who exposes government criminality and corruption. One critic labeled Corn as someone who serves, As a Neo-Con-lite version of someone who dismisses those who have investigated the crimes of the U.S. government, in reference to how he tried to undermine the work of the late Gary Webb, an award-winning investigative journalist who exposed the CIAs involvement in the drug trade.

Despite Corns claims to the contrary, the global elite have been forthright, public, and unashamedly enthusiastic about their open intention to cull at least 80 per cent of humanity in the name of saving the planet.

There are still large numbers of people amongst the general public, in academia, and especially those who work for the corporate media, who are still in denial about the on-the-record stated agenda for global population reduction, as well as the consequences of this program that we already see unfolding.

We have compiled a compendium of evidence to prove that the elite have been obsessed with eugenics and its modern day incarnation, population control, for well over 100 years and that goal of global population reduction is still in full force to this day.

The Worlds Elite Are Discussing Population Reduction

During a recent TED conference, an organization which is sponsored by one of the largest toxic waste polluters on the planet, Gates told the audience that vaccines need to be used to reduce world population figures in order to solve global warming and lower CO2 emissions to almost zero.

Stating that the global population was heading towards 9 billion, Gates said, If we do a really great job on new vaccines, health care, reproductive health services (abortion), we could lower that by perhaps 10 or 15 per cent.

Quite how an improvement in health care and vaccines that supposedly save lives would lead to a lowering in global population is an oxymoron, unless Gates is referring to vaccines that sterilize people, which is precisely the same method advocated in White House science advisor John P. Holdrens 1977 textbook Ecoscience, which calls for a dictatorial planetary regime to enforce draconian measures of population reduction via all manner of oppressive techniques, including sterilization.

Gates eugenicist zeal is shared by his fellow Bilderberg elitists, many of whom have advocated draconian policies of population control in their own public speeches and writings. Indeed, the Rockefeller family funded eugenics research in Germany through the Kaiser-Wilhelm Institutes in Berlin and Munich. The Rockefeller Foundation praised Hitlers sterilization program in Nazi Germany. David Rockefeller attended the first Bilderberg meeting in 1954 and is now the head of Bilderbergs steering committee.

A joint World Health Organization-Rockefeller inoculation program against tetanus in Nicaragua, Mexico and the Philippines in the early 1990s was in fact a covert trial on using vaccines to medically abort womens babies.

Comite Pro Vida de Mexico, a Roman Catholic lay organization, became suspicious of the motives behind the WHO program and decided to test numerous vials of the vaccine and found them to contain human Chorionic Gonadotrophin, or hCG, writes historian F. William Engdahl in his article, Bill Gates And Neo-Eugenics: Vaccines To Reduce Population. That was a curious component for a vaccine designed to protect people against lock-jaw arising from infection with rusty nail wounds or other contact with certain bacteria found in soil. The tetanus disease was indeed, also rather rare. It was also curious because hCG was a natural hormone needed to maintain a pregnancy. However, when combined with a tetanus toxoid carrier, it stimulated formation of antibodies against hCG, rendering a woman incapable of maintaining a pregnancy, a form of concealed abortion. Similar reports of vaccines laced with hCG hormones came from the Philippines and Nicaragua.

Gates recently announced that he would be funding a sterilization program that would use sharp blasts of ultrasound directed against a mans scrotum to render him infertile for six months. The foundation has funded a new sweat-triggered vaccine delivery program based on nanoparticles penetrating human skin. The technology is described as a way to develop nanoparticles that penetrate the skin through hair follicles and burst upon contact with human sweat to release vaccines, writes health researcher Mike Adams.

As was reported last year by the London Times, a secret billionaire club meeting in early May 2009 which took place in New York and was attended by David Rockefeller, Ted Turner, Bill Gates and others was focused around how their wealth could be used to slow the growth of the worlds population.

We questioned establishment media spin which portrayed the attendees as kind-hearted and concerned philanthropists by pointing out that Ted Turner has publicly advocated shocking population reduction programs that would cull the human population by a staggering 95%. He has also called for a Communist-style one child policy to be mandated by governments in the west. In China, the one child policy is enforced by means of taxes on each subsequent child, allied to an intimidation program which includes secret police and family planning authorities kidnapping pregnant women from their homes and performing forced abortions.

Of course, Turner completely fails to follow his own rules on how everyone else should live their lives, having five children and owning no less than 2 million acres of land.

In the third world, Turner has contributed literally billions to population reduction, namely through United Nations programs, leading the way for the likes of Bill & Melinda Gates and Warren Buffet (Gates father has long been a leading board member of Planned Parenthood and a top eugenicist).

The notion that these elitists merely want to slow population growth in order to improve health is a complete misnomer. Slowing the growth of the worlds population while also improving its health are two irreconcilable concepts to the elite. Stabilizing world population is a natural byproduct of higher living standards, as has been proven by the stabilization of the white population in the west. Elitists like David Rockefeller have no interest in slowing the growth of world population by natural methods, their agenda is firmly rooted in the pseudo-science of eugenics, which is all about culling the surplus population via draconian methods.

David Rockefellers legacy is not derived from a well-meaning philanthropic urge to improve health in third world countries, it is born out of a Malthusian drive to eliminate the poor and those deemed racially inferior, using the justification of social Darwinism.

As is documented in Alex Jones seminal film Endgame, Rockefellers father, John D. Rockefeller, exported eugenics to Germany from its origins in Britain by bankrolling the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute which later would form a central pillar in the Third Reichs ideology of the Nazi super race. After the fall of the Nazis, top German eugenicists were protected by the allies as the victorious parties fought over who would enjoy their expertise in the post-war world.

As Dr. Len Horowitz writes, In the 1950s, the Rockefellers reorganized the U.S. eugenics movement in their own family offices, with spinoff population-control and abortion groups. The Eugenics Society changed its name to the Society for the Study of Social Biology, its current name.

The Rockefeller Foundation had long financed the eugenics movement in England, apparently repaying Britain for the fact that British capital and an Englishman-partner had started old John D. Rockefeller out in his Oil Trust. In the 1960s, the Eugenics Society of England adopted what they called Crypto-eugenics, stating in their official reports that they would do eugenics through means and instruments not labeled as eugenics.

With support from the Rockefellers, the Eugenics Society (England) set up a sub-committee called the International Planned Parenthood Federation, which for 12 years had no other address than the Eugenics Society. This, then, is the private, international apparatus which has set the world up for a global holocaust, under the UN flag.

In the latter half of the 20th century, eugenics merely changed its face to become known as population control. This was crystallized in National Security Study Memorandum 200, a 1974 geopolitical strategy document prepared by Rockefellers intimate friend and fellow Bilderberg member Henry Kissinger, which targeted thirteen countries for massive population reduction by means of creating food scarcity, sterilization and war.

Henry Kissinger: In the now declassified 1974 document, National Security Memorandum 200, Kissinger outlines the plan to use food scarcity as a weapon in order to achieve population reduction in lesser-developed countries.

The document, declassified in 1989, identified 13 countries that were of special interest to U.S. geopolitical objectives and outlined why population growth, and particularly that of young people who were seen as a revolutionary threat to U.S. corporations, was a potential roadblock to achieving these objectives. The countries named were India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nigeria, Mexico, Indonesia, Brazil, the Philippines, Thailand, Egypt, Turkey, Ethiopia and Colombia.

The study outlined how civil disturbances affecting the smooth flow of needed materials would be less likely to occur under conditions of slow or zero population growth.

Development of a worldwide political and popular commitment to population stabilization is fundamental to any effective strategy. This requires the support and commitment of key LDC leaders. This will only take place if they clearly see the negative impact of unrestricted population growth and believe it is possible to deal with this question through governmental action, states the document.

The document called for integrating family planning (otherwise known as abortion) with routine health services for the purposes of curbing the numbers of LDC people, (lesser-developed countries).

The report shockingly outlines how withholding food could be used as a means of punishment for lesser-developed countries who do not act to reduce their population, essentially using food as a weapon for a political agenda by creating mass starvation in under-developed countries.

The allocation of scarce PL480 (food) resources should take account of what steps a country is taking in population control as well as food production, states the document.

Later in the document, the idea of enforcing mandatory programs by using food as an instrument of national power is presented.

The document states that the program will be administered through the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA), thereby avoiding the danger that some LDC leaders will see developed-country pressures for family planning as a form of economic or racial imperialism; this could well create a serious backlash.

As Jean Guilfoyle writes, NSSM 200 was a statement composed after the fact. During the late 1960s and early 1970s, the U.S. had worked diligently behind the scenes to advance the population-control agenda at the United Nations, contributing the initial funding of $1 million.

A Department of State telegram, dated July 1969, reported the support of John D. Rockefeller III, among others, for the appointment of Rafael Salas of the Philippines as senior officer to co-ordinate and administer the UN population program. The administrator of the UN Development Program reported confidentially that he preferred someone such as Salas who had the advantage of color, religion (Catholic) and conviction.

A comprehensive outline of what is contained in the National Security Memorandum document can be read at http://www.theinterim.com/july98/20nssm.html

Evidence of the actual consequences of this program can be found with the link between vaccines and sterilization, as well as other diseases such as cancer, in both the west and the third world.

In the following video clips, women of the Akha tribe who live predominately in Thailand, describe how they miscarried shortly after taking vaccines when they were eight months pregnant. The videos below highlight the efforts of supporters of the Akha tribe to get answers from the University of Oregon and the United Nations, who provided funding for the vaccination and sterilization programs.

Further evidence of the link between vaccinations, birth control, cancer and other diseases can be researched here.

In the 21st century, the eugenics movement has changed its stripes once again, manifesting itself through the global carbon tax agenda and the notion that having too many children or enjoying a reasonably high standard of living is destroying the planet through global warming, creating the pretext for further regulation and control over every facet of our lives.

As we have tirelessly documented, the elites drive for population control is not based around a benign philanthropic urge to improve living standards, it is firmly routed in eugenics, racial hygiene and fascist thinking.

According to the The London Times report, the secret billionaire cabal, with its interest in population reduction, has been dubbed The Good Club by insiders. This couldnt be further from the truth. Anyone who takes the time to properly research the origins of the population control movement will come to understand that the Rockefeller-Turner-Gates agenda for drastic population reduction, which is now clearly manifesting itself through real environmental crises like chemtrails, genetically modified food, tainted vaccines and other skyrocketing diseases such as cancer, has its origins in the age-old malevolent elitist agenda to cull the human chattel as one would do to rodents or any other species deemed a nuisance by the central planning authorities.

Sterilization And Eugenics Returns In Popular Culture

We are now seeing the return of last centurys eugenicist movement through the popular promotion of sterilization as a method of birth control.

A popular womens magazine in the UK recently featured an article entitled, Young, Single and Sterilized, in which women in their 20s discussed why they had undergone an operation to prevent them from ever having children. The article is little more than PR for a womens charity called Marie Stopes International, an organization that carries out abortions and sterilizations and was founded by a Nazi eugenicist who advocated compulsory sterilization of non-whites and those of bad character.

In the article, sterilization is lauded as an excellent method of birth control by Dr. Patricia Lohr of the British Pregnancy Advisory Service.

The article includes an advertisement that encourages women to seek more information about sterilization by contacting Marie Stopes International. We read that, Over the past year, a quarter of the women who booked a sterilization consultation with womens charity Marie Stopes were aged 30 or under.

Marie Stopes was a feminist who opened the first birth control clinic in Britain in 1921 as well as being Nazi sympathizer and a eugenicist who advocated that non-whites and the poor be sterilized.

Stopes, a racist and an anti-Semite, campaigned for selective breeding to achieve racial purity, a passion she shared with Adolf Hitler in adoring letters and poems that she sent the leader of the Third Reich.

Stopes also attended the Nazi congress on population science in Berlin in 1935, while calling for the compulsory sterilization of the diseased, drunkards, or simply those of bad character. Stopes acted on her appalling theories by concentrating her abortion clinics in poor areas so as to reduce the birth rate of the lower classes.

Stopes left most of her estate to the Eugenics Society, an organization that shared her passion for racial purity and still exists today under the new name The Galton Institute. The society has included members such as Charles Galton Darwin (grandson of the evolutionist), Julian Huxley and Margaret Sanger.

Marie Stopes, the Nazi and pioneering eugenicist who sent love letters to Hitler, honored recently by the Royal Mail.

Ominously, The Galton Institute website promotes its support and funding initiative for the practical delivery of family planning facilities, especially in developing countries. In other words, the same organization that once advocated sterilizing black people to achieve racial purity in the same vein as the Nazis is now bankrolling abortions of black babies in the third world.

While the issue of abortion is an entirely different argument, most would agree that no matter how extreme it sounds, a woman has the right to sterilize herself if she so chooses, just as a man has the right to a vasectomy.

But when a magazine aimed primarily at young women all but encourages girls as young as 20 to have their fallopian tubes tied in order to prevent the irritation of children entering their lives and then advertises an organization founded by a Nazi eugenicist that can perform the operation, something has to be amiss.

Even more shocking than this is the fact that the majority of people in the UK routinely express their support for societys undesirables to be forcibly sterilized by the state, harking back to a time when such a thing was commonplace right up to the 1970s in some areas of America and Europe.

As we highlighted at the time, respondents to a Daily Mail article about Royal Mail honoring Marie Stopes by using her image on a commemorative stamp were not disgusted at Royal Mail for paying homage to a racist Nazi eugenicist, but were merely keen to express their full agreement that those deemed not to be of pure genetic stock or of the approved character should be forcibly sterilized and prevented from having children.

A lot of people should be sterilized, IMO. Its still true today, wrote one.

Just imagine what a stable, well-ordered society wed have if compulsory sterilisation had been adopted years ago for the socially undesirable, states another respondent, calling for a satellite-carried sterilisation ray to be installed in space to zap the undesirables.

Shockingly, another compares sterilization and genocide of those deemed inferior to the breeding and culling of farmyard animals, and says that such a move is necessary to fight overpopulation and global warming. Here is the comment in full from Karen in Wales;

We breed farm animals to produce the best possible stock and kill them when they have fulfilled their purpose. We inter-breed pedigree animals to produce extremes that leave them open to ill-health and early death. It is only religion that says humans are not animals. The reality is that we are simply intelligent, mammalian primates.

The world population of humans has increased from 2 billion to 6.5 billion in the last 50 years. This planet can support 2 billion humans comfortably. 6.5 billion humans use too many resources and leads to global warming, climate change and a very uncertain future for all of us humans and all other life sharing this planet with us.

Marie Stopes believed in population control and in breeding the best possible humans. So did Hitler. Neither of the aims are bad in themselves. It is how they are achieved that is the problem. The fact that we still remember Marie Stopes is an achievement in itself.

The nature of these comments is so fundamentally sick and twisted that one is tempted to dismiss them as a joke but these people are deadly serious. Presumably they would also agree with Chinas one child policy, which is routinely enforced by intimidation as young pregnant women are grabbed off the streets by state goons and taken to hospitals where forced abortions are carried out.

Now with popular womens magazines advising women in their 20s where they can go to be sterilized and ensure a lifetime of partying and carefree sex, its no surprise that experts predict that by 2010 one in four western women will be child free for life.

The yearning to have children is the most beautiful, natural and innate emotion either a man or a woman can possibly experience. That is not to say that its always wrong for some people not to have children extreme circumstances can justify such a decision. But to have yourself sterilized because you find children to be an irritant and want to live a life free of responsibility or consequences is an awful message to send to young women, especially in the sex-saturated entertainment culture that we are now forced to endure.

Furthermore, the outright promotion of Marie Stopes International as the place to go to get sterilized if youre under 30 is stomach-churning considering the fact that the origins of this organization can be found in Nazi ideology, racist and backward early 20th century eugenics and a long-standing agenda to cull the population of undesirables, an abhorrent belief still held by elites across the planet today.

Genocidal Population Reduction Programs Embraced By Academia

One such individual who embraces the notion that humans are a virus that should be wiped out en masse for the good of mother earth is Dr. Eric R. Pianka, an American biologist based at the University of Texas in Austin.

Dr Erik Pianka, the American biologist who advocated the mass genocide of 90% of the human race and was applauded by his peers.

During a speech to the Texas Academy of Science in March 2006, Pianka advocated the need to exterminate 90% of the worlds population through the airborne ebola virus. The reaction from scores of top scientists and professors in attendance was not one of shock or revulsion they stood and applauded Piankas call for mass genocide.

Piankas speech was ordered to be kept off the record before it began as cameras were turned away and hundreds of students, scientists and professors sat in attendance.

Saying the public was not ready to hear the information presented, Pianka began by exclaiming, Were no better than bacteria!, as he jumped into a doomsday malthusian rant about overpopulation destroying the earth.

Standing in front of a slide of human skulls, Pianka gleefully advocated airborne ebola as his preferred method of exterminating the necessary 90% of humans, choosing it over AIDS because of its faster kill period. Ebola victims suffer the most tortuous deaths imaginable as the virus kills by liquefying the internal organs. The body literally dissolves as the victim writhes in pain bleeding from every orifice.

Pianka then cited the Peak Oil fraud as another reason to initiate global genocide. And the fossil fuels are running out, he said, so I think we may have to cut back to two billion, which would be about one-third as many people.

Later, the scientist welcomed the potential devastation of the avian flu virus and spoke glowingly of Chinas enforced one child policy, before zestfully commenting, We need to sterilize everybody on the Earth.

At the end of Piankas speech the audience erupted not to a chorus of boos and hisses but to a raucous reception of applause and cheers as audience members clambered to get close to the scientist to ask him follow up questions. Pianka was later presented with a distinguished scientist award by the Academy. Pianka is no crackpot. He has given lectures to prestigious universities worldwide.

Indeed, the notion that the earths population needs to be drastically reduced is a belief shared almost unanimously by academics across the western hemisphere.

In 2002, The Melbourne Age reported on newly uncovered documents detailing Nobel Peace Prize winning microbiologist Sir Macfarlane Burnets plan to help the Australian government develop biological weapons for use against Indonesia and other overpopulated countries of South-East Asia.

From the article;

Sir Macfarlane recommended in a secret report in 1947 that biological and chemical weapons should be developed to target food crops and spread infectious diseases. His key advisory role on biological warfare was uncovered by Canberra historian Philip Dorling in the National Archives in 1998.

Specifically to the Australian situation, the most effective counter-offensive to threatened invasion by overpopulated Asiatic countries would be directed towards the destruction by biological or chemical means of tropical food crops and the dissemination of infectious disease capable of spreading in tropical but not under Australian conditions, Sir Macfarlane said.

The Victorian-born immunologist, who headed the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, won the Nobel prize for medicine in 1960. He died in 1985 but his theories on immunity and clonal selection provided the basis for modern biotechnology and genetic engineering.

Controversy surrounding the comments of another darling of scientific academia, geneticist James Watson, who told a Sunday Times newspaper interviewer that black people are inherently less intelligent than whites, should come as no surprise to those who are aware of Watsons role in pushing the dark pseudo-science of eugenics.

Watson told the interviewer that he was inherently gloomy about the prospect of Africa because all our social policies are based on the fact that their intelligence is the same as ours whereas all the testing says not really.

Watson was the Head of the Human Genome Project until 1992 and is best known for his contribution to the discovery of DNA, an achievement that won him the Nobel Peace prize in 1962.

But what most people are unaware of is the fact that Watson has played an integral role in advancing the legitimacy of the eugenics/population reduction movement for decades.

Watson is a strong proponent of genetic screening, a test to determine whether a couple is at increased risk of having a baby with a hereditary genetic disorder.

Since such screening obviously increases the rate of abortions of babies considered imperfect, many have slammed its introduction as nothing more than a camouflage for eugenics or voluntary eugenics as British philosophy professor Philip Kitcher labeled it.

Read the rest here:

MSNBC In Cover-Up Of Manifestly Provable Population ...

The Philippines: Underdeveloped, but not Overpopulated …

UPDATE: It has come to my attention that, almost a year and a half after its publication, this essay sill remains the most popular entry on Out of Purgatory, and, as such,its link is still being widely circulated. If any readers are interested in a printer-friendly, PDF version, it is available upon request. Please email me at tasio@mail2philippines.com.

September 1, 2012

The Philippines:Underdeveloped, but NotOverpopulated

March 18, 20111

CONTENTS:

Part I, The Philippines Reproductive Health Bill: Rooted in Pseudo-Economics and Neo-Colonialism

The Problems with the Bill

Overpopulated?

The World Bank Report is Wrong

Population and Economics

Save the Nation!

When the U.S. Opposed Imperialism

A More Just Global Financial System

Part II, Environmentalism as Neo-Eugenics

The Infamous NSSM 200

What is a Natural Resource?

The Climate Change Hoax

The WWF: Enemies of Progress

Epilogue: Reproductive Health Revisted

Notes

__________

Introduction

A great deal of controversy has been made of the proposed reproductive health legislation that is currently being debated in the Philippine Congress. The general argument is usually portrayed as such: those representing the Catholic Church are fighting against the bill because of their opposition to artificial contraception; they are concerned that a government initiative to promote the usage of such devices will lead to an acceptance of a sexually immoral culture. Conversely, those individuals and groups supporting such legislation claim that it will alleviate problems such as the increase in illegal abortions, and the rapid growth in the numbers of poor Filipinos. This unbridled population boom, they allege, mainly stems from the fact that these unfortunate and uneducated people are simply having too much unprotected sex. The pro-RH camp sees the Churchs stance as not only archaic, but also overreaching into the state affairs of the only major nation in an overpopulated East Asia where she has considerable social and political influence.

This political cartoon depicts well the heated debate over the RH Bill.

This political cartoon depicts the heated debate over the RH Bill.

I have no intention at this time to entertain a theological debate about the immorality of artificial contraception, to investigate the charges that some types can be used as abortifacients, or to discourse on whether or not the Church is justified in her attempts to influence government policy regarding this issue. Those legitimate concerns about the providing of adequate health care for women or aiding them in dealing with unintended pregnancies, about fighting infant mortality and caring for abandoned babies and homeless children, about the eradication of sexually transmitted diseases, and about all other societal ills related to sex and pregnancyall of these should be seriously addressed and dealt with by state, church, and citizenry. But the firm stance I do wish to take in regards to the RH Bill and related matters is that the Filipino people should not tolerate, under any circumstances, any sort of government policy for population reduction.

I. The Philippines Reproductive Health Bill: Rooted in Pseudo-Economics and Neo-Colonialism

The Problems with the Bill

Take note of the two following excerpts:

The State shall promote programs thatenable couples, [et.al.] to have the numberof children they desire with due consideration to the health of women and resources available[and] analyze demographic trends towards sustainable human development

[T]he mitigation of the population growth rate is incidental to the promotion of reproductive health and sustainable human development

The limited resources of the country cannot be suffered to be spread so thinly to service a burgeoning multitude that makes the allocations grossly inadequate and effectively meaningless

[E]ducation shall be integrated in all relevant subjects and shall includepopulation and development [and] family planning methods

The State shallencourage [parents, et.al.] to have two children as the ideal family size

[State agencies] shall initiate and sustain a heightened nationwide multimedia campaign to raise the level of public awareness of the protection and promotion of reproductive health and rights including family planning and population and development,[and f]acilitate reproductive health care service delivery andthe production, distribution and delivery of quality reproductive health and family planning supplies and commodities to make them accessible and affordable to ordinary citizens.

The Population Commissionshall[c]onduct sustained and effective information drives on sustainable human development and on all methods of family planning to prevent unintended, unplanned and mistimed pregnancies.

______________________________

[B]y means of the press,[electronic media], cinema, handbills, short brochures, educational statements, and the like, the population must be convinced over and over again how harmful it is to have a lot of children. The costs ought to be cited, and then what could have been bought instead. The great dangers to womens health that can arise in childbearing could be spelled out, and so forth [A]dvocacy and dissemination of contraceptives[should not] be illegal It is obvious that by systematic application of the above measures, considerable success can be achieved

When we have converted the mass ofpeople to belief in the one- or two-child system, we shall have arrived at the goal we stipulated.

The authors of those excerpts take a somewhat similar approach in addressing what they obviously recognize as a population problem. Both recognize that mass media and educational forums are indispensable tools for making the public realize that population growth is a problem. Both look at the solutions to that population problem in utilitarian economic terms. Both agree that two children per couple is the most preferable family size. And both advocate that contraceptives should be made as widely available as possible. The first quote is a composite of various passages from the consolidated version of the The Responsible Parenthood, Reproductive Health and Population and Development Act of 2011.2 I will reveal the source of the second quote later, by which the reasons for its inclusion will be made more clear.

Some voices of opposition to the bill have indeed already cited the fact that population control seems to be its driving intention. And conversely, supporters have cited that the bill does clearly state that [a]ttaining the ideal family size [of two children] is neither mandatory nor compulsory. Furthermore, a Senate version, SB 2378, states in its explanatory note that the bill does not dictate any form of population control.

However, such reassurances seem to be classic cases where the legislators and those working with them do protest too much, since the inclusion of such language only rules out overt methods of population control. At this point in time, the legalization of abortion or compulsory sterilization would be politically impossible in a principled republic like the Philippines.3 Thus, a subtler and more appealing approach to the issue is of course needed. And, lo and behold, here we have a bill being promoted as pro-poor and pro-womens rights.

Although the issue of population control has already been raised by others, what I find necessary in making a case against the bill, but lacking amongst those who oppose it, however, is a more thorough analysis of the proper relationship between population and economics. To launch an effective attack on the forces pushing for population control, we must strike at the underlying assumptions that are upheld in the legislation.

Overpopulated?

Whenever the rapid population growth of not only the Philippines, but the rest of the underdeveloped world in general, is addressed in most public forums, there tend to be not only many misconceptions, but even views rooted in outright, malicious fabrications about the interrelated subjects of population growth, economics, and human civilizations impact on the so-called natural environment. Worse still, there is the appearance of a consensus among those who exert the greatest influence on public opinionpoliticians, academics, and a purportedly truth-seeking pressthat human population growth is the dominant threat to our economic and ecological stability. It is also apparent that the advocates for a population control policy, along with those who campaign for environmental issues like curbing greenhouse gas emissions and promoting sustainable development, are fond of insisting that such policy changes are looking out for the best interests of the worlds poorsince they will be the ones to suffer the most from these alleged social and environmental crises. These axioms are indeed embedded in the RH legislation, which implies that sustainable human development is contingent on reducing population growth and essential to protect[ing] the life opportunities of future generations and the natural ecosystem on which all life depends because resources are limited and cannot support a burgeoning multitude.

The thinking behind RH Bill lazily assumes that poor Filipinos are victims of overpopulation, rather than severe failures in economic policy.

Perhaps to most readers, such assertions do not sound as if they are rooted in an explicitly sinister and fascist intent. Thus, we will have to examine the origins of these concepts, and the motive for pushing them on the people of the Philippines.

The World Bank Report is Wrong

Let us begin with investigating an argument for aggressive population control by citing the evidence from the World Banks recent report, The Philippines: Fostering More Inclusive Growth, which was summarized in a recent series of newspaper editorials.4 Citations from this report claim that population growth contributes to a vicious cycle of impoverishment by creating a surplus in the younger strata of working-age Filipinos. Thus, since there are not enough employment opportunities for that age group in the Philippines, that younger generation becomes a burden on the older strata of the working-age population. The youth, in turn, tend to produce offspring of their own and thus create a new generation of useless eaters that the Philippine economy cannot support. Therefore, the report apparently concludes, solutions to the Philippines economic woes include instituting measures for checking population growth.

But the report also implicitly contradicts itself, since it cites that the highest concentration of poor Filipinos live in rural areas. Other economists and demographerswho are perhaps more competent than those at the World Bankhave already pointed out that if overpopulation leads to impoverishment, then why do the people of the more sparsely-populated, rural areas tend to suffer from worse living conditions than those in the more developed, densely-populated, urbanized areas? Is it not true that urban areas tend to have lower poverty rates because cities are designed to support larger and denser populations? Should not the solutions therefore focus on incorporating the urban and rural areas as an agro-industrial model of modern economy?5

Thus, those purportedly professional economists at the World Bank and elsewhere, who would conclude such incompetent and detrimental nonsolutions in the form of policy suggestions for more effective family planning6 seem to have little intention for seriously solving the Philippines economic problems. Do they instead prefer to cling to the conventional academic dogmas of Adam Smith and Thomas Malthus that have taught them to believe that the relationship between an economic system and human population remains cyclical and void of any intelligent and rational foresight?7 If the economy cannot support the population, their logic supposes, then the population needs to be reduced. In their approach to economic science, do they ever bother to ask that since economic systems are created by human activity, they should be driven by a political intention to better serve the needs of a growing population? The rapid increase in the numbers of the poor in underdeveloped nations like the Philippines is clearly a result of the absence of combined, international economic policy initiatives designed to facilitate those nations in pursuing their sovereign right to economic development. And, as we will see, the global initiative for population reduction is directed by the same forces who seek to undermine the sovereignty of the worlds nation-states.8

To get the most competent view of this issue as possible, we must investigate the true relationship between population growth and economics. And doing so will require us to examine both past and present economic and political developments in the Philippines, and the world

Population and Economics

The global economic system is in a state of collapse. Despite the fanciful reports that we can now expect the benefits of a recovery, the central banks of the United States, United Kingdom, European Union, and elsewhere have desperately flooded the currency markets with money in a doomed attempt to revive a dead global banking system that has been kept in a kind-of zombie state since the late summer of 2007. This collapse is caused by an insanely overleveraged and speculation-driven financial system that produces no real physical wealth for the benefit of the peoples of the world. To quite the contrary, it has gorged itself by looting that physical wealth, and bailing the system out has only worsened things by creating an even wider chasm between physical economic conditions, and the financial schemes created to generate fictitious wealth.9

The recent report by the U.S. Financial Crisis Inquiry Commission (FCIC), chaired by one Philip Angelides, not only documents how this parasitic system gestatedand grew over the last thirty years, but also concludes that little to nothing has been done by the U.S. government to correct the problemin particular, an Obama presidency that claimed it would change things.10 The conclusions of that report should come as no surprise to anyone familiar with the U.S. statesman and economist, Lyndon LaRouche; as it concurs with what he had specifically forecast would take place in the world economy during a public address in July of 2007.11

LaRouches (inset) Triple Curve function illustrates how the decoupling of a financial system from actual physical economic progress will result in hyperinflation and physical economic collapse.

In fact, LaRouche has been warning of such a collapse process for decades. In the 1960s, he announced that a series of currency crises would lead to the dismantling of the post-war Bretton Woods agreements, which would then open the door to currency speculation and the unbridled looting of national economies by international finance. Later, in his 1983 book, There Are No Limits to Growth, LaRouche provided a specific refutation of the allegations of a population problem. Although great feats of economic and social progress are possible in this modern age, he wrote, most of the worlds inhabitants continue to tolerate [miserable living] conditionswhich even existing technologies are capable of solving[because] some people with a great deal of power over the periodicals, universities, financial institutions, and political parties of much of the world, simply do not wish society to solve these problems.

It is the deliberate policies of globalization and neocolonialism that have led to the slide toward lower orders of the economic and technological potential vital for nations to support their growing populations at ever-improving living conditions. Todays result is a degenerated economic state where population growth continues at a deceleration, and with the masses supported at only near-minimal living standards. The population growth among the poor that has been the subject of so much debate is thus another hallmark of the economic collapse we are facingthe complete inverse of the claim that it is a leading cause of hindering the Philippine economy from progressing.12

As distinct from the dominant approach to economics as a speculative science that over-relies on econometric statistical forecasting, LaRouche speaks of a science of physical economy.13 This approach had led him to the discovery that progress in economics can be most accurately measured by potential relative population-density. To effectively expound on this curious dynamic created by the interaction of scientific discoveries, technological advances, and social and political progress is beyond the scope of this essay; but perhaps a general idea can best be briefly illustrated to the reader by the historical example of mans discovery and utilization of electricity.14

World-wide population growth. Notice how surges in population occur following cultural and scientific renaissances.

The twentieth century saw unprecedented, exponential growth in worldwide population (see graph).15This was made possible, in large part, by the economic transformation that occurred in the same era due to electrification. Electricity has revolutionized everythingfrom agriculture, to medical science, to industry, to infrastructure and transportation. It has enabled economies a greater potential tosupport growing populations at better living standards in more concentrated areas. It has even contributed to allowing large cities to exist in parts of the world where the potential for dense human habitation was previously impossible. (Therefore, an increase in the potential relative population-density.) It has truly changed mans relationship to nature and proves that the Earths (or even the Solar Systems) carrying capacity for human habitation is not something of a fixed order.

Save the Nation!

If we view the Philippine economy from this standpoint, we see how adequately servicing the populations need for electricity is not possible with the current levels of infrastructure. This, and many other areas of what LaRouche defines as the physical economy need rapid modernization and expansion to support dignified living standards for a population that is over 95 millionand beyond.16

But, yet, the Philippines does not lack the potential workforce needed for such a task. She has long since proven herself capable of producing very competent professionals and skilled workers in many fieldsobserve how many OFWs are health care workers, technical operators, or engineers, for example. The dilapidated condition of this country should tell us that the solution lies in the creation and utilization of a large portion of skilled, productive labor to solve many of the logistical problems hindering her from becoming a great nation.

These are the kind of employment opportunities that the government should cultivate for the youthinstead of pretending the solution lies in attracting foreign investors to set up things like call centers, simply because Filipinos speak English and are willing to work much cheaper than the average Westerner. The problems presented by the World Bank representatives and others are not simply that there are too many young Filipinos without decent job opportunities, it is that their right to have access to meaningful employment in their own country has been denied to them. It is evident that the Philippine government needs a policy outlook that is every bit as bold the New Deal programs of U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt if it is to solve the nations economic problems.17

However, the Philippines faces a very different world than that of America in the 1930s. She is a poor nation in an integrated global system that did not exist before World War II, and economic policy changes will therefore require Filipino leaders to fight for major initiatives like those being prescribed by LaRouches affiliates of the Save the Nation movement.18

Included among the movements urgent proposals is a call for the Philippine government to declare a moratorium on the debt incurred through the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and those related institutions who have successfully enslaved the Filipino people to service a ballooning national debt inflated by the arbitrary manipulation of interest rates and currency values. If we take the amount of debt that, in actuality, the Philippines originally incurred, it is found thatshe has grossly overpaid the amount owed to her creditors.19 Yet, still the costs of continuing to service this illegitimate debt is reported to consume a vast percentage of government revenue, rather than being used to invest in the desperately needed improvements for the Filipino people.20

When the U.S. Opposed Imperialism

In order for one to understand how such injustices are permitted to be perpetrated in our civilized age, we must look at the history of the global financial system. We begin during the twilight of World War II, when Roosevelt began to work toward establishing a more organized system of international finance with the intention to serve the sovereign nations making up the world community. Such a system could not only facilitate the rebuilding of those countries viciously ravaged by the war, but also those that had been bled dry by colonial exploitation. This was the intention for holding the Bretton Woods conference in 1944, which was successful in establishing an approximation of just such a system.

Although the Bretton Woods agreements would indeed prove indispensable to the task of rebuilding Europe after the war, and allowed the opportunity for some steps of progress to be made in parts of the former colonial sector, Roosevelts unfortunate death in the April of 1945, the succession of Harry S Truman, the U.S. support for the recolonization of liberated peoples, and the declaration of the Cold War by Winston Churchill would all mean the termination of FDRs vision for economic and technological progress under a global New Deal. The United States would instead form a Special Relationship with her historical adversary: the British Empire.21

Filipino patriot Carlos P. Romulo accurately recognized that only the U.S. possessed the clout to pressure the European powers to let go of their Asian colonies after World War II. A great opportunity forefieted by the pro-imperialist Truman Administration.

The Bretton Woods system finally came to an end in August 1971, and its fixed-exchange rates would be replaced with the currency speculation that LaRouche had warned of.22 As a result, we now have an international financial system that has been allowed to operate largely outside of the control of the worlds sovereign statesa parasitic imperialism that sucks the life out of nations and governments.

Opponents to this new imperialism in the Philippines and elsewhere have been quick to denounce todays United States as an American Empire. Although some of these observations are not lacking in insight, such denunciations actually misidentify the true nature of the beast that many anti-imperialists believe themselves to be fighting. While the prewar United States flirted considerably with colonialism (the Philippines are, of course, a testament to this fact) and todays U.S. commonly acts as the primary enforcer for todays global imperialism, these practices must be recognized as a deviation from the founding intentions of modern U.S republicanismthe very same intentions that the Philippine Republic based herself upon.23

Those decriers would do well to study that fact, while also observing how even the once-powerful U.S. economy has also suffered at the hands of this present financial system. Major cities like Detroit, Cleveland, and Baltimore that were once centers for productive industry and commerce are now post-industrial hell-holes with ever-higher rates of poverty, crime, and disease that are comparable to those in the underdeveloped countries. The majority of the States public infrastructure is, at best, undermaintained, and, at worst, literally falling apart. Many state and municipal governments are faced with fiscal emergencies that have forced them to cut essential social programs, and lay off large numbers of police, firefighters, teachers, and other public employees. This has led to mass protests by the American citizenrya citizenry that has fallen victim to the eagerness of both the Bush and Obama presidencies to ignore their Constitutional obligations to promote the General Welfare, and instead subject their people to fascist austerity measures in order to finance massive bail-outs of the investment banking system.24 LaRouche has warned that the policy of flooding that banking system with monetary capital will lead to a hyper-inflationary breakdown like that of Germany in 1923which is now becoming evident in the spikes in commodity and food prices. These are the empirical manifestations of economic collapse, done at the bidding of a global financial apparatus largely operating from the City of Londonwhat LaRouche has rightfully identified as the modern, post-war form of the British Empire.25

A More Just Global Financial System

To counter these post-war developments, LaRouche has been campaigning for decades to have the U.S. government reclaim the historical tradition of FDRs anti-imperial strategy to promote nation-building in the former colonial sector. Using Roosevelts legacy as a precedent, LaRouche has called for a domestic policy spear-headed by a restoration of the Glass-Steagall standard which would separate and protect commercial banking for productive purposes from the speculative schemes of investment banking.

For foreign policy, he was the first to publicly call for a New Bretton Woods conference to reestablish a global financial system based on fixed-exchange rates, and has also organized for the establishment of an economic alliance between the United States and the great Eurasian giants of Russia, China, and India. These Four Powers represent well over a third of the worlds population, are abundant in natural resources, and also possess the powerful, high-technology manufacturing capabilities necessary for the development of the major infrastructure projects needed to aid the poorer and smaller nations of the world. Such an alliance would act as the catalyst for the establishment of what LaRouche refers to as a Hamiltonian credit system of world finance, and provide the necessary counterbloc to the destruction wrought by the exploitive, feudal-monetarist system that is typified by the City of London and Wall Street. This would be the equivalent of applying the Glass-Steagall standard on an international scale, where a group of respectively sovereign nations declare that all of the illegitimate toxic gambling debt of the neo-feudalist financiers will be frozen, and then audited and investigated later (i.e. after crisis conditions have been effectively dealt with), thus freeing up the capital being injected into the investment banking system in the form of bail-outs to instead finance much-needed major infrastructure projects.26 The nations of the world can either adopt this model in the immediate term, or, LaRouche has warned, face an economic collapse comparable to the dark age of the 14th century.

For the Philippines, the alternative to fighting for such changes in global policies, as well as implementing an emergency domestic program like that now being advocated by the Save the Nation campaign, is to willingly dive into the mudslide toward dark age. The drive to legislate a program for controlling population growth is simply a reflection of a deeper problem, namely that many Filipino policy makers would seem to prefer to give up on establishing economic self-reliance, and further capitulate to those ill-intentioned, imperialist interests who are destroying their countrys economy.

__________

II. Environmentalism as Neo-Eugenics

The Infamous NSSM 200

Now that we have begun to recognize how population growth and economic development are actually interrelated, we can turn our attention toward examining the background for those ill-intentioned, imperialist interests that are subverting the Philippine government to adopting a population reduction program.

I will first refer the reader to the infamous U.S. National Security Study Memorandum 200. Written by National Security Adviser and British Foreign Office agent Henry A. Kissinger in 1974, and adopted as policy by the Ford Administration in 1975, this document explicitly names 13 underdeveloped countriesone being the Philippinesto be pressured into adopting policies that would severely limit their population growth through initiating contraception and sterilization programs. It also discussed the possibility of having the U.S. Agency for International Development withhold food aid as a way to get these poorer nations to comply with population reduction measures. Although not stated explicitly, the usage of the USAID option would result in curbing overpopulation by contributing to famine. Kissinger also made note of the fact that the United States already contributed more than half of the total funds for the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), which could be used, along with other U.N. agencies, to carry out the mission he was advocating.

Kissingers justification for such genocide? He believed that economic control over the worlds finite resources was better off in the hands of America and her European allies, ostensibly claiming that they would be needed in the fight against the Soviets. Population growth (and, consequently, economic development) in these resource-rich countries was a threat to that hegemony, as such expansion would require them to draw upon that resource base in their drive to establish themselves as strong, sovereign nation-states, rather than poor, post-colonial banana republics.27

What is a Natural Resource?

Although the ecological effects of population growth were not the main focus of Kissingers report, his assumption in the scarcity of the worlds resources was also expressed throughout policy-making circles and was very much popularized in the late 60s and early 70s by academics such as Paul Ehrlich and Dennis Meadows.28Such theories, which assert that human population growth is exceeding the Earths carrying capacity by depleting natural resources and destroying the equilibrium of nature, provide much of the basis for the ideology popularly referred to as environmentalism.

Ehrlichs Population Bomb (1968) and Meadows Limits to Growth (1972) widely propagandized the fears about an overpopulated planet.

There are, of course, issues and concerns raised by a scientific approach to the management of Earths biosphere and resources that are not illegitimate. Environmentalism as it is commonly preached, however is founded not upon science and reason, but upon dogmas about man and his place in the universe that are not unlike those of a pagan cult. It is a dogma that rejects the Judeo-Christian concept of man being made in the image of his Creator and therefore in possession of qualities which set him apart from the rest of the natural world. In environmentalist ideology, man has no ability to participate in Creation and wilfully change and improve his relationship to the universe; he is instead confined to live like all other creaturesas Earth-Goddess Gaias passive victim within a limited and cyclical natural balance.29

If we accept the misanthropic viewpoint of individuals who think like Kissinger, Ehrlich, and Meadows, we have no choice but to ignore the facts about the history of human progress. For example, when it comes to defining a natural resource, we must ask how a natural substance comes to be made useful for human activity in the first place. Coal, oil, uraniumall of these have existed on Earth long before humanityand when our species finally does arrive on the scene, these materials continue to stay in the ground for millennia, untouched. But civilization has eventually proven itself capable of producing great minds that possess a rigorous drive for knowledge, men and women who have discovered more efficient sources of power from substances that previous generations would have found little use for.

Still, such revolutionary discoveries do little good for the cause of mankind unless they are coupled with the political will and foresight needed to apply them to benefit the economic condition of the general populace. Even nuclear fissionthe most powerful and efficient energy source that man has mastered thus farhas yet to be applied and utilized on the mass scale necessary to solve many of humanitys current problems.

Elements of what later became Germanys Nazi movement were rooted in proto-environmentalist, Wagnerian nature cults (depicted on the left) who disdained artificial industrial society. These groups later fed the membership of the Thule Society (middle), which in turned later spawned the Nazi Party. Nazi eugenic propaganda (right) focused on the economic burdens caused by the excess numbers of useless eaters (e.g., the less-advantaged).

-The Climate Change Hoax-

However, the reporting from much of the worlds predominantly English-speaking media outletswhich tend to be very proud to claim they represent a balanced and impartial viewpointleads us to conclude that there is a regimented scientific consensus stating that the burning of fossil fuels like coal and oil produces industrial gas emissions that are causing a catastrophic change in the Earths climate. And, in a similar vein, nuclear power is once again being presented as too dangerous a technology for man to control.30

Since climate change being caused by carbon dioxide is as plain a textbook fact as the Earth being round, and the potential danger of nuclear energy proves that there is such a thing as too much technological progress, the recommended solution is to instead move to more sustainable (i.e., inefficient) sources of power generation like wind and solar.31

But, in reality, much of the alleged proof about both the anthropogenic causes of climate changelike the charges against nuclear energyhave been thoroughly refuted by not a few qualified scientists and other experts in numerous fields. While such rebuttals are worth reading for oneself, they are not to be the main subject of our focus at this time,32 since it is the underlying political intentions of the environmentalist campaign against industrialization (particularly in the developing world) that are to be exposed here in this essay.

Once industrial gas emissions are identified as the driving cause of altering the planets climate, human expansion becomes seen as an enemy in the battle to save the Earth. However, most of the worlds developing nations desperately need to industrialize in order to attain adequate living conditions for their peoples. But, instead of receiving the level of assistance from the more advanced sector that will aid them in becoming industrialized and self-sufficient, they are told that highly inefficient and costly technologies like solar panels and wind mills are the only environmentally-sustainable solution. They are told that they cannot strive to attain the levels of energy consumption (e.g. adequate and dignified living standards) that has been achieved in the developed countries, and that their non-industrialized, sustainable economies will help to enable the industrialized world to offset their greenhouse gas emissions.33

It is not difficult to hear the echoes of the 19th century imperialism that condemned colonial countries to remain as poor, backward agrarian economies, and where any industrialization or infrastructure built was limited and designed only for the benefit of the colonial power. Like the god Zeus who sought to enslave mankind by denying him the ability to control fire, any effective modern imperial policywhether it be the British Empire of the 18th and 19th centuries, or her modern-day bastard, Globalizationthrives on forbidding technological and economic progress for the masses. The not unintended results are the most effective methods that empires have relied upon to check population growth: famine, epidemic disease, and civil discord. Policies influenced by the sinister ideology of sustainable growth thus become a death sentence for the billions of the worlds poor.

The WWF: Enemies of Progress

Of the many international environmental NGOs that are at the forefront of such pro-genocidal, anti-human propaganda campaigns, there is one that is deserving of particular attentionboth because of brevity, and because of its wide influence in the Philippines and other post-colonial countriesand that is the World Wildlife Fund/Worldwide Fund for Nature (WWF).34 The WWF insists that it is mans overpopulationin and of itselfthat has disturbed the ecological balance, whether it be by encroachment and deforestation (which is usually the result of poor farmers forced to use backwards and outdated methods of agriculture), or by overconsumption and industrialization.35

Those readers who have not yet begun to ponder upon the economic implications of what the environmentalist movement actually advocatesand still think that usage of terms like genocidal and anti-human are sensationalist or hyperbolicshould familiarize themselves with the indisputable influence that eugenics still has on todays environmentalism.36

Read more from the original source:

The Philippines: Underdeveloped, but not Overpopulated ...

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[tags: Genetic Engineering Essays]423 words(1.2 pages)Strong Essays[preview] What is a Designer Baby and How are They Made? - DESIGNER BABIES There have been many social views on the topic of designer babies, which include a scientist point-of-view. Designer babies are those of which parents can make the rash decision to genetically alter their child so that they do not develop the genetic disorders that many of us have today. By using IVF or InVitro Fertilization as the method of altering the genes, doctors have been able to custom make unborn babies to portray or eliminate certain characteristics. What is a Designer Baby and How Are They Made.... [tags: Genetically Modified, Genes, Alterations]:: 6 Works Cited 1687 words(4.8 pages)Powerful Essays[preview] Neo-Eugenics The Social and Biological Ethics of Designer Babies - Neoeugenics is the idea of new, neo, eugenics or a new way of creating a healthier race. 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[tags: Medical Ethics ]:: 5 Works Cited 1340 words(3.8 pages)Strong Essays[preview] Should Human Cloning Be Pursued? - ... Stem cells can replace worn out or damaged tissues and is an alternative to organ donation. It is less likely to result in rejection by the recipient because the tissue would be made from the recipients own genetic material. Like stated previously, therapeutic cloning does not involve the creation of a live human being. However, despite the benefits of therapeutic cloning, there are huge controversies surrounding the topic. One argument against therapeutic cloning is that creating stem cells on a large scale would require the use of vast amounts of human eggs.... 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Facts to counteract the normalization of neo-nazis This Political …

This past weekend, Richard Spencer was punched while giving an interview to an Australian outlet. Now certain media is wondering whether punching a neo nazi is the right thing to do. Spencer vehemently argues that he is not a neo nazi and most media profiles are not challenging this assertion, further complicating the morality of punching a neo nazi (since he argues he is not a neo-nazi, then whoever punched him took a jab at a victim of anti free speech violence or so goes one of the lines of thinking).

Richard Spencer, founder of the so called alt-right has been on record numerous times stating that his desired political goal is to dress extreme right, white supremacist ideas in an acceptable shell. In an extensive profile published in October 2016, he explained this ultimate goal:

In order to reach these goals, Spencer uses numerous neologisms and newspeak to refer to old Nazi and white supremacists ideas. Instead of referring to eugenics, for example, he uses human biological diversity which is the way white supremacists attempt to introduce these ideas to the mainstream.

Yesterday I posted a critical analysis of the ways that mainstream media is playing right into his hands of mainstreaming neo-nazi ideology and pushing the boundaries of acceptable discourse. The whole thread can be read here:

I have already written about the way the fashion profiles of Richard Spencer and other known neo-nazis in mainstream media are normalizing these discourses and making these people appealing to the public, sexy and desirable even. As recent as November 2016, Spencer was filmed giving a speech where his followers broke into Sieg Heil Nazi salutes and Spencer himself used words such as lugenpresse (lying press) that have a long history within Nazism. However, since these interviews and profiles rarely (if ever) point to this mans history of neo-nazi advocacy (including eugenics and mass extermination), heres a rundown of the past seven years of Richard Spencer, in his own words, calling for ethnic cleansing, mass sterilization and a whites only ethnostate.

2010 Spencer begins the promo tour announcing he is starting a new political movement with the aim to push the boundaries of discourse.

In March of the same year, he officially starts the movement he named Alternative Right. On his first public forays as leader of this new movement, Spencer starts the rhetoric obfuscation:

As Ari Feldman explains in this article, human biological diversity is a neologism for eugenics

As an aside, Milo Yiannopoulos has spouted this neo-eugenics garbage in a couple of articles.

This heavily sourced article, from 2010, about the founding of the alternative right, already traces the many links between Richard Spencer and advocates of old school nazi ideas such as revoking citizenship for Black people.

2011 via Internet Archives Wayback Machine, a screenshot of the white nationalist conference Spencer hosted where, among other topics, speakers discussed eugenics (Dysgenics is the study of factors producing the accumulation and perpetuation of defective or disadvantageous genes and traits in offspring of a particular population or species) and again, Human Biological Diversity.

A journalist at Media Matters attended the conference and reported thusly

The journalist was also subjected to a variety of phrenology theories that extolled the virtues of the white craniums inherent superiority.

Another speaker at this conference organized by Richard Spencer was Samuel Dickson, former lawyer to the Georgia Ku Klux Klan. The journalist pointed out that Spencer cloaks his supremacist views behind veils of fairness and fringe science.

2013 In a speech at at the 2013 American Renaissance conference, he advocates for ethnic cleansing so that in the aftermath a white ethnostate can be created

On the same year he spoke about ethnic cleansing, he also advocated for mass sterilizations of Black people (which would be an unequivocally nazi way to achieve the ethnic cleansing he was hoping for)

Also, in 2013, the glamorizing fashion profiles already started. He explained the reasoning behind them (though obviously nobody took him seriously) and how it was part of the strategy to make the alt-right attractive to new followers

At the nationalist conference he hosted, these were the books offered for sale:

Notice The Chosen People, a study of Jewish intelligence and achievement on that table. VDARE, the white nationalist hate site that Spencer used to be part of before he went on to start his own neo nazi cart has an extensive review of the book and its analysis of IQ of Jewish people.

2014 At a far right conference in Hungary

2016 At yet another conference hosted by Richard Spencer, Alt-Right Leaders: We Arent Racist, We Just Hate Jews

Richard Spencer at the Republican convention in 2016

Next time someone claims Richard Spencer is a dissenter or a politician or some such nonsense, point them to this list of Richard Spencer in his own words. He has been spouting racist violence for years and we should not allow the normalization of his rhetoric as part of the acceptable boundaries of political discourse. Advocating for mass sterilization of Black people or the elimination of Jewish people are not topics of political debate. They are the machinations of cruel, immoral people who should not be allowed to promote these views unchallenged.

I am an independent writer with no affiliations. If you find value in the type of work I do, please consider making a donation. Any funds, no matter how small will allow me to continue this ongoing research and analysis. Follow me on Twitter for daily updates.

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Facts to counteract the normalization of neo-nazis This Political ...

Make Fertility Great Again – returnofkings.com

Should old ladies be having children outside of divine assistance? Former director of Londons Serpentine Galleries, Dame Julia Peyton-Jones, has become a mother via surrogacy, aged 64, prompting the country to question whether such a thing is ethical or even lawful.

As a strong libertarian, I believe an Englishmans home is his castle, but at these late stages of life, nature leaves a womans womb as nothing but a barren ruin. It makes sense to question how the child will fare when their support network has also come to ruin, if only on behalf of the childs potential estate, let alone for the effect this will have on society.

The real question is not why older women would want another woman to carry their baby to fruition. Perhaps it is just a valedictory pretence of vitality by those who bought the lie that every woman could and should have it allpostmenstrual howling at the moon, long after the biological clock grew silent. Rather, we must ask why we Europeans have [lost] the will to replace ourselves, as Prof. William Reville recently put it. How can we end this revolt against nature or voluntary demographic extinction? Of course, overpowering nature is how we come to not only survive but dominate and flourish on this planet, but ignoring scientific facts and natural laws in the face of expiration is the direct antithesis; it is simply degenerate.

More women are having their children over 50!

Sadly, Gramsci and Lukacs theory that Western culture must be destroyed for communism to emerge has been tested by leftists and neocons since the 1960s, when cultural Marxism came to dominate the cultural scene. From political policy to popular writing, half of Western populations have bought the idea that white procreation or even any sense of identity is about the worst thing imaginable. Whilst celebrities increasingly promote having children over the age of fifty, every week, another article is published by some young, damaged goods or other, trying to convince the world (by which I mean herself) that shes just fine without a family. The latest I read, from the ironically named Ms. Chatel, presents the usual platitudeschildren will ruin your lifebut, apparently of even greater importance, they could increase mankinds carbon footprint.

Yet, the fact is housewives are the happiest women around and I imagine their husbands are happiest too. Furthermore, traditional families are a great benefit to society as well; they are our most powerful bulwark against high crime rates. For a healthy society, we can only conclude that women at Peyton-Jones age should ideally be grandmothers. Grandparents are a valuable pillar of society the more time they spend with their grandchildren, the better it is for their development and thus, the greater benefit we all receive. Can we really be surprised that this is the case when this is how we have evolved? (N.B. Theres a good reason other familial structures havent survived.)

So, the closer we get to the natural order, the more sustainable our society becomes. If this were not the case, men would not have evolved to find youth so attractive and women would not have evolved to age sooner and worse than men, focusing our mating habits towards those stronger, healthier eggs. Of course, women age sooner but live longer because they do not readily outlive their usefulness as grandmothers. The reason we have evolved to find Peyton-Jones act so taboo, however, is that she will readily outlive her usefulness as a mother; to display this as acceptable is a direct threat to the society our children must inherit. The threat cultural Marxism poses must, therefore, be stopped.

The natural order is the goal of all Traditionalists

But, as I said, Im a libertarian; so, what about individual liberty? Well, of course, if you dont like the natural order of things, thats fine. By all means, go and raise a family of twelve in a highly radioactive environment at the age of 80. I will wish you the very best of luck and, whats more, I will politely disguise the futility I feel in doing so. But dont ask me to value what you do or to remain silent when you set about proselytizing society to your bizarre ideas. In order for my children and grandchildren (if youre capable of thinking that far ahead) to enjoy the liberties I desire for myself, were going to need a sustainable environment in which they can flourish. And the purposes for which you propose we use our medical advancements dont cut the mustard.

Instead, I propose we use our great scientific advancements to restore and enhance the natural order, for the benefit of us all. But how can we usher in a Spring, rather than the coming demographic Winter?

Could positive screening make child-rearing more popular?

In an interview I conducted with Prof. Richard Lynn, he suggested that states should stop imposing degenerating policies, promoting anything other than the traditional. However, he noted that this has only ever had a negligible effect in swaying the opinions of those Europeans who will not replace themselves. What is needed is neo-eugenics, that is, private services provided by the market, e.g. designer babies.

According to Lynn, such services could provide both an attractive and efficient way to improve demographics and even raise the average IQ of our populations by a standard deviation in just one generation. If the state were so inclined, it could promote the use of such services through subsidies, assistance or tax breaks; thus, encouraging those who were breeding to replacement levels and using these services to select preferable genes for their children, in much the same way that IVF screening currently allows us to avoid relatively undesirable qualities.

So, I ask you again, should grannies be having children? If you like civilization, you wont love this becoming normal, thats for sure. Whether it is through legislation or frowning upon this as a social taboo, this degeneracy must certainly be countered by the promotion and protection of traditional families and the freeing of the market to make the prospect of having children far more attractive to young Westerners. Lets explore every avenue to secure the future of Western civilization with the same vigour that was used to bring it to ruins.

Read More: How Mass Immigration Is Driven By Female Consumerism And Low Fertility

Feb 2, 2017Rik Storey

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Make Fertility Great Again - returnofkings.com

Mike Adams – The Health Ranger: Big Pharma’s Secret Global …

The Health Ranger Mike Adams gives a special presentation Big Pharma's agenda to make sure you die broke, as well as neo-eugenics and how it ties into food contamination and vaccines. Why are they pushing so hard to get you to take vaccines when the science shows that vaccines doesn't really work?

The pharmaceutical industry makes money from sickness and disease, so it's in their interests for you never to obtain a reasonable standard of health, and that you exist in a degenerative disease zone where they can extract all the money you've worked so hard to earn for your entire life. Adams explains why alternative health treatments which are cheaper, safer, more effective and more readily available than pharmaceuticals, are suppressed by Big Pharma, because you can't patent superfoods, pomegranate seeds, walnuts, or any other natural product of nature. Bio-engineered foods, combined with the synthetic compounds in pharmaceuticals, and toxic personal products like shampoos and deodorants, are combining to create a highly toxic environment for our body, turning your liver into a toxic waste dump and preventing your vital organs from functioning properly.

Adams also discusses medical experimentation on humans beings conducted by pharmaceutical companies, the government and the military, explaining how we are all unwitting guinea pigs being bombarded with innumerable different attacks on our health as part of the global population reduction agenda being promoted and funded by elitists like Bill Gates. http://www.healthranger.org/

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Mike Adams - The Health Ranger: Big Pharma's Secret Global ...

Gore Lied

Apr 10

The April 10, 2012 dead-tree edition of The Oregonian lead with a big dose of global warming realism.

This is what I was greeted with when I trotted out to fetch my dead-tree edition of The Oregonian this morning: Global warming without warming above the fold! Id seen the on-line version of this story last night with its own headline Global warming hiatus in recent years helps spur skepticism but to see it lead the dead-tree edition was even more satisfying.

To his credit, reporter Scott Learn points out some facts that Joe Romm would characterize as long-debunked denier talking points. And yet, The Oregonian is nobodys idea of a global warming denier :

For people who want more action on global warming, an inconvenient truth has arisen over the last decade: Annual average temperatures stayed relatively flat globally and dropped in the United States and Oregon despite mankinds growing release of greenhouse gases.

The hiatus in temperature increases may be contributing to higher public skepticism about warming, particularly in the United States.

Computer climate models didnt predict the hiatus, notes Portland meteorologist Chuck Wiese.

Climatologists, and climate models, are overestimating the impact of greenhouse gases on warming relative to natural climate cycles, they say, and arent being held accountable when warming projections dont pan out.

They just keep moving the goalposts to where you can never get a satisfactory answer, Wiese says.

Kudos to The Oregonian for having the guts to report the truth, rather than just regurgitating the blathering coming from the consensus.

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Mar 30

Climate models? Nah. In this case its models predicting when Japanese earthquake debris starts washing up on the West Coast of the US, which only serves as further evidence that nearly all computer models cannot be relied upon.

NOAA originally predicted debris from the tsunami triggered by the 9.0 earthquake in Tohoku, Japan, in March of 2011 would begin washing up on shores in the Pacific Northwest in 2013. Those were rough estimates based on forecasted ocean conditions and reports of debris from fishing and commercial vessels.

But, The Oregonian now reports:

Perhaps the largest piece of debris resulting from last year's tsunami in Japan is this fishing boat. It was sighted March 20, drifiting 150 miles off the coast of British Columbia. Photo via Canadian Department of National Defence

Debris from the March 2011 Japanese tsunami will likely wash ashore sooner than originally thought.Thats a prediction the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration says was confirmed by the sighting of a Japanese fishing vessel lost in the tsunami and spotted last week in Canadian waters off the Queen Charlotte Islands.

Faced with the facts, NOAA responds:

Were working on updating the model, said Dianna Parker, NOAA spokeswoman. We expect results will show some of the debris that rides a little higher will arrive ahead of schedule. The bulkier debris, sitting lower in the water, will take longer.

Whether it be global warming climate models, or earthquake debris models, or a fill-in-the-blank model, its garbage in, garbage out.

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Mar 13

When you get right down to it, S. Matthew Liaos crazy neo-eugenics idea boils down to:

Small people = small carbon footprints

Perhaps we were warned many years ago in this song:

Its a world of laughter, a world or tears Its a world of hopes, its a world of fear Theres so much that we share That its time were aware Its a small world after all

CHORUS: Its a small world after all Its a small world after all Its a small world after all Its a small, small world

There is just one moon and one golden sun And a smile means friendship to everyone. Though the mountains divide And the oceans are wide Its a small small world

(chorus)

World of tears? World of fears? Share? Its time were aware? Oceans are wide? Hmmmmmm.

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Mar 08

Automotive News reports:

DETROIT (Reuters) A $100,000-plus Fisker Automotive luxury car died during Consumer Reports speed testing for reasons that are still unknown, leaving the struggling electric car startup with another blow to its image.

It is a little disconcerting that you pay that amount of money for a car and it lasts basically 180 miles before going wrong, David Champion, senior director for the magazines automotive test center, told Reuters.

Fisker has benefited from the publicity generated when actor Leonardo DiCaprio was handed the first Karma last summer and pop idol Justin Bieber received one as a gift this month.

The breakdown of the Consumer Reports car is more bad news for a company that already recalled some Karmas. Fisker also has changed its CEO and halted production over the past month as it seeks to renegotiate the terms of a $529 million loan from the U.S. Department of Energy.

One of Fisker Automotives primary financial backers is venture captital firm, Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers, of which Al Gore is a partner. Fisker also received a $528.7 million conditional loan from the Department of Energys Advanced Technologies Vehicle Manufacturing Loan Program. Thats a LOT of money to produce only 200-300 cars thus far, some of which seem to be lemons.

This is the same company that last year caught flak because after it secured the US government financing, started assembling their cars in Finland.

By the looks of things, Fisker Automotive seems headed for the same fate as Solyndra.

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Mar 05

This video is from December 21, 2009 at COP15 just about a month after Climategate 1.0 hit so its not exactly fresh, but I just discovered it on YouTube, and DeSmogblogger Chris Mooney makes a very frank admission about the skeptic blogosphere that I believe went unnoticed back in 09, but is relevant even 2+ years later:

Mooney:

You have the rise of the blogosphere, where global warming denial is actually running rampant, and I think its totally got us whupped, in terms of pro-climate bloggers versus anti-climate bloggers.

One explanation of why the alarmists were, and are continuing to get whupped, was noted by Ross McKitrick recently, and was featured on WUWT as last weeks quote of the week. McKitrick:

The problem the alarmists had, was that there was never anything substantial to hit back at. They had the equivalents of the big guns and the massive air support but there never was a skeptic HQ to be pounded, no big central organization, no massed ranks of skeptic soldiers or even any third-partybacking the resistance.

Every one of the skeptics was a lone volunteer guerrilla fighter, who needed absolutely no logistical support of any kind to continue the fight indefinitely. The alarmists never understood this, preferring to think that there simply had to be some massive hidden organization orchestrating the resistance. While they wasted time and effort attacking targets that only existed in their head, each of the guerrillas chewed on them mercilessly in their own particular way.

The entire Mooney video is here.

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Mar 02

The Al Gore /AIT Index returns!

The index is calculated from Dr. Roy Spencers UAH Globally Averaged Satellite-Based Tropospheric Temperatures that are released each month. The GORE LIED graphics department simply whips out a magenta crayon, and marks up Dr. Spencers graph to show the temperature change since Al Gore released his fantasy/sci-fi movie, An Inconvenient Truth.

Through February, 2012 globally averaged temperatures have plunged .56F (.31C) since An Inconvenient Truth was released at the Sundance Film Festival on January 24, 2006 truly an inconvenient truth.

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Feb 27

An Inconvenient Video from COP-15 (2009) featuring DeSmog Blogs Brendan Demelle. This video was deemed soooo compelling by viewers that in the two years its been posted it had a whopping nine views when I scrounged it up from the YouTube dustbin. An excerpt from Demelle discussing the state of journalism, and the rise of bloggers:

with the struggling economy which is hurting newsrooms there just arent as many resources to devote to deep investigative journalism than there used to be, and I think thats why you see a rise in citizen journalism, people taking it upon themselves to go and try to figure out what the facts are and to report the facts. Also, you know, one of the things that Danny mentioned is that journalists are, you know, taught to be objective and not to have a view. Id just say that youre also taught to report facts, and not lies and misdeeds.

He may say that, and yet I get the feeling that Brendan will only part with that fake 2012 Heartland Climate Strategy memo when we pry it from his proverbial cold, dead fingers.

Heres the whole video. DeMelle appears at 8:00

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Originally posted here:

Gore Lied