Eugenics in the United States – Wikipedia

Eugenics, the set of beliefs and practices which aims at improving the genetic quality of the human population[2][3] played a significant role in the history and culture of the United States prior to its involvement in World War II.[4]

Eugenics was practiced in the United States many years before eugenics programs in Nazi Germany,[5] which were largely inspired by the previous American work.[6][7][8] Stefan Khl has documented the consensus between Nazi race policies and those of eugenicists in other countries, including the United States, and points out that eugenicists understood Nazi policies and measures as the realization of their goals and demands.[9]

During the Progressive Era of the late 19th and early 20th century, eugenics was considered a method of preserving and improving the dominant groups in the population; it is now generally associated with racist and nativist elements as the movement was to some extent a reaction to a change in emigration from Europe rather than scientific genetics.[10]

The American eugenics movement was rooted in the biological determinist ideas of Sir Francis Galton, which originated in the 1880s. Galton studied the upper classes of Britain, and arrived at the conclusion that their social positions were due to a superior genetic makeup.[11] Early proponents of eugenics believed that, through selective breeding, the human species should direct its own evolution. They tended to believe in the genetic superiority of Nordic, Germanic and Anglo-Saxon peoples; supported strict immigration and anti-miscegenation laws; and supported the forcible sterilization of the poor, disabled and “immoral”.[12] Eugenics was also supported by African Americans intellectuals such as W. E. B. Du Bois, Thomas Wyatt Turner, and many academics at Tuskegee University, Howard University, and Hampton University; however, they believed the best blacks were as good as the best whites and “The Talented Tenth” of all races should mix.[13] W. E. B. Du Bois believed “only fit blacks should procreate to eradicate the race’s heritage of moral iniquity.”[13][14]

The American eugenics movement received extensive funding from various corporate foundations including the Carnegie Institution, Rockefeller Foundation, and the Harriman railroad fortune.[7] In 1906 J.H. Kellogg provided funding to help found the Race Betterment Foundation in Battle Creek, Michigan.[11] The Eugenics Record Office (ERO) was founded in Cold Spring Harbor, New York in 1911 by the renowned biologist Charles B. Davenport, using money from both the Harriman railroad fortune and the Carnegie Institution. As late as the 1920s, the ERO was one of the leading organizations in the American eugenics movement.[11][15] In years to come, the ERO collected a mass of family pedigrees and concluded that those who were unfit came from economically and socially poor backgrounds. Eugenicists such as Davenport, the psychologist Henry H. Goddard, Harry H. Laughlin, and the conservationist Madison Grant (all well respected in their time) began to lobby for various solutions to the problem of the “unfit”. Davenport favored immigration restriction and sterilization as primary methods; Goddard favored segregation in his The Kallikak Family; Grant favored all of the above and more, even entertaining the idea of extermination.[16] The Eugenics Record Office later became the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory.

Eugenics was widely accepted in the U.S. academic community.[7] By 1928, there were 376 separate university courses in some of the United States’ leading schools, enrolling more than 20,000 students, which included eugenics in the curriculum.[17] It did, however, have scientific detractors (notably, Thomas Hunt Morgan, one of the few Mendelians to explicitly criticize eugenics), though most of these focused more on what they considered the crude methodology of eugenicists, and the characterization of almost every human characteristic as being hereditary, rather than the idea of eugenics itself.[18]

By 1910, there was a large and dynamic network of scientists, reformers, and professionals engaged in national eugenics projects and actively promoting eugenic legislation. The American Breeder’s Association was the first eugenic body in the U.S., established in 1906 under the direction of biologist Charles B. Davenport. The ABA was formed specifically to “investigate and report on heredity in the human race, and emphasize the value of superior blood and the menace to society of inferior blood.” Membership included Alexander Graham Bell, Stanford president David Starr Jordan and Luther Burbank.[19][20] The American Association for the Study and Prevention of Infant Mortality was one of the first organizations to begin investigating infant mortality rates in terms of eugenics.[21] They promoted government intervention in attempts to promote the health of future citizens.[22][verification needed]

Several feminist reformers advocated an agenda of eugenic legal reform. The National Federation of Women’s Clubs, the Woman’s Christian Temperance Union, and the National League of Women Voters were among the variety of state and local feminist organization that at some point lobbied for eugenic reforms.[23]

One of the most prominent feminists to champion the eugenic agenda was Margaret Sanger, the leader of the American birth control movement. Margaret Sanger saw birth control as a means to prevent unwanted children from being born into a disadvantaged life, and incorporated the language of eugenics to advance the movement.[24][25] Sanger also sought to discourage the reproduction of persons who, it was believed, would pass on mental disease or serious physical defects. She advocated sterilization in cases where the subject was unable to use birth control.[24] She rejected euthanasia.[26] For Sanger, it was individual women and not the state who should determine whether or not to have a child.[27][28]

In the Deep South, women’s associations played an important role in rallying support for eugenic legal reform. Eugenicists recognized the political and social influence of southern clubwomen in their communities, and used them to help implement eugenics across the region.[29] Between 1915 and 1920, federated women’s clubs in every state of the Deep South had a critical role in establishing public eugenic institutions that were segregated by sex.[30] For example, the Legislative Committee of the Florida State Federation of Women’s Clubs successfully lobbied to institute a eugenic institution for the mentally retarded that was segregated by sex.[31] Their aim was to separate mentally retarded men and women to prevent them from breeding more “feebleminded” individuals.

Public acceptance in the U.S. was the reason eugenic legislation was passed. Almost 19 million people attended the PanamaPacific International Exposition in San Francisco, open for 10 months from 20 February to 4 December 1915.[32][33] The PPIE was a fair devoted to extolling the virtues of a rapidly progressing nation, featuring new developments in science, agriculture, manufacturing and technology. A subject that received a large amount of time and space was that of the developments concerning health and disease, particularly the areas of tropical medicine and race betterment (tropical medicine being the combined study of bacteriology, parasitology and entomology while racial betterment being the promotion of eugenic studies). Having these areas so closely intertwined, it seemed that they were both categorized in the main theme of the fair, the advancement of civilization. Thus in the public eye, the seemingly contradictory[clarification needed] areas of study were both represented under progressive banners of improvement and were made to seem like plausible courses of action to better American society.[34][verification needed]

Beginning with Connecticut in 1896, many states enacted marriage laws with eugenic criteria, prohibiting anyone who was “epileptic, imbecile or feeble-minded”[35] from marrying.[36]

The first state to introduce a compulsory sterilization bill was Michigan, in 1897 but the proposed law failed to garner enough votes by legislators to be adopted. Eight years later Pennsylvania’s state legislators passed a sterilization bill that was vetoed by the governor. Indiana became the first state to enact sterilization legislation in 1907,[37] followed closely by Washington and California in 1909. Sterilization rates across the country were relatively low (California being the sole exception) until the 1927 Supreme Court case Buck v. Bell which legitimized the forced sterilization of patients at a Virginia home for the mentally retarded. The number of sterilizations performed per year increased until another Supreme Court case, Skinner v. Oklahoma, 1942, complicated the legal situation by ruling against sterilization of criminals if the equal protection clause of the constitution was violated. That is, if sterilization was to be performed, then it could not exempt white-collar criminals.[38] The state of California was at the vanguard of the American eugenics movement, performing about 20,000 sterilizations or one third of the 60,000 nationwide from 1909 up until the 1960s.[39]

While California had the highest number of sterilizations, North Carolina’s eugenics program which operated from 1933 to 1977, was the most aggressive of the 32 states that had eugenics programs.[40] An IQ of 70 or lower meant sterilization was appropriate in North Carolina.[41] The North Carolina Eugenics Board almost always approved proposals brought before them by local welfare boards.[41] Of all states, only North Carolina gave social workers the power to designate people for sterilization.[40] “Here, at last, was a method of preventing unwanted pregnancies by an acceptable, practical, and inexpensive method,” wrote Wallace Kuralt in the March 1967 journal of the N.C. Board of Public Welfare. “The poor readily adopted the new techniques for birth control.”[41]

The Immigration Restriction League was the first American entity associated officially with eugenics. Founded in 1894 by three recent Harvard University graduates, the League sought to bar what it considered inferior races from entering America and diluting what it saw as the superior American racial stock (upper class Northerners of Anglo-Saxon heritage). They felt that social and sexual involvement with these less-evolved and less-civilized races would pose a biological threat to the American population. The League lobbied for a literacy test for immigrants, based on the belief that literacy rates were low among “inferior races”. Literacy test bills were vetoed by Presidents in 1897, 1913 and 1915; eventually, President Wilson’s second veto was overruled by Congress in 1917. Membership in the League included: A. Lawrence Lowell, president of Harvard, William DeWitt Hyde, president of Bowdoin College, James T. Young, director of Wharton School and David Starr Jordan, president of Stanford University.[42]

The League allied themselves with the American Breeder’s Association to gain influence and further its goals and in 1909 established a Committee on Eugenics chaired by David Starr Jordan with members Charles Davenport, Alexander Graham Bell, Vernon Kellogg, Luther Burbank, William Ernest Castle, Adolf Meyer, H. J. Webber and Friedrich Woods. The ABA’s immigration legislation committee, formed in 1911 and headed by League’s founder Prescott F. Hall, formalized the committee’s already strong relationship with the Immigration Restriction League. They also founded the Eugenics Record Office, which was headed by Harry H. Laughlin.[43] In their mission statement, they wrote:

Society must protect itself; as it claims the right to deprive the murderer of his life so it may also annihilate the hideous serpent of hopelessly vicious protoplasm. Here is where appropriate legislation will aid in eugenics and creating a healthier, saner society in the future.”[43]

Money from the Harriman railroad fortune was also given to local charities, in order to find immigrants from specific ethnic groups and deport, confine, or forcibly sterilize them.[7]

With the passage of the Immigration Act of 1924, eugenicists for the first time played an important role in the Congressional debate as expert advisers on the threat of “inferior stock” from eastern and southern Europe.[44][verification needed] The new act, inspired by the eugenic belief in the racial superiority of “old stock” white Americans as members of the “Nordic race” (a form of white supremacy), strengthened the position of existing laws prohibiting race-mixing.[45] Eugenic considerations also lay behind the adoption of incest laws in much of the U.S. and were used to justify many anti-miscegenation laws.[46]

Stephen Jay Gould asserted that restrictions on immigration passed in the United States during the 1920s (and overhauled in 1965 with the Immigration and Nationality Act) were motivated by the goals of eugenics. During the early 20th century, the United States and Canada began to receive far higher numbers of Southern and Eastern European immigrants. Influential eugenicists like Lothrop Stoddard and Harry Laughlin (who was appointed as an expert witness for the House Committee on Immigration and Naturalization in 1920) presented arguments they would pollute the national gene pool if their numbers went unrestricted.[47][48] It has been argued that this stirred both Canada and the United States into passing laws creating a hierarchy of nationalities, rating them from the most desirable Anglo-Saxon and Nordic peoples to the Chinese and Japanese immigrants, who were almost completely banned from entering the country.[45][49]

Both class and race factored into eugenic definitions of “fit” and “unfit.” By using intelligence testing, American eugenicists asserted that social mobility was indicative of one’s genetic fitness.[50] This reaffirmed the existing class and racial hierarchies and explained why the upper-to-middle class was predominantly white. Middle-to-upper class status was a marker of “superior strains.”[31] In contrast, eugenicists believed poverty to be a characteristic of genetic inferiority, which meant that those deemed “unfit” were predominantly of the lower classes.[31]

Because class status designated some more fit than others, eugenicists treated upper and lower class women differently. Positive eugenicists, who promoted procreation among the fittest in society, encouraged middle class women to bear more children. Between 1900 and 1960, Eugenicists appealed to middle class white women to become more “family minded,” and to help better the race.[51] To this end, eugenicists often denied middle and upper class women sterilization and birth control.[52]

Since poverty was associated with prostitution and “mental idiocy,” women of the lower classes were the first to be deemed “unfit” and “promiscuous.”[31]

In 1907, Indiana passed the first eugenics-based compulsory sterilization law in the world. Thirty U.S. states would soon follow their lead.[53][54] Although the law was overturned by the Indiana Supreme Court in 1921,[55] the U.S. Supreme Court, in Buck v. Bell, upheld the constitutionality of the Virginia Sterilization Act of 1924, allowing for the compulsory sterilization of patients of state mental institutions in 1927.[56]

Some states sterilized “imbeciles” for much of the 20th century. Although compulsory sterilization is now considered an abuse of human rights, Buck v. Bell was never overturned, and Virginia did not repeal its sterilization law until 1974.[57] The most significant era of eugenic sterilization was between 1907 and 1963, when over 64,000 individuals were forcibly sterilized under eugenic legislation in the United States.[58] Beginning around 1930, there was a steady increase in the percentage of women sterilized, and in a few states only young women were sterilized. From 1930 to the 1960s, sterilizations were performed on many more institutionalized women than men.[31] By 1961, 61 percent of the 62,162 total eugenic sterilizations in the United States were performed on women.[31] A favorable report on the results of sterilization in California, the state with the most sterilizations by far, was published in book form by the biologist Paul Popenoe and was widely cited by the Nazi government as evidence that wide-reaching sterilization programs were feasible and humane.[59][60]

Men and women were compulsorily sterilized for different reasons. Men were sterilized to treat their aggression and to eliminate their criminal behavior, while women were sterilized to control the results of their sexuality.[31] Since women bore children, eugenicists held women more accountable than men for the reproduction of the less “desirable” members of society.[31] Eugenicists therefore predominantly targeted women in their efforts to regulate the birth rate, to “protect” white racial health, and weed out the “defectives” of society.[31]

A 1937 Fortune magazine poll found that 2/3 of respondents supported eugenic sterilization of “mental defectives”, 63% supported sterilization of criminals, and only 15% opposed both.[61][62]

In the 1970s, several activists and women’s rights groups discovered several physicians to be performing coerced sterilizations of specific ethnic groups of society. All were abuses of poor, nonwhite, or mentally retarded women, while no abuses against white or middle-class women were recorded.[63] Several court cases such as Madrigal v. Quilligan, a class action suit regarding forced or coerced postpartum sterilization of Latina women following cesarean sections, and Relf v. Weinberger,[64] the sterilization of two young black girls by tricking their illiterate mother into signing a waiver, helped bring to light some of the widespread abuses of sterilization supported by federal funds.[65][66]

In 1972, United States Senate committee testimony brought to light that at least 2,000 involuntary sterilizations had been performed on poor black women without their consent or knowledge.[67] An investigation revealed that the surgeries were all performed in the South, and were all performed on black welfare mothers with multiple children.[67] Testimony revealed that many of these women were threatened with an end to their welfare benefits until they consented to sterilization.[67] These surgeries were instances of sterilization abuse, a term applied to any sterilization performed without the consent or knowledge of the recipient, or in which the recipient is pressured into accepting the surgery. Because the funds used to carry out the surgeries came from the U.S. Office of Economic Opportunity, the sterilization abuse raised older suspicions, especially amongst the black community, that “federal programs were underwriting eugenicists who wanted to impose their views about population quality on minorities and poor women.”[31]

Native American women were also victims of sterilization abuse up into the 1970s.[68] The organization WARN (Women of All Red Nations) publicized that Native American women were threatened that, if they had more children, they would be denied welfare benefits. The Indian Health Service also repeatedly refused to deliver Native American babies until their mothers, in labor, consented to sterilization. Many Native American women unknowingly gave consent, since directions were not given in their native language. According to the General Accounting Office, an estimate of 3,406 Indian women were sterilized.[68] The General Accounting Office stated that the Indian Health Service had not followed the necessary regulations, and that the “informed consent forms did not adhere to the standards set by the United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW).”[69]

In 2013, it was reported that 148 female prisoners in two California prisons were sterilized between 2006 and 2010 in a supposedly voluntary program, but it was determined that the prisoners did not give consent to the procedures.[70] In September 2014, California enacted Bill SB1135 that bans sterilization in correctional facilities, unless the procedure is required to save an inmate’s life.[71]

Edwin Black wrote that one of the methods that was suggested to get rid of “defective germ-plasm in the human population” was euthanasia.[7] A 1911 Carnegie Institute report explored eighteen methods for removing defective genetic attributes, and method number eight was euthanasia.[7] The most commonly suggested method of euthanasia was to set up local gas chambers.[7] However, many in the eugenics movement did not believe that Americans were ready to implement a large-scale euthanasia program, so many doctors had to find clever ways of subtly implementing eugenic euthanasia in various medical institutions.[7] For example, a mental institution in Lincoln, Illinois fed its incoming patients milk infected with tuberculosis (reasoning that genetically fit individuals would be resistant), resulting in 3040% annual death rates.[7] Other doctors practiced euthanasia through various forms of lethal neglect.[7]

In the 1930s, there was a wave of portrayals of eugenic “mercy killings” in American film, newspapers, and magazines. In 1931, the Illinois Homeopathic Medicine Association began lobbying for the right to euthanize “imbeciles” and other defectives.[72] The Euthanasia Society of America was founded in 1938.[73]

Overall, however, euthanasia was marginalized in the U.S., motivating people to turn to forced segregation and sterilization programs as a means for keeping the “unfit” from reproducing.[7]

Mary deGormo, a former classroom teacher was the first person to combine ideas about health and intelligence standards with competitions at state fairs, in the form of “better baby” contests. She developed the first such contest, the “Scientific Baby Contest” for the Louisiana State Fair in Shreveport, in 1908. She saw these contests as a contribution to the “social efficiency” movement, which was advocating for the standardization of all aspects of American life as a means of increasing efficiency.[21] deGarmo was assisted by the pediatrician Dr. Jacob Bodenheimer, who helped her develop grading sheets for contestants, which combined physical measurements with standardized measurements of intelligence.[74] Scoring was based on a deduction system, in that every child started at 1000 points and then was docked points for having measurements that were below a designated average. The child with the most points (and the least defections) was ideal.[75][verification needed]

The topic of standardization through scientific judgment was a topic that was very serious in the eyes of the scientific community, but has often been downplayed as just a popular fad or trend. Nevertheless, a lot of time, effort, and money was put into these contests and their scientific backing, which would influence cultural ideas as well as local and state government practices.[76][verification needed]

The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People promoted eugenics by hosting “Better Baby” contests and the proceeds would go to its anti-lynching campaign.[13]

First appearing in 1920 at the Kansas Free Fair, Fitter Family competitions, continued all the way up to World War II. Mary T. Watts and Dr. Florence Brown Sherbon,[77][78] both initiators of the Better Baby Contests in Iowa, took the idea of positive eugenics for babies and combined it with a determinist concept of biology to come up with fitter family competitions.[79]

There were several different categories that families were judged in: Size of the family, overall attractiveness, and health of the family, all of which helped to determine the likelihood of having healthy children. These competitions were simply a continuation of the Better Baby contests that promoted certain physical and mental qualities.[80] At the time, it was believed that certain behavioral qualities were inherited from your parents. This led to the addition of several judging categories including: generosity, self-sacrificing, and quality of familial bonds. Additionally, there were negative features that were judged: selfishness, jealousy, suspiciousness, high temperedness, and cruelty. Feeblemindedness, alcoholism, and paralysis were few among other traits that were included as physical traits to be judged when looking at family lineage.[81]

Doctors and specialists from the community would offer their time to judge these competitions, which were originally sponsored by the Red Cross.[81] The winners of these competitions were given a Bronze Medal as well as champion cups called “Capper Medals.” The cups were named after then Governor and Senator, Arthur Capper and he would present them to “Grade A individuals”.[82]

The perks of entering into the contests were that the competitions provided a way for families to get a free health check up by a doctor as well as some of the pride and prestige that came from winning the competitions.[81]

By 1925 the Eugenics Records Office was distributing standardized forms for judging eugenically fit families, which were used in contests in several U.S. states.[83]

Concerns about eugenics arose in the African American community after the implementation of the Negro Project of 1939, which was proposed by Margaret Sanger who was the founder of Planned Parenthood.[84] In this plan, Sanger offered birth control to Black families in the United States to give them the chance to have a better life than what the group had been experiencing in the United States.[85] She also noted that the project was proposed to empower women. The Project often sought after prominent African American leaders to spread knowledge regarding birth control and the perceived positive effects it would have on the African American community, such as poverty and the lack of education.[86] Because of this, Sanger believed that African American ministers in the South would be useful to gain the trust of people within disadvantaged, African American communities as the Church was a pillar within the community.[86] Also, political leaders such as W.E.B. Dubois were quoted in the Project proposal criticizing Black people in the United States for having many children and for being less intelligent than their white counterparts:

the mass of ignorant Negroes still breed carelessly and disastrously, so that the increase among Negroes, even more than the increase among Whites, is from that part of the population least intelligent and fit, and least able to rear their children properly. [85]

Even though The Negro Project received a lot of praise from white leaders and eugenicists of the time, it is important to note that Margaret Sanger wanted to clear concerns that this was not a project to terminate African Americans.[86] To add to the clarification, she received support from prominent African American leaders such as Mary McLeod Bethune and Adam Clayton Powell Jr.[85] These leaders and many more would later serve on the Negro National Advisory Council of Planned Parenthood Federation of America in 1942. Still, many modern activists criticize Margaret Sanger for practicing eugenics on the African American community. Angela Davis, a leader who is associated with the Black Panther Party, made claims of Margaret Sanger targeting the African American community to reduce the population:

Calling for the recruitment of Black ministers to lead local birth control committees, the Federations proposal suggested that Black people should be rendered as vulnerable as possible to their birth control propaganda.[87]

After the eugenics movement was well established in the United States, it spread to Germany. California eugenicists began producing literature promoting eugenics and sterilization and sending it overseas to German scientists and medical professionals.[7] By 1933, California had subjected more people to forceful sterilization than all other U.S. states combined. The forced sterilization program engineered by the Nazis was partly inspired by California’s.[8]

The Rockefeller Foundation helped develop and fund various German eugenics programs,[88] including the one that Josef Mengele worked in before he went to Auschwitz.[7]

Upon returning from Germany in 1934, where more than 5,000 people per month were being forcibly sterilized, the California eugenics leader C. M. Goethe bragged to a colleague:

You will be interested to know that your work has played a powerful part in shaping the opinions of the group of intellectuals who are behind Hitler in this epoch-making program. Everywhere I sensed that their opinions have been tremendously stimulated by American thought . . . I want you, my dear friend, to carry this thought with you for the rest of your life, that you have really jolted into action a great government of 60 million people.[7]

Eugenics researcher Harry H. Laughlin often bragged that his Model Eugenic Sterilization laws had been implemented in the 1935 Nuremberg racial hygiene laws.[89] In 1936, Laughlin was invited to an award ceremony at Heidelberg University in Germany (scheduled on the anniversary of Hitler’s 1934 purge of Jews from the Heidelberg faculty), to receive an honorary doctorate for his work on the “science of racial cleansing”. Due to financial limitations, Laughlin was unable to attend the ceremony and had to pick it up from the Rockefeller Institute. Afterwards, he proudly shared the award with his colleagues, remarking that he felt that it symbolized the “common understanding of German and American scientists of the nature of eugenics.”[90]

Henry Friedlander wrote that although the German and American eugenics movements were similar, the United States did not follow the same slippery slope as Nazi eugenics because American “federalism and political heterogeneity encouraged diversity even with a single movement.” In contrast, the German eugenics movement was more centralized and did not contain as many diverse ideas as the American movement.[91] Unlike the American movement, one publication and one society, the German Society for Racial Hygiene, represented all German eugenicists in the early 20th century.[91][92]

After 1945, however, historians began to attempt to portray the US eugenics movement as distinct and distant from Nazi eugenics.[93]Jon Entine wrote that eugenics simply means “good genes” and using it as synonym for genocide is an “all-too-common distortion of the social history of genetics policy in the United States.” According to Entine, eugenics developed out of the Progressive Era and not “Hitler’s twisted Final Solution.”[94]

The 1978 Federal Sterilization Regulations, created by the United States Department of Health, Education and Welfare or HEW, (now the United States Department of Health and Human Services) outline a variety of prohibited sterilization practices that were often used previously to coerce or force women into sterilization.[95] These were intended to prevent such eugenics and neo-eugenics as resulted in the involuntary sterilization of large groups of poor and minority women. Such practices include: not conveying to patients that sterilization is permanent and irreversible, in their own language (including the option to end the process or procedure at any time without conceding any future medical attention or federal benefits, the ability to ask any and all questions about the procedure and its ramifications, the requirement that the consent seeker describes the procedure fully including any and all possible discomforts and/or side-effects and any and all benefits of sterilization); failing to provide alternative information about methods of contraception, family planning, or pregnancy termination that are nonpermanent and/or irreversible (this includes abortion); conditioning receiving welfare and/or Medicaid benefits by the individual or his/her children on the individuals “consenting” to permanent sterilization; tying elected abortion to compulsory sterilization (cannot receive a sought out abortion without “consenting” to sterilization; using hysterectomy as sterilization; and subjecting minors and the mentally incompetent to sterilization.[95][65][96] The regulations also include an extension of the informed consent waiting period from 72 hours to 30 days (with a maximum of 180 days between informed consent and the sterilization procedure).[65][95][96]

However, several studies have indicated that the forms are often dense and complex and beyond the literacy aptitude of the average American, and those seeking publicly funded sterilization are more likely to possess below-average literacy skills.[97] High levels of misinformation concerning sterilization still exist among individuals who have already undergone sterilization procedures, with permanence being one of the most common gray factors.[97][98] Additionally, federal enforcement of the requirements of the 1978 Federal Sterilization Regulation is inconsistent and some of the prohibited abuses continue to be pervasive, particularly in underfunded hospitals and lower income patient hospitals and care centers.[65][96]

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Eugenics in the United States – Wikipedia

Neo-eugenics | Article about Neo-eugenics by The Free …

eugenics (yoojn`ks), study of human geneticsgenetics, scientific study of the mechanism of heredity. While Gregor Mendel first presented his findings on the statistical laws governing the transmission of certain traits from generation to generation in 1856, it was not until the discovery and detailed study of the ….. Click the link for more information. and of methods to improve the inherited characteristics, physical and mental, of the human race. Efforts to improve the human race through bettering housing facilities and other environmental conditions are known as euthenics.

Sir Francis GaltonGalton, Sir Francis , 18221911, English scientist, founder of eugenics; cousin of Charles Darwin. He turned from exploration and meteorology (where he introduced the theory of the anticyclone) to the study of heredity and eugenics (a term that he coined). ….. Click the link for more information. , who introduced the term eugenics, is usually regarded as the founder of the modern science of eugenics; his emphasis was on the role of factors under social control that could either improve or impair the qualities of future generations. Modern eugenics is directed chiefly toward the discouragement of propagation among the unfit (negative eugenics) and encouragement of propagation among those who are healthy, intelligent, and of high moral character (positive eugenics). Such a program involves many difficulties, especially that of defining which traits are most desirable.

The first half of the 20th cent. saw extreme coercive application of such principles by governments ranging from miscegenation laws and enforced sterilization of the insane and “feebleminded” (in truth, often poor and less educated), frequently by Progressive jurists, in the United States and other nations to the HolocaustHolocaust , name given to the period of persecution and extermination of European Jews by Nazi Germany. Romani (Gypsies), homosexuals, Jehovah’s Witnesses, the disabled, and others were also victims of the Holocaust. ….. Click the link for more information. of Nazi Germany. Regulated eugenics continues in some parts of the world; China enacted restrictions on marriages involving persons with certain disabilities and diseases in 1994.

In the United States in recent years, interest in eugenics has centered around genetic screening (see genetic testinggenetic testing, medical screening for genetic disorders, by examining either a person’s DNA directly or a person’s biochemistry or chromosomes for indirect evidence. Testing may be done to identify a genetic disorder a person has, whether the disorder is already evident or not, ….. Click the link for more information. ). It is known, for example, that hemophilia, albinism, and certain structural abnormalities are inheritable. Family gene maps, called pedigrees, can help families with serious diseases avoid having children with the same diseases through genetic counseling, and, increasingly, prospective parents can be tested directly for the presence of genes linked to inheritable diseases and abnormalities. If conception has occurred, tests such as amniocentesisamniocentesis , diagnostic procedure in which a sample of the amniotic fluid surrounding a fetus is removed from the uterus by means of a fine needle inserted through the abdomen of the pregnant woman (see pregnancy). ….. Click the link for more information. and chorionic villus samplingchorionic villus sampling (CVS) or chorionic villus biopsy (CVB) , diagnostic procedure in which a sample of chorionic villi from the developing placenta is removed from the uterus of a pregnant woman (see pregnancy) using a fine needle inserted through the abdomen or ….. Click the link for more information. can be used to detect certain genetic defects in the fetus. Embryo screeningembryo screening, procedure (see genetic testing) in which a single cell is removed from an embryo two or three days after it has been conceived through in vitro fertilization and tested for genetic abnormalities. ….. Click the link for more information. can be used in conjunction with in vitro fertilizationin vitro fertilization (IVF), technique for conception of a human embryo outside the mother’s body. Several ova, or eggs, are removed from the mother’s body and placed in special laboratory culture dishes (Petri dishes); sperm from the father are then added, or in many cases a ….. Click the link for more information. prior to pregnancy to test embryos for genetic abnormalities; only those found free of defects are implanted and allowed to develop.

See J. H. Bennett, Natural Selection, Heredity, and Eugenics (1983); D. J. Kevles, In the Name of Eugenics (1985); M. B. Adams, ed., The Wellborn Science: Eugenics in Germany, France, Brazil, and Russia (1989); E. A. Carlson, The Unfit: A History of a Bad Idea (2001); A. Cohen, Imbeciles: The Supreme Court, American Eugenics and the Sterilization of Carrie Buck (2016); T. C. Leonard, Illiberal Reformers: Race, Eugenics and American Economics in the Progressive Era (2016).

the study of the genetic health of man and of the ways of improving his genetic characteristics, of possible methods of actively influencing the evolution of mankind for the purpose of further perfecting his nature, of the conditions and laws of inheriting giftedness and talent, and of the possible limitation of transmission of hereditary diseases to future generations.

The main principles of eugenics were formulated by the English biologist F. Galton in the book Hereditary Genius (1869). Despite the fact that progressive scientists set humanitarian goals for eugenics, it has often been used by reactionaries and racists, who, basing their ideas on pseudo-scientific notions of the inferiority of certain races and peoples and on national prejudices and dissensions, have justified racial and national discrimination; these reactionaries and racists have in the end replaced eugenics, as fascism did for its own political ends, with so-called racial hygiene and have legalized genocide. Controversy rages around the term eugenics. Along with those who consider the use of this term rightful in the present and in the future, there are scientists who believe that the basic content of eugenics (including its tasks and goals, as well as the most reasonable means of achieving them) will be transferred to such vigorously developing branches of science as human genetics, or anthropogenetics, and medical genetics.

These sciences, which study the inheritance and variability of characters of the human organism, have shown that the diversity of human beings is due both to their hereditary disposition and their conditions of existence (including natural-climatic and socioeconomic conditions). The study of monozygotic twins, in particular of their mental development, and also genealogical observations, testify to the fact that heredity plays a large, but by no means exclusive, role in determining the mental and creative abilities of a human being. If mans morphological characters are determined predominantly by heredity, his mental characteristics and behavior are very strongly influenced by his environment, and chiefly his social environmentrearing, education, work habits, and the influence of the collective. There are many more persons with outstanding creative potential than there are persons who have succeeded in realizing that potential. It is for this reason that it becomes so important to bring out all positive potentialities deposited in the genotype of the individual by creating conditions that in every possible way foster his development and his formation as a personality. V. I. Lenin wrote: Capitalism stifled, suppressed, and crushed the mass of gifted persons among the workers and toiling peasants. These gifted persons perished under the yoke of necessity, poverty, and outrage practiced upon human personality. Our duty now is to know how to find these gifted persons and put them to work (Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 39, p. 235).

With respect to the possibilities and methods of improving human nature, there are different points of view. Much can be done along these lines by medical genetics, whose tasks include the study of the action of mutagenschemical ones, radiation, and other factors of the external environment that damage genetic structures in human germ cellsand the prevention (including by sanitation of the environment in which man lives) of harmful mutations that threaten the health of future generations. The manifestation of harmful mutations is especially promoted by marriages between relatives, since in such cases the probability of obtaining from both parents an ordinarily masked (recessive) harmful character is increased. This explains the fact that in isolated human groups (isolates), where, as a rule, marriages between close relatives are more frequent, the percentage of hereditary diseases and deformities is higher. The harmful consequences of marriages between close relatives were noted even in antiquity, which led to their condemnation, prohibition by custom, and subsequently also by law. Prevention of the spread of harmful mutations and their combinations by limiting marriages between carriers of such mutations is accomplished by medical genetic consultations, whose purpose is to evaluate the possibilities of manifestation of a defective heredity in the off-spring of persons entering marriage. Quite precise predictions in this respect can already be made for many hereditary diseases, such as hemophilia and color blindness. Contrary to precautionary (preventive) measures, which prevent deterioration of human heredity, so-called positive measures of acting on human nature (including artificial insemination, creation of semen banks, and heteronomous fertilization), which predominantly contemplate increasing the number of offspring among persons with outstanding mental or physical qualities, are addressed to the future. Such methods of improving the human species have been repeatedly criticized and have not been recognized or practiced on a large scale. The solution of the problems associated with strengthening the genetic health of mankind, which remains an important contemporary problem, requires further detailed research in human genetics, with ever wider use of the methods and achievements of molecular genetics.

IU. E. VELTISHCHEV and M. E. LOBASHOV

The attempt to improve the phenotypes of future generations of the human population by fostering the reproduction of those with favorable phenotypes and genotypes and hampering or preventing breeding by those with undesirable phenotypes and genotypes. The concept is largely discredited.

the study of methods of improving the quality of the human race, esp by selective breeding

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Neo-eugenics | Article about Neo-eugenics by The Free …

Facts to counteract the normalization of neo-nazis This Political …

This past weekend, Richard Spencer was punched while giving an interview to an Australian outlet. Now certain media is wondering whether punching a neo nazi is the right thing to do. Spencer vehemently argues that he is not a neo nazi and most media profiles are not challenging this assertion, further complicating the morality of punching a neo nazi (since he argues he is not a neo-nazi, then whoever punched him took a jab at a victim of anti free speech violence or so goes one of the lines of thinking).

Richard Spencer, founder of the so called alt-right has been on record numerous times stating that his desired political goal is to dress extreme right, white supremacist ideas in an acceptable shell. In an extensive profile published in October 2016, he explained this ultimate goal:

In order to reach these goals, Spencer uses numerous neologisms and newspeak to refer to old Nazi and white supremacists ideas. Instead of referring to eugenics, for example, he uses human biological diversity which is the way white supremacists attempt to introduce these ideas to the mainstream.

Yesterday I posted a critical analysis of the ways that mainstream media is playing right into his hands of mainstreaming neo-nazi ideology and pushing the boundaries of acceptable discourse. The whole thread can be read here:

I have already written about the way the fashion profiles of Richard Spencer and other known neo-nazis in mainstream media are normalizing these discourses and making these people appealing to the public, sexy and desirable even. As recent as November 2016, Spencer was filmed giving a speech where his followers broke into Sieg Heil Nazi salutes and Spencer himself used words such as lugenpresse (lying press) that have a long history within Nazism. However, since these interviews and profiles rarely (if ever) point to this mans history of neo-nazi advocacy (including eugenics and mass extermination), heres a rundown of the past seven years of Richard Spencer, in his own words, calling for ethnic cleansing, mass sterilization and a whites only ethnostate.

2010 Spencer begins the promo tour announcing he is starting a new political movement with the aim to push the boundaries of discourse.

In March of the same year, he officially starts the movement he named Alternative Right. On his first public forays as leader of this new movement, Spencer starts the rhetoric obfuscation:

As Ari Feldman explains in this article, human biological diversity is a neologism for eugenics

As an aside, Milo Yiannopoulos has spouted this neo-eugenics garbage in a couple of articles.

This heavily sourced article, from 2010, about the founding of the alternative right, already traces the many links between Richard Spencer and advocates of old school nazi ideas such as revoking citizenship for Black people.

2011 via Internet Archives Wayback Machine, a screenshot of the white nationalist conference Spencer hosted where, among other topics, speakers discussed eugenics (Dysgenics is the study of factors producing the accumulation and perpetuation of defective or disadvantageous genes and traits in offspring of a particular population or species) and again, Human Biological Diversity.

A journalist at Media Matters attended the conference and reported thusly

The journalist was also subjected to a variety of phrenology theories that extolled the virtues of the white craniums inherent superiority.

Another speaker at this conference organized by Richard Spencer was Samuel Dickson, former lawyer to the Georgia Ku Klux Klan. The journalist pointed out that Spencer cloaks his supremacist views behind veils of fairness and fringe science.

2013 In a speech at at the 2013 American Renaissance conference, he advocates for ethnic cleansing so that in the aftermath a white ethnostate can be created

On the same year he spoke about ethnic cleansing, he also advocated for mass sterilizations of Black people (which would be an unequivocally nazi way to achieve the ethnic cleansing he was hoping for)

Also, in 2013, the glamorizing fashion profiles already started. He explained the reasoning behind them (though obviously nobody took him seriously) and how it was part of the strategy to make the alt-right attractive to new followers

At the nationalist conference he hosted, these were the books offered for sale:

Notice The Chosen People, a study of Jewish intelligence and achievement on that table. VDARE, the white nationalist hate site that Spencer used to be part of before he went on to start his own neo nazi cart has an extensive review of the book and its analysis of IQ of Jewish people.

2014 At a far right conference in Hungary

2016 At yet another conference hosted by Richard Spencer, Alt-Right Leaders: We Arent Racist, We Just Hate Jews

Richard Spencer at the Republican convention in 2016

Next time someone claims Richard Spencer is a dissenter or a politician or some such nonsense, point them to this list of Richard Spencer in his own words. He has been spouting racist violence for years and we should not allow the normalization of his rhetoric as part of the acceptable boundaries of political discourse. Advocating for mass sterilization of Black people or the elimination of Jewish people are not topics of political debate. They are the machinations of cruel, immoral people who should not be allowed to promote these views unchallenged.

I am an independent writer with no affiliations. If you find value in the type of work I do, please consider making a donation. Any funds, no matter how small will allow me to continue this ongoing research and analysis. Follow me on Twitter for daily updates.

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Facts to counteract the normalization of neo-nazis This Political …

Make Fertility Great Again – returnofkings.com

Should old ladies be having children outside of divine assistance? Former director of Londons Serpentine Galleries, Dame Julia Peyton-Jones, has become a mother via surrogacy, aged 64, prompting the country to question whether such a thing is ethical or even lawful.

As a strong libertarian, I believe an Englishmans home is his castle, but at these late stages of life, nature leaves a womans womb as nothing but a barren ruin. It makes sense to question how the child will fare when their support network has also come to ruin, if only on behalf of the childs potential estate, let alone for the effect this will have on society.

The real question is not why older women would want another woman to carry their baby to fruition. Perhaps it is just a valedictory pretence of vitality by those who bought the lie that every woman could and should have it allpostmenstrual howling at the moon, long after the biological clock grew silent. Rather, we must ask why we Europeans have [lost] the will to replace ourselves, as Prof. William Reville recently put it. How can we end this revolt against nature or voluntary demographic extinction? Of course, overpowering nature is how we come to not only survive but dominate and flourish on this planet, but ignoring scientific facts and natural laws in the face of expiration is the direct antithesis; it is simply degenerate.

More women are having their children over 50!

Sadly, Gramsci and Lukacs theory that Western culture must be destroyed for communism to emerge has been tested by leftists and neocons since the 1960s, when cultural Marxism came to dominate the cultural scene. From political policy to popular writing, half of Western populations have bought the idea that white procreation or even any sense of identity is about the worst thing imaginable. Whilst celebrities increasingly promote having children over the age of fifty, every week, another article is published by some young, damaged goods or other, trying to convince the world (by which I mean herself) that shes just fine without a family. The latest I read, from the ironically named Ms. Chatel, presents the usual platitudeschildren will ruin your lifebut, apparently of even greater importance, they could increase mankinds carbon footprint.

Yet, the fact is housewives are the happiest women around and I imagine their husbands are happiest too. Furthermore, traditional families are a great benefit to society as well; they are our most powerful bulwark against high crime rates. For a healthy society, we can only conclude that women at Peyton-Jones age should ideally be grandmothers. Grandparents are a valuable pillar of society the more time they spend with their grandchildren, the better it is for their development and thus, the greater benefit we all receive. Can we really be surprised that this is the case when this is how we have evolved? (N.B. Theres a good reason other familial structures havent survived.)

So, the closer we get to the natural order, the more sustainable our society becomes. If this were not the case, men would not have evolved to find youth so attractive and women would not have evolved to age sooner and worse than men, focusing our mating habits towards those stronger, healthier eggs. Of course, women age sooner but live longer because they do not readily outlive their usefulness as grandmothers. The reason we have evolved to find Peyton-Jones act so taboo, however, is that she will readily outlive her usefulness as a mother; to display this as acceptable is a direct threat to the society our children must inherit. The threat cultural Marxism poses must, therefore, be stopped.

The natural order is the goal of all Traditionalists

But, as I said, Im a libertarian; so, what about individual liberty? Well, of course, if you dont like the natural order of things, thats fine. By all means, go and raise a family of twelve in a highly radioactive environment at the age of 80. I will wish you the very best of luck and, whats more, I will politely disguise the futility I feel in doing so. But dont ask me to value what you do or to remain silent when you set about proselytizing society to your bizarre ideas. In order for my children and grandchildren (if youre capable of thinking that far ahead) to enjoy the liberties I desire for myself, were going to need a sustainable environment in which they can flourish. And the purposes for which you propose we use our medical advancements dont cut the mustard.

Instead, I propose we use our great scientific advancements to restore and enhance the natural order, for the benefit of us all. But how can we usher in a Spring, rather than the coming demographic Winter?

Could positive screening make child-rearing more popular?

In an interview I conducted with Prof. Richard Lynn, he suggested that states should stop imposing degenerating policies, promoting anything other than the traditional. However, he noted that this has only ever had a negligible effect in swaying the opinions of those Europeans who will not replace themselves. What is needed is neo-eugenics, that is, private services provided by the market, e.g. designer babies.

According to Lynn, such services could provide both an attractive and efficient way to improve demographics and even raise the average IQ of our populations by a standard deviation in just one generation. If the state were so inclined, it could promote the use of such services through subsidies, assistance or tax breaks; thus, encouraging those who were breeding to replacement levels and using these services to select preferable genes for their children, in much the same way that IVF screening currently allows us to avoid relatively undesirable qualities.

So, I ask you again, should grannies be having children? If you like civilization, you wont love this becoming normal, thats for sure. Whether it is through legislation or frowning upon this as a social taboo, this degeneracy must certainly be countered by the promotion and protection of traditional families and the freeing of the market to make the prospect of having children far more attractive to young Westerners. Lets explore every avenue to secure the future of Western civilization with the same vigour that was used to bring it to ruins.

Read More: How Mass Immigration Is Driven By Female Consumerism And Low Fertility

Feb 2, 2017Rik Storey

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Make Fertility Great Again – returnofkings.com

Mike Adams – The Health Ranger: Big Pharma’s Secret Global …

The Health Ranger Mike Adams gives a special presentation Big Pharma’s agenda to make sure you die broke, as well as neo-eugenics and how it ties into food contamination and vaccines. Why are they pushing so hard to get you to take vaccines when the science shows that vaccines doesn’t really work?

The pharmaceutical industry makes money from sickness and disease, so it’s in their interests for you never to obtain a reasonable standard of health, and that you exist in a degenerative disease zone where they can extract all the money you’ve worked so hard to earn for your entire life. Adams explains why alternative health treatments which are cheaper, safer, more effective and more readily available than pharmaceuticals, are suppressed by Big Pharma, because you can’t patent superfoods, pomegranate seeds, walnuts, or any other natural product of nature. Bio-engineered foods, combined with the synthetic compounds in pharmaceuticals, and toxic personal products like shampoos and deodorants, are combining to create a highly toxic environment for our body, turning your liver into a toxic waste dump and preventing your vital organs from functioning properly.

Adams also discusses medical experimentation on humans beings conducted by pharmaceutical companies, the government and the military, explaining how we are all unwitting guinea pigs being bombarded with innumerable different attacks on our health as part of the global population reduction agenda being promoted and funded by elitists like Bill Gates. http://www.healthranger.org/

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Mike Adams – The Health Ranger: Big Pharma’s Secret Global …

Neo-eugenics | definition of Neo-eugenics by Medical …

eugenics [u-jeniks]

the study and control of procreation as a means of improving hereditary characteristics of future generations. The concept has sometimes been used in a pseudoscientific way as an excuse for unethical, racist, or even genocidal practices such as involuntary sterilization or certain other practices in Nazi Germany and elsewhere.

macro eugenics eugenics policies that affect whole populations or groups. This has sometimes led to racism and genocide, such as the Nazi policies of sterilization and extermination of ethnic groups.

micro eugenics eugenics policies affecting only families or kinship groups; such policies are directed mainly at women and thus raise special ethical issues.

negative eugenics that concerned with prevention of reproduction by individuals considered to have inferior or undesirable traits.

positive eugenics that concerned with promotion of optimal mating and reproduction by individuals considered to have desirable or superior traits.

1. Practices and policies, as of mate selection or of sterilization, which tend to better the innate qualities of progeny and human stock.

2. Practices and genetic counseling directed to anticipating genetic disability and disease.

[G. eugeneia, nobility of birth, fr. eu, well, + genesis, production]

The study or practice of attempting to improve the human gene pool by encouraging the reproduction of people considered to have desirable traits and discouraging or preventing the reproduction of people considered to have undesirable traits.

eugenic adj.

eugenically adv.

Etymology: Gk, eu + genein, to produce

the study of methods for controlling the characteristics of populations through selective breeding.

1. Practices and policies, as in mate selection or sterilization, which tend to better the innate qualities of progeny and human stock.

2. Practices and genetic counseling directed to anticipating genetic disability and disease.

[G. eugeneia, nobility of birth, fr. eu, well, + genesis, production]

A social movement in which the population of a society, country, or the world is to be improved by controlling the passing on of hereditary information through mating.

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Neo-eugenics | definition of Neo-eugenics by Medical …

Gore Lied

Apr 10

The April 10, 2012 dead-tree edition of The Oregonian lead with a big dose of global warming realism.

This is what I was greeted with when I trotted out to fetch my dead-tree edition of The Oregonian this morning: Global warming without warming above the fold! Id seen the on-line version of this story last night with its own headline Global warming hiatus in recent years helps spur skepticism but to see it lead the dead-tree edition was even more satisfying.

To his credit, reporter Scott Learn points out some facts that Joe Romm would characterize as long-debunked denier talking points. And yet, The Oregonian is nobodys idea of a global warming denier :

For people who want more action on global warming, an inconvenient truth has arisen over the last decade: Annual average temperatures stayed relatively flat globally and dropped in the United States and Oregon despite mankinds growing release of greenhouse gases.

The hiatus in temperature increases may be contributing to higher public skepticism about warming, particularly in the United States.

Computer climate models didnt predict the hiatus, notes Portland meteorologist Chuck Wiese.

Climatologists, and climate models, are overestimating the impact of greenhouse gases on warming relative to natural climate cycles, they say, and arent being held accountable when warming projections dont pan out.

They just keep moving the goalposts to where you can never get a satisfactory answer, Wiese says.

Kudos to The Oregonian for having the guts to report the truth, rather than just regurgitating the blathering coming from the consensus.

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Mar 30

Climate models? Nah. In this case its models predicting when Japanese earthquake debris starts washing up on the West Coast of the US, which only serves as further evidence that nearly all computer models cannot be relied upon.

NOAA originally predicted debris from the tsunami triggered by the 9.0 earthquake in Tohoku, Japan, in March of 2011 would begin washing up on shores in the Pacific Northwest in 2013. Those were rough estimates based on forecasted ocean conditions and reports of debris from fishing and commercial vessels.

But, The Oregonian now reports:

Perhaps the largest piece of debris resulting from last year’s tsunami in Japan is this fishing boat. It was sighted March 20, drifiting 150 miles off the coast of British Columbia. Photo via Canadian Department of National Defence

Debris from the March 2011 Japanese tsunami will likely wash ashore sooner than originally thought.Thats a prediction the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration says was confirmed by the sighting of a Japanese fishing vessel lost in the tsunami and spotted last week in Canadian waters off the Queen Charlotte Islands.

Faced with the facts, NOAA responds:

Were working on updating the model, said Dianna Parker, NOAA spokeswoman. We expect results will show some of the debris that rides a little higher will arrive ahead of schedule. The bulkier debris, sitting lower in the water, will take longer.

Whether it be global warming climate models, or earthquake debris models, or a fill-in-the-blank model, its garbage in, garbage out.

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Mar 13

When you get right down to it, S. Matthew Liaos crazy neo-eugenics idea boils down to:

Small people = small carbon footprints

Perhaps we were warned many years ago in this song:

Its a world of laughter, a world or tears Its a world of hopes, its a world of fear Theres so much that we share That its time were aware Its a small world after all

CHORUS: Its a small world after all Its a small world after all Its a small world after all Its a small, small world

There is just one moon and one golden sun And a smile means friendship to everyone. Though the mountains divide And the oceans are wide Its a small small world

(chorus)

World of tears? World of fears? Share? Its time were aware? Oceans are wide? Hmmmmmm.

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Mar 08

Automotive News reports:

DETROIT (Reuters) A $100,000-plus Fisker Automotive luxury car died during Consumer Reports speed testing for reasons that are still unknown, leaving the struggling electric car startup with another blow to its image.

It is a little disconcerting that you pay that amount of money for a car and it lasts basically 180 miles before going wrong, David Champion, senior director for the magazines automotive test center, told Reuters.

Fisker has benefited from the publicity generated when actor Leonardo DiCaprio was handed the first Karma last summer and pop idol Justin Bieber received one as a gift this month.

The breakdown of the Consumer Reports car is more bad news for a company that already recalled some Karmas. Fisker also has changed its CEO and halted production over the past month as it seeks to renegotiate the terms of a $529 million loan from the U.S. Department of Energy.

One of Fisker Automotives primary financial backers is venture captital firm, Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers, of which Al Gore is a partner. Fisker also received a $528.7 million conditional loan from the Department of Energys Advanced Technologies Vehicle Manufacturing Loan Program. Thats a LOT of money to produce only 200-300 cars thus far, some of which seem to be lemons.

This is the same company that last year caught flak because after it secured the US government financing, started assembling their cars in Finland.

By the looks of things, Fisker Automotive seems headed for the same fate as Solyndra.

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Mar 05

This video is from December 21, 2009 at COP15 just about a month after Climategate 1.0 hit so its not exactly fresh, but I just discovered it on YouTube, and DeSmogblogger Chris Mooney makes a very frank admission about the skeptic blogosphere that I believe went unnoticed back in 09, but is relevant even 2+ years later:

Mooney:

You have the rise of the blogosphere, where global warming denial is actually running rampant, and I think its totally got us whupped, in terms of pro-climate bloggers versus anti-climate bloggers.

One explanation of why the alarmists were, and are continuing to get whupped, was noted by Ross McKitrick recently, and was featured on WUWT as last weeks quote of the week. McKitrick:

The problem the alarmists had, was that there was never anything substantial to hit back at. They had the equivalents of the big guns and the massive air support but there never was a skeptic HQ to be pounded, no big central organization, no massed ranks of skeptic soldiers or even any third-partybacking the resistance.

Every one of the skeptics was a lone volunteer guerrilla fighter, who needed absolutely no logistical support of any kind to continue the fight indefinitely. The alarmists never understood this, preferring to think that there simply had to be some massive hidden organization orchestrating the resistance. While they wasted time and effort attacking targets that only existed in their head, each of the guerrillas chewed on them mercilessly in their own particular way.

The entire Mooney video is here.

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Mar 02

The Al Gore /AIT Index returns!

The index is calculated from Dr. Roy Spencers UAH Globally Averaged Satellite-Based Tropospheric Temperatures that are released each month. The GORE LIED graphics department simply whips out a magenta crayon, and marks up Dr. Spencers graph to show the temperature change since Al Gore released his fantasy/sci-fi movie, An Inconvenient Truth.

Through February, 2012 globally averaged temperatures have plunged .56F (.31C) since An Inconvenient Truth was released at the Sundance Film Festival on January 24, 2006 truly an inconvenient truth.

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Feb 27

An Inconvenient Video from COP-15 (2009) featuring DeSmog Blogs Brendan Demelle. This video was deemed soooo compelling by viewers that in the two years its been posted it had a whopping nine views when I scrounged it up from the YouTube dustbin. An excerpt from Demelle discussing the state of journalism, and the rise of bloggers:

with the struggling economy which is hurting newsrooms there just arent as many resources to devote to deep investigative journalism than there used to be, and I think thats why you see a rise in citizen journalism, people taking it upon themselves to go and try to figure out what the facts are and to report the facts. Also, you know, one of the things that Danny mentioned is that journalists are, you know, taught to be objective and not to have a view. Id just say that youre also taught to report facts, and not lies and misdeeds.

He may say that, and yet I get the feeling that Brendan will only part with that fake 2012 Heartland Climate Strategy memo when we pry it from his proverbial cold, dead fingers.

Heres the whole video. DeMelle appears at 8:00

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Gore Lied

Free eugenics Essays and Papers – 123helpme

Title Length Color Rating Early 20th Century Eugenics as part of Modernism – As the sun was setting on the 19th century, a new theory, called eugenics was just beginning to rise. Eugenics is the idea that human mental, moral, temperamental and physiological traits are passed down through generations, and that society should attempt to foster the reproduction of those with favorable traits and discourage or eliminate those with less than favorable traits. In the early parts of the 20th century, eugenics was put into practice across the rich world. This increase, not only in popularity but in application is best viewed when part of the greater context of modernity…. [tags: Eugenics] :: 5 Works Cited 1047 words (3 pages) Strong Essays [preview] The History of Eugenics in America – Eugenics is the study of the agencies under social control that may improve or impair the racial qualities of future generations either physically or mentally. After the major turn of the century, eugenics developed into a world- wide movement. (Vermont University, 2003) It was led by scientist and scholars in several diverse fields, and funded by wealthy philanthropists, also supported by statesmen. Eugenics played a very vital and central role in the political, social, and intellectual history of numerous diverse peoples and nations…. [tags: The Eugenics Movement] :: 5 Works Cited 2148 words (6.1 pages) Research Papers [preview] Eugenics: A Controversial Science – Eugenics has been a very controversial science that has existed in the world for centuries. Eugenics is defined as the study of or belief in the possibility of improving the qualities of the human species or a human population by such means as discouraging reproduction by persons having genetic defects or presumed to have inheritable undesirable traits (negative eugenics) or encouraging reproduction by persons presumed to have inheritable desirable traits (positive eugenics)(Dictionary.com, 2005). Its base came from the idea that the human race could be perfected by getting rid of its undesirable traits and the desirable ones could be multiplied…. [tags: Eugenics Essays] 1168 words (3.3 pages) Better Essays [preview] The Eugenics Movement – In the 1920s, a company in New York started a movement known as The Eugenics Movement. The idea of eugenics was eventually picked up by Germany, China, Peru, India and Bangladesh. The movement is still in effect till this day; however, it is not as prevalent as it once was. The beginning of the Eugenics Movement all started at Cold Spring Harbor, New York. The United States coined the term Eugenics from Great Britain in the early 1900s. In the year 1910, a man by the name of Charles B. Davenport founded the Eugenics Records Office (ERO)…. [tags: Eugenics, ERO, sterilization] :: 3 Works Cited 1539 words (4.4 pages) Powerful Essays [preview] Eugenics -Not the Way of the Future – Eugenics in the world today has become an issue because of its many positive uses furthermore its possible consequences. It is believed by many that eugenics does more harm than good, on the other hand there are exceptions; it is not the way of the future. There is no doubt that it could be extremely useful for preventing diseases such as cancer and others before we are even born. But, with this also comes the ability to give children genes before their born that will give them talent to run faster, jump higher, use more of their brain which will strictly discriminate them from the rest of society in a way where they will always stand out, the reason being is their extraordinary talents due… [tags: Eugenics, Genetic Engineering] 722 words (2.1 pages) Good Essays [preview] The Ethics and Morality of Eugenics in Society – My research revolves around the ethics and morality of eugenics (Science of heredity and good breeding), and whether society should be in favor of influencing genetics in order to create a more favorable genetic pool. This topic interests me because I find great interest in political and cultural issues, and I have always been fascinated by whether eugenics would actually work and if governments should be in support of it. The sources I found were all scientific journals from credible books. I did this to because I needed to gain information on studies that have taken place in the name of eugenics as well as establish that eugenics is high priority within the scientific community.Taking this… [tags: disabled, eugenics, influencing genetics] :: 7 Works Cited 1598 words (4.6 pages) Powerful Essays [preview] A Look at Eugenics – Introduction Eugenics is the conviction and practice of enhancing the hereditary nature of the human population. It is a social theory upholding the change of human hereditary qualities through the advancement of higher proliferation of individuals with coveted characteristics and decreased multiplication of individuals with less-wanted or undesired attributes. It alludes to the investigation of or faith in the likelihood of enhancing the characteristics of the human species or a human populace, especially by embracing varied hereditary qualities or pessimistic selective breeding…. [tags: Heredity Nature, Human Heredity Qualities] :: 4 Works Cited 1221 words (3.5 pages) Strong Essays [preview] The ethics of eugenics – The theory of eugenics has changed throughout time from its conception by Sir Francis Galton to its modern technological interpretation in the 21st century. The term has been embraced by Social Darwinists, Progressives, human genetic engineers, and Nazis, to just name a few. The theorys popularity has undergone cycles of approval and upheaval as it is a fairly conceptually fluid idea. Today its definition is still hazy, with both sides of its controversial spectrum debating what it really means…. [tags: Social Darwinists, Sir Francis Galton] :: 28 Works Cited 1675 words (4.8 pages) Powerful Essays [preview] The Misapplication of Eugenics – The concept of eugenics has to do with the belief or practice of improving the genetic quality of the human race (Eugenics 2010). The concept was first introduced by Francis Galton, a researcher who wished to apply Darwins theory of evolution to the human race. Much like many endeavors that start off with good intentions, the results of applying this concept in real life were gross crimes against humanity. The eugenics movement in the early 20th century perverted the original concept by employing morally objectionable techniques including forced sterilization, marriage restrictions, segregation, internment camps, and genocide (Black 2012)…. [tags: Humans, Genetic Quality, Francis Galton] :: 4 Works Cited 1023 words (2.9 pages) Strong Essays [preview] The Three Stooges: Charles Darwin, Adolf Hitler and Margaret Sanger – Only the most imaginative mind could fathom the thought of human beings being selected or disregarded and even killed based on biological protocol. This scientific theory is responsible for the reproduction of superior genes through heredity by controversial means. This idea is based on the evolution of the human species or basically survival of the fittest. Charles Darwin who is the greatest known scientist to ever live popularized this theory and is responsible for the brutality and death of well over 100 million human beings…. [tags: Eugenics] :: 41 Works Cited 1299 words (3.7 pages) Strong Essays [preview] The Downfall of Eugenics – In the twentieth-century politics has played a vital role in the way disease is perceived by the average person. Every aspect of disease became a political concern with eugenics publically taking on a major role in public policy. Giving credit to eugenics, many Americans began to worry more about their personal genetic traits as well as the traits that they may pass on to their children. Later society became interested with eugenics on a more community-oriented basis. The downfall of Eugenics came when reformers began to use it as a program of social control, promoting government intervention and coercion in human reproduction. Masturbation was once seen as degenerative disease that led… [tags: Medical Ethics] :: 4 Works Cited 1192 words (3.4 pages) Strong Essays [preview] Edwin Black’s War Against the Weak: Eugenics and America’s Campaign to Create a Master Race – Edwin Black’s War Against the Weak: Eugenics and America’s Campaign to Create a Master Race To the average American it seems unfathomable that US based research into the “scientific” practice of eugenics could have been the foundation and impetus for Hitler’s Nazi genocide and atrocities. In addition, notions of racial superiority and the scientific quest for the development of a pure Aryan nation, both by the United States and foreign countries, particularly Germany, were funded and fueled by monies from such prominent families as the Rockefellers, Carnegies and Harriman’s…. [tags: Edwin Black Eugenics Master Race Essays] 1983 words (5.7 pages) Strong Essays [preview] What is Eugenics? – Introduction Eugenics is defined as a science that deals with the improvement (as by control of human mating) of hereditary qualities of a race or breed (1). The principles of eugenics have been used in many different countries for various reasons. In the United States, eugenics reached its peak in the pre-World War II period. It was believed that the most efficient way to deal with social problems, such as mental illness, poverty and crime, was to inhibit reproduction among people with such characteristics…. [tags: Science, Improving Hereditary Traits. Human] :: 20 Works Cited 1713 words (4.9 pages) Powerful Essays [preview] The Practice of Positive Eugenics – Since its inception in 1883, eugenics has long since been the subject of controversy and a forum for discussion on ethics and morality. Positive eugenics, defined as, “encouraging reproduction by persons presumed to have inheritable desirable traits,” is considered a benevolent form of eugenics, but can be used for sinister purposes. Negative eugenics, officially defined as, “discouraging reproduction by persons having genetic defects or presumed to have inheritable undesirable traits,” is perhaps the more well-known variety of eugenics, with notable examples such as the Holocaust and forced sterilization…. [tags: ethics and morality, reproduction] :: 13 Works Cited 1178 words (3.4 pages) Strong Essays [preview] Eugenics: Improving The Human Race? – The idea that one can improve the human race by careful selection of those who mate and produce offspring is called eugenics. It is better understood as the process of selective breeding can improve human society. The term eugenics is from the greek, meaning well-born. The idea of eugenics is to have a society be abundant with many wanted traits, during a movement called the melting pot where people tried to solve their problems with the use of technology. Inquiries into Human Faculty and Its Development, is the book in which Sir Francis Galton first mentioned the term eugenics…. [tags: Scientific Research ] :: 5 Works Cited 1135 words (3.2 pages) Better Essays [preview] Eugenics – Eugenics, the word that got its bad reputation years ago through an event that changed history: the Holocaust. First dubbed by Francis Galton in the 1880s, the word Eugenics stemmed from the words good and generation. (Eugenics-Meanings) Eugenics means the study of or belief in the possibility of improving the qualities of the human species or a human population. This improvement is done through discouraging reproduction by persons having genetic defects or presumed to have inheritable undesirable traits (negative eugenics); or encouraging reproduction by persons presumed to have inheritable desirable traits (positive eugenics)…. [tags: Genetic Engineering] :: 6 Works Cited 1552 words (4.4 pages) Powerful Essays [preview] Eugenics – Taken from the Greek word eugenes meaning good in stock the term eugenics was coined in 1883 By Francis Galton (1822-1911). Today it is defined by the OED as Pertaining or adapted to the production of fine offspring, esp. in the human race. We will attempt to explain what eugenics was within in the context of its time and how it was to be applied to humans. We will also attempt to identify who its supporters were and the many different reasons why the eugenic doctrine appealed to them. The problem of what to do about the urban poor had been a continuing worry for the middle classes since the mid nineteenth century…. [tags: Sociology] 2214 words (6.3 pages) Powerful Essays [preview] Eugenics: Solving Social Problems? – The melting pot was a movement to solve social problems of the population with the use of technology. Eugenics is the use of science to solve social problems. It is defined as the study of or belief in the possibility of improving the qualities of the human species or a human population, especially by such means as discouraging reproduction by persons having genetic defects or presumed to have inheritable undesirable traits or encouraging reproduction by persons presumed to have inheritable desirable traits…. [tags: Scientific Research ] :: 9 Works Cited 1201 words (3.4 pages) Strong Essays [preview] IVF and the New Eugenics – The addition of a child into a familys home is a happy occasion. Unfortunately, some families are unable to have a child due to unforeseen problems, and they must pursue other means than natural pregnancy. Some couples adopt and other couples follow a different path; they utilize in vitro fertilization or surrogate motherhood. The process is complicated, unreliable, but ultimately can give the parents the gift of a child they otherwise could not have had. At the same time, as the process becomes more and more advanced and scientists are able to predict the outcome of the technique, the choice of what child is born is placed in the hands of the parents…. [tags: Infertility] :: 8 Works Cited 1509 words (4.3 pages) Powerful Essays [preview] Eugenics and Planned Parenthood – When one contemplates the concept of eugenics, few think of modern contraception and abortion when in reality they are one in the same. The American Eugenics Society, founded in 1923, proudly proclaimed that men with incurable conditions should be sterilized. However these conditions were often none that could be helped, such as, ones intelligence, race, and social class (Schweikart and Allen 529-532). The purpose of the society was to create the perfect class of men; elite in all ways…. [tags: Birth Control Movement] :: 12 Works Cited 1395 words (4 pages) Powerful Essays [preview] Was Eugenics Ever Moral? – Eugenics is the study or belief in the possibility of improving the qualities of the human species. Sounds good, right. But the question here is, is it moral to sacrifice someones life or the ability for someone to create life in the name of science. Surely Francis Galton and Gregor Mendel thought so. In the nineteenth century, biology was at its peak. Charles Darwin, who just happens to be Galtons cousin, had just introduced his idea of survival of the fittest. Galton then took that thesis and dissected it…. [tags: human species, charles darwin] :: 7 Works Cited 1043 words (3 pages) Strong Essays [preview] International Eugenics – Throughout the history of international relations, the study of human diversity has held a key role in establishing the political principles and recognized shared culture that defines nationhood. Nations have traditionally been associated with a specific geographic location and political ideology, but they also have ethnical identifiers associated with this shared culture. These ethnical identifiers were thrust onto the world stage during the end of the nineteenth century with the introduction of the study of eugenics…. [tags: Sociology ] :: 13 Works Cited 1825 words (5.2 pages) Term Papers [preview] How the US introduced Eugenics to the World – Eugenics is defined as human improvement by genetic means to improve the hereditary qualities of a race or breed and it was coined by Francis Galton in 1869. Throughout history, the World has borne witness to such atrocities as genocide, where the roots of these movements have been to eliminate the undesirables to allow the strongest and purest an opportunity to thrive and exist. Many would believe that the eugenics movement first started in Europe when the Nazis tried to eradicate Jews, Gays, Gypsys or anyone else they deemed not a part of the master race dreamed up by Hitler…. [tags: sterilization, genetics, Germany, race] :: 10 Works Cited 1022 words (2.9 pages) Strong Essays [preview] Eugenics: America’s Dark Past and Future – The idea of a blonde-haired, blue-eyed race is often credited to Adolf Hitler. The not as well-known part is that this idea was around before Hitler and actually was spread to Germany by eugenics scientists in the United States. In this paper we will look into the full history of eugenics and how the idea was spread across the world. Along the journey we will encounter many major donors that may be of surprise to some of us. Eugenics has been a dark presence in the history of America and will continue to be until real strides are made to end racism…. [tags: blonde-haired, blue-eyed race, hitler] :: 9 Works Cited 1460 words (4.2 pages) Powerful Essays [preview] The Rise and Fall of the Eugnics Movement – Introduction According to Merriam-Webster.com, eugenics is defined as the theory dealing with the production or treatment of a fine, healthy race. Despite this seemingly innocent representation, eugenics is an extremely controversial science. Some even debate whether or not it is worthy of the label of science, or if its just a form of intellectual racism. Nevertheless, eugenics was greatly embraced and was behind a scientific and social revolution during the late 19th century through the Second World War…. [tags: A Historical Analysis of Eugenics] :: 10 Works Cited 3924 words (11.2 pages) Term Papers [preview] Genetic Engineering: Cloning: Dolly and Eugenics – Cloning is vital in American society because it will help us further our knowledge in genetics. Also cloning will make us realize how much scientists can actually accomplish knowing how to clone. Scientists were able to clone an animal in 1997. That accomplishment made all the scientists theories about cloning possible. It gave the scientists hope that one day they will maybe be able to clone a human because they were able to clone a mammal. Eugenics is also vital to American society. Eugenics is the practice of improving humans genetic quality of the human population as a whole…. [tags: dna, science, god] :: 13 Works Cited 1691 words (4.8 pages) Powerful Essays [preview] Eugenics in America – Eugenics in America Eugenics profoundly impacted the culture of the twentieth century. Coined in 1893 by Sir Francis Galton, it studied the heredity and selection of favorable traits. Born out of the social tumults of the late nineteenth century, it represented the Western elites attempt to protect itself from so called inferior cultures of the colonies and new wave immigration. The late eighteenth century was a turbulent time throughout America. An influx of immigrants packed into massive cities such as New York and Chicago…. [tags: Sociology Essays Research Papers] 710 words (2 pages) Better Essays [preview] Reprogenetics and Eugenics – Reprogenetics and Eugenics Advantages: Reprogenetics will enable parents to give their children genes that they themselves do not carry, thereby increasing their offspring’s chances for health, longevity, happiness, and success — this is an appalling prospect for many bio ethicists. Eugenics embodies the desire and attempts of a society’s leaders to control the breeding practices of its citizens, including the forcible sterilization or murder of those deemed as carrying undesirable genes…. [tags: Papers] 862 words (2.5 pages) Better Essays [preview] Eugenic Decision-Making – Eugenics is defined, in some way or the other, as the process of reshaping the human race by determining the kinds of people who will be born. As such, there is much debate in the field of eugenics, with authors, like Philip Kitcher, who support laissez-faire or a minimalist approach of eugenics in which eugenic decision-making should be limited only to avoid neurological illnesses and in which parental free choice is valued. Gregory Stocks essay, The Enhanced and Un-Enhanced, presents otherwise by supporting the position of maximalist eugenics, allowing individuals the full extent in the selection of genes…. [tags: Gattaca, Laissez-Faire, Maximalist Eugenics] 1482 words (4.2 pages) Strong Essays [preview] The Understanding of Eugenics, and the Move Forward from Past Failures. – The Understanding of Eugenics, and the Move Forward from Past Failures. Eugenics, from the Greek word Eu-genes, which means well-born or of good stock, In 1869 was the name given to the work produced by scientist Sir Francis Galton (1822-1911). Sir Francis Galtons work was based primarily on the theories of biological evolution, first developed by Charles Darwin, and was published in his book The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, 1859. Charles Darwin theorized that all species of life descended from common ancestors, and that natural selection had a profound effect by using selective breeding to enhance its worth…. [tags: Sir Francis Galton, Bilogical Evolution, Biology] :: 4 Works Cited 938 words (2.7 pages) Better Essays [preview] Atrocities Associated with the Eugenics Movement – Atrocities Associated with the Eugenics Movement Among the fears of many environmentalists is that of overpopulation. Acutely aware of the finite resources that the planet possesses and the limitations of renewable resources, there are concerns that the planet may soon reach its maximum caring capacity. Since the First Great Transition ten thousand years ago, the planet has experienced an astounding increase in population. Generations later, the planet is beginning to feel the effects of continual population expansion…. [tags: Exploratory Essays Research Papers] :: 4 Works Cited 1243 words (3.6 pages) Strong Essays [preview] Eugenics – The roots of eugenics can be traced back to Britain in the early 1880s when Sir Francis Galton generated the term from the Greek word for well-born. He defined eugenics as the science of improving stock, whether human or animal. According to the American Eugenics Movement, todays study of eugenics has many similarities to studies done in the early 20th century. Back then, Eugenics was, quite literally, an effort to breed better human beings by encouraging the reproduction of people with “good” genes and discouraging those with “bad” genes. (www.eugenicsarchive.org) According to Merriam-Webster, the modern day definition of eugenics is, a science that deals with t… [tags: essays research papers] 1049 words (3 pages) Strong Essays [preview] Neo-Eugenics The Social and Biological Ethics of Designer Babies – … Also it is now understood that ooplasm, the cytoplasm within an egg, can be transferred to another egg in order to swap mitochondrial DNA. Scientists have also figured out that ooplasm is not the only part of the cell that can be transferred, but that whole nuclei can be replaced as well. This is a major breakthrough because whole sets of DNA can be placed into another cell. In a culture where parents seek advantages for their children in schooling, diet, exercise, extracurricular activities, and the like, it is hard to imagine that cultural pressures would not be great to pursue the same for their children with respect to enhanced traits. This quote from an academic journal from Berke… [tags: Healthier Reace, Future Generations] :: 2 Works Cited 1586 words (4.5 pages) Powerful Essays [preview] Eugenics – Eugenics President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863, as the nation approached its third year of bloody civil war. The proclamation declared “that all persons held as slaves” within the rebellious states “are, and henceforward shall be free.” The Civil War was fought to save the republic and free the enslaved. World War II was fought to save the world and stop a group which thought they were a superior race. What do these two wars have in common. They were fought, in part, for equality…. [tags: Papers] 1119 words (3.2 pages) Good Essays [preview] Eugenics Should be Abolished – Eugenics Should be Abolished Since the end of the 19th century, eugenics has had a significant role in the development of Western society. There have been laws established by its presence and a war fought to cease its progress. To analyze the philosophy of and the actions due to eugenics, one must look at the past and see what contributions eugenics has made to events in history. One must also look at the present applications of eugenics and how they affect the lives of people. With these two directions, one can see that because it is racist, encourages immoral actions and is biologically unsound, eugenics is iniquitous and should be abolished from modern medical and political thought…. [tags: Papers] 3259 words (9.3 pages) Powerful Essays [preview] Ethics of Genocide and Eugenics – Gene Therapy: Genocide and Eugenics or Striving for a More Perfect Population Controversy and Ethics Just as there are different types of people who look at one glass of water and describe it as half full or half empty, the public has many different views on the future of our society. Gene therapy is also a glass that can be viewed in different angles different perspectives. Some say it has great potential to shape the ideals of our future, while others believe it signifies intolerance for disabilities, imperfections that supposedly deplete from a persons interests, opportunities and welfare (quoted by Peter Singer, xviii)…. [tags: Biology Medical Biomedical Genetics] :: 2 Works Cited 1413 words (4 pages) Powerful Essays [preview] Euthanasia Essay: Eugenics To Euthanasia – Eugenics To Euthanasia This essay presents the appeal which euthanasia has to modern society. What is this appeal based on. Is it a valid appeal. These and other questions are addressed in this paper. See if this story sounds familiar: A happily married couple – she is a pianist; he a rising scientist – have their love suddenly tested by a decline in the wife’s health. Diagnosed with multiple sclerosis, she falls victim to a steady loss of muscle control and paralysis. The desperate husband uses all his professional skills to save her…. [tags: Free Euthanasia Essay] :: 1 Works Cited 1001 words (2.9 pages) Strong Essays [preview] Genetic Engineering and Eugenics – Genetic Engineering and Eugenics The idea of genetic engineering has been a very heated topic of discussion lately. The possibilities of this topic range from cloning to gene therapy and eugenics. The most recent type, eugenics through gene therapy has created a lot of controversy. Eugenics is the study of how to improve human genetic heritage. This basically is the engineering of babies. The thought of these new designer babies raises many new questions. What are the consequences of these advances…. [tags: Exploratory Essays Research Papers] 1108 words (3.2 pages) Strong Essays [preview] The American Eugenics Movement – The idea of eugenics was first introduced by Sir Francis Galton, who believed that the breeding of two wealthy and successful members of society would produce a child superior to that of two members of the lower class. This assumption was based on the idea that genes for success or particular excellence were present in our DNA, which is passed from parent to child. Despite the blatant lack of research, two men, Georges Vacher de Lapouge and Jon Alfred Mjoen, played to the white supremacists desires and claimed that white genes were inherently superior to other races, and with this base formed the first eugenics society…. [tags: essays research papers fc] :: 3 Works Cited 1421 words (4.1 pages) Strong Essays [preview] In Opposition of Eugenics and Human Embryo Research – In Opposition of Eugenics and Human Embryo Research There are a variety of views of eugenics and all that it entails. The definition of eugenics is “the science of improving the physical and mental qualities of human beings through control of the factors influencing heredity,” ( Funk and Wagnall’s, 1984). Others think eugenics is the social control of human genetic evolution, an ideology of racism and genocide, thought to improve society and halt disease while others think only of the Nazi Regime (Saetz, 1985 and McGee, 1997)…. [tags: Argumentative Persuasive Essays] 667 words (1.9 pages) Better Essays [preview] Ethical Complications of Genetic Engineering and Eugenics – Genetic engineering is currently the fastest growing and perhaps most controversial field of science. Genetic engineering is decoding and manipulating DNA to use for scientific and medical purposes. “The discovery that human cells can be grown in a petri dish has opened up breathtaking possibilities for curing disease – and a morass of ethical complications” (Allen 9). Genetic engineering has already started to be most helpful in the field of medicine. The map of the human genome offers many cures and potentially successful medical procedures…. [tags: Exploratory Essays Research Papers] :: 6 Works Cited 3149 words (9 pages) Strong Essays [preview] To What Extent are American Scientist and Institutions Responsible for Nazi Eugenics? – During Adolf Hitlers reign many American companies and scientist contributed towards advances in eugenic studies, are they to blame for the atrocities that occurred in the Second World War. It started in the late 1800s by Francis Galton who believed that to raise the present miserably low standard of the human race breeding the best with the best had to happen. Although the United States had a large amount of involvement, many European scientists and governments aided the research. In the late 1800s many rich businessmen and prior slave owners were most likely upset as slavery had been abolished, so through science they wanted to make Africans and Asians an inferior race…. [tags: adolf hitler, second world war, racism] :: 7 Works Cited 1043 words (3 pages) Strong Essays [preview] Josef Mengele and The Inhumane Experiments in Auschwitz – He cut into me, without anesthetic, . . .The pain was indescribable. I felt every slice of the knife. Then I saw my kidney pulsating in his hand. I cried like a madman, I cried out the prayer; Hear, O Israel: the Lord our God, the Lord is one . . . And I prayed to die, that I might not suffer this agony any more (Hall). This was said by a patient of Dr. Josef Mengele, Mr.Yitzhak Ganon. Mr. Ganon was of the survivors of the inhumane experiments that took place in Auschwitz by the hand of the abominable man that is Josef Mengele…. [tags: angel of death, evil, eugenics] :: 10 Works Cited 1323 words (3.8 pages) Strong Essays [preview] Stereotypes where the Mentally Handicapped People are Ignorant – In history, stereotypes in society have been negative towards people with disabilities and that often led to discrimination. Colonial Americans, in the 1700s, referred to people with handicaps as lunatics. Lunatic by todays definition is someone crazy or insane. However, the root word, lunar, means, moons. Back then, people thought that a full moon had something to do with the mental illness that the child was born with. Some thought that the baby could be affected by being conceived, being born under, or sleeping in the light of a full moon…. [tags: disabilities, lunatic, eugenics] 627 words (1.8 pages) Better Essays [preview] Eugenics: An Excuse To Be A Racist Or A Means To A Better Tomorrow? – Eugenics: An Excuse to be a Racist or a Means to a Better Tomorrow. The term eugenics was coined in the late 19th century. Its goal was to apply the breeding practices and techniques used in plants and animals to human reproduction. Francis Galton stated in his Essays in Eugenics that he wished to influence “the useful classes” in society to put more of their DNA in the gene pool. The goal was to collect records of families who were successful by virtue of having three or more adult male children who have gain superior positions to their peers…. [tags: essays research papers] 1102 words (3.1 pages) Strong Essays [preview] American Eugenics: Race, Queer Anatomy, and the Science of Nationalism – American Eugenics: Race, Queer Anatomy, and the Science of Nationalism Works Cited Missing Nancy Ordover argues that current attempts to regulate marginalized social groups are eugenicist movements couched in new language. While “today, the preoccupation with immigrant fertility is couched in concerns over expenditures rather than in classic eugenicist worries over the depletion of the national gene pool” (54), that supposed strain on the national economy presented by immigration is still located in immigrant’s reproduction, although it is less frequently explicitly the “whiteness” of the nation that is threatened…. [tags: Sociology Sociological Essays] 1123 words (3.2 pages) Strong Essays [preview] Methods of Experimentation and Research in the Natural Sciences that are Limited due to Ethical Considerations – The production of knowledge, the theoretical or practical understanding of a subject (New Oxford), has constantly been accomplished throughout the history of man as a result of the characteristics of creativity and curiosity. These attributes, besides ethics, have set humans apart from the other species allowing for constant and rapid development. According to (Rest), an ethical judgment is the process by which an individual determines that one alternative is morally right and another alternative is morally wrong…. [tags: eugenics, animal testing, ethical judgement] :: 8 Works Cited 1459 words (4.2 pages) Powerful Essays [preview] Altering Human Genome – Altering Human Genome The gene pool could use a little chlorine. -Bumper Sticker Consider Gods handiwork; who can straighten what He hath made crooked? -Ecclesiastes 7:13, from Gattaca I not only think that we will tamper with Mother Nature. I think Mother wants us to. -Willard Gaylin, from Gattaca With the scientific breakthroughs of the recent decades the humans have become more powerful than ever in their mastery of Nature. The genetic engineering that allows extracting and modifying the genetic makeup of the future person or animal is in a sense the power of Creation…. [tags: Eugenics Genetics Science Essays] :: 14 Works Cited 1425 words (4.1 pages) Powerful Essays [preview] Genetic Engineering: Pros and Cons – Our world has finally begun its long-predicted descent into the depths of chaos. We may not yet realize it, but more and more problems plague the very state of our humanity with each passing day, such as cancer, famine, genetic disorders, and social elitism. It seems as though there is little hope, although a new solution has finally emerged, in the form of genetic engineering. It is apparent, however, that currently we cannot proceed, because while there are an abundant amount of advantages to genetic engineering, it is not a utopian process; criticism includes its practicality, theological implications, and changes in modern social structure…. [tags: Eugenics, Ethics] :: 5 Works Cited 1212 words (3.5 pages) Strong Essays [preview] History and culture of Never Let Me Go – Kazuo Ishiguro’s novel Never Let me Go uses a dystopian fantasy world to illustrate the author’s view that our real world practice of eugenics is as equally immoral and degrading as the world he describes. The eugenic-soaked world of Never Let me Go is dystopian, and our real world, with its quiet adoption of ‘soft’ eugenics, is equally dystopian. Ishiguro’s point is that utopia can never be attained in either realm if it contains the contagion of eugenics. By depicting unfair struggles that eugenics rigged “pre-destination” imposes on his oh so human characters, Ishiguro portrays the Eugenist’s utopian wet dream as a nightmarish perversion of humanity’s social contract…. [tags: Literature] :: 1 Works Cited 1330 words (3.8 pages) Strong Essays [preview] Trying to Improve the Human Race by Controlling Reproduction – Trying to Improve the Human Race by Controlling Reproduction THE idea of “Natural Equality” is one of the most deluded ideas that have ever afflicted itself upon mankind. It is simply a figment of the human imagination. Nature knows no equality. She thrives on the idea of the survival of the fittest. The exact definition of eugenics is “The study of methods to improve the human race by controlling reproduction.” Therefor eugenics is a pseudo science. It is about the selective prevention or encouragement of births for social, racial, or political ends…. [tags: Papers] 390 words (1.1 pages) Strong Essays [preview] Review of a Website – If you want to understand today, you have to search yesterday, quoted Pearl Buck. Most everyone has a time in their life where history becomes important to them. Whether that be tracing back family heritage, writing a research essay, or just out of curiosity. All and all, history is very influential to peoples lives and what better way to learn about history then to visit the website Image Archive on the American Eugenics Movement. This credible website offers an opportunity for the public to learn more about our American history in an interactive and creative way…. [tags: Website Review, Reliable Sources] 973 words (2.8 pages) Better Essays [preview] Role of Doctors Under Nazis – Role of Doctors in Nazis Racial Hygiene Germany was out to establish a new utopian world order where everything worked in harmony. They wanted to become a healthy and vibrant organism of healthy Aryans. The German doctors were mobilized to create this new world. The German bureaucrats believed all their social burdens were brought on by the handicapped, incurables and homosexuals as well as the Jews and gypsies. The physicians were to use all their medical knowledge and scientific expertise in the treatment for their new world…. [tags: essays research papers fc] :: 2 Works Cited 2232 words (6.4 pages) Strong Essays [preview] Genetic Engineering in Humans – Author Chuck Klosterman said, The simple truth is that were all already cyborgs more or less. Our mouths are filled with silver. Our nearsighted pupils are repaired with surgical lasers. We jam diabetics full of delicious insulin. Almost 40 percent of Americans now have prosthetic limbs. We see to have no qualms about making post-birth improvements to our feeble selves. Why are we so uncomfortable with pre-birth improvement? Despite Klostermans accurate observation, there are reasons people are wearisome toward pre-birth enhancement…. [tags: Genetic Engineering ] 859 words (2.5 pages) Better Essays [preview] The High Cost of Genetic Engineering – The High Cost of Genetic Engineering Genetic research on human embryos, in correlation with the human genome, is the key to gene therapy, genetic diagnosis, and even to genetically engineered human beings. Knowing which gene controls what trait and causes what genetic disease will arm doctors with a powerful tool to treat their patients at the molecular level. On the other hand, this allows people to possibly manipulate genes to enhance specific traits or create the perfect baby. Genetic research on human embryos has two implications. A practical one in therapeutic research (to detect, and hopefully correct gene flaws), and then the potentiality of allowing parents to decide how the… [tags: Persuasive Argumentative Essay Examples] :: 9 Works Cited 1197 words (3.4 pages) Strong Essays [preview] An Enhanced Genotype: Ethical Issues Involved with Genetic Engineering and their Impact as Revealed by Brave New World – An Enhanced Genotype: Ethical Issues Involved with Genetic Engineering and their Impact as Revealed by Brave New World Human society always attempts to better itself through the use of technology. Thus far, as a species, we have already achieved much: mastery of electronics, flight, and space travel. However, the field in which the most progress is currently being made is Biology, specifically Genetic Engineering. In Aldous Huxleys Brave New World, humanity has taken control of reproduction and biology in the same way that we have mastered chemistry and physics…. [tags: Genetic Engineering ] :: 6 Works Cited 2288 words (6.5 pages) Term Papers [preview] History And Procedures of Gene Therapy – The History And Procedures of Gene Therapy Abstract: Over the course of history there has been the idea of gene therapy has inspired many great scientists. The history of eugenics is important to the history of gene therapy because it is how gene therapy originated. Eugenics has driven many people to take extreme measures to try and make a better human race, this includes the Nazi party and the movement in the 1930s inspired by Francis Galton. After that, research in eugenics continued and the human genome project sprung from the minds of scientists…. 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10 of The World’s Most Bizarre Cults – EListMania

10 of The Worlds Most Bizarre Cults

Cults are eerie and carry weird practices which are not welcomed in the day to day routine of the average human being who lives a normal life. A cult can be extreme in nature with rituals that are beyond bizarre to say the least. The followers in certain cases have been known to pay the ultimate price by giving their lives for a belief fabricated by their charismatic ascetics and leaders. Heres a list of some of the worlds most bizarre cults.

The Ordo Templi Orientis(O.T.O), also known as the Order of the Temple of the East and Order of Oriental Templers, is a fraternal international and religious group which was created in the beginning of the 20th century. Aleister Crowley, an English author and a known Satanist occultist is one of the most renowned members of the order.

Initially the cult was anticipated to be modeled after and connected to Freemasonry, a form of a Gnostic Order, however, under the headship of Aleister Crowley; O.T.O has been documented around the Law of Thelma as its fundamental religious principal. This law is expressed as Do what thou wilt shall be the whole of the Law and Love is the law, love under will. These laws for the cult were promulgated in 1904 with the dictation of The Book of the Law.

The O.T.O is well known for practicing Black Magic. The creepy cult is branded to include sexual rituals that are both heterosexual and homosexual in nature. Many of the practices that O.T.O teaches are related to magical orders which enlighten the system of Masonic style of sexual magic. However, the O.T.O still restricts access to its inner secrets. The controversial book, Secret Rituals of the O.T.O, was withdrawn from print by the publisher after receiving a threat of legal action by the O.T.O. Nevertheless, as there has been a growing interest in the writings of Aleister Crowley, his work has been reprinted due to which various new societies have come into existence and have modeled themselves as the new generation of O.T.O.

The Aghori or Aghouri is a Hindu cult that is considered to have split off from the Kapalika order in the fourteenth century AD. Many Hindus condemn the Aghorias non-Hindu due to their cannibalistic rituals. The streets of northern Indian cities are littered with followers of this cult carrying a kapala, which is a cup made from a skull! These bizarre people will eat anything from rotten food to animal faeces. In order to achieve the highest citadel of enlightenment, the Aghori will perform horrendously crude rituals. The finality of their rituals is attained from eating the decaying flesh of a human.

According to Hindu mythology and practiced beliefs, everything emanates from Brahman”. Therefore, there is no evil. The Aghori believe everything to be god itself and to abandon anything would be equivalent of abandoning god. This is the bizarre philosophy followed by the Aghori Babas.

The roots of the Aghori date back to ancient times. An Aghori ascetic who went by the name of Kinaram is responsible for the present-day rituals and beliefs of the cult. Since the Aghori worship lord Shiva with all their fervor, they believe that Kinaram was a reincarnation of lord Shiva.

The Aghori cult dwells on cremation grounds, daubing themselves with the ashes of the corpses and eating from a cranial begging bowl or a kapala. Many Aghori opt to roam around baring all. This is their representation of their detachment from the ways of life that normal people abide by. A strong belief which surrounds them is that by doing so they are above and beyond the normal worldly emotions of human beings.

Ralism is a UFO cult that was formed in 1974 by Claude Vorilhon. The cult is famous for believing that all life on Earth was formed in scientific labs by species of extraterrestrials. Members of this species materialized into the human form when having personal contacts with the humans that they created. They believe that these species were mistaken for angels, cherubim or gods. The cult fervently believes in scientifically advanced humanoid extraterrestrials known by our archaic ancestors as Elohim (meaning: those who came from the sky).

Ralism has been described as the largest UFO religion in the world. Ralism mainly focuses on the social ideology of sexual self-determination, individualism and humanitarianism. Some of the women, who are members of this cult, are strong advocates of refinement and erotic sensualistic activities. They participate in groups within such as Raels Girls and the Order of Angels.

Furthermore, the Ralians believe that the Elohim will visit the Earth authoritatively when more than half of the worlds population is peaceful and come to know about them. They also believe that this has been foretold in nearly all the religious texts as the predicted Age of Apocalypse or Revelation.

From time to time extremely bizarre and weird cults are born. One baffling insertion in the list of bizarre cults is the Sect of the Gadget Hackwrench. The members of this cult believe in a Disney cartoon that is Gadget Hackwrenchfrom the famous the Disney’s Rescue Ranger TV show,as being a divine being. She is considered to be the most untouched and perfect sibling of the great god on Earth. The members of the Gadget Hackwrench cult fervently believe that she is some sort of a goddess. They consider her to be firm, adorable and sanguine and that her degree of technical knowledge is practically unachievable for any existing mortal being. These are just a few of the testimonies of the sect followers.

What is completely bizarre is the fact that this hero or goddess that they believe in is a Disney cartoon. The members of the cult burn candles around a poster size image of the cartoon and chant to her to grant their wishes.

The philosophy of this cult revolves around the fact that it is a combination of every religion possible on the planet. The supposed scetic of the cult is Saint Germain. The founders Guy and Edna Ballard likened themselves to the Illuminati. Guy Ballard had supposedly met this Saint while on a trip to the Mount Shasta in California. It is believed that this cult was based on the premise of destroying the individuality of people. What makes it so creepy is the fact that this cult tries to manipulate the human mind into believing that one has the ability to become a millionaire over night only by using the power of the mind. In other words, proclaiming every follower to be a demigod himself. In the earlier part of the 20th century, the cult had more than a million followers. The followers were made to believe that Ballard was taken to a mystical place while on his trip to California and that his spirit went to a different realm, the realm of Saint Germain. Saint Germain is the main character of worship for the followers. His myths are strikingly hard to swallow. The reason for holding him in such high esteem was due to the fact that the founders claimed he was a direct descendant of Will-I-Am-Shaker-Spear (William Shakespeare), Rasputin and Merlin.

The Body of Christ is a diminutive authoritarian group that focuses on direct revelation and not the Bible for its direction. As of late this cult has been in the news as two children have died pointlessly. Samuel, the ten month old baby of the founders son, Jacques, died of malnutrition. The little baby was not fed, because the cult believed that they were going to get a sign from God to feed him. The other child who died was Jeremiah, son of Rebecca Corneau. The baby died shortly after the mother gave birth. The reason for the death of the baby has been attributed to the lack of medical care provided.

Ten years ago, Dennis Mingo a former member of the cult, left the group. He gave a diary to the police in which he described the deaths of the two babies in depth. Regardless of the effort the police has put into finding the bodies of the children, they have remained to be unsuccessful.

The cult denounces the seven systems of a conventional society. These primarily, include: education, government, banking, religion, medicine, science and entertainment. The members of the group have consistently denied any cooperation with civil and governmental authorities. They have also refused any forms of legal counsel. They have constantly been refusing to assert their primary constitutional right against self-incrimination. This bizarre cult expects that the world will soon erupt in outrageous violence and turmoil, and that they alone will be the sole survivors of the disaster that they predict.

This Japanese cult was created by Hogen Fukunaga. It is often referred to as the foot reading cult, as the founder of this cult believed that he could make a diagnosis by examining peoples feet. The group was created in 1987 after a supposed spiritual event where Fukunaga declared that he was the reincarnation of Jesus Christ and the Buddha.

The Ho Na Hana Sanpoygo cult had nearly 30,000 followers not so long ago. However, Fukunaga charged $900 for the foot readings and a widespread doubt arose that he used money to profit himself. He had been accused of bagging money from housewives which resulted in a massive disproof from the cults followers. Fukunaga had to pay over 200 million yen in damages to followers of the cult who had been swindled.

The Ho Na Hana Sanpoygo declared openly in court, to the people who stood against their practices that their only salvation was to go through the cults expensive training sessions and to buy lucky charms.

The Creativity Movement is a xenophobic and White-supremacist cult which advocates a religion known as the White Religion called Creativity. Though, in the contemporary sense, the cult is Anti-Christian, yet the Creativity Movement is a proxy of Positive Christianity. It is directed by elements of a pseudo-Christian racial mechanism. The cult also denies the Holocaust; it embraces racial neo-eugenics with a religious mission that is devoted to the survival, expansion and the advancement of the White Race completely.

The cult was founded as the Church of the Creator by Ben Klassen in 1973. In the summer of 1993, Klassen committed suicide. After the demise of its creator, Mathew F. Hale led the cult until his incarceration on 8th January, 2003 for scheming with an FBI informant Anthony Evola to murder a federal judge. On 22nd July, 2002, two of the cults followers were found guilty in a federal court of plotting to blow up Jewish and Black landmarks around the area of Boston. The prosecutors deemed this to be a scheme to spark a racial holy war by the cult.

A few of the 16 Commandments of Creativity include: It is our sacred goal to populate the lands of this earth with White people exclusively. Inferior colored races are our deadly enemies, and that the most dangerous of all is the Jewish race. Destroy and banish all Jewish thought and influence from society.

The Iglesia Maradoniana (Spanish for Maradonian Church) was founded by the fans of the retired Argentine footballer, Diego Maradona. The members of this cult believe Maradona to have been the best player of all time. On 30th October 1998, this cult was formed. The day also commemorated the 30th birthday of the athlete. The group held its first official meeting in the year 2001. Today, they reportedly have more than 80,000 members from 60 countries around the globe.

The formation of this cult can be viewed as a type of syncretism. Unlike other normal fan clubs, this cult has many rituals like naming their children Diego to literally worshipping him. Arguably the best footballer to have lived, he is officially a god in Argentina. The passion for the group between its different members is what glues them together. Supporters of the Maradonian Church, allegedly from all corners of the world, count the years since Maradonas birth in 1960. It is very popular amid the followers of this cult and also amongst other football fans, the use of neo-Tetragrammaton D10S as one of the names of Maradona. D10S is a portmanteau word which blends 10 (diez in Spanish), Maradonas shirt number and dios, the Spanish word for god. The cult has its own commandments, one of which states, Spread news of Dieogos miracles and apart from naming your son Diego, it is a commandment as well to change your middle name to Diego.

The cargo cult is primarily a religious practice and has had numerous followers over the years. The term cargo is aimed at obtaining the advancements in technology used in foreign cultures. The cargo cults are bizarre because they believe that the technological advancement man has made over the years is actually their property left to them by their ancestors. So your laptop basically belongs to one of the followers of the cargo cult. These cults thrived in the southwestern Pacific and New Guinea. A substantial increase in the followers came during World War II. Immense logistic support and manpower would throng these islands and hence their beliefs turned into reality. Once the war ended, the ascetics of the cult ordered building of false landing sites and military equipment, so as to keep the gods interested in sending goods their way. The most publicized and prolonged cult is that of John Frum. It started well before the war and still thrives in Tannu, a small Island of Vanuata.

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The same society also used derogatory terms for people like Anton. Just because his parents decided that he would come into the world naturally instead of through gene therapy or alteration. Terms like faith birth’; and invalid’; were used against Anton…. [tags: essays research papers] 409 words (1.2 pages) Strong Essays [preview] Gattaca – Gattaca is a movie directed by Andrew Niccol and the film is set in the “not too distant future.” Andrew Niccol’s perception of the future isn’t what most people expect, but once thought about carefully it seems quite believable. This movie presents us with a new method in which society strives for perfection and it also makes us wonder if genetic engineering is morally correct. Your place in society in Gattaca is based on your genetic makeup and the way you were born. People born the way we know as natural are “in-valids”…. 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Vincent is one of the last naturally born babies born into a sterile, genetically enhanced world, where life expectancy and disease likelihood are ascertained at birth. Myopic and due to die at 30, he has no chance of a career in a society that now discriminates against your genes, instead of your gender, race or religion. Vincent an invalid, dreams of working within Gattaca and making it into space…. [tags: essays research papers] 667 words (1.9 pages) Good Essays [preview] Gattaca – Film Name: GATTACA Director / Writer: Andrew Niccol Producers: Danny DeVito, Michael Shamberg, and Stacey Sher Co-Producer: Gail Lyon Main Characters: Ethan Hawk as Jerome Morrow / Vincent Uma Thurman as Irein Jude Law as Eugene / Jerome Morrow Summary of Film: The film starts out in the not-too-distant future. The setting is a dark almost surreal view of Nineteen-Fifty Retro. In fact, every object in the film has a Fifties look to it, yet every thing was operated with future technology…. [tags: essays research papers] 799 words (2.3 pages) Strong Essays [preview] 1984, by George Orwell and Gattaca, by Andrew Niccol – Nineteen Eighty-Four written by George Orwell and Gattaca directed by Andrew Niccol are prophetic social commentaries which explore the broad social wrong of a totalitarian government. Both texts depict a futuristic, dystopian society in which individuality is destroyed in favour of faceless conformity. Niccol and Orwell through the experiences of their protagonists reflect the impact isolation from society has on individuals. The authors of both texts also use their protagonists Winston, who cannot understand the rhetoric of the government party and Vincent, who is trapped, unable to achieve his dreams because of his imperfect genome, to demonstrate individual rebellion against society and… [tags: Prophetic Social Commentaries] 987 words (2.8 pages) Better Essays [preview] Genetic Perfection in Gattaca – Genetic Perfection in Gattaca Topic: “The world of Gattaca is focused on genetic perfection, yet it is the imperfect Vincent that achieves the most” Discuss. Set within a world governed by genetic engineering, Andrew Niccol’s film, Gattaca, portrays the dire consequences of such a society in “the not too distant future”. Given a pre-determined life as a “god child” due of his parent’s adherence to religious beliefs, Vincent Freeman is an individual who “refuses to play the hand he was dealt”. Vincent although seemingly cursed with an imperfect genetic composition manages to overcome considerable odds in order to achieve his dream of space travel…. [tags: Movie Film Review] 1051 words (3 pages) Good Essays [preview] Cross-Cultural Film Analysis – Gattaca – Cross Cultural Film Analysis – Gattaca Film Summary Vincent is destined to be a second class citizen, conceived naturally, rather than in a laboratory. He is born into a world which discriminates against genetics, rather than religion, race or gender. In order to gain access into the Gattaca Corporation and reach his dream of going to Titan he takes on the identity of Jerome Morrow, a person with ideal genes but crippled from an accident. He uses Jeromes hair, blood, urine and skin to pass all tests and is set to reach his lifelong desire when the mission director is murdered…. [tags: Film Movie Analysis] 1219 words (3.5 pages) Strong Essays [preview] Human Genetic Screening and Discrimination in Gattaca – Human Genetic Screening and Discrimination in Gattaca Works Cited Missing A few months ago I watched a movie called Gattaca, which dealt with the issue of genetic discrimination in the near future. In the movie, people were separated into two classes, those that were genetically screened and positively altered before birth and the class that was unaltered. The separate classes had stark divisions, from what jobs that you were able to apply for to where you could eat. Security was aimed at keeping unaltered people away from the enhanced people…. [tags: Movie Film Biology Biological Papers] 1808 words (5.2 pages) Strong Essays [preview] Andrew Niccols Film, Gattaca – Andrew Niccols 1997 film Gattaca supports the belief that nature, despite its defects, is preferable to a flawless genetically engineered existence. This idea is explored through the character of Vincent who exhibits desire, resilience and determination, natural human elements that cannot be manufactured and are seemingly not present in the faultless future that is presented in Gattaca. These characteristics appear to be contrasted by the other characters in the film, such as Anton and the conforming Irene, who are perceived to be flawless in the context of their surroundings but are quite mechanical and emotionless…. [tags: Movies, Films] 711 words (2 pages) Better Essays [preview] Exploring the Future – Science Fiction often opens the eyes of humanity so we can try to imagine what the future will hold. More specifically, Science Fiction movies allow us to explore examples of utopian or dystopian societies. They allow us to explore different planets in outer space. Due to all of the creative components found in the set designs of several science fiction movies, a viewer can watch the movie and escape reality. The interesting innovations seen in the set designs look very futuristic so the viewers imagination is inspired and lets you indulge in the film…. [tags: Science Fiction, Gattaca] 1252 words (3.6 pages) Strong Essays [preview] The Idea of Discrimination Based on Genetic – The film Gattaca was released in 1997, just six years prior to the completion of the Human Genome Project (completed in April 2003), with a working draft completed in June 2000. The name of the film refers to an Aerospace corporation featured in the movie; however, its letters correspond to the 4 nucleotide bases that make up the integrity of the human genome. The sequencing of the human genome poses tremendous benefits not only in the future, but in the present. From identifying pharmaceutical targets in the body, screening for diseased genes, or determine if individuals are predisposed for certain hereditary or nonhereditary illness…. [tags: human genome, gattaca, genetic discrimination] 1245 words (3.6 pages) Strong Essays [preview] Cracking Your Genetic Code: A Review of Genetic Testing – Cracking Your Genetic Code: A Review of Genetic Testing In Gattaca, the plot focuses on the ethics, the risks, and the emotional impact of genetic testing in the nearby future. The film was released in the 90s; yet in the present, the film does not give the impression of science fiction. Today, genetic testing is prevalent in many aspects of the scientific community. This paper will describe genetic testing, its purpose, diagnostic techniques that use genetic testing, relating Huntingtons disease to genetic testing, and the pros and cons of genetic testing…. [tags: film analysis, gattaca, ethics, risks] :: 9 Works Cited 1554 words (4.4 pages) Powerful Essays [preview] Comparing Dystopian Dream of Brave New World, The Handmaids Tale and GATTACA – The Dystopian Dream of Brave New World, The Handmaids Tale and GATTACA In Utilitarianism, John Stuart Mill writes that it is better to be a human being dissatisfied than a pig satisfied. By this he meant there are qualitative degrees of satisfaction and if to be satisfied were lowered in status to that of a pig, its better for us to be dissatisfied humans. The film GATTACA and the books Brave New World and The Handmaids Tale create fictional places where the needs and desires of humans are met, but not as well as they should be and not without a price…. [tags: comparison compare contrast essays] 3033 words (8.7 pages) Strong Essays [preview] Discussion of Whether Gattaca Portrays A Realistic View Of The Future And Gene Manipulation – Discussion of Whether Gattaca Portrays A Realistic View Of The Future And Gene Manipulation Media. It controls a lot of what we think, what we believe and so changes our attitude and behaviour towards certain things. It has changed our thinking so much so that we believe almost anything and everything the media say and do. Without the media, life would not be as it is. Newspapers, magazines, television, internet, radio, the lot have very much altered our thinking. Lately, there have been many talks on the issues regarding genetic manipulation and human cloning…. [tags: Papers] 1548 words (4.4 pages) Powerful Essays [preview] Eugenic Decision-Making – Eugenics is defined, in some way or the other, as the process of reshaping the human race by determining the kinds of people who will be born. As such, there is much debate in the field of eugenics, with authors, like Philip Kitcher, who support laissez-faire or a minimalist approach of eugenics in which eugenic decision-making should be limited only to avoid neurological illnesses and in which parental free choice is valued. Gregory Stocks essay, The Enhanced and Un-Enhanced, presents otherwise by supporting the position of maximalist eugenics, allowing individuals the full extent in the selection of genes…. [tags: Gattaca, Laissez-Faire, Maximalist Eugenics] 1482 words (4.2 pages) Strong Essays [preview] Evolution of Human Characteristics – Human characteristics have evolved all throughout history and have been manipulated on a global scale through the use of science and technology. Genetic modification is one such process in which contemporary biotechnology techniques are employed to develop specific human characteristics. Despite this, there are a countless number of negative issues related with genetic modification including discrimination, ethical issues and corruption. Hence, genetic modification should not be used to enhance human characteristics…. [tags: genetic modification, ethics, discrimination] 794 words (2.3 pages) Better Essays [preview] A Critique on the Transhumanism Movement – When did being human become not good enough. Transhumanism theories strive toward the perfect human, a posthuman, which can be achieved through modern technology. In the opinion of transhumanists, humans are constantly subject to change and their calling is to transcend their body and brain in order to reach their full potential. While this may have positive effects for the people involved, such as immunity toward hereditary diseases, Down syndrome for example, the question arises what is considered ethical in these practices…. [tags: Genetic Manipulation, Nanotechnology] :: 18 Works Cited 3010 words (8.6 pages) Powerful Essays [preview] The Dangers of Genetic Engineering – The Dangers of Genetic Engineering Science is defined as knowledge based on observed facts and tested truths arranged in an orderly system. It has had an extreme effect on technology, which covers production, transportation, and even entertainment. In the past, though, science has always remained distant. However, with the birth of genetic engineering, science has become something that will deeply affect lives. Advancements are being made daily with genetic engineering: the Human Genome Project is nearly done, gene replacement therapy lies within reach, and cloning is on the horizon…. [tags: Papers] 1248 words (3.6 pages) Good Essays [preview] The Battle Between Science and Religion: The God of the Gaps Theory by Neil DeGrasse Tyson – Imagine a world where many people are not born the way they are just by chance, but by design. Not a design by a god but by men. What is one of the most common science fiction topics. Well thanks to scientific advancement people can start moving cloning more into science and less into fiction. Thanks to the impeccable work of many scientists across the world the world is moving forward in many ways. But it begs the question, what limits do politicians have to place on science. Is best to let them have free reign over their domain, as politicians have on their own, or do they need to be tethered…. [tags: god, scientific ignorance, bias, media] :: 5 Works Cited 1676 words (4.8 pages) Powerful Essays [preview] Programmed To Be Free: Exploring Andrew Niccol’s Gatacca – Programmed To Be Free Gatacca by Andrew Niccol tells the story of Vincent, a young man naturally and traditionally engendered in a world where genetic engineering is the followed pattern to have a child. Few minutes after his birth, Vincents fate is revealed through a DNA analysis. Two important facts in the analysis will mark Vincents life, a fail in his cardio system and his life expectancy, only thirty years. The film shows a world where life is highly determined by genetics, and happiness is mostly based on the quality of the genetic profile, a kind of identity card for people…. [tags: Film Analysis, Movies, Films] :: 4 Works Cited 1231 words (3.5 pages) Strong Essays [preview] The Case Against Perfection by Michael Sandel – Michael Sandel is a distinguished political philosopher and a professor at Harvard University. Sandel is best known for his best known for his critique of John Rawls’s A Theory of Justice. While he is an acclaimed professor if government, he has also delved deeply into the ethics of biotechnology. At Harvard, Sandel has taught a course called “Ethics, Biotechnology, and the Future of Human Nature” and from 2002 to 2005 he served on the Presidents Council on Bioethics (Harvard University Department of Government, 2013)…. [tags: ethics, biotechnology, genetic engineering] :: 4 Works Cited 972 words (2.8 pages) Better Essays [preview] Testing an Authors Vision Organization Guide – Testing an Authors Vision Organization Guide Introduction You will need to transition us, the readers, from our world into your paper. Make sure you give us a sense of context (what gave rise to your paper?), conflict (give us a sense of They Say/I Say), and focus (give us a question that focuses your paper or give us your thesis statement). So, for the focus you might have: —Is this vision of genetic manipulation in literature possible, and if so, should we be afraid. —OR.This vision of genetic manipulation is occurring in small amounts today and could blossom into a world in which individuals fear imperfection and groups of perfect people wield power over those less than the visio… [tags: Assignment] 1045 words (3 pages) Strong Essays [preview] ?Vincent is not a hero? Discuss – Vincent is not a hero Discuss Andrew Niccol has created a character that is portrayed as being a struggler from the moment he was born, he was destined to play this role as soon as he was conceived naturally as he was to wear the label of God child for the rest of his life , this label determines they life style and quality of life he will lead and the prospects are not good -They used to say that a child conceived in love has a greater chance of happiness. They don’t say that anymore. Niccol leads us to believe that Vincent is a man who has overcome the odds in order to achieve his dream in a society where individuality is an unrequited trait and the ability to conform plus right DN… [tags: essays research papers] 972 words (2.8 pages) Strong Essays [preview] Genetic Engineering is Immoral – Genetic engineering gives the power to change many aspects of nature and could result in a lot of life-saving and preventative treatments. Today, scientists have a greater understanding of genetics and its role in living organisms. However, if this power is misused, the damage could be very great. Therefore, although genetic engineering is a field that should be explored, it needs to be strictly regulated and tested before being put into widespread use. Genetic engineering has also, opened the door way to biological solutions for world problems, as well as aid for body malfunctions…. [tags: Genetic Engineering Essays] 423 words (1.2 pages) Strong Essays [preview] Neo-Eugenics The Social and Biological Ethics of Designer Babies – … Also it is now understood that ooplasm, the cytoplasm within an egg, can be transferred to another egg in order to swap mitochondrial DNA. Scientists have also figured out that ooplasm is not the only part of the cell that can be transferred, but that whole nuclei can be replaced as well. This is a major breakthrough because whole sets of DNA can be placed into another cell. In a culture where parents seek advantages for their children in schooling, diet, exercise, extracurricular activities, and the like, it is hard to imagine that cultural pressures would not be great to pursue the same for their children with respect to enhanced traits. This quote from an academic journal from Berke… [tags: Healthier Reace, Future Generations] :: 2 Works Cited 1586 words (4.5 pages) Powerful Essays [preview] Hollywood: Promoting Stereotypes to Make Easy Money – Every week numerous Hollywood movies and rereleases open in theaters, video stores, and online movie distributors nationwide: heartwarming films such as The Blind Side; laughter inducing and children captivating classics like Aladdin; movies about overcoming struggles such as, Gattaca. All these new movies and classics alike hold a particular place in our hearts and in our lives. Maybe because of a similarity to our own lives or the main character embraces characteristics we hold dear. Whatever the reason, a contributing factor to the variety of movie produced in Hollywood can trace itself to liberal and socially progressive movie making…. [tags: Hollywood vs Minorities] 1841 words (5.3 pages) Powerful Essays [preview] The Ethics of Genetically Enhancing Children – The term designer children is unnerving at first to many. The idea of parents designing the genetic makeup of their offspring makes children seem like a commodity in a genetic free market. Thoughts of a dystopian society like the one in the film Gattaca come to mind. However, taking an immediate repugnant stand against genetic enhancement is not well-founded. A more open-minded inspection of the issue reveals that the idea of parents improving their childrens life prospects through genetic engineering (provided it is safe) is, at its core, not unethical…. [tags: designer children] 1314 words (3.8 pages) Strong Essays [preview] The Decline of the World’s IQ – What will end the world as we know it. It could be climate change, disease, famine, or global war. If none of those come to pass there is always the truth that we are breeding our IQ into the basement. Its called dysgeneic fertilization, and it has been happening for as long as weve been recording intelligence. Although this decline can be seen across the board, not everyone is affected the same way or to the same extent. With each generation that passes a gap widens between those retaining intelligence and those hemorrhaging intelligence…. [tags: Dystopic Apocalypse] :: 6 Works Cited 1099 words (3.1 pages) Strong Essays [preview] DNA Donation: A Personal Choice – Moral choices, ethical dilemmas, personal biases, and strong opinions tend to go hand in hand; you certainly cannot have one without the other. The topic of this paper is an ethical dilemma that will cause me to make a moral choice; I am also personally biased and strongly opinionated in regards to the situation. The topic is the donation of my DNA for a research study; the goal of the study will be to find a variant of a gene that will resist specific bacterial diseases. If the company succeeds in finding this gene, it may be able to produce a drug to sell to people who have these diseases…. [tags: Medical Ethics ] :: 5 Works Cited 1340 words (3.8 pages) Strong Essays [preview] Altering Human Genome – Altering Human Genome The gene pool could use a little chlorine. -Bumper Sticker Consider Gods handiwork; who can straighten what He hath made crooked? -Ecclesiastes 7:13, from Gattaca I not only think that we will tamper with Mother Nature. I think Mother wants us to. -Willard Gaylin, from Gattaca With the scientific breakthroughs of the recent decades the humans have become more powerful than ever in their mastery of Nature. The genetic engineering that allows extracting and modifying the genetic makeup of the future person or animal is in a sense the power of Creation…. [tags: Eugenics Genetics Science Essays] :: 14 Works Cited 1425 words (4.1 pages) Powerful Essays [preview] Value of a Dystopia – A perfect world with no negative aspects can be defined as a utopia. A utopia consists of having all the required or desirable elements of life that one has in mind. Everyone has an altered perception on what a utopia is, but in order for the world to be a utopia a universal definition is vital. Some elements to be considered in a utopia include a society that is stable socially, morally, politically, and economically. The more a world is in deficient to these key elements of a utopia, the farther the world travels from the parameters of a utopia…. [tags: Sociology ] :: 5 Works Cited 2306 words (6.6 pages) Term Papers [preview] The Theory of Knowledge – That which is accepted as knowledge today is sometimes discarded tomorrow. Knowledge itself can be compared to a small child who is about to begin the long way in learning. Why this comparison. Since, as the child grows and goes through all the school years, with time, he will learn more and more than what he did before. The same situation can be applied to knowledge itself. The pursuit of knowledge has lead mankind to the point of development we are at as of the 21st century. With the passing of time, new ideas and methodologies, and key technological developments have lead, not to discarding knowledge, but to modifying our previous knowledge…. [tags: Natural Sciences] :: 3 Works Cited 1037 words (3 pages) Strong Essays [preview] Dystopian Comparisons – In the Book A Clockwork Orange, the short stories Harrison Burgeron, The Lottery and the movies Gattaca and the Truman Show by Anthony Burgess, Kurt Vonnegut, Shirly Jackson, Andrew Niccol and Peter Wier respectively. These pieces of literature(and cinematography) all have a society that controls and manipulates the individual or Protaganist. The society does this because it wants total control over both the individual and the society as a whole. A Clockwork Orange is futuristic look at England…. [tags: Compare Contrast] 1439 words (4.1 pages) Powerful Essays [preview] Genetic Engineering and the End of the World As We Know It – “It’s The End Of The World As We Know It (And I Feel Fine)” — From a Song by REM Having completed the Human Genome Project, scientists now seek to uncover the secrets of the human proteome (Begley 1). It is “guesstimated” that the proteome, meaning all the proteins, will involve up to 1000 times more data than the genome did. But this again brings us to the question: What will the scientific and medical communities do with all this information. deCode Genetics, partnered with Roche Holding of Basel, wants Iceland’s genes to examine 25-35 common genetically linked diseases (Marshall 539)…. [tags: Genetic Manipulation Essays] :: 5 Works Cited 1406 words (4 pages) Powerful Essays [preview] Designer Babies – Within the last 100 years or so scientists have many valuable discoveries that have benefited mankind. These discoveries include the discovery of genes. Scientists have discovered what makes humans so unique from one another. However, with this newly gained knowledge of the function of genes comes the ability to alter or change them. Just imagine in the not so near future, you and your partner want to start a family together. You travel to your local gene councillor to pick the physical and characteristic traits of your child…. [tags: Genetic Engineering] :: 3 Works Cited 1141 words (3.3 pages) Strong Essays [preview] Therapuetic Cloning – Children grow up watching movies such as Star Wars as well as Gattaca that contain the idea of cloning which usually depicts that society is on the brink of war or something awful is in the midsts but, with todays technology the sci-fi nature of cloning is actually possible. The science of cloning obligates the scientific community to boil the subject down into the basic category of morality pertaining towards cloning both humans as well as animals. While therapeutic cloning does have its moral disagreements towards the use of using the stem cells of humans to medically benefit those with incomplete sets of DNA, the benefits of therapeutic cloning outweigh the disagreements indubitably due… [tags: dna, medicine, treatment] :: 5 Works Cited 1296 words (3.7 pages) Strong Essays [preview] Genetic Engineering – In the field of animal and human genetic engineering there is much more speculation, than fact, because very little has actually been tested in the real world. Firstly, theres a big question mark over safety of genetic engineering. In addition, genetic engineering can cause greater problems than that what we have today. Moreover, we can create a injustice world between Designer vs Non-designer children. Furthermore, genetic engineering is a type of murder because of the process of genetically modifying a baby…. [tags: designer babies, perfect baby] :: 5 Works Cited 911 words (2.6 pages) Better Essays [preview] Biometric Security Technology – Biometric Security Technology You have seen biometric technology in the films Mission: Impossible and Gattaca. The technology has also graced the covers of many weekly news magazines. But many people, even though the technology has been widely talked about for the last half decade, are still surprisingly unaware of what biometrics are and why the technology is so important for computer security and personal identification. Biometrics are automated methods of recognizing a person based on a physical or behavioral characteristic (2001)…. [tags: Technological Computers Essays] :: 6 Works Cited 1393 words (4 pages) Powerful Essays [preview] Belief and Knowledge – There are many contentions our present world has faced that require a thorough thought process in order to represent a side of the argument. We see that there are many different authorities that tell us we should be thinking in certain directions. However, most people need to realize that influence from these different sources such as academics, politicians, companies, global organizations, media, and others in this nebulous category, dont always steer us in the write direction. Maybe they can provide us with knowledge about a certain problem, or information regarding each side, but when it comes down to the bottom, belief and knowledge seems to be what most people turn to…. [tags: essays research papers] 1571 words (4.5 pages) Strong Essays [preview] The Truman Show – The Truman Show The life of Truman Burbank has been broadcast around the world with tremendous success since the day he was born. A star for the mere fact that he exists, Truman has no idea that there are cameras in every corner of his world. he has literally been ON television from the moment of his birth. With the honor of being the first child to be formally adopted by a corporation, Truman has had every moment of his existence captured by television cameras. The Truman Show, a worldwide reality series that runs twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week, and every day of the year, has been witness to his first words, his first steps, his first day at school– nothing has escaped the… [tags: Papers] 677 words (1.9 pages) Better Essays [preview] Genetic Manipulation – Genetic Manipulation Genes, being part of the basic building blocks of man, control all aspects of one’s life. They control how tall you are, what color your eyes are, and what diseases might afflict you in the future. Therefore, the manipulation of such genes can be a controversial topic. The controversy most likely stems from the ethical and social questions that are raised by this procedure. Jean Dausset, author of “Scientific Knowledge and Human Dignity,” and George B. Kutukdjian, author of “UNESCO and Bioethics,” both discuss the topic of genetic manipulation…. [tags: Papers] 1136 words (3.2 pages) Strong Essays [preview] Is Utopia Possible? – Is Utopia Possible. Utopia: remote cabin on the beach, the kingship of a vast empire, Nirvana; Heaven, the Happy Hunting Grounds, paradise, perfection. What exactly is Utopia. According to Webster it is “1, an imaginary and indefinitely remote place” or ” 2, often capitalized : a place of ideal perfection esp. in laws, government, and social conditions”. Where is this perfect place. Will my dog live forever there. Will I never grow old. If I never grow old there does that mean I never mature…. [tags: Papers] 588 words (1.7 pages) Strong Essays [preview] The Truman Show and Pleasantville Review – The Truman Show and Pleasantville Review The Truman Show, a comedy/ drama was directed by Peter Weir (nominee for Best Director in 1998, Academy Awards). The film was scripted by Andrew M. Niccol, including last years “Gatttaca,” a similarly themed tale, Niccol delivers optimism and affection for the human condition. Jim Carry plays the role of Truman Burbank who is a charming and unwitting star, the world’s most popular, 24 hour non-stop soap called ‘The Truman Show’. Pleasantville is a winsome and witty comedy/ drama starring Tobey Maguire as ‘David’ and Reese Witherspoon as ‘Jennifer’…. [tags: Papers] 1332 words (3.8 pages) Strong Essays [preview]

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