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The 7 Best Chess Moments Of 2019 – Chess.com

2019 was a great year for chess.

While many chess fans are ready to jump right into 2020 and the world championship drama, let's take a moment on this last day of 2019 to appreciate the best chess had to offer this year.

For much of 2019, the world's top chess players battled to qualify for the 2020 Candidates' Tournament, and it came down to the wire for the full field to emerge. The championship cycle is now set for 2020 and chess fans can hardly wait.

There were some exciting developments in computer chess (a personal favorite), including the ascent of neural-network chess engines like Lc0 to the top of the pack.

The year also saw another big leap forward for online chess coverage, with more in-person tournaments and online events streamed and professionally broadcast by the Chess.com mega-hype team.

A living chess legend, Vladimir Kramnik, proposed an exciting rule change to chess. And in the last days of 2019, the current world chess champion, Magnus Carlsen, continued his dominance of the year (and decade, and century...) by holding all three major world chess championships: classical, rapid and blitz.

So how do all these great things stack up?

Here's our ranking of the sevenbest chess moments of 2019:

When: May 2019

What happened:

Led by the super-GM and 2020 world championship candidate Fabiano Caruana, the Arch Bishops claimed their second PRO Chess League title in three years with a dominating win over the Baden-Baden Snowballs.

The Arch Bishops played the live semifinals and finals in San Francisco with strength from top-to-bottom boards, but it was Caruana's scorching 7.5/8 score for the weekend that sealed the victory.

Further reading:

When: November 2019

What happened:

Vladimir Kramnik, one of the greatest world chess champions of all time, retired from competitive chess in 2019. But he wasn't done making chess headlines.

Last month, Kramnik proposed an elegant and simple solution to boring draws and repetitive openings in top-level chess: Get rid of castling.

Kramnik tested his rule change with another chess legend, the neural-network chess engineAlphaZero. Kramnik and AlphaZero ownerDeepMind collaborated to produce beautiful sample games where the artificial intelligence chess project played itself without castling allowed.

Further reading:

When:2019, ongoing

What happened:

The Chess.com Speed Chess Championship expanded to include women's and junior events in addition to its main bracket of the world's top speed chess players.

The biggest underdog in the field, GM Elina Danielian, ran through the women's bracket to claim the title. And it would be an understatement to call Wei Yi a rising star, since he already is star (full stop), but the Chinese prodigy won the Junior Speed Chess Championship all the same.

The main Speed Chess Championship bracket had its share of upsets and brilliancies, highlighted by the 21-year-old Vladislav Artemievdispatching two speed chess legendsAlexander Grischuk and Levon Aronianby the same dominating score of 16-9, before falling in the semifinals to Wesley So.

At press time, three super-grandmasters remain in the Speed Chess field. So is through to the finals, while the reigning champion Hikaru Nakamura will need to get past Ian Nepomniachtchiin their semifinal match before he can defend his title against So.

Nakamura vs. Nepomniachtchi is scheduled for Sunday, Jan. 5 at 8.am PST on Chess.com/TV.

Further reading:

When:April 2019

What happened:

Was it any surprise?

Hikaru Nakamura, already the long-reigning Speed Chess Champion, added another online chess title to his resume with a win in the first Chess.com Bullet Chess Championship.

Nakamura, the heavy favorite going into the tournament, defeated Oleksandr Bortnyk to clinch the championship. Maxime Vachier-Lagrave finished in third place in the loaded championship field.

Further reading:

When:April 2019

What happened:

Lc0, an open-source project using machine learning to train a neural-network chess engine, rose to the top of the computer chess world by defeating the champion Stockfish in the Chess.com Computer Chess Championship.

It marked the first time a neural-network engine had beaten Stockfish in a championship event, proving that artificial-intelligence-based chess engines could play better than the traditional engines, which had been the kings of chess for the past two decades.

Stockfish, though, soon took back the championship from Lc0, and these two engines will battle with many others in the coming decade to determine the best chess-playing entity in the world.

Further reading:

When:November 2019

What happened:

Wesley So became the first officially-recognized champion of Fischer Random chess, beating the classical chess world championMagnus Carlsen in the finals of a groundbreaking event played both online on Chess.com and in-person in Norway under the FIDE (World Chess Federation) banner.

So pulled off the upset of the heavily-favored Carlsen in a shocking runaway, winning 13.5 to 2.5, ending the match early before the scheduled blitz games.

The tournament was a fan-favorite for its energetic games and exciting starting positions, showing that Fischer Random chess will have a bright future in the 2020s.

Further reading:

When:December 2019

What happened:

The reigning classical world chess champion Magnus Carlsen won both the world rapid and blitz championships at the end of the year to once again hold all three major titles in a tremendous feat of chess dominance.

Carlsen is now the world champion in the three most important forms of chess (and he just missed a fourth, finishing second to Wesley So in the Fischer Random championship). With the wins, Carlsen further secured his legacy as one of the greatest chess players ever.

With another title defense in the 2020 world chess championship, Carlsen could finally shed that "one of" clause and become simply the greatest of all timeif he is not already.

Further reading:

Let us know your favorite chess moments of the year in the comments.

And before you sign off for the year, take a look at some more of our best-of-2019 content:

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The 7 Best Chess Moments Of 2019 - Chess.com

Koneru Humpy: Back to the forefront – Deccan Herald

It is ironical that despite shattering many chess records and being the strongest and the highest-rated women chess player (Judit Polgar is the highest-rated player ever but played only in Open section) for many years, a World title proved elusive for 32-year-old Koneru Humpy. Incredibly, it came her way at Moscow when she triumphed in the Womens World Rapid Chess Championship last week after starting as the 13th seed.

The youngest ever to win a World junior title at 14 years, the youngest woman in the world to earn the GM title at that time, Asian Champion, British Womens Champion and numerous titles in Age Categories, none doubted that winning the Womens World Championship would be a natural transgression for Humpy. One of her best performances was at the North Urals Cup, Russia which featured the top ten women players of that time.

Her troubled equation with AICF (Indian chess federation) resulted in her missing a few prestigious events. In fact, in 2015 AICF moved the FIDE Ethics Commission to ban Humpy and take necessary action against her and strip her of the GM and other titles after she withdrew midway through the Commonwealth Championship. It was the Association of Chess Professionals which stood strongly behind Humpy and asked FIDE for a fair enquiry.

Always calm, shy and soft spoken, Humpy always keeps a low profile off-board but once at the chequered board, her personality undergoes a dramatic transformation.

Her brand of fighting chess, dislike for any short draws, made her a feared opponent. Returningbackto chess after two years, after the birth of her daughter, her recent triumph might just spur her on to settle some unfinished business -- that of winning the Womens World Chess Championship. Excerpts...

Your thoughts on this Womans World Rapid chess title?

To be honest, I didnt think that a gold medal and title would come my way when I started the event. I had modest expectations of a medal of any hue. It is no secret that I am more a classical player and the shorter time control formats have never really been my cup of tea. After glancing at the final 12thround pairings, I realised that I had an opportunity to secure silver if I beat Tan Zhongyi. I had the advantage of the White pieces and refused a draw offer and went on to win the game to force a tie for top place. At this point I realised that I had a golden opportunity though it would not be too easy. Adapting to the Blitz format was not easy and I ended up losing the first tie-break because of slow play, that too with the White pieces. I opted for the Modern Defence and tried to complicate as the pressure was high to score a win and stay in the hunt for the title. This was literally a game where I gambled! After winning the game and forcing a tie, the Armageddon too was taxing but by then I was comfortable with the time and position both! It was just my day. After so many years of hard work, finally a World Champion title as a reward. I was so happy and relieved to finally, finally have the tag of World Champion.

Did you make any specific preparation for the World Championship?

I hardly had time as I played the Grand Prix at Monaco where I finished second. There was a 10-day break in between but I played the European Club Cup. With so manybacktobackevents, it was difficult to specifically prepare for this event.

Your father Ashok has been your only coach. Does he still continue to be so?

It has been a while since we stopped working at the board as for the last few years I am preparing on my own. He is more of a mentor and guide now. We discuss strategy for the tournament and things like which opening to play and other things. The fundamentals ingrained by my father have been very strong and have stood the test of time.

From 2007 you were practically the highest rated woman player for a few years, yet the World title eluded you. Do you wonder why?

Yes, I do think it really appears strange. On hindsight, I feel like I played my best chess ever in World championships but the title never came my way and the best I managed was a bronze. I kept getting knocked out. Maybe I was unlucky. We dont know what life will throw at us in the future. We can only focus on doing our job to the best of our ability and see what comes our way.

How much time do you devote to chess?

It used to be a tough, disciplined grind of 8 to 10 hours every day without a break -- even on Sunday. I would spend half a day working on chess. Now I spend about three to four hours every day. After the arrival of my daughter, things have changed. I no longer work on festivals and few other days. I have to do a balancing act but I never miss any opportunity that I can spend working on chess.

How much had chess changed after your comeback?

There are a lot of changes. I realised that most of the preparation I had done a couple of yearsbackor earlier was not at all useful or had become redundant. With powerful engines, chess has changed. Younger generation play the best possible opening. When I became a GM, we did not have such exposure to technology. These days if you dont become a GM by 12 or 13 years then there is virtually no future for you as a chess player.

How do you look at the current crop of youngsters?

When I made a comeback at Gibraltar, I met a few of them, most of them just 15 or 16 years old and already enjoying an Elo 2500 to 2600 rating. Frankly, I am overawed and sometimes I feel that I am already a veteran!

Which are your next events and are you expecting invitations to niche events?

Nothing is planned yet but maybe February or March. I have received a few invitations but I have become a bit choosy now. I cannot play all events but play in all official FIDE events. This title has sort of rekindled my hunger for winning a World Womens title.

Originally posted here:

Koneru Humpy: Back to the forefront - Deccan Herald

Christmas puzzle: What were the previous moves? – Chessbase News

12/26/2019 Christmas Puzzle week, which we bring you for the twentieth year in succession, is time for unusual and entertaining puzzles tasks that are not amenable to computer assistance, but require human ingenuity. Try, for instance, to imagine how the position in the picture could have possibly arisen. Determining that needs lateral thinking. One of the foremost composers of chess problems "out of the box" sent us some highly entertaining examples. At least one of them looks quite impossible. Merry Boxing Day!

ChessBase 15 - Mega package

Find the right combination! ChessBase 15 program + new Mega Database 2020 with 8 million games and more than 80,000 master analyses. Plus ChessBase Magazine (DVD + magazine) and CB Premium membership for 1 year!

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During the Christmas puzzle week, which we bring you for the twentieth year in succession, you need to be prepared for puzzles that cannot be easily solved with a computer (the point of this endeavour). We give you tasks which require you to think all by yourself. But unlike in the past we will not be giving you a separate instalment every single day between Christmas and New Year. Just occasional entertainment during the holiday season.

Today we bring you a special puzzle by Werner Keym, who is one of the most creative problemists I know. He specializes in problems involving castling, en passant captures and pawn promotion. For many years I have enjoyed his problems, which I often encountered. Many have the advantage of not being prone to instant solution by chess engines. They force you tothink.His most recent English language book, "Chess Problems out of the box," is going to keep me busy for a long time to come. It is one of the most entertaining works I have ever encountered (and it is competing with Loyd, Dawson, Fabel, Smullyan and co.). You canget yourself a copy here(12/US $12 + postage 2/4).

And now without further ado here is a Christmas puzzle Werner Keym sent me:

It looks impossible: Black can always escape White's attacks, at least for three moves, e.g. 1.xf5+ xc7 2.g7+ f7+ 3.xf7+ b8 6.b7+; or 1.g7 xc8 2.xf5+ d7 3.d6 xf5 4.g8#.

The only way to mate in three seems to be after capturing en passant on f6. But in chess problems that is only allowed if you can conclusively prove that Black's last move can only have been a double-step of the pawn: f7-f5. You must show that it was the only possible move, i.e. that any other Black move previous to the position above was not possible.

Let us make it absolutely clear: you need to find a position in which Black and White played one legal move each, and then in the diagram position Black played f7-f5, allowing White to play 1.e5xf6 e.p. and deliver mate on his third move. Can you find the previous two moves?

If you are getting a feel for this kind of problem, here are a few more. The following two are real classics you see them everywhere. They are also fairly easy. The first is by Dr Niels Heg from 1916, the second by Raymond Smullyan in 1980. In each case the question is what could have been the previous move or moves, how could these positions have occurred?

How did this happen what were the last moves?

The next two are harder but very pleasing to solve:

How did this happen what were the last moves?

In the first diagram (by Werner Keym, Die Schwalbe 1979) Black is in check. What were the previous moves? In the second diagram (by Niels Heg, Skakbladet 1924) the question is how could that position have arisen? You must find a legal position that can lead to the above diagram in three moves.

The solution to these problems will appear here, not in a separate article, later this week.

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Christmas puzzle: What were the previous moves? - Chessbase News

Top FritzTrainers of the year – Chessbase News

In 2019, we redesignedChessBase Magazine adding a new more accessible layout, and revamped theMega Database 2020 layout as well. Then there's the new Fritz 17 with multiple engines including Fat Fritz, arguably the strongest chess playing entity on the planet as we head into the new year.

We've implemented several improvements to the FritzTrainer line of instructional videos, notably adding Mac compatibility to our flagship releases. An independent iPad version is also available. Now we've asked prolific reviewer Davide Nastasio, who's probably spent more time with the FritzTrainers than just about anyone, for his top picks of the year. Here are ten video series not to be missed!

For coaches and chess teachers the series of FritzTrainers by Pert on typical mistakes is fundamental in Nastasio's opinion.

Within the video series there are several chapters, and each chapter comprises a theme for games played between players rated between 1000-1600. Several games are explained and then there are many interactive examples for the viewer to have a go at themselves.

In every game of chess, there comes a moment when one is confronted with the question: what should I do now? Often, the solution involves more than finding just one single move, and you are rather challenged to work out a complete plan instead. In order to make an effective plan, one needs to delve deeper into the position just determining which pieces are good and bad normally is not enough to find your way.

Five key elements of positional play are discussed which help you formulate the right plan:

After going through the 12 examples from the theoretical section, its time for you to get actively involved! The author has collected no less than 50 instructive examples with multiple questions to test your positional understanding. On top of that, another 50+ examples have been added in a separate database, while there is also a new feature in the Fritz app to play out various positions.

The current World No.2, being a 1.e4 player his entire life, has shared his deep knowledge about the Ruy Lopez in a 3-DVD series, acclaimed by amateurs and professionals alike. In 2018, Fabiano Caruana achieved one of the most prestigious honours in the history of the game: he qualified for a match for the World Chess Championship. He lost, but left many surprised as to how he out-prepared and out-played Magnus in the classical portion of the match.Read the review.

Navigating the Ruy Lopez Vol.1-3

The Ruy Lopez is one of the oldest openings which continues to enjoy high popularity from club level to the absolute world top. In this video series, American super GM Fabiano Caruana, talking to IM Oliver Reeh, presents a complete repertoire for White.

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The London System with 2.Bf4 Reloaded

Over the last couple of years nearly all the worlds elite grandmasters have been employing the London System, and on this DVD Simon Williams shows what we can learn from their practice. The Ginger GM takes a look at all the latest developments whilst t

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Why bother learning hundreds of complex variations when you can play a simple yet deadly opening the London System with 2.Bf4. Over the last couple of years nearly all the worlds elite grandmasters have been employing the London System, and on this DVD Simon Williams shows what we can learn from their practice. The Ginger GM takes a look at all the latest developments whilst teaching you all the basics that you need to know in order to play this opening with success.

Following his first bestseller on the London System, Williams new work not only updates previous analyses but is also packed with new and original ideas which can be used even at the highest level - a must for players who want results, yet do not have much time on their hands. If youre not a practitioner of the London System yet, in fact the only question remains: Why Not?

The London System is becoming increasingly popular, both at grandmaster and club level. The theory of the opening is developing quickly, with new things being tested all the time. This, in return, gives rises to fresh tactical ideas which should belong to the basic arsenal of any London devotee after all, tactics remains the be-all and end-all of the game. On this DVD, Simon Williams shows all the complications in the London System one has to know as White, giving you the tactical tools for a successful practice the player who knows the typical motifs has an advantage over the board. Using the interactive FritzTrainer format which invites the viewer to answer questions by entering the moves on the screen, the Ginger GM, intensively and systematically, makes your familiar with a multitude of typical tactical finesses in positions of the London System. Of course, those who dont yet have this opening in their repertoire can also profit after all, a sharp combinatorial vision is always useful in chess.

Of course Black has something to say about the opening as well. In this FritzTrainer, GM Yannick Pelletier offers Black a repertoire against the London System that you can employ no matter which opening (Systems with d5, systems with g6, Queens Indian, Queens Gambit, Benoni, Benko, Dutch) you usually play against 1.d4 followed by 2.c4. Thematic games explain and illustrate the theory and ideas of the repertoire Pelletier proposes. At the end of the DVD you are invited to test your knowledge. The author pauses at key moments and asks you to find and to play the best move, after which he gives feedback. A database with carefully selected and annotated games helps you to understand and play the opening better and to counter the London System with success.

Is Bird's opening an audacious attempt by chess mavericks? Or a slightly offbeat way for White to get an advantage in today's hyper-engine-analyzed opening landscape? Can the Bird's be a way to disorient our opponents using a lesser-known opening? The Bird's is an opening for players who are free spirits. IM Lawrence Trent in his latest work addresses this need, covering all of Black's answers, and proudly finding new moves in old lines. If you are a club or a tournament player, searching for a surprise weapon, the Bird's can give a boost to your wins! Read the review.

Always wanted to play like a World Champion? Search no further! With Magnus Carlsen using the Sveshnikov variation as his weapon of choice in the World Championship match against Fabiano Caruana, this DVD could not be better timed. The Dutch grandmaster Erwin LAmi (former second of Veselin Topalov and currently seconding Anish Giri), guides you through this dynamic opening variation. The DVD offers a complete overview of this fascinating opening that has inspired generations of chess players!

See also:Fast and Furious: The Sveshnikov surge

Nastasio noticed a flaw in many chess biographies of world champions. They all have an index for the opponents, they have an index for the openings, but there is no index for the interesting endgames. Often we find a 400 or 500 page biography with tons of games, yet no idea how to find typical middlegame themes or endgames to learn from. In the latest FritzTrainer from GM Karsten Mueller, however, you'll find the world champions' best endgames, each deconstructed using Mueller's great endgame insight and teaching experience.Read the review.

In Master Class Vol.11: Vladimir Kramnik,Dr. Karsten Mller, Mihail Marin, Oliver Reeh and Yannick Pelletiershowyou how to learn from the example of one of the best players in the history of chess, how to successfully organise your games strategically, how to keep your opponent permanently under pressure and how to bring your games to a successful conclusion with accurate technical endgame play. Through Vladimir Kramniks games it is possible, moreover, to follow the history and development of numerous popular openings and thus obtain a better understanding of the ideas behind them.

Master Class Vol.11: Vladimir Kramnik

This DVD allows you to learn from the example of one of the best players in the history of chess and from the explanations of the authors (Pelletier, Marin, Mller and Reeh) how to successfully organise your games strategically, consequently how to keep y

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For a player who wants to learn a wide range of different middlegame positions, the English should definitely be high on the list. Flexibility in move orders can mean the difference between quiet or aggressive play.Marin, who previously authored one of the biggest literary works on the English opening and has now brought his experience to the video format in a new, updated repertoire. Glimpse his deep knowledge, acquired through years of practice, in order to gain confidence in this new opening weapon suitable in every type of setting, from long time control tournaments to online blitz.Read the review.

Looking for a holiday gift for your chess-fan friend or relative? We've got you covered! You'll find all these and much more in the ChessBase Shop!

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Top FritzTrainers of the year - Chessbase News

Garry Kasparov on chess, tech, Trump and Putin – Chessbase News

11/20/2019 Garry Kasparov became, at the age of 22, the youngest World Champion in chess history. His famous matches against the IBM supercomputer Deep Blue brought chess and artificial intelligence into the mainstream. Now, hes focusing on the quiet war Russia is waging against U.S. democracy. Last week he sat down on the PBS show (in collaboration with CNN) Amanpour and Company and, with Miles OBrien, discussed everything from computer chess, troll farms to election interference.

Master Class Vol.7: Garry Kasparov

On this DVD a team of experts gets to the bottom of Kasparov's play. In over 8 hours of video running time the authors Rogozenko, Marin, Reeh and Mller cast light on four important aspects of Kasparov's play: opening, strategy, tactics and endgame.

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A recent addition to the stable of shows on American public television,Amanpour and Companyis aone-hour public affairs seriesfeaturing, as described on its 'about' page, "wide-ranging, in-depth conversations with global thought leaders and cultural influencers on the issues and trends impacting the world each day, from politics, business and technology to arts, science and sports."

Garry Kasparov's appearance was published on November 12th:

Here is some of the main chess-related points in the interview:

Miles O'Brien: Take us back to 1997, and a match, a quite celebrated match, between you and a machine. Going into that tournament in 1997, did you think humans still have supremacy?

Garry Kasparov, chess grandmaster & activist: Yes. Most likely. We experienced troubles against some chess engines like Fritz or Deep Junior. And I think one thing we couldnt understand is that the machine would always have a steady hand. So its not about solving the game which is mathematically impossible, the number of legal words in the game of chess. According to Claude Shannon, its I think 10 to the 46th power. But its about making mistakes. So Deep Blue was by todays standards, todays chess engine standards, not sort of a great success. The free chess app on your mobile is probably stronger than Deep Blue. Try chess engines that you can buy online and put on your laptop: they are so much stronger than the current world champion, Magnus Carlsen. The gap between the world champion today and a chess engine, just an ordinary one that you can buy online is the same between say Usain Bolt and a Ferrari.

OBrien: People have looked at that moment and seen it as a pivot point. You think thats overstating it?

Kasparov: For me, that was a revelation that started human versus machine. We should look for human plus machine, for a collaboration. Anything that can be classified as a closed system, the machine will be better. If we know how to do it, a machine will do it better. So whether its game of chess, any video game, Texas Hold Em Poker, machines will do it better. For a simple reason: not because they play perfectly theres no perfection to the universe. No machine will ever reach 100%. They will make a few mistakes. Its about precision, its about vigilance during the game that no humans could sustain.

OBrien: I think its probably accurate to say that youre the first knowledge worker in the world who had his job replaced by machine.

Kasparov: Again, "replaced" is overstatement. Threatened, endangered, challenged. Because the chess hasnt stopped. People are still playing chess. Actually, chess is far more popular today than it used to be 25 years ago. One of the reasons, actually: computers. More people can follow chess games and while understanding what is happening. So theres simple to have their computer at their elbow. They look at the game played by the top players, the world championship match and they dont need even commentaries. Okay commentaries are always nice, but they can look at their computer screen and they can know exactly whats happening.

OBrien: So are you making a larger point about technology here? We always fear that technology is going to displace us in some fashion. But it doesnt always turn out that way, does it?

Kasparov: It never did. I mean the problem is that while those who are spreading this fear, this army of doom-sayers, they are ignoring the fact that many times in history, the humanity faced this kind of challenges. Many industries have been ruined, jobs lost, people got desperate. But then we move forward. And I think now its we simply ignore the fact that technology is the main reason why so many of us are still alive to complain about technology. Just look at the average lifespan, the quality of life, thanks to technology. Its a human pride we always thought that our cognitive skills will never be challenged. Its the same story. I think eventually it helps us to become more human, to become more creative. I mean you can sit passively, waiting for technology to change your life around us. But you can be more proactive and look for ways to free us, to inspire our creativity and to help us to realize our grandest dreams.

Read (and listen to) the rest of the very interesting interview on PBS.

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Garry Kasparov on chess, tech, Trump and Putin - Chessbase News

Hamburg Grand Prix Final Goes To Tiebreak – Chess.com

The final of theFIDE Grand Prix in Hamburgwill be decided in a tiebreak on Sunday.Jan-Krzysztof Dudawas under pressure twice but held the draw against Alexander Grischuk in both standard games.

Over the board Duda and Grischuk had played each other in only rapid and blitz, and you might also remember their epic Speed Chess match here on Chess.com, played 14 months ago and narrowly won by Duda. On Friday, they met for the first time in classical chess (or "standard" as FIDE now calls it).

In a Queen's Indian, Grischuk seemed to surprise his opponent when he used a recent idea from Ivan Cheparinovon move 13. Duda thought for more than 50 minutes for his next two moves.

Grischuk wouldn't be Grischuk if he played the remainder of the game with more time on the clock, so he spent 47 minutes for his next two moves! He did manage to get a stable, positional advantage but missed a chance in time trouble.

The second game was even more exciting, with Grischuk again getting the better chances out of the opening, this time as Black in a Queen's Gambit Declined. It was obvious that Duda hadn't expected this particular variation.

Grischuk found a great pawn sacrifice behind the board, and engines gave him a big advantage after Duda took it. Again both players spent a lot of time early in the game; they weredown to 20 minutes after just 13 moves.

It became extremely tactical, and with so little time Duda found a number of great defensive moves and somehow held his own once again.

"Maybe a better calculator like Maxime Vachier-Lagrave would have found something," said Grischuk, "but he would not get this position because he doesn't play the Queen's Gambit, which is the most aggressive opening."

The biggest chess fans will know what to do on their free Sunday: follow the tiebreak between these two great players. It will start15:00 CET, which is 9 a.m. Eastern and 6 a.m. Pacific. You can follow the gameshere as part of our live portal.

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Hamburg Grand Prix Final Goes To Tiebreak - Chess.com

Alexander Grischuk wins the third leg of the Grand Prix in Hamburg – Chessbase News

The third leg of the FIDE Grand Prix is being played in Hamburg, Germany. The 16-player knockout has a 130,000 prize fund, with the series as a whole having an additional prize fund of 280,000 plus two qualifying spots for the 2020 Candidates Tournament. The tournament takes place in the Kehrwieder Haus from November 5th to 17th. You can find more infohere.

The third leg of the FIDE Grand Prix series concluded on Sunday and crowned Alexander Grischuk as its champion. Grischuk's victory earned him24,000 and almost secured him at least second place at the overall series, despite him not participating in the final leg. The Russian received 10 GP points in Hamburg and now leads the standings table on 20 points.

Maxime Vachier-Lagrave (13 points), Shakhriyar Mamedyarov (10) and Ian Nepomniachtchi (9) are yet to play the fourthleg in Jerusalemandare the main contenders to get one of the two spots in next year's Candidates. However, only anunlikely occurrence would leaveGrischukout of the top two e.g. Mamedyarov winning and Vachier-Lagrave finishing in second place, plus both of them gettingthree extra points by winning matcheswithout needing tiebreaks.

During the press conference, the champion stated:

I think I would have had great chances even [if I got] second place, even if I lost the final. But there is also first place, it also counts, there are overall prizes and so on, so now it will be very pleasant for me to watch the final event. Of course I wish luck to everyone who can still qualify: to Shakh Mamedyarov, to Nepomniachtchi and to Maxime...but to Maxime I wish luck but not too much luck, because I don't want him to overtake me. I mean, I cannot be rooting against myself (laughs).

Grischuk also talked with Macauley Peterson, who stressed the importance ofthe three extrapointsobtained after winningthe final. When referring to the outside chance of being eliminated after the fourthleg in Jerusalem, Grischuk explained:

I would not even care if that happens. I mean, it's not my fault. I did everything I could. But of course I want to take first. In general, to win the whole series is much bigger than winning just one event.

And he should know Grischukqualified to the 2018 Candidates by finishingthe 2017 FIDE Grand Prix seriesin second place, behind Mamedyarov.

Grischuk achieved a memorable triumphin Hamburg | Photo: Nadja Wittmann

When the tiebreakers were about to begin, twenty spectators were sitting in the playing hall.Grischuk arrived on stage at 14:57,collar turned up, looking a bit dishevelled.In typical style, hesat, adjusted his pieces and lefta minute later.Duda, in turn, emergedfrom therest area, evidently having arrived in the hall earlier,looking fresh and well-dressed. As the games started to unravel, more spectators kept showing up, until the hall was almost full by the end of the day's action.

Duda played White firstandkicked off the final's play-offs with a convincing win. After Grischuk failed atmakingthe most ofhis kingside initiative, Duda went on to show the strength of the bishop pair and the importance of having so much control over the centre:

White has just played 22.d4 and is nowready to activate his pieces and slowly get the upper hand.For a while, Duda seemed to be losing the grip of the position.However, he ended up showing the superiority of his setup and getting the first full point of the day.

The initial handshake of the rapid tiebreakers | Photo: Nadja Wittmann

Game twokicked off at 16:15 sharp. The finalists shook hands and Grischuk paused for several seconds before playing 1.d4. For a third time in the match-up, the Russian got an opening advantage, as he also got the upper hand from the get go in the classical encounters. He first won a pawn on the queenside, then infiltrated the opposite camp with his pieces, and finally put an end to the game with an elegant knight move:

Mating Patterns

On this DVD, Grandmaster and worldrenowned commentator Maurice Ashley reviews some of the most interesting patterns with examples meant to educate and entertain.

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Resignation came after 32.d7. Of course, 32.xe8 also won, but Grischuk did not miss the opportunity to show a finer blow. The Russian would later comment:

Definitely I was getting amazing positions out of the openings.

A quicker time control would now be used to decide a winner. When the 10-minute games were about to start, the players took off their jackets. The tension was rising notoriously and Grischuk had the white pieces first. On move 10, the 36-year-old uncorked a strong novelty:

Developing the initiative

Dynamic play is what makes your chess effective and most importantly fun! Timur Gareyev shows severeal examples which aspects are important to remember when seizing for the initiative!

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The central expansion with10.d5 gives up a pawn, but it is also the first suggestion of the engines. Duda had won a game with Black from this position back in 2013, which prompted Grischuk to take a look at some lines here, although not very deeply. He told Macauley:

I even saw that the computergives it with a big advantage. Of course, I didn't analyze [the move]. I mean, nowadays you are not analyzing won positions because there are so many equal positions to analyze (laughs).

As Grischuk said, this is a strong novelty that gives White a large edge. Naturally, the players spent most of their thinking time on moves 11 to 15, after which Black had castled queenside and White had a host of alternatives to increase his dominance. On move 19, Duda missed his last chance to put up more resistance.

Eventually,an ending with a large material advantage for White was reached:

White's rook and bishop still need to deal with the passers on the queenside, and both contenders were pretty much playing on increments at this point. A well-known time trouble addict, Grischuk would later declare:

Actually with seconds he played much better than me. I barely won this position with a rook for a pawn. [...] But I was gettingmuch betterpositions before we got to the seconds.

The man of the hour Alexander Grischuk | Photo: Nadja Wittmann

Now it was Duda's turn to win on demand, and he hadWhite. The Polishused the same approach that had served him well to take down Daniil Dubov in the semis: to go for simple playable positions and try to outplay his opponent later on. The strategy seemed to be working out well, as Grischuk spent over five minutes on his seventh move (don't forget these are 10-minute games):

First Steps in Positional Play

First Steps in Positional Play attempts to equip the viewer with all the information he or she needs to begin to tackle this aspect of chess. Players below 1500 will benefit from this basic advice. Players above 1500 will enjoy the detailed examination of many current master games. This is an enjoyable tour of positional play from which everyone can learn.

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The Russian explained that he was already looking for lines that would give him a large edge. He did not remember the position, but he did find that 7...d6 was the strongest attempt for Black a move played by the likes of Caruana or Mamedyarov in the past. Despite spending quite some time, he was not convinced, which prompted him to go for the "sort of practical move" 7...c5.

Not long afterwards, White had the more comfortable position, but Duda could not convert it into anything meaningful Grischuk would later retold how his colleague commented that he had not been able to recover emotionally after the two straight losses. Pressed to win, Duda startedto lose the thread. Grischuk took over, and the match came to an endwhen Duda offered a draw from a totally lost position. The Russiancould not hide his emotions:

The first thing Grischuk mentioned during the press conference was how much he had enjoyed the match against the young Polish star:

I want to thank Jan-Krzysztof for an incredible match. I was enjoying every moment of each game all three days. [...] All games were very tense, huge fights, no short draws or anything.

Duda had a great run as well. He declared:

My play here was great. I didn't expect to get to the final.I didn't even expect to get to third round, because I found Ian Nepomniachtchi and Yu Yangyi [his opponents fromthe first two rounds] to be probably the most unpleasant players forme. [...] But I was lucky they both blundered in one move.

The decisive leg of the series will be played in Jerusalem, starting December 11th.

Jan-Krzysztof Duda did not expect to perform as well as he did| Photo: Nadja Wittmann

Additional reporting by Macauley Peterson

Click or tap any result to open the game via Live.ChessBase.com

Commentary by GM Evgeny Miroshnichenko

Excerpt from:

Alexander Grischuk wins the third leg of the Grand Prix in Hamburg - Chessbase News

Geek of the Week: If there’s roadwork ahead, Kurt Stiles uses 3D modeling and more to drive project – GeekWire

Kurt Stiles and his team at the Washington State Department of Transportation often take to the air to better illustrate the stories theyre telling on the ground. (Photo courtesy of Kurt Stiles)

If a new roadway or bridge or other infrastructure element in Washington state looks and drives exactly like youd hoped it would, perhaps Kurt Stiles and his team at the Washington State Department of Transportation are to thank.

Stiles and the Visual Engineering Resource Group (VERG) are the visual media professionals who use a variety of tools, such as aerial photography, 3D modeling and animation, to communicate the stages of all types of projects.

Our latest Geek of the Week spent 10 years in the military before going to school for civil engineering. He was helping to raise three boys and working full time at WSDOT when he discovered the world of 3D modeling and visualization in 1998. Today he leads the group he helped develop at the agency in 2008.

The tech for 3D modeling has grown tremendously. There is no excuse now we have tremendous tools to visually communicate infrastructure change, Stiles said. Our productions can tell any story, to any audience and at any scale. Decision making processes have improved, saving time and money. All stakeholders and the public alike have a deeper understanding which translates to improved consent.

Stiles points to a variety of projects which VERG has had a hand in, whether its photography work showing everything from highway overpasses to rest areas to ferry terminals, or drone footage of a mudslide. Video production and animation is especially useful to show renderings of completed projects, such as this video-game-like fly-by of Interstate-90 near Snoqualmie Pass:

Stiles is particularly proud of the teams 3D modeling work for whats called a diverging diamond interchange, a project being implemented for the first time in Washington, in Lacey.

This retrofitted interchange will handle much more daily traffic volume and do so in a much safer way, Stiles said. Moreover, the new interchange will provide improved, safer pedestrian and bike travel, too much better than what was there originally. This type of interchange design is very progressive and will be a hallmark project for other interchange retrofits to follow in Washington.

Modeling cars and trucks on conventional roadways is all fine and good, but what is VERG going to do when we get the flying vehicles were all waiting for?

That will be fun! Im sure we can animate all sorts of flying objects, Stiles said. But we will have to make sure there is a solid tax-structure to handle all those landing pads that are going to have to be built everyone will want one! Perhaps a new tax on leather flying jackets and goggles? Im sure that will work.

Learn more about this weeks Geek of the Week, Kurt Stiles:

What do you do, and why do you do it? I built and lead a visual communication content development group that is centered in 3D computer modeling, video production and commercial photography. We provide strategic communication content for infrastructure decision makers. They use it so they can get understanding, consent, funding, etc. from their stakeholders and constituents when building civil projects.

Whats the single most important thing people should know about your field? Civil infrastructure change needs to be first and foremost communicated correctly so all parties understand what the change is and why it has to happen. Twentieth-century problems of the built-environment cannot be fixed with 20th century technology. By using 3D modeling and other tools, tremendous insight can be gained in a precognitive way. A future view can be displayed showing the pros and cons, decisions can be made quicker and with increased understanding. Time and money is saved while the project moves forward in an accelerated way.

Where do you find your inspiration? Watching an underdog, any underdog, work hard, work long and then beat the ass off some self-righteous, privileged SOB.

Whats the one piece of technology you couldnt live without, and why? Blender. Open source software that you can make a living with. You can model anything the built environment needs. Remember to give back though with donations keep Blender open source!

Whats your workspace like, and why does it work for you? VERG works in an office like a lot of Geeks. We also have a lot of outside field work, too video shoots, helicopter photography, flying drones, etc. Its never dull in VERG.

Your best tip or trick for managing everyday work and life. (Help us out, we need it.) Setting and managing production expectations. Lead the conversation with your clients based upon their spoken need and youll never go wrong.

Mac, Windows or Linux? Windows.

Kirk, Picard, or Janeway? Picard.

Transporter, Time Machine or Cloak of Invisibility? Time machine. I wanna go back so I can get it right the second time.

If someone gave me $1 million to launch a startup, I would Run to the hills with the dough? No, Id do it, but its gotta be MY startup.

I once waited in line for A warm Coke in the Philippines, which I drank with fevered intent.

Your role models: Napoleon Bonaparte: Capability is worthless without opportunity.Gen. George Patton: Lead me, follow me, or get the hell outta the wayTony Robbins: There are only two options: make progress or make solutions

Greatest game in history: Chess.

Best gadget ever: Theyre all great, but not without WD-40.

First computer: Compaq Portable.

Current phone: Android S7 or Motorola DynaTAC CellStar, I cant remember which.

Favorite app: WAYZ.

Favorite cause: Dog rescues for any dog.

Most important technology of 2019: Gaming engines.

Most important technology of 2021: Gaming engines.

Final words of advice for your fellow geeks: Just do it. Suck it up, stand for something and take the risk. Feel free to draw a line in the sand, just be able to defend it. Take ownership no one else will and youll impress the hell out of people for it.

Website: Visual Engineering Resource Group

LinkedIn: Kurt Stiles

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Geek of the Week: If there's roadwork ahead, Kurt Stiles uses 3D modeling and more to drive project - GeekWire

Lucas Chess

Play

The program has 40 engines prepared to play from the start, and with very different levels, from 0 to 3300 elo.This list of engines is not closed and you can add other ones with the only limitation that they use the UCI protocol.The game can be set, limiting the depth of analysis of the motor or the time used to think, or by modifying the way in which it decides.You can also choose the opening, or start in a certain position, or that the engine uses a book of openings or more or less aid.Younger children will be able to begin their apprenticeship with special engines that know little more than moving the pieces, and this will enable them to win against the engines from the very beginning.

Train

You have an extensive list of trainings with which to try to improve your chess: Training positions Play like a grandmaster Training mates Find best move Resistance Test Your daily test Learn tactics by repetition Learn openings by repetition Training with a book Long-term trainings Training on a map Transsiberian Railway Expeditions to the Everest Turn on the lights The Washing Machine Resources for zebras Check your memory on a chessboard Find all moves Becoming a knight tamer Moves between two positions Determine your calculating power Learn a game The board at a glance

Compete

In Lucas Chess there are several competitions, and in two of them you can publish the results.The first is a one-to-one competition against all the engines, starting with the weakest, initially in each engine many hints are available, and as you change level, the hints will be reduced.And in the second, Lucas-elo, where you can deal with all the engines in your range of score and add or subtract points according to the results of the games.

Follow this link:

Lucas Chess

Universal Chess Interface – Wikipedia

A Universal Chess Interface (UCI) is an open communication protocol that enables chess engines to communicate with user interfaces.[1][2]

In November 2000, the UCI protocol was released. Designed by Rudolf Huber and Stefan Meyer-Kahlen, the author of Shredder, UCI rivals the older "Chess Engine Communication Protocol" introduced with XBoard/WinBoard.

In 2002, Chessbase, the chess software company which markets Fritz, began to support UCI, which had previously been supported by only a few interfaces and engines.

As of 2007[update], well over 100 engines are known to directly support UCI.

By design, UCI assigns some tasks to the user interface (i.e., presentation layer) which have traditionally been handled by the engine (at the business layer) itself.[citation needed]

Most notably, the opening book is usually expected to be handled by the UI, by simply selecting moves to play until it is out of book, and only then starting up the engine for calculation in the resulting position. UCI does not specify any on-disk format for the opening book. Different UIs usually have their own proprietary formats.[citation needed]

While the UI can also take responsibility for handling endgame tablebases, this is arguably better handled in the engine itself, as having tablebase information can be useful for considering possible future positions.[3]

Stefan-Meyer Kahlen's UCI protocol in Shredder uses long algebraic notation for moves. A "nullmove" from the Engine to the GUI should be sent as 0000.[4]

The uci_limitstrength parameter tells engines with this feature to play at a lower level. The uci_elo parameter specifies the Elo rating at which the engine will aim to play.

The rest is here:

Universal Chess Interface - Wikipedia

Top Chess Engine Championship – Wikipedia

Top Chess Engine Championship, formerly known as Thoresen Chess Engines Competition (TCEC or nTCEC), is a computer chess tournament that has been run since 2010. It was organized, directed, and hosted by Martin Thoresen until the end of Season 6; from Season 7 onward it has been organized by Chessdom. It is often regarded as the Unofficial World Computer Chess Championship because of its strong participant line-up and long time-control matches on high-end hardware, giving rise to very high-class chess.[1][2]

After a short break in 2012,[3] TCEC was restarted in early 2013 (as nTCEC)[4] and is currently active (renamed as TCEC in early 2014) with 24/7 live broadcasts of chess matches on its website.

Since season 5, TCEC has been sponsored by Chessdom Arena.[5][6] The current TCEC champion is Stockfish 190203, which defeated LCZero v20.2-32930 by a score of 50.5-49.5 in the TCEC Season 14 Superfinal 100-game match held in February 2019.

The TCEC competition is divided into seasons, where each season happens over a course of a few months, with matches played round-the-clock and broadcast live over the internet. Each season is divided into several qualifying stages and one "superfinal", where the top two chess engines play 100 games to win the title of "TCEC Grand Champion". In the superfinal, each engine plays 50 openings, once as each side. Beginning in Season 11 in 2018, a division system was introduced; the top 2 engines in each division are promoted, and the bottom 2 are relegated. Currently there are 5 divisions (a Premier division, and divisions 1-4); newcomers generally start in division 4.

Pondering is set to off. All engines run on mostly the same hardware[7] and use the same opening book, which is set by the organizers and changed in every stage. Large pages are disabled but access to various endgame tablebases is permitted. Engines are allowed updates between stages; if there is a critical play-limiting bug, they are also allowed to be updated once during the stage. If an engine crashes 3 times in one event, it is disqualified to avoid distorting the results for the other engines. TCEC generates its own elo rating list from the matches played during the tournament. An initial rating is given to any new participant based on its rating in other chess engine rating lists.

There is no definite criterion for entering into the competition, other than inviting the top participants from various rating lists. Initially, the list of participants was personally chosen by Thoresen before the start of a season. His stated goal was to include "every major engine that is not a direct clone".[8] However, Shredder's developers have declined to enter it in the competition. Usually chess engines that support multiprocessor mode are preferred (8-cores or higher). Both Winboard and UCI engines are supported.

Shredder vs Gull, TCEC S4

Originally posted here:

Top Chess Engine Championship - Wikipedia

Computer chess – Wikipedia

Computer hardware and software capable of playing chess

Computer chess includes both hardware (dedicated computers) and software capable of playing chess. Computer chess provides opportunities for players to practice even in the absence of human opponents, and also provides opportunities for analysis, entertainment and training. Since around 2005, chess engines have been able to defeat even the strongest human players. Nevertheless, it is considered unlikely that computers will ever solve chess due to its computational complexity.

The idea of creating a chess-playing machine dates back to the eighteenth century. Around 1769, the chess playing automaton called The Turk became famous before being exposed as a hoax. Before the development of digital computing, serious trials based on automata such as El Ajedrecista of 1912, were too complex and limited to be useful for playing full games of chess. The field of mechanical chess research languished until the advent of the digital computer in the 1950s. Since then, chess enthusiasts and computer engineers have built, with increasing degrees of seriousness and success, chess-playing machines and computer programs.

Chess-playing computers and software came onto the market in the mid-1970s. There are many chess engines such as Stockfish, Crafty, Fruit and GNU Chess that can be downloaded from the Internet free of charge. Top programs such as Stockfish have surpassed even world champion caliber players.

CEGT,[42] CSS,[43] SSDF,[44] and WBEC[45] maintain rating lists allowing fans to compare the strength of engines. As of 3 February 2016, Stockfish is the top rated chess program on the IPON rating list.[46]

CCRL (Computer Chess Rating Lists) is an organisation that tests computer chess engines' strength by playing the programs against each other. CCRL was founded in 2006 by Graham Banks, Ray Banks, Sarah Bird, Kirill Kryukov and Charles Smith, and as of June 2012 its members are Graham Banks, Ray Banks (who only participates in Chess960, or Fischer Random Chess), Shaun Brewer, Adam Hair, Aser Huerga, Kirill Kryukov, Denis Mendoza, Charles Smith and Gabor Szots.[47]

The organisation runs three different lists: 40/40 (40 minutes for every 40 moves played), 40/4 (4 minutes for every 40 moves played), and 40/4 FRC (same time control but Chess960).[Note 1] Pondering (or permanent brain) is switched off and timing is adjusted to the AMD64 X2 4600+ (2.4 GHz) CPU by using Crafty 19.17 BH as a benchmark. Generic, neutral opening books are used (as opposed to the engine's own book) up to a limit of 12 moves into the game alongside 4 or 5 man tablebases.[47][48][49]

Using "ends-and-means" heuristics a human chess player can intuitively determine optimal outcomes and how to achieve them regardless of the number of moves necessary, but a computer must be systematic in its analysis. Most players agree that looking at least five moves ahead (ten plies) when necessary is required to play well. Normal tournament rules give each player an average of three minutes per move. On average there are more than 30 legal moves per chess position, so a computer must examine a quadrillion possibilities to look ahead ten plies (five full moves); one that could examine a million positions a second would require more than 30 years.[50]

After discovering refutation screeningthe application of alpha-beta pruning to optimizing move evaluationin 1957, a team at Carnegie Mellon University predicted that a computer would defeat the world human champion by 1967.[51] It did not anticipate the difficulty of determining the right order to evaluate branches. Researchers worked to improve programs' ability to identify killer heuristics, unusually high-scoring moves to reexamine when evaluating other branches, but into the 1970s most top chess players believed that computers would not soon be able to play at a Master level.[50] In 1968 International Master David Levy made a famous bet that no chess computer would be able to beat him within ten years,[6] and in 1976 Senior Master and professor of psychology Eliot Hearst of Indiana University wrote that "the only way a current computer program could ever win a single game against a master player would be for the master, perhaps in a drunken stupor while playing 50 games simultaneously, to commit some once-in-a-year blunder".[50]

In the late 1970s chess programs suddenly began defeating top human players.[50] The year of Hearst's statement, Northwestern University's Chess 4.5 at the Paul Masson American Chess Championship's Class B level became the first to win a human tournament. Levy won his bet in 1978 by beating Chess 4.7, but it achieved the first computer victory against a Master-class player at the tournament level by winning one of the six games.[6] In 1980 Belle began often defeating Masters. By 1982 two programs played at Master level and three were slightly weaker.[50]

The sudden improvement without a theoretical breakthrough surprised humans, who did not expect that Belle's ability to examine 100,000 positions a secondabout eight plieswould be sufficient. The Spracklens, creators of the successful microcomputer program Sargon, estimated that 90% of the improvement came from faster evaluation speed and only 10% from improved evaluations. New Scientist stated in 1982 that computers "play terrible chess ... clumsy, inefficient, diffuse, and just plain ugly", but humans lost to them by making "horrible blunders, astonishing lapses, incomprehensible oversights, gross miscalculations, and the like" much more often than they realized; "in short, computers win primarily through their ability to find and exploit miscalculations in human initiatives".[50]

By 1982, microcomputer chess programs could evaluate up to 1,500 moves a second and were as strong as mainframe chess programs of five years earlier, able to defeat almost all players. While only able to look ahead one or two plies more than at their debut in the mid-1970s, doing so improved their play more than experts expected; seemingly minor improvements "appear to have allowed the crossing of a psychological threshold, after which a rich harvest of human error becomes accessible", New Scientist wrote.[50] While reviewing SPOC in 1984, BYTE wrote that "Computersmainframes, minis, and microstend to play ugly, inelegant chess", but noted Robert Byrne's statement that "tactically they are freer from error than the average human player". The magazine described SPOC as a "state-of-the-art chess program" for the IBM PC with a "surprisingly high" level of play, and estimated its USCF rating as 1700 (Class B).[52]

At the 1982 North American Computer Chess Championship, Monroe Newborn predicted that a chess program could become world champion within five years; tournament director and International Master Michael Valvo predicted ten years; the Spracklens predicted 15; Ken Thompson predicted more than 20; and others predicted that it would never happen. The most widely held opinion, however, stated that it would occur around the year 2000.[53] In 1989, Levy was defeated by Deep Thought in an exhibition match. Deep Thought, however, was still considerably below World Championship Level, as the then reigning world champion Garry Kasparov demonstrated in two strong wins in 1989. It was not until a 1996 match with IBM's Deep Blue that Kasparov lost his first game to a computer at tournament time controls in Deep Blue - Kasparov, 1996, Game 1. This game was, in fact, the first time a reigning world champion had lost to a computer using regular time controls. However, Kasparov regrouped to win three and draw two of the remaining five games of the match, for a convincing victory.

In May 1997, an updated version of Deep Blue defeated Kasparov 32 in a return match. A documentary mainly about the confrontation was made in 2003, titled Game Over: Kasparov and the Machine. IBM keeps a web site of the event.

With increasing processing power and improved evaluation functions, chess programs running on commercially available workstations began to rival top flight players. In 1998, Rebel 10 defeated Viswanathan Anand, who at the time was ranked second in the world, by a score of 53. However most of those games were not played at normal time controls. Out of the eight games, four were blitz games (five minutes plus five seconds Fischer delay (see time control) for each move); these Rebel won 31. Two were semi-blitz games (fifteen minutes for each side) that Rebel won as well (1). Finally, two games were played as regular tournament games (forty moves in two hours, one hour sudden death); here it was Anand who won 1.[54] In fast games, computers played better than humans, but at classical time controls at which a player's rating is determined the advantage was not so clear.

In the early 2000s, commercially available programs such as Junior and Fritz were able to draw matches against former world champion Garry Kasparov and classical world champion Vladimir Kramnik.

In October 2002, Vladimir Kramnik and Deep Fritz competed in the eight-game Brains in Bahrain match, which ended in a draw. Kramnik won games 2 and 3 by "conventional" anti-computer tactics play conservatively for a long-term advantage the computer is not able to see in its game tree search. Fritz, however, won game 5 after a severe blunder by Kramnik. Game 6 was described by the tournament commentators as "spectacular." Kramnik, in a better position in the early middlegame, tried a piece sacrifice to achieve a strong tactical attack, a strategy known to be highly risky against computers who are at their strongest defending against such attacks. True to form, Fritz found a watertight defense and Kramnik's attack petered out leaving him in a bad position. Kramnik resigned the game, believing the position lost. However, post-game human and computer analysis has shown that the Fritz program was unlikely to have been able to force a win and Kramnik effectively sacrificed a drawn position. The final two games were draws. Given the circumstances, most commentators still rate Kramnik the stronger player in the match.[citation needed]

In January 2003, Garry Kasparov played Junior, another chess computer program, in New York City. The match ended 33.

In November 2003, Garry Kasparov played X3D Fritz. The match ended 22.

In 2005, Hydra, a dedicated chess computer with custom hardware and sixty-four processors and also winner of the 14th IPCCC in 2005, defeated seventh-ranked Michael Adams 5 in a six-game match (though Adams' preparation was far less thorough than Kramnik's for the 2002 series).[55]

In NovemberDecember 2006, World Champion Vladimir Kramnik played Deep Fritz. This time the computer won; the match ended 24. Kramnik was able to view the computer's opening book. In the first five games Kramnik steered the game into a typical "anti-computer" positional contest. He lost one game (overlooking a mate in one), and drew the next four. In the final game, in an attempt to draw the match, Kramnik played the more aggressive Sicilian Defence and was crushed.

There was speculation that interest in human-computer chess competition would plummet as a result of the 2006 Kramnik-Deep Fritz match.[56] According to Newborn, for example, "the science is done".[57]

Human-computer chess matches showed the best computer systems overtaking human chess champions in the late 1990s. For the 40 years prior to that, the trend had been that the best machines gained about 40 points per year in the Elo rating while the best humans only gained roughly 2 points per year.[58] The highest rating obtained by a computer in human competition was Deep Thought's USCF rating of 2551 in 1988 and FIDE no longer accepts human-computer results in their rating lists. Specialized machine-only Elo pools have been created for rating machines, but such numbers, while similar in appearance, should not be directly compared.[59] In 2016, the Swedish Chess Computer Association rated computer program Komodo at 3361.

Chess engines continue to improve. In 2009, chess engines running on slower hardware have reached the grandmaster level. A mobile phone won a category 6 tournament with a performance rating 2898: chess engine Hiarcs 13 running inside Pocket Fritz 4 on the mobile phone HTC Touch HD won the Copa Mercosur tournament in Buenos Aires, Argentina with 9 wins and 1 draw on August 414, 2009.[33] Pocket Fritz 4 searches fewer than 20,000 positions per second.[60] This is in contrast to supercomputers such as Deep Blue that searched 200 million positions per second.

Advanced Chess is a form of chess developed in 1998 by Kasparov where a human plays against another human, and both have access to computers to enhance their strength. The resulting "advanced" player was argued by Kasparov to be stronger than a human or computer alone, this has been proven in numerous occasions, at Freestyle Chess events. In 2017, a win by a computer engine in the freestyle Ultimate Challenge tournament.[41] was the source of a lengthy debate, in which the organisers declined to participate.

Players today are inclined to treat chess engines as analysis tools rather than opponents.[61]

The developers of a chess-playing computer system must decide on a number of fundamental implementation issues. These include:

Computer chess programs usually support a number of common de facto standards. Nearly all of today's programs can read and write game moves as Portable Game Notation (PGN), and can read and write individual positions as ForsythEdwards Notation (FEN). Older chess programs often only understood long algebraic notation, but today users expect chess programs to understand standard algebraic chess notation.

Starting in the late 1990s, programmers began to develop separately engines (with a command-line interface which calculates which moves are strongest in a position) or a graphical user interface(GUI) which provides the player with a chessboard they can see, and pieces that can be moved. Engines communicate their moves to the GUI using a protocol such as the Chess Engine Communication Protocol (CECP) or Universal Chess Interface (UCI). By dividing chess programs into these two pieces, developers can write only the user interface, or only the engine, without needing to write both parts of the program. (See also chess engines.)

Developers have to decide whether to connect the engine to an opening book and/or endgame tablebases or leave this to the GUI.

The data structure used to represent each chess position is key to the performance of move generation and position evaluation. Methods include pieces stored in an array ("mailbox" and "0x88"), piece positions stored in a list ("piece list"), collections of bit-sets for piece locations ("bitboards"), and huffman coded positions for compact long-term storage.

The first paper on the subject was by Claude Shannon in 1950.[62] He predicted the two main possible search strategies which would be used, which he labeled "Type A" and "Type B",[63] before anyone had programmed a computer to play chess.

Type A programs would use a "brute force" approach, examining every possible position for a fixed number of moves using the minimax algorithm. Shannon believed this would be impractical for two reasons.

First, with approximately thirty moves possible in a typical real-life position, he expected that searching the approximately 109 positions involved in looking three moves ahead for both sides (six plies) would take about sixteen minutes, even in the "very optimistic" case that the chess computer evaluated a million positions every second. (It took about forty years to achieve this speed.)

Second, it ignored the problem of quiescence, trying to only evaluate a position that is at the end of an exchange of pieces or other important sequence of moves ('lines'). He expected that adapting type A to cope with this would greatly increase the number of positions needing to be looked at and slow the program down still further.

Instead of wasting processing power examining bad or trivial moves, Shannon suggested that "type B" programs would use two improvements:

This would enable them to look further ahead ('deeper') at the most significant lines in a reasonable time. The test of time has borne out the first approach; all modern programs employ a terminal quiescence search before evaluating positions. The second approach (now called forward pruning) has been dropped in favor of search extensions.

Adriaan de Groot interviewed a number of chess players of varying strengths, and concluded that both masters and beginners look at around forty to fifty positions before deciding which move to play. What makes the former much better players is that they use pattern recognition skills built from experience. This enables them to examine some lines in much greater depth than others by simply not considering moves they can assume to be poor.

More evidence for this being the case is the way that good human players find it much easier to recall positions from genuine chess games, breaking them down into a small number of recognizable sub-positions, rather than completely random arrangements of the same pieces. In contrast, poor players have the same level of recall for both.

The problem with type B is that it relies on the program being able to decide which moves are good enough to be worthy of consideration ('plausible') in any given position and this proved to be a much harder problem to solve than speeding up type A searches with superior hardware and search extension techniques.

One of the few chess grandmasters to devote himself seriously to computer chess was former World Chess Champion Mikhail Botvinnik, who wrote several works on the subject. He also held a doctorate in electrical engineering. Working with relatively primitive hardware available in the Soviet Union in the early 1960s, Botvinnik had no choice but to investigate software move selection techniques; at the time only the most powerful computers could achieve much beyond a three-ply full-width search, and Botvinnik had no such machines. In 1965 Botvinnik was a consultant to the ITEP team in a US-Soviet computer chess match (see Kotok-McCarthy).

One developmental milestone occurred when the team from Northwestern University, which was responsible for the Chess series of programs and won the first three ACM Computer Chess Championships (197072), abandoned type B searching in 1973. The resulting program, Chess 4.0, won that year's championship and its successors went on to come in second in both the 1974 ACM Championship and that year's inaugural World Computer Chess Championship, before winning the ACM Championship again in 1975, 1976 and 1977.

One reason they gave for the switch was that they found it less stressful during competition, because it was difficult to anticipate which moves their type B programs would play, and why. They also reported that type A was much easier to debug in the four months they had available and turned out to be just as fast: in the time it used to take to decide which moves were worthy of being searched, it was possible just to search all of them.

In fact, Chess 4.0 set the paradigm that was and still is followed essentially by all modern Chess programs today. Chess 4.0 type programs won out for the simple reason that their programs played better chess. Such programs did not try to mimic human thought processes, but relied on full width alpha-beta and negascout searches. Most such programs (including all modern programs today) also included a fairly limited selective part of the search based on quiescence searches, and usually extensions and pruning (particularly null move pruning from the 1990s onwards) which were triggered based on certain conditions in an attempt to weed out or reduce obviously bad moves (history moves) or to investigate interesting nodes (e.g. check extensions, passed pawns on seventh rank, etc.). Extension and pruning triggers have to be used very carefully however. Over extend and the program wastes too much time looking at uninteresting positions. If too much is pruned, there is a risk cutting out interesting nodes. Chess programs differ in terms of how and what types of pruning and extension rules are included as well as in the evaluation function. Some programs are believed to be more selective than others (for example Deep Blue was known to be less selective than most commercial programs because they could afford to do more complete full width searches), but all have a base full width search as a foundation and all have some selective components (Q-search, pruning/extensions).

Though such additions meant that the program did not truly examine every node within its search depth (so it would not be truly brute force in that sense), the rare mistakes due to these selective searches was found to be worth the extra time it saved because it could search deeper. In that way Chess programs can get the best of both worlds.

Furthermore, technological advances by orders of magnitude in processing power have made the brute force approach far more incisive than was the case in the early years. The result is that a very solid, tactical AI player aided by some limited positional knowledge built in by the evaluation function and pruning/extension rules began to match the best players in the world. It turned out to produce excellent results, at least in the field of chess, to let computers do what they do best (calculate) rather than coax them into imitating human thought processes and knowledge. In 1997 Deep Blue defeated World Champion Garry Kasparov, marking the first time a computer has defeated a reigning world chess champion in standard time control.

Computer chess programs consider chess moves as a game tree. In theory, they examine all moves, then all counter-moves to those moves, then all moves countering them, and so on, where each individual move by one player is called a "ply". This evaluation continues until a certain maximum search depth or the program determines that a final "leaf" position has been reached (e.g. checkmate).

A naive implementation of this approach can only search to a small depth in a practical amount of time, so various methods have been devised to greatly speed the search for good moves.

The AlphaZero program uses a variant of Monte Carlo tree search without rollout.[64]

For more information, see:

For most chess positions, computers cannot look ahead to all possible final positions. Instead, they must look ahead a few plies and compare the possible positions, known as leaves. The algorithm that evaluates leaves is termed the "evaluation function", and these algorithms are often vastly different between different chess programs.

Evaluation functions typically evaluate positions in hundredths of a pawn (called a centipawn), and consider material value along with other factors affecting the strength of each side. When counting up the material for each side, typical values for pieces are 1 point for a pawn, 3 points for a knight or bishop, 5 points for a rook, and 9 points for a queen. (See Chess piece relative value.) The king is sometimes given an arbitrary high value such as 200 points (Shannon's paper) or 1,000,000,000 points (1961 USSR program) to ensure that a checkmate outweighs all other factors (Levy & Newborn 1991:45). By convention, a positive evaluation favors White, and a negative evaluation favors Black.

In addition to points for pieces, most evaluation functions take many factors into account, such as pawn structure, the fact that a pair of bishops are usually worth more, centralized pieces are worth more, and so on. The protection of kings is usually considered, as well as the phase of the game (opening, middle or endgame).

Endgame play had long been one of the great weaknesses of chess programs, because of the depth of search needed. Some otherwise master-level programs were unable to win in positions where even intermediate human players can force a win.

To solve this problem, computers have been used to analyze some chess endgame positions completely, starting with king and pawn against king. Such endgame tablebases are generated in advance using a form of retrograde analysis, starting with positions where the final result is known (e.g., where one side has been mated) and seeing which other positions are one move away from them, then which are one move from those, etc. Ken Thompson was a pioneer in this area.

The results of the computer analysis sometimes surprised people. In 1977 Thompson's Belle chess machine used the endgame tablebase for a king and rook against king and queen and was able to draw that theoretically lost ending against several masters (see Philidor position#Queen versus rook). This was despite not following the usual strategy to delay defeat by keeping the defending king and rook close together for as long as possible. Asked to explain the reasons behind some of the program's moves, Thompson was unable to do so beyond saying the program's database simply returned the best moves.

Most grandmasters declined to play against the computer in the queen versus rook endgame, but Walter Browne accepted the challenge. A queen versus rook position was set up in which the queen can win in thirty moves, with perfect play. Browne was allowed 2 hours to play fifty moves, otherwise a draw would be claimed under the fifty-move rule. After forty-five moves, Browne agreed to a draw, being unable to force checkmate or win the rook within the next five moves. In the final position, Browne was still seventeen moves away from checkmate, but not quite that far away from winning the rook. Browne studied the endgame, and played the computer again a week later in a different position in which the queen can win in thirty moves. This time, he captured the rook on the fiftieth move, giving him a winning position (Levy & Newborn 1991:14448), (Nunn 2002:49).

Other positions, long believed to be won, turned out to take more moves against perfect play to actually win than were allowed by chess's fifty-move rule. As a consequence, for some years the official FIDE rules of chess were changed to extend the number of moves allowed in these endings. After a while, the rule reverted to fifty moves in all positions more such positions were discovered, complicating the rule still further, and it made no difference in human play, as they could not play the positions perfectly.

Over the years, other endgame database formats have been released including the Edward Tablebase, the De Koning Database and the Nalimov Tablebase which is used by many chess programs such as Rybka, Shredder and Fritz. Tablebases for all positions with six pieces are available.[65] Some seven-piece endgames have been analyzed by Marc Bourzutschky and Yakov Konoval.[66] Programmers using the Lomonosov supercomputers in Moscow have completed a chess tablebase for all endgames with seven pieces or fewer (trivial endgame positions are excluded, such as six white pieces versus a lone black king).[67][68] In all of these endgame databases it is assumed that castling is no longer possible.

Many tablebases do not consider the fifty-move rule, under which a game where fifty moves pass without a capture or pawn move can be claimed to be a draw by either player. This results in the tablebase returning results such as "Forced mate in sixty-six moves" in some positions which would actually be drawn because of the fifty-move rule. One reason for this is that if the rules of chess were to be changed once more, giving more time to win such positions, it will not be necessary to regenerate all the tablebases. It is also very easy for the program using the tablebases to notice and take account of this 'feature' and in any case if using an endgame tablebase will choose the move that leads to the quickest win (even if it would fall foul of the fifty-move rule with perfect play). If playing an opponent not using a tablebase, such a choice will give good chances of winning within fifty moves.

The Nalimov tablebases, which use state-of-the-art compression techniques, require 7.05 GB of hard disk space for all five-piece endings. To cover all the six-piece endings requires approximately 1.2 TB. It is estimated that a seven-piece tablebase requires between 50 and 200 TB of storage space.[69]

Endgame databases featured prominently in 1999, when Kasparov played an exhibition match on the Internet against the rest of the world. A seven piece Queen and pawn endgame was reached with the World Team fighting to salvage a draw. Eugene Nalimov helped by generating the six piece ending tablebase where both sides had two Queens which was used heavily to aid analysis by both sides.

Many other optimizations can be used to make chess-playing programs stronger. For example, transposition tables are used to record positions that have been previously evaluated, to save recalculation of them. Refutation tables record key moves that "refute" what appears to be a good move; these are typically tried first in variant positions (since a move that refutes one position is likely to refute another). Opening books aid computer programs by giving common openings that are considered good play (and good ways to counter poor openings). Many chess engines use pondering to increase their strength.

Of course, faster hardware and additional processors can improve chess-playing program abilities, and some systems (such as Deep Blue) use specialized chess hardware instead of only software. Another way to examine more chess positions is to distribute the analysis of positions to many computers. The ChessBrain project[70] was a chess program that distributed the search tree computation through the Internet. In 2004 the ChessBrain played chess using 2,070 computers.

It has been estimated that doubling the computer speed gains approximately fifty to seventy Elo points in playing strength (Levy & Newborn 1991:192).

Chess engines have been developed to play some chess variants such as Capablanca Chess, but the engines are almost never directly integrated with specific hardware. Even for the software that has been developed, most will not play chess beyond a certain board size, so games played on an unbounded chessboard (infinite chess) remain virtually untouched by both chess computers and software.

These chess playing systems include custom hardware or run on supercomputers.

In the 1980s and early 1990s, there was a competitive market for dedicated chess computers. This market changed in the mid-90s when computers with dedicated processors could no longer compete with the fast processors in personal computers. Nowadays, most dedicated units sold are of beginner and intermediate strength.

Recently, some hobbyists have been using the Multi Emulator Super System to run the chess programs created for Fidelity or Hegener & Glaser's Mephisto computers on modern 64 bit operating systems such as Windows 10.[72] The author of Rebel, Ed Schrder has also adapted three of the Hegener & Glaser Mephisto's he wrote to work as UCI engines.[73]

These chess programs run on obsolete hardware:

These programs can be run on MS-DOS, and can be run on 64 bit Windows 10 via emulators such as DOSBox or Qemu:[75]

Perhaps the most common type of chess software are programs that simply play chess. You make a move on the board, and the AI calculates and plays a response, and back and forth until one player resigns. Sometimes the chess engine, which calculates the moves, and the graphical user interface(GUI) are separate programs. A variety of engines can be imported into the GUI, so that you can play against different styles. Engines often have just a simple text command-line interface while GUIs may offer a variety of piece sets, board styles or even 3D or animated pieces. Because recent engines are so strong, engines or GUIs may offer some way of limiting the engine's strength, so the player has a better chance of winning. Universal Chess Interface(UCI) engines such Fritz or Rybka may have a built in mechanism for reducing the Elo rating of the engine (via UCI's uci_limitstrength and uci_elo parameters). Some versions of Fritz have a Handicap and Fun mode for limiting the current engine or changing the percentage of mistakes it makes or changing its style. Fritz also has a Friend Mode where during the game it tries to match the level of the player.

Chess databases allow users to search through a large library of historical games, analyze them, check statistics, and draw up an opening repertoire. Chessbase (for PC) is perhaps the most common program for this amongst professional players, but there are alternatives such as Shane's Chess Information Database (Scid) [76] for Windows, Mac or Linux, Chess Assistant[77] for PC,[78] Gerhard Kalab's Chess PGN Master for Android[79] or Giordano Vicoli's Chess-Studio for iOS.[80]

Programs such as Playchess allow you to play games against other players over the internet.

Chess training programs teach chess. Chessmaster had playthrough tutorials by IM Josh Waitzkin and GM Larry Christiansen. Stefan Meyer-Kahlen offers Shredder Chess Tutor based on the Step coursebooks of Rob Brunia and Cor Van Wijgerden. World champions Magnus Carlsen's Play Magnus company recently released a Magnus Trainer app for Android and iOS. Chessbase has Fritz and Chesster for children. Convekta has a large number of training apps such as CT-ART and its Chess King line based on tutorials by GM Alexander Kalinin and Maxim Blokh.

There is also Software for handling chess problems.

Well-known computer chess theorists include:

The prospects of completely solving chess are generally considered to be rather remote. It is widely conjectured that there is no computationally inexpensive method to solve chess even in the very weak sense of determining with certainty the value of the initial position, and hence the idea of solving chess in the stronger sense of obtaining a practically usable description of a strategy for perfect play for either side seems unrealistic today. However, it has not been proven that no computationally cheap way of determining the best move in a chess position exists, nor even that a traditional alpha-beta-searcher running on present-day computing hardware could not solve the initial position in an acceptable amount of time. The difficulty in proving the latter lies in the fact that, while the number of board positions that could happen in the course of a chess game is huge (on the order of at least 1043[82] to 1047), it is hard to rule out with mathematical certainty the possibility that the initial position allows either side to force a mate or a threefold repetition after relatively few moves, in which case the search tree might encompass only a very small subset of the set of possible positions. It has been mathematically proven that generalized chess (chess played with an arbitrarily large number of pieces on an arbitrarily large chessboard) is EXPTIME-complete,[83] meaning that determining the winning side in an arbitrary position of generalized chess provably takes exponential time in the worst case; however, this theoretical result gives no lower bound on the amount of work required to solve ordinary 8x8 chess.

Gardner's Minichess, played on a 55 board with approximately 1018 possible board positions, has been solved; its game-theoretic value is 1/2 (i.e. a draw can be forced by either side), and the forcing strategy to achieve that result has been described.

Progress has also been made from the other side: as of 2012, all 7 and fewer piece (2 kings and up to 5 other pieces) endgames have been solved.

A "chess engine" is software that calculates and orders which moves are the strongest to play in a given position. Engine authors focus on improving the play of their engines, often just importing the engine into a graphical user interface(GUI) developed by someone else. Engines communicate with the GUI by following standardized protocols such as the Universal Chess Interface developed by Stefan Meyer-Kahlen and Franz Huber or the Chess Engine Communication Protocol developed by Tim Mann for GNU Chess and Winboard. Chessbase has its own proprietary protocol, and at one time Millennium 2000 had another protocol used for ChessGenius. Engines designed for one operating system and protocol may be ported to other OS's or protocols.

In 1997, the Internet Chess Club released its first Java client for playing chess online against other people inside one's webbrowser.[84] This was probably one of the first chess web apps. Free Internet Chess Server followed soon after with a similar client.[85] In 2004, International Correspondence Chess Federation opened up a web server to replace their email based system.[86] Chess.com started offering Live Chess in 2007.[87] Chessbase/Playchess had long had a downloadable client, but they had a web interface by 2013.[88]

Another popular web app is tactics training. The now defunct Chess Tactics Server opened its site in 2006,[89] followed by Chesstempo the next year,[90] and Chess.com added its Tactics Trainer in 2008.[91] Chessbase added a tactics trainer web app in 2015.[92]

Chessbase took their chess game database online in 1998.[93] Another early chess game databases was Chess Lab, which started in 1999.[94] New In Chess had initially tried to compete with Chessbase by releasing a NICBase program for Windows 3.x, but eventually, decided to give up on software, and instead focus on their online database starting in 2002.[95]

One could play against the engine Shredder online from 2006.[96] In 2015, Chessbase added a play Fritz web app,[97] as well as My Games for storing one's games.[98]

Starting in 2007, Chess.com offered the content of the training program, Chess Mentor, to their customers online. [99] Top GMs such as Sam Shankland and Walter Browne have contributed lessons.

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Computer chess - Wikipedia

Chess – Wikipedia

This article is about the Western board game. For other chess games or other uses, see Chess (disambiguation).

Strategy board game

Chess is a two-player strategy board game played on a chessboard, a checkered gameboard with 64squares arranged in an 88 grid.[1] The game is played by millions of people worldwide. Chess is believed to be derived from the Indian game chaturanga some time before the 7thcentury. Chaturanga is also the likely ancestor of the Eastern strategy games xiangqi, janggi, and shogi. Chess reached Europe by the 9thcentury, due to the Umayyad conquest of Hispania. The pieces assumed their current powers in Spain in the late 15thcentury with the introduction of "Mad Queen Chess"; the modern rules were standardized in the 19thcentury.

Play does not involve hidden information. Each player begins with 16 pieces: one king, one queen, two rooks, two knights, two bishops, and eight pawns. Each of the six piece types moves differently, with the most powerful being the queen and the least powerful the pawn. The objective is to checkmate[note 1] the opponent's king by placing it under an inescapable threat of capture. To this end, a player's pieces are used to attack and capture the opponent's pieces, while supporting each other. During the game, play typically involves making exchanges of one piece for an opponent's similar piece, but also finding and engineering opportunities to trade advantageously, or to get a better position. In addition to checkmate, a player wins the game if the opponent resigns, or (in a timed game) runs out of time. There are also several ways that a game can end in a draw.

The first generally recognized World Chess Champion, Wilhelm Steinitz, claimed his title in 1886. Since 1948, the World Championship has been regulated by the Fdration Internationale des checs (FIDE), the game's international governing body. FIDE also awards life-time master titles to skilled players, the highest of which is grandmaster. Many national chess organizations have a title system of their own. FIDE also organizes the Women's World Championship, the World Junior Championship, the World Senior Championship, the Blitz and Rapid World Championships, and the Chess Olympiad, a popular competition among international teams. FIDE is a member of the International Olympic Committee, which can be considered as a recognition of chess as a sport.[2] Several national sporting bodies (for example the Spanish Consejo Superior de Deportes[3]) also recognize chess as a sport. Chess was included in the 2006 and 2010 Asian Games. There is also a Correspondence Chess World Championship and a World Computer Chess Championship. Online chess has opened amateur and professional competition to a wide and varied group of players.

Since the second half of the 20th century, chess engines (computers) have been programmed to play chess with increasing success, to the point where the strongest personal computers play at a higher level than the best human players. Since the 1990s, computer analysis has contributed significantly to chess theory, particularly in the endgame. The IBM computer Deep Blue was the first machine to overcome a reigning World Chess Champion in a match when it defeated Garry Kasparov in 1997. The rise of strong chess engines runnable on hand-held devices has led to increasing concerns about cheating during tournaments. There are many variants of chess that utilize different rules, pieces, or boards. One of these, Chess960, incorporates standard rules but employs 960 different possible starting positions, thus negating any advantage in opening preparation. Chess960 has gained widespread popularity as well as some FIDE recognition.

The rules of chess are published by FIDE (Fdration Internationale des checs), chess's international governing body, in its Handbook.[4] Rules published by national governing bodies, or by unaffiliated chess organizations, commercial publishers, etc., may differ. FIDE's rules were most recently revised in 2017.

Initial position, first row: rook, knight, bishop, queen, king, bishop, knight, and rook; second row: pawns

Chess is played on a square board of eight rows (called ranks, denoted 1 to 8) and eight columns (called files, denoted a to h). The 64 squares alternate in color and are referred to as light and dark squares. The chessboard is placed with a light square at the right-hand end of the rank nearest to each player.

By convention, the game pieces are divided into white and black sets, and the players are referred to as White and Black, respectively. Each player begins the game with 16 pieces of the specified color, consisting of one king, one queen, two rooks, two bishops, two knights, and eight pawns. The pieces are set out as shown in the diagram and photo, with each queen on a square of its own color (the white queen on a light square; the black queen on a dark square).

In competitive games, the colors are allocated by the organizers; in informal games, the colors are usually decided randomly, for example by concealing a white and black pawn in either hand and having the opponent choose, or by coin toss. The player with the white pieces moves first. After the first move, players alternate turns, moving one piece per turn (except for castling, when two pieces are moved). Pieces are moved to either an unoccupied square or one occupied by an opponent's piece, which is captured and removed from play. With the sole exception of en passant, all pieces capture by moving to the square that the opponent's piece occupies. A player may not make any move that would put or leave the player's own king under attack. A player cannot "pass" a turn; one must make a legal move (this is the basis for the finesse called zugzwang).

If the player to move has no legal move, the game is over; the result is either checkmate (a loss for the player with no legal move) if the king is in check, or stalemate (a draw) if the king is not.

Each piece has its own way of moving. In the diagrams, the dots mark the squares to which the piece can move if there are no intervening piece(s) of either color (except the knight, which leaps over any intervening pieces).

Once in every game, each king can make a special move, known as castling. Castling consists of moving the king two squares along the first rank toward a rook (that is on the player's first rank[note 2]) and then placing the rook on the last square that the king just crossed. Castling is permissible if the following conditions are met:[5]

When a pawn makes a two-step advance from its starting position and there is an opponent's pawn on a square next to the destination square on an adjacent file, then the opponent's pawn can capture it en passant ("in passing"), moving to the square the pawn passed over. This can only be done on the very next turn, otherwise the right to do so is forfeited. For example, in the animated diagram, the black pawn advances two steps from g7 to g5, and the white pawn on f5 can take it en passant on g6 (but only on White's next move).

When a pawn advances to the eighth rank, as a part of the move it is promoted and must be exchanged for the player's choice of queen, rook, bishop, or knight of the same color. Usually, the pawn is chosen to be promoted to a queen, but in some cases another piece is chosen; this is called underpromotion. In the animated diagram, the pawn on c7 can be advanced to the eighth rank and be promoted. There is no restriction placed on the piece promoted to, so it is possible to have more pieces of the same type than at the start of the game (e.g., two or more queens).

When a king is under immediate attack by one or two of the opponent's pieces, it is said to be in check. A move in response to a check is legal only if it results in a position where the king is no longer in check. This can involve capturing the checking piece; interposing a piece between the checking piece and the king (which is possible only if the attacking piece is a queen, rook, or bishop and there is a square between it and the king); or moving the king to a square where it is not under attack. Castling is not a permissible response to a check.

The object of the game is to checkmate the opponent; this occurs when the opponent's king is in check, and there is no legal way to remove it from attack. It is never legal for a player to make a move that puts or leaves the player's own king in check. In casual games it is common to announce "check" when putting the opponent's king in check, but this is not required by the rules of chess, and is not usually done in tournaments.

Games can be won in the following ways:

There are several ways games can end in a draw:

In competition, chess games are played with a time control. If a player's time runs out before the game is completed, the game is automatically lost (provided the opponent has enough pieces left to deliver checkmate). The duration of a game ranges from long (or "classical") games which can take up to seven hours (even longer if adjournments are permitted) to bullet chess (under 3minutes per player for the entire game). Intermediate between these are rapid chess games, lasting between 20minutes and two hours per game, a popular time control in amateur weekend tournaments.

Time is controlled using a chess clock that has two displays, one for each player's remaining time. Analog chess clocks have been largely replaced by digital clocks, which allow for time controls with increments.

Time controls are also enforced in correspondence chess competition. A typical time control is 50 days for every 10 moves.

Chess is believed to have originated in Eastern India, c. 280550,[8] in the Gupta Empire,[9][10][11][12] where its early form in the 6thcentury was known as chaturaga (Sanskrit: ), literally four divisions [of the military] infantry, cavalry, elephants, and chariotry, represented by the pieces that would evolve into the modern pawn, knight, bishop, and rook, respectively. Thence it spread eastward and westward along the Silk Road. The earliest evidence of chess is found in the nearby Sassanid Persia around 600, where the game came to be known by the name chatrang. Chatrang was taken up by the Muslim world after the Islamic conquest of Persia (63344), where it was then named shatranj, with the pieces largely retaining their Persian names. In Spanish "shatranj" was rendered as ajedrez ("al-shatranj"), in Portuguese as xadrez, and in Greek as (zatrikion, which comes directly from the Persian chatrang),[13] but in the rest of Europe it was replaced by versions of the Persian shh ("king"), which was familiar as an exclamation and became the English words "check" and "chess".[note 4]

The oldest archaeological chess artifacts, ivory pieces, were excavated in ancient Afrasiab, today's Samarkand, in Uzbekistan, central Asia, and date to about 760, with some of them possibly older. The oldest known chess manual was in Arabic and dates to 840850, written by al-Adli ar-Rumi (800870), a renowned Arab chess player, titled Kitab ash-shatranj (Book of the chess). This is a lost manuscript, but referenced in later works. The eastern migration of chess, into China and Southeast Asia, has even less documentation than its migration west. The first reference to chess, called Xiang Qi, in China comes in the xun gua l (, record of the mysterious and strange) dating to about 800. Alternatively, some contend that chess arose from Chinese chess or one of its predecessors,[14] although this has been contested.[15]

The game reached Western Europe and Russia by at least three routes, the earliest being in the 9thcentury. By the year 1000, it had spread throughout Europe.[16] Introduced into the Iberian Peninsula by Muslims in the 10thcentury, it was described in a famous 13th-century manuscript covering shatranj, backgammon, and dice named the Libro de los juegos.

Around 1200, the rules of shatranj started to be modified in southern Europe, and around 1475, several major changes made the game essentially as it is known today.[16] These modern rules for the basic moves had been adopted in Italy and Spain.[17][18]Pawns gained the option of advancing two squares on their first move, while bishops and queens acquired their modern abilities. The queen replaced the earlier vizier chess piece towards the end of the 10thcentury and by the 15thcentury had become the most powerful piece;[19] consequently modern chess was referred to as "Queen's Chess" or "Mad Queen Chess".[20] Castling, derived from the "kings leap" usually in combination with a pawn or rook move to bring the king to safety, was introduced. These new rules quickly spread throughout western Europe.

Writings about the theory of how to play chess began to appear in the 15thcentury. The Repeticin de Amores y Arte de Ajedrez (Repetition of Love and the Art of Playing Chess) by Spanish churchman Luis Ramirez de Lucena was published in Salamanca in 1497.[18] Lucena and later masters like Portuguese Pedro Damiano, Italians Giovanni Leonardo Di Bona, Giulio Cesare Polerio and Gioachino Greco, and Spanish bishop Ruy Lpez de Segura developed elements of openings and started to analyze simple endgames.

In the 18th century, the center of European chess life moved from the Southern European countries to France. The two most important French masters were Franois-Andr Danican Philidor, a musician by profession, who discovered the importance of pawns for chess strategy, and later Louis-Charles Mah de La Bourdonnais, who won a famous series of matches with the Irish master Alexander McDonnell in 1834.[21] Centers of chess activity in this period were coffee houses in major European cities like Caf de la Rgence in Paris and Simpson's Divan in London.[22][23]

The rules concerning stalemate were finalized in the early 19thcentury. Also in the 19thcentury, the convention that White moves first was established (formerly either White or Black could move first). Finally the rules around castling were standardized variations in the castling rules had persisted in Italy until the late 19thcentury. The resulting standard game is sometimes referred to as Western chess[24] or international chess,[25] particularly in Asia where other games of the chess family such as xiangqi are prevalent. Since the 19thcentury, the only rule changes have been technical in nature, for example establishing the correct procedure for claiming a draw by repetition.

As the 19th century progressed, chess organization developed quickly. Many chess clubs, chess books, and chess journals appeared. There were correspondence matches between cities; for example, the London Chess Club played against the Edinburgh Chess Club in 1824.[26] Chess problems became a regular part of 19th-century newspapers; Bernhard Horwitz, Josef Kling, and Samuel Loyd composed some of the most influential problems. In 1843, von der Lasa published his and Bilguer's Handbuch des Schachspiels (Handbook of Chess), the first comprehensive manual of chess theory.

Chess was occasionally criticised in the 19th century as a waste of time.[27][28]

The first modern chess tournament was organized by Howard Staunton, a leading English chess player, and was held in London in 1851. It was won by the German Adolf Anderssen, who was hailed as the leading chess master. His brilliant, energetic attacking style was typical for the time.[29][30] Sparkling games like Anderssen's Immortal Game and Evergreen Game or Morphy's "Opera Game" were regarded as the highest possible summit of the chess art.[31]

The romantic era was characterized by opening gambits (sacrificing pawns or even pieces), daring attacks, and brazen sacrifices. Many elaborate and beautiful but unsound move sequences called "combinations" were played by the masters of the time. The game was played more for art than theory. A profound belief that chess merit resided in the players' genius rather than inherent in the position on the board pervaded chess practice.

Deeper insight into the nature of chess came with the American Paul Morphy, an extraordinary chess prodigy. Morphy won against all important competitors (except Staunton, who refused to play), including Anderssen, during his short chess career between 1857 and 1863. Morphy's success stemmed from a combination of brilliant attacks and sound strategy; he intuitively knew how to prepare attacks.[32]

Prague-born Wilhelm Steinitz beginning in 1873 described how to avoid weaknesses in one's own position and how to create and exploit such weaknesses in the opponent's position.[33] The scientific approach and positional understanding of Steinitz revolutionized the game. Steinitz was the first to break a position down into its components.[34] Before Steinitz, players brought their queen out early, did not completely develop their other pieces, and mounted a quick attack on the opposing king, which either succeeded or failed. The level of defense was poor and players did not form any deep plan.[35] In addition to his theoretical achievements, Steinitz founded an important tradition: his triumph over the leading German master Johannes Zukertort in 1886 is regarded as the first official World Chess Championship. Steinitz lost his crown in 1894 to a much younger player, the German mathematician Emanuel Lasker, who maintained this title for 27years, the longest tenure of all World Champions.[36]

After the end of the 19th century, the number of master tournaments and matches held annually quickly grew. Some sources state that in 1914 the title of chess Grandmaster was first formally conferred by Tsar Nicholas II of Russia to Lasker, Capablanca, Alekhine, Tarrasch, and Marshall, but this is a disputed claim.[note 5] The tradition of awarding such titles was continued by the World Chess Federation (FIDE), founded in 1924 in Paris. In 1927, the Women's World Chess Championship was established; the first to hold the title was Czech-English master Vera Menchik.[37]

It took a prodigy from Cuba, Jos Ral Capablanca (World Champion 19211927), who loved simple positions and endgames, to end the German-speaking dominance in chess; he was undefeated in tournament play for eight years, until 1924. His successor was Russian-French Alexander Alekhine, a strong attacking player who died as the world champion in 1946. He briefly lost the title to Dutch player Max Euwe in 1935 and regained it two years later.[38]

Between the world wars, chess was revolutionized by the new theoretical school of so-called hypermodernists like Aron Nimzowitsch and Richard Rti. They advocated controlling the center of the board with distant pieces rather than with pawns, thus inviting opponents to occupy the center with pawns, which become objects of attack.[39]

After the death of Alekhine, a new World Champion was sought. FIDE, which has controlled the title since then (except for one interruption), ran a tournament of elite players. The winner of the 1948 tournament, Russian Mikhail Botvinnik, started an era of Soviet dominance in the chess world. Until the end of the Soviet Union, there was only one non-Soviet champion, American Bobby Fischer (champion 19721975).[40] Botvinnik revolutionized opening theory. Previously Black strove for equality, to neutralize White's first-move advantage. As Black, Botvinnik strove for the initiative from the beginning.[41] In the previous informal system of World Championships, the current champion decided which challenger he would play for the title and the challenger was forced to seek sponsors for the match. FIDE set up a new system of qualifying tournaments and matches. The world's strongest players were seeded into Interzonal tournaments, where they were joined by players who had qualified from Zonal tournaments. The leading finishers in these Interzonals would go on the "Candidates" stage, which was initially a tournament, and later a series of knockout matches. The winner of the Candidates would then play the reigning champion for the title. A champion defeated in a match had a right to play a rematch a year later. This system operated on a three-year cycle. Botvinnik participated in championship matches over a period of fifteen years. He won the world championship tournament in 1948 and retained the title in tied matches in 1951 and 1954. In 1957, he lost to Vasily Smyslov, but regained the title in a rematch in 1958. In 1960, he lost the title to the 23-year-old Latvian prodigy Mikhail Tal, an accomplished tactician and attacking player. Botvinnik again regained the title in a rematch in 1961.

Following the 1961 event, FIDE abolished the automatic right of a deposed champion to a rematch, and the next champion, Armenian Tigran Petrosian, a player renowned for his defensive and positional skills, held the title for two cycles, 19631969. His successor, Boris Spassky from Russia (champion 19691972), won games in both positional and sharp tactical style.[42] The next championship, the so-called Match of the Century, saw the first non-Soviet challenger since World War II, American Bobby Fischer, who defeated his Candidates opponents by unheard-of margins and clearly won the world championship match. In 1975, however, Fischer refused to defend his title against Soviet Anatoly Karpov when FIDE did not meet his demands, and Karpov obtained the title by default.[43] Fischer modernized many aspects of chess, especially by extensively preparing openings.[44]

Karpov defended his title twice against Viktor Korchnoi and dominated the 1970s and early 1980s with a string of tournament successes.[45] Karpov's reign finally ended in 1985 at the hands of Garry Kasparov, another Soviet player from Baku, Azerbaijan. Kasparov and Karpov contested five world title matches between 1984 and 1990; Karpov never won his title back.[46] In 1993, Garry Kasparov and Nigel Short broke with FIDE to organize their own match for the title and formed a competing Professional Chess Association (PCA). From then until 2006, there were two simultaneous World Champions and World Championships: the PCA or Classical champion extending the Steinitzian tradition in which the current champion plays a challenger in a series of many games, and the other following FIDE's new format of many players competing in a tournament to determine the champion. Kasparov lost his Classical title in 2000 to Vladimir Kramnik of Russia.[47] The World Chess Championship 2006, in which Kramnik beat the FIDE World Champion Veselin Topalov, reunified the titles and made Kramnik the undisputed World Chess Champion.[48] In September 2007, he lost the title to Viswanathan Anand of India, who won the championship tournament in Mexico City. Anand defended his title in the revenge match of 2008,[49] 2010 and 2012. In 2013, Magnus Carlsen beat Anand in the 2013 World Chess Championship.[50] He defended his title the following year, again against Anand. Carlsen confirmed his title in 2016 against the Russian Sergey Karjakin [51] and in 2018 against the American Fabiano Caruana [52], in both occasions by a rapid tiebreaker match after equality in 12 games of classical time control, and is the reigning world champion.

In the Middle Ages and during the Renaissance, chess was a part of noble culture; it was used to teach war strategy and was dubbed the "King's Game".[53] Gentlemen are "to be meanly seene in the play at Chestes", says the overview at the beginning of Baldassare Castiglione's The Book of the Courtier (1528, English 1561 by Sir Thomas Hoby), but chess should not be a gentleman's main passion. Castiglione explains it further:

And what say you to the game at chestes? It is truely an honest kynde of enterteynmente and wittie, quoth Syr Friderick. But me think it hath a fault, whiche is, that a man may be to couning at it, for who ever will be excellent in the playe of chestes, I beleave he must beestowe much tyme about it, and applie it with so much study, that a man may assoone learne some noble scyence, or compase any other matter of importaunce, and yet in the ende in beestowing all that laboure, he knoweth no more but a game. Therfore in this I beleave there happeneth a very rare thing, namely, that the meane is more commendable, then the excellency.[54]

Many of the elaborate chess sets used by the aristocracy have been lost, but others partially survive, such as the Lewis chessmen.

Chess was often used as a basis of sermons on morality. An example is Liber de moribus hominum et officiis nobilium sive super ludo scacchorum ('Book of the customs of men and the duties of nobles or the Book of Chess'), written by an Italian Dominican monk Jacobus de Cessolis c.1300. This book was one of the most popular of the Middle Ages.[55] The work was translated into many other languages (the first printed edition was published at Utrecht in 1473) and was the basis for William Caxton's The Game and Playe of the Chesse (1474), one of the first books printed in English.[56] Different chess pieces were used as metaphors for different classes of people, and human duties were derived from the rules of the game or from visual properties of the chess pieces:[57]

The knyght ought to be made alle armed upon an hors in suche wyse that he haue an helme on his heed and a spere in his ryght hande/ and coueryd wyth his sheld/ a swerde and a mace on his lyft syde/ Cladd wyth an hawberk and plates to fore his breste/ legge harnoys on his legges/ Spores on his heelis on his handes his gauntelettes/ his hors well broken and taught and apte to bataylle and couerid with his armes/ whan the knyghtes ben maad they ben bayned or bathed/ that is the signe that they shold lede a newe lyf and newe maners/ also they wake alle the nyght in prayers and orysons vnto god that he wylle gyue hem grace that they may gete that thynge that they may not gete by nature/ The kynge or prynce gyrdeth a boute them a swerde in signe/ that they shold abyde and kepe hym of whom they take theyr dispenses and dignyte.[58]

Known in the circles of clerics, students, and merchants, chess entered into the popular culture of Middle Ages. An example is the 209th song of Carmina Burana from the 13thcentury, which starts with the names of chess pieces, Roch, pedites, regina...[59]

During the Age of Enlightenment, chess was viewed as a means of self-improvement. Benjamin Franklin, in his article "The Morals of Chess" (1750), wrote:

The Game of Chess is not merely an idle amusement; several very valuable qualities of the mind, useful in the course of human life, are to be acquired and strengthened by it, so as to become habits ready on all occasions; for life is a kind of Chess, in which we have often points to gain, and competitors or adversaries to contend with, and in which there is a vast variety of good and ill events, that are, in some degree, the effect of prudence, or the want of it. By playing at Chess then, we may learn:

I. Foresight, which looks a little into futurity, and considers the consequences that may attend an action [...]

II. Circumspection, which surveys the whole Chess-board, or scene of action: the relation of the several Pieces, and their situations [...]

III. Caution, not to make our moves too hastily [...][60]

With these or similar views, chess is taught to children in schools around the world today. Many schools host chess clubs, and there are many scholastic tournaments specifically for children. Tournaments are held regularly in many countries, hosted by organizations such as the United States Chess Federation and the National Scholastic Chess Foundation.[61]

Chess is often depicted in the arts; significant works where chess plays a key role range from Thomas Middleton's A Game at Chess to Through the Looking-Glass by Lewis Carroll, to Vladimir Nabokov's The Defense, to The Royal Game by Stefan Zweig. Chess is featured in films like Ingmar Bergman's The Seventh Seal and Satyajit Ray's The Chess Players.

Chess is also present in contemporary popular culture. For example, the characters in Star Trek play a futuristic version of the game called "Tri-Dimensional Chess". "Wizard's Chess" is featured in J.K. Rowling's Harry Potter plays. The hero of Searching for Bobby Fischer struggles against adopting the aggressive and misanthropic views of a world chess champion.[62] Chess is used as the core theme in the musical Chess by Tim Rice, Bjrn Ulvaeus, and Benny Andersson. The thriller film Knight Moves is about a chess grandmaster who is accused of being a serial killer. Pawn Sacrifice, starring Tobey Maguire as Bobby Fischer and Liev Schreiber as Boris Spassky, depicts the drama surrounding the 1972 World Chess Championship in Iceland during the Cold War.[63]

In 2016 in Saudi Arabia, Grand Mufti Abdul-Aziz ibn Abdullah Al ash-Sheikh issued a religious fatwa ruling that chess is forbidden in Islam because it constitutes gambling. Stating "chess is a waste of time and an opportunity to squander money. It causes enmity and hatred between people." However, this fatwa is not legally binding and chess remains a popular game in Muslim countries.[64]

Chess games and positions are recorded using a system of notation, most commonly algebraic chess notation.[65] Abbreviated algebraic (or short algebraic) notation generally records moves in the format:

The pieces are identified by their initials. In English, these are K (king), Q (queen), R (rook), B (bishop), and N (knight; N is used to avoid confusion with king). For example, Qg5 means "queen moves to the g-file, 5th rank" (that is, to the square g5). Chess literature published in other languages may use different initials for pieces, or figurine algebraic notation (FAN) may be used to avoid language issues. To resolve ambiguities, an additional letter or number is added to indicate the file or rank from which the piece moved (e.g. Ngf3 means "knight from the g-file moves to the square f3"; R1e2 means "rook on the first rank moves to e2"). The letter P for pawn is not used; so e4 means "pawn moves to the square e4".

If the piece makes a capture, "x" is inserted before the destination square. Thus Bxf3 means "bishop captures on f3". When a pawn makes a capture, the file from which the pawn departed is used in place of a piece initial, and ranks may be omitted if unambiguous. For example, exd5 (pawn on the e-file captures the piece on d5) or exd (pawn on the e-file captures a piece somewhere on the d-file). Particularly in Germany, some publications use ":" rather than "x" to indicate capture, but this is now rare. Some publications omit the capture symbol altogether; so exd5 would be rendered simply as ed.

If a pawn moves to its last rank, achieving promotion, the piece chosen is indicated after the move (for example, e1Q or e1=Q). Castling is indicated by the special notations 0-0 for kingside castling and 0-0-0 for queenside castling. An en passant capture is sometimes marked with the notation "e.p." A move that places the opponent's king in check usually has the notation "+" added (the notation "++" for a double check is considered obsolete). Checkmate can be indicated by "#". At the end of the game, "10" means White won, "01" means Black won, and "" indicates a draw.[66]

Chess moves can be annotated with punctuation marks and other symbols. (For example: "!" indicates a good move; "!!" an excellent move; "?" a mistake; "??" a blunder; "!?" an interesting move that may not be best; or "?!" a dubious move not easily refuted.[67])

For example, one variation of a simple trap known as the Scholar's mate (see animated diagram) can be recorded:

The text-based Portable Game Notation (PGN), which is understood by chess software, is based on short form English language algebraic notation.

Until about 1980, the majority of English language chess publications used a form of descriptive notation. In descriptive notation, files are named according to the piece which occupies the back rank at the start of the game, and each square has two different names depending on whether it is from White's or Black's point of view. For example, the square known as "e3" in algebraic notation is "K3" (King's 3rd) from White's point of view, and "K6" (King's 6th) from Black's point of view. When recording captures, the captured piece is named rather than the square on which it is captured (except to resolve ambiguities). Thus, Scholar's mate is rendered in descriptive notation:

A few players still prefer descriptive notation, but it is no longer recognized by FIDE.

Another system is ICCF numeric notation, recognized by the International Correspondence Chess Federation though its use is in decline. Squares are identified by numeric coordinates, for example a1 is "11" and h8 is "88". Moves are described by the "from" and "to" squares, and captures are not indicated. For example, the opening move 1.e4 is rendered as 1.5254. Castling is described by the king's move only, for example 5171 for White castling kingside, 5838 for Black castling queenside.

A chess opening is the group of initial moves of a game (the "opening moves"). Recognized sequences of opening moves are referred to as openings and have been given names such as the Ruy Lopez or Sicilian Defense. They are catalogued in reference works such as the Encyclopaedia of Chess Openings. There are dozens of different openings, varying widely in character from quiet positional play (for example, the Rti Opening) to very aggressive (the Latvian Gambit). In some opening lines, the exact sequence considered best for both sides has been worked out to more than 30 moves.[68] Professional players spend years studying openings and continue doing so throughout their careers, as opening theory continues to evolve.

The fundamental strategic aims of most openings are similar:[69]

Most players and theoreticians consider that White, by virtue of the first move, begins the game with a small advantage. This initially gives White the initiative.[70] Black usually strives to neutralize White's advantage and achieve equality, or to develop dynamic counterplay in an unbalanced position.

The middlegame is the part of the game which starts after the opening. There is no clear line between the opening and the middlegame, but typically the middlegame will start when most pieces have been developed. (Similarly, there is no clear transition from the middlegame to the endgame; see start of the endgame.) Because the opening theory has ended, players have to form plans based on the features of the position, and at the same time take into account the tactical possibilities of the position.[71] The middlegame is the phase in which most combinations occur. Combinations are a series of tactical moves executed to achieve some gain. Middlegame combinations are often connected with an attack against the opponent's king. Some typical patterns have their own names; for example, the Boden's Mate or the LaskerBauer combination.[72]

Specific plans or strategic themes will often arise from particular groups of openings which result in a specific type of pawn structure. An example is the minority attack, which is the attack of queenside pawns against an opponent who has more pawns on the queenside. The study of openings is therefore connected to the preparation of plans that are typical of the resulting middlegames.[73]

Another important strategic question in the middlegame is whether and how to reduce material and transition into an endgame (i.e. simplify). Minor material advantages can generally be transformed into victory only in an endgame, and therefore the stronger side must choose an appropriate way to achieve an ending. Not every reduction of material is good for this purpose; for example, if one side keeps a light-squared bishop and the opponent has a dark-squared one, the transformation into a bishops and pawns ending is usually advantageous for the weaker side only, because an endgame with bishops on opposite colors is likely to be a draw, even with an advantage of a pawn, or sometimes even with a two-pawn advantage.[74]

The side having to move is disadvantaged.

The endgame (also end game or ending) is the stage of the game when there are few pieces left on the board. There are three main strategic differences between earlier stages of the game and the endgame:[75]

Endgames can be classified according to the type of pieces remaining on the board. Basic checkmates are positions in which one side has only a king and the other side has one or two pieces and can checkmate the opposing king, with the pieces working together with their king. For example, king and pawn endgames involve only kings and pawns on one or both sides, and the task of the stronger side is to promote one of the pawns. Other more complicated endings are classified according to pieces on the board other than kings, such as "rook and pawn versus rook" endgames.

Chess strategy consists of setting and achieving long-term positioning advantages during the game for example, where to place different pieces while tactics concentrate on immediate maneuver. These two parts of the chess-playing process cannot be completely separated, because strategic goals are mostly achieved through tactics, while the tactical opportunities are based on the previous strategy of play. A game of chess is normally divided into three phases: opening, typically the first 10 moves, when players move their pieces to useful positions for the coming battle; then middlegame; and last the endgame, when most of the pieces are gone, kings typically take a more active part in the struggle, and pawn promotion is often decisive.

23.Bh5+ and now:

In chess, tactics in general concentrate on short-term actions so short-term that they can be calculated in advance by a human player or by a computer. The possible depth of calculation depends on the player's ability. In quiet positions with many possibilities on both sides, a deep calculation is more difficult and may not be practical, while in "tactical" positions with a limited number of forced variations, strong players can calculate long sequences of moves.

Simple one-move or two-move tactical actions threats, exchanges of material, and double attacks can be combined into more complicated combinations, sequences of tactical maneuvers that are often forced from the point of view of one or both players.[77] Theoreticians describe many elementary tactical methods and typical maneuvers; for example, pins, forks, skewers, batteries, discovered attacks (especially discovered checks), zwischenzugs, deflections, decoys, sacrifices, underminings, overloadings, and interferences.[78]

A forced variation that involves a sacrifice and usually results in a tangible gain is called a combination.[77] Brilliant combinations such as those in the Immortal Game are considered beautiful and are admired by chess lovers. A common type of chess exercise, aimed at developing players' skills, is a position where a decisive combination is available and challenging them to find it.[79]

Chess strategy is concerned with evaluation of chess positions and with setting up goals and long-term plans for the future play. During the evaluation, players must take into account numerous factors such as the value of the pieces on the board, control of the center and centralization, the pawn structure, king safety, and the control of key squares or groups of squares (for example, diagonals, open files, and dark or light squares).

The most basic step in evaluating a position is to count the total value of pieces of both sides.[80] The point values used for this purpose are based on experience; usually pawns are considered worth one point, knights and bishops about three points each, rooks about five points (the value difference between a rook and a bishop or knight being known as the exchange), and queens about nine points. The king is more valuable than all of the other pieces combined, since its checkmate loses the game. But in practical terms, in the endgame the king as a fighting piece is generally more powerful than a bishop or knight but less powerful than a rook.[81] These basic values are then modified by other factors like position of the piece (e.g. advanced pawns are usually more valuable than those on their initial squares), coordination between pieces (e.g. a pair of bishops usually coordinate better than a bishop and a knight), or the type of position (e.g. knights are generally better in closed positions with many pawns while bishops are more powerful in open positions).[82]

...and its pawn "Rauzer formation"

Another important factor in the evaluation of chess positions is the pawn structure (sometimes known as the pawn skeleton): the configuration of pawns on the chessboard.[84] Since pawns are the least mobile of the pieces, the pawn structure is relatively static and largely determines the strategic nature of the position. Weaknesses in the pawn structure, such as isolated, doubled, or backward pawns and holes, once created, are often permanent. Care must therefore be taken to avoid these weaknesses unless they are compensated by another valuable asset (for example, by the possibility of developing an attack).[85]

Contemporary chess is an organized sport with structured international and national leagues, tournaments, and congresses. Chess's international governing body is FIDE (Fdration Internationale des checs). Most countries have a national chess organization as well (such as the US Chess Federation and English Chess Federation) which in turn is a member of FIDE. FIDE is a member of the International Olympic Committee,[86] but the game of chess has never been part of the Olympic Games; chess does have its own Olympiad, held every two years as a team event.

The current World Chess Champion is Magnus Carlsen of Norway.[87] The reigning Women's World Champion is Hou Yifan from China.[88] The world's highest rated female player, Judit Polgr, has never participated in the Women's World Chess Championship, instead preferring to compete with the leading men and maintaining a ranking among the top male players.[89]

Other competitions for individuals include the World Junior Chess Championship, the European Individual Chess Championship, and the National Chess Championships. Invitation-only tournaments regularly attract the world's strongest players. Examples include Spain's Linares event, Monte Carlo's Melody Amber tournament, the Dortmund Sparkassen meeting, Sofia's M-tel Masters, and Wijk aan Zee's Tata Steel tournament.

Regular team chess events include the Chess Olympiad and the European Team Chess Championship. The World Chess Solving Championship and World Correspondence Chess Championships include both team and individual events.

Besides these prestigious competitions, there are thousands of other chess tournaments, matches, and festivals held around the world every year catering to players of all levels. Chess is promoted as a "mind sport" by the Mind Sports Organisation, alongside other mental-skill games such as Contract Bridge, Go, and Scrabble.

The best players can be awarded specific lifetime titles by the world chess organization FIDE:[90]

All the titles are open to men and women. Separate women-only titles, such as Woman Grandmaster (WGM), are available. Beginning with Nona Gaprindashvili in 1978, a number of women have earned the GM title, and most of the top ten women in 2006 hold the unrestricted GM title.[note 6]

As of 2018[update], there are 1725 active grandmasters and 3903 international masters in the world. The top three countries with the largest numbers of grandmasters are Russia, the United States, and Germany, with 251, 98, and 96, respectively.[91]

International titles are awarded to composers and solvers of chess problems and to correspondence chess players (by the International Correspondence Chess Federation). National chess organizations may also award titles, usually to the advanced players still under the level needed for international titles; an example is the chess expert title used in the United States.

In order to rank players, FIDE, ICCF, and national chess organizations use the Elo rating system developed by Arpad Elo. Elo is a statistical system based on the assumption that the chess performance of each player in his or her games is a random variable. Arpad Elo thought of a player's true skill as the average of that player's performance random variable, and showed how to estimate the average from results of player's games. The US Chess Federation implemented Elo's suggestions in 1960, and the system quickly gained recognition as being both fairer and more accurate than older systems; it was adopted by FIDE in 1970.[note 7] A beginner or casual player typically has an Elo rating of less than 1000; an ordinary club player has a rating of about 1500, a strong club player about 2000, a grandmaster usually has a rating of over 2500, and an elite player has a rating of over 2700. The highest FIDE rating of all time, 2881, was achieved by Magnus Carlsen on the March 2014 FIDE rating list.[92]

Chess composition is the art of creating chess problems (also called chess compositions). The creator is known as a chess composer.[93] There are many types of chess problems; the two most important are:

Chess composition is a distinct branch of chess sport, and tournaments exist for both the composition and solving of chess problems.[96]

This is one of the most famous chess studies; it was published by Richard Rti 4 December 1921. It seems impossible to catch the advanced black pawn, while the black king can easily stop the white pawn. The solution is a diagonal advance, which brings the king to both pawns simultaneously:

Or 2...h3 3.Ke7 and the white king can support its pawn.

Now the white king comes just in time to support his pawn, or catch the black one.

Here is the original post:

Chess - Wikipedia

Download free Chess Engines – Komodo 11, Houdini

Chess engine is the unique software which is built into the program shell (e.g. "Fritz", "Arena", "Shredder") thus multiplying the force of the game shell. For example, "Kasparov Chess" is very good and clever shell. The maximum rating which can be set in it is 2600. And the rating of the chess engines reaches 3000-3200. That is why the chess engines are so popular. Where do the chess engines originate from and who makes them? This question is not trivial, vice versa it is quite actual, so it is worth talking about.

The first record of the chess engine was made about 20 years ago. That was just the time when the UCI standard was developed - the universal chess interface, allowing the chess engine to be connected to the graphic interface of the program shell. The engine made to this standard can be easily connected to any chess program. The standard was worked out by Stephan Meyer-Kahlen, German programmer, who was born in 1968 in Dusseldorf. He is also the founder of one of the most famous chess programs - Shredder, which is the 12-times world champion among chess machines. The UCI standard was presented to the world by Rudolf Huber. The standard has great advantages. For example, if the engine does not save the database of the games played (although it is better if this task is performed by the engine), then one can easily manage this database by UCI. As the UCI protocol is absolutely free, it gives it the advantage over the other protocols. It can be used for private purposes and as the open-source as well. This protocol was used by only a few programs until Chessbase Company (producing Fritz) began to support this protocol in 2002. Nowadays, this protocol is used by about 100 chess programs.

The majority of the chess engines are made very thoroughly and published in the net absolutely free of charge. In Russia there are the developers making engines, as well. E.g. SmarThink developed by Sergey Markov, GreKo developed by Vladimir Medvedev, Strelka developed by Yuri Osipov. These engines, as well as many others, can be downloaded from our website. As the number of the chess engines is growing, we chose the best ones, as there is simply no possibility to present all of them here.

Komodo 11 Version Windows 64

Komodo 10 2016 - Developer Mark Lefler. Version for Android, Linux, OSX, Windows ALL.

Houdini - Developer Robert Blow (Belgium). Houdini 6 x64 x32 UCI

Houdini - Developer Robert Blow (Belgium). 5.01 UCI Chess Engines [Full]

Komodo 8 - Champions 2015 - Developer Mark Lefler. Version for Android, Linux, OSX, Windows 7, 8 (32/64).

Houdini 4 PRO - Developer Robert Blow (Belgium). Version 4 PRO.

Houdini 2.0 - Developer Robert Blow (Belgium). Version 2.0. To date, the best engine. And you can Download Houdini 2.0 for a direct link.

Deep Rybka 4 - developer Vas Rajlich. Version 4 (w32)

Stockfish - Developers Tord Romstad, Marco Kostalba Kiiski and Joon. Version 2.11

Critter - Developer Richard Vida. Version 1.1.37

Naum - Developer Alexander Naumov (Canada). Version 4.2

Spark - Version 1.0

WildCat - Developer Igor Korshunov (Belarus). Version 8.0

SmarThink - Developer Sergei Markov (Russia). Version 0.17a

SOS - Designer Rudolf Huber (Germany). Version 11.99

Zchess - Designer Franck Zibi (France). Version 2.22

Gromit - Developers Frank Schneider and Kai Skibbe (Germany). Version 3.0

Ufim - Developer Niaz Hasanov (Russia). Version 8.2

Mustang - Developer Alex Korneichuk (Belarus). Version 4.97

GreKo - Developer Vladimir Medvedev (Russia). Version 8.2 + sour

Kaissa2 - Developer Vladimir Elin (Belarus). Version 1.8a

Adamant - Developer George Varentsov (Russia). Version 1.7

Booot - Developer of Alexei Morozov (Ukraine). Version 5.1.0 + sources

Eeyore - Developer Meidel Anton (Russia). Version 1.52 (32 & 64bit)

Zeus - Developer Vadim Bykov (Russia). Version 1.29

Arics - Developer Vladimir Fadeev (Belarus). Version 0.95a

Anechka - Developer Sergey Nefedov (Russia). Version 0.08

Patriot - Developer Vladimir Elin (Belarus). Version 2006

AlChess - Developer Alex Lobanov (Russia). Version 1.5b

OBender - Designer Evgeny Kornilov (Russia). Version 3.2.4x

Counter - Developer Vadim Chizhov (Russia). Version 1.2

Strelka - Designer Yuri Osipov (Russia). Version 2.0B + sources

Belka - Developers Yuri Osipov, Igor Korshunov (Russia - Belarus). Version 1.8.20

Ifrit - Developer Brenkman Andrew (Russia). Version 4.4 + source

Bison - Developer Ivan Bonkin (Russia). Version 9.11 + sour

Uralochka - Developer Ivan Maklyakov (Russia). Version 1.1b

Marginal - Designer Alexander Turikov (Russia). Version 0.1

Chess - Designer Evgeny Kornilov (Russia). Version 3

Woodpecker - Designer Evgeny Kornilov (Russia). Version 2

Gull - Developer Vadim Demishev (Russia). Version 1.2

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Download free Chess Engines - Komodo 11, Houdini

Top 10 strongest chess engines – Chesstutor | Learn how to …

10.Deep Blue (rating: unknown)

Deep Blue, computer chess-playing system designed by IBM in the early 1990s. As the successor to Chiptest and Deep Thought, earlier purpose-built chess computers, Deep Blue was designed to succeed where all others had failed. In 1996 it made history by defeating Russian Grandmaster Garry Kasparov in one of their six gamesthe first time a computer had won a game against a world champion under tournament conditions. In the 1997 rematch, it won the deciding sixth game in only 19 moves; its 3.52.5 victory (it won two games and had three draws) marked the first time a current world champion had lost a match to a computer under tournament conditions. In its final configuration, the IBM RS6000/SP computer used 256 processors working in tandem, with an ability to evaluate 200 million chess positions per second.

9.Chessmaster (rating:~2700)

Chessmaster, popular series of electronic games for playing chess against a computer; it was originally released in 1986 by the Software Toolworks, which was acquired by the Learning Company. Chessmaster featured extremely competitive artificial intelligence engineswith later versions named the Kingthat challenged all but the most skilled of players and helped bring the game to virtually every make of computer and gaming system over the years. Featuring 2-D and 3-D game play, later versions applied technology from other popular chess games to make Chessmaster a universal favourite. Early versions of Chessmaster were released for nearly every type of personal computer, including Amiga, Apple II, Atari 8-bit, Atari ST, ZX Spectrum, Commodore 64, Macintosh, and DOS-based machines. Chessmaster 4000 saw the first incarnation of the King, which allowed players to create chess personalities. These personalities, which a player would assign to his opponent, could be adjusted down to the smallest detail. By placing certain emphasis on a particular aspect of the game, such as king protection or aggressiveness, players were able to compete in a variety of game types and improve their own personal chess abilities. Personalities could be adjusted to mirror actual players, such as the former world chess champions Bobby Fischer or Mikhail Botvinnik.

8.Junior (rating:~3000)

Junior is a computer chess program written by the Israeli programmers Amir Ban and Shay Bushinsky. Grandmaster Boris Alterman assisted, in particular with the opening book. Junior can take advantage of multiple processors, taking the name Deep Junior when competing this way in tournaments.In 2003 Deep Junior played a six-game match against Garry Kasparov, which resulted in a 33 tie. It won a 2006 rapid game against Teimour Radjabov. In June 2007, Deep Junior won the ultimate computer chess challenge organized by FIDE, defeating Deep Fritz 42. These programs opted out of the World Computer Chess Championship, which was held at the same time and won by Rybka with a score of 10/11. Junior won the World Microcomputer Chess Championship in 1997 and 2001 and the World Computer Chess Championship in 2002, 2004, 2006, 2009, 2011 and 2013; both organized by the International Computer Games Association. The name Junior is perhaps deceptive. Playing against Junior is not necessarily something for children, as Garry Kasparov discovered in a match in New York. He was held to a 3-3 draw by the Israeli program. Junior played in its typically dynamic style, greatly surprising the former World Champion with now-famous bishop sacrifice on h2 that forced him to concede a draw. You can look forward to a world class grandmaster when you install the new program on your computer.

7.Hiarcs (rating:~3060)

Multiple World Championship winning computer chess engine, a 3 time World Chess Software Champion and the chess program generally used by former World Chess Champion Vishy Anand. HIARCS is renowned for its high quality, human like chess play, realistic weaker levels and unprecedented chess performances from handheld devices to multi-core desktop computers.

6.Rybka ( rating: ~3150)

Rybka is a computer chess engine designed by International Master Vasik Rajlich. Around 2011 Rybka was one of the top-rated engines on chess engine rating lists and has won many computer chess tournaments. After Rybka won four consecutive World Computer Chess Championships from 2007 to 2010, it was stripped of these titles after the International Computer Games Association concluded in June 2011 that Rybka was plagiarized from both the Crafty and the Fruit chess engines and so failed to meet their originality requirements. The ICGA proceedings against Rybka were subsequently upheld by the FIDE Ethics Commission, saying the ICGA has not violated the FIDE Code of Ethics, nor any other FIDE rule or general principle of law. However, the same FIDE Ethics Commission ruled that banning Rajlich for life failed to have a clear statutory basis and sufficient procedural guarantees, and so they sanctioned ICGA with a warning. Rajlich has now agreed to underpin the Fritz brand of ChessBase, merging Rybka to produce Fritz 15 released in late 2015.

5.Fritz (rating: ~3180)

Fritz is a German chess program developed by Vasik Rajlich and published by ChessBase. The latest version of the consumer product is Fritz 15, now based on Rybka. This version now supports 64-bit hardware and multiprocessing by default.

4.Shredder (rating:~3290)

Shredder is a commercial chess program and chess engine developed in Germany by Stefan Meyer-Kahlen in 1993. Shredder won the World Microcomputer Chess Championship in 1996 and 2000, the World Computer Chess Championship in 1999 and 2003, the World Computer Speed Chess Championship in 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, and 2007, and the World Chess Software Championship in 2010.

3.Komodo (rating:~ 3380)

Komodo is a UCI chess engine developed by Don Dailey, Mark Lefler, and supported by chess author and evaluation expert, GM Larry Kaufman. Komodo is a commercial chess engine but older versions (8 and older) are free for non-commercial use. It is consistently ranked near the top of most major chess engine rating lists, along with Stockfish and Houdini.Komodo heavily relies on evaluation rather than depth, and thus has a distinctive positional style. Its forte is to play when there is nothing to play. Komodo author Don Dailey described it as such: In positions that most engines would likely struggle or find it impossible to make progress, Komodo quietly prepares a break and ends up with the victory.

2.Houdini (rating~3385)

Houdini is a UCI chess engine developed by Belgian programmer Robert Houdart. It is influenced by open source engines IPPOLIT/RobboLito, Stockfish, and Crafty. Earlier versions are free for non-commercial use (up to version 1.5a), but later versions (2.0 and onwards) are commercial. As of January 2017, Houdini 5 is the second top-rated chess engine on major chess engines rating lists between Stockfish and Komodo.Chess commentator and video annotator CM Tryfon Gavriel compared Houdinis playing style to that of the Romantic Era of chess, where an attacking, sacrificial style was predominant.

1.Stockfish (rating:~3390)

Stockfish is a free and open source UCI chess engine, available for various desktop and mobile platforms. It is developed by Marco Costalba, Joona Kiiski, Gary Linscott and Tord Romstad, with many contributions from a community of open source developers.Stockfish is consistently ranked first or near the top of most chess engine rating lists and is the strongest open source chess engine in the world. It won the unofficial world computer chess championships in 2014, season 6, and 2016 season 9. It was a runner-up in 2013 season 5, 2014 season 7, and 2015 season 8. Stockfish is derived from Glaurung, an open source engine by Romstad.Stockfish is much stronger than the best human chess Grandmasters. In comparison, the curent world chess champion Magnus Carlsen has rating 2838.

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Top 10 strongest chess engines - Chesstutor | Learn how to ...

Download free chess engines – Komodo 10, Houdini

Chess engine is the unique software which is built into the program shell (e.g. "Fritz", "Arena", "Shredder") thus multiplying the force of the game shell. For example, "Kasparov Chess" is very good and clever shell. The maximum rating which can be set in it is 2600. And the rating of the chess engines reaches 3000-3200. That is why the chess engines are so popular. Where do the chess engines originate from and who makes them? This question is not trivial, vice versa it is quite actual, so it is worth talking about.

The first record of the chess engine was made about 20 years ago. That was just the time when the UCI standard was developed - the universal chess interface, allowing the chess engine to be connected to the graphic interface of the program shell. The engine made to this standard can be easily connected to any chess program. The standard was worked out by Stephan Meyer-Kahlen, German programmer, who was born in 1968 in Dusseldorf. He is also the founder of one of the most famous chess programs - Shredder, which is the 12-times world champion among chess machines. The UCI standard was presented to the world by Rudolf Huber. The standard has great advantages. For example, if the engine does not save the database of the games played (although it is better if this task is performed by the engine), then one can easily manage this database by UCI. As the UCI protocol is absolutely free, it gives it the advantage over the other protocols. It can be used for private purposes and as the open-source as well. This protocol was used by only a few programs until Chessbase Company (producing Fritz) began to support this protocol in 2002. Nowadays, this protocol is used by about 100 chess programs.

The majority of the chess engines are made very thoroughly and published in the net absolutely free of charge. In Russia there are the developers making engines, as well. E.g. SmarThink developed by Sergey Markov, GreKo developed by Vladimir Medvedev, Strelka developed by Yuri Osipov. These engines, as well as many others, can be downloaded from our website. As the number of the chess engines is growing, we chose the best ones, as there is simply no possibility to present all of them here.

Komodo 11 Version Windows 64

Komodo 10 2016 - Developer Mark Lefler. Version for Android, Linux, OSX, Windows ALL.

Houdini - Developer Robert Blow (Belgium). 5.01 UCI Chess Engines [Full]

Komodo 8 - Champions 2015 - Developer Mark Lefler. Version for Android, Linux, OSX, Windows 7, 8 (32/64).

Houdini 4 PRO - Developer Robert Blow (Belgium). Version 4 PRO.

Houdini 2.0 - Developer Robert Blow (Belgium). Version 2.0. To date, the best engine. And you can Download Houdini 2.0 for a direct link.

Deep Rybka 4 - developer Vas Rajlich. Version 4 (w32)

Stockfish - Developers Tord Romstad, Marco Kostalba Kiiski and Joon. Version 2.11

Critter - Developer Richard Vida. Version 1.1.37

Naum - Developer Alexander Naumov (Canada). Version 4.2

Spark - Version 1.0

WildCat - Developer Igor Korshunov (Belarus). Version 8.0

SmarThink - Developer Sergei Markov (Russia). Version 0.17a

SOS - Designer Rudolf Huber (Germany). Version 11.99

Zchess - Designer Franck Zibi (France). Version 2.22

Gromit - Developers Frank Schneider and Kai Skibbe (Germany). Version 3.0

Ufim - Developer Niaz Hasanov (Russia). Version 8.2

Mustang - Developer Alex Korneichuk (Belarus). Version 4.97

GreKo - Developer Vladimir Medvedev (Russia). Version 8.2 + sour

Kaissa2 - Developer Vladimir Elin (Belarus). Version 1.8a

Adamant - Developer George Varentsov (Russia). Version 1.7

Booot - Developer of Alexei Morozov (Ukraine). Version 5.1.0 + sources

Eeyore - Developer Meidel Anton (Russia). Version 1.52 (32 & 64bit)

Zeus - Developer Vadim Bykov (Russia). Version 1.29

Arics - Developer Vladimir Fadeev (Belarus). Version 0.95a

Anechka - Developer Sergey Nefedov (Russia). Version 0.08

Patriot - Developer Vladimir Elin (Belarus). Version 2006

AlChess - Developer Alex Lobanov (Russia). Version 1.5b

OBender - Designer Evgeny Kornilov (Russia). Version 3.2.4x

Counter - Developer Vadim Chizhov (Russia). Version 1.2

Strelka - Designer Yuri Osipov (Russia). Version 2.0B + sources

Belka - Developers Yuri Osipov, Igor Korshunov (Russia - Belarus). Version 1.8.20

Ifrit - Developer Brenkman Andrew (Russia). Version 4.4 + source

Bison - Developer Ivan Bonkin (Russia). Version 9.11 + sour

Uralochka - Developer Ivan Maklyakov (Russia). Version 1.1b

Marginal - Designer Alexander Turikov (Russia). Version 0.1

Chess - Designer Evgeny Kornilov (Russia). Version 3

Woodpecker - Designer Evgeny Kornilov (Russia). Version 2

Gull - Developer Vadim Demishev (Russia). Version 1.2

Continued here:

Download free chess engines - Komodo 10, Houdini

computer_chess:wiki:lists:chess_engine_list – Computer …

Latest Date Engine Site Latest Version Author Alternate Download Protocol Comment 2018/12/27 Arminius 2018-12-23 Volker Annuss 2018-12-23(Linux) 2018-12-23(Win) XB, UCI FRC; mp(32 threads max); Linux, Win 2018/12/27 Axolotl 1.3 Louis James Mackenzie-Smith - UCI Java source; cross-platform jar file 2018/12/27 ChessbrainVB 3.72 TCEC Roger Zuehlsdorf - XB mp(64 threads max); supports Sygygy ebtbs; Win; LarsenVB derivative 2018/12/27 Embla 2.0.5 Folkert van Heusden source XB, UCI mp (INT_MAX threads); supports Polyglot opening books & Syzygy ebtbs; Linux, Mac, Win 2018/12/27 FrankWalter 2.2.6 Laurens Winkelhagen SJCE* Kirill Kryukov JA builds XB Java source; cross-platform; SJCE* indicates engine is one of many contained in the package; successor to JanWillem engine 2018/12/27 Minic 0.28 Vivien Clauzon unofficial releases UCI C++ source; mp; Linux, Win 2018/12/27 Sting SF 11.5 Marek Kwiatkowski 11.5 old Kirill Kryukov JA builds old JA Linux builds Julien Marcel old Mac builds UCI C++ source; mp(512 threads max); Linux, Mac(JM), Win; requires extra dlls (not included); Stockfish 2.1.1 derivative 2018/12/20 Andscacs 0.95 Daniel Jos Queralt downloads UCI mp(no limit on threads); multi-PV; Syzygy ebtb support; Win 2018/12/20 Cheese 2.0 Patrice Duhamel JA Linux builds XB, UCI multiPV; mp (64 threads max); limit strength; FRC; Linux, Mac, Android, Win 2018/12/20 Komodo 12.3 Don Dailey, Larry Kaufman & Mark Lefler Kirill Kryukov JA builds JA Linux builds BeeKay(Win64) UCI commercial, older versions are free; mp (128 threads); FRC; multiPV; supports Polyglot opening books; supports Syzygy egtbs; own GUI (Tarrasch Chess GUI); normal + MCTS versions; Linux, Mac, Win 2018/12/20 LCZero 0.19.1.1 Gary Linscott et al - UCI C++ source; mp(64 cores max); multiPV; supports Syzygy egtbs; Stockfish derivative; requires expensive GPU for best performance 2018/12/20 Nemeton 1.8 Stan Arts download Guenther Simon RWBC 1.41, 1.4 XB Pascal source; mp (4 threads max) Win 2018/12/20 ProDeo 2.9c Ed Schrder Ed Schrder XB, UCI mp (2 threads max); Win 2018/12/20 Rofchade 2.0 Ronald Friederich - UCI C++ source; mp; Mac, Win 2018/12/20 RubiChess 1.2.1 Andreas Matthies - UCI C++ source; supports Syzygy tablebases; Mac, Win 2018/12/20 SugaR RC1 2.0 Tord Romstad, Marco Costalba, Joona Kiiski, many others, & Marco Zerbinati Source + download alt site UCI C++ source; mp (128 threads max); multiPV; FRC; Win; supports Syzygy egtbs; Stockfish derivative 2018/12/20 Wasp 3.50 Fix2 John Stanback Frank's Chess Page UCI mp(64 threads max); supports Syzygy egtbs; Win; successor to Zarkov 2018/12/14 Arasan CC3-1 Jon Dart builds old JA builds old JA Linux builds very old JM Mac builds XB, UCI C++ source; own GUI, mp(64 threads max); multiPV; limit strength; uses Syzyzgy egtbs; Linux, Mac, Win 2018/12/14 Chess4j 3.5 James Swafford source old Kirill Kryukov JA builds XB Java and Groovy source; cross-platform jvm jar file 2018/12/14 Counter 3.1 Vadim Chizhov SDChess UCI Go source; mp(8+ threads max); Linux, Win 2018/12/14 PyChess 0.99.4 Thomas Dybdahl Ahle, Bajusz Tams & Justin Blanchard downloads source XB Python source; variant play; Linux, Mac, Win; requires Python interpreter with '-u' option invoked (to disable i/o buffering) 2018/12/14 Ronja 0.8.0 Johan Dykstrm Norbert Raimund Leisner XB Java source; cross-platform 2018/12/14 tomitank Chess 2.1* Tams Kuzmics - UCI JavaScript source; *silent update 2018/12/14 Vajolet2 2.6.2 Marco Belli SDChess old downloads blog old homepage old source UCI C++ source; mp(128 threads max); multiPV; supports Syzygy egtbs; Linux, Mac, Win 2018/12/14 Winter 0.3 Jonathan Rosenthal - UCI C++ source; mp(64+ threads max); supports Syzygy egtbs; Linux, Mac, Win 2018/12/07 Chess22k 1.12 Sander Maassen vd Brink SJCE UCI Java source; mp; cross-platform jar file 2018/12/07 Googleplex Starthinker 1.4 Jost Triller - UCI C++ source; skill levels; Linux, Mac, Win; successor to Squared Chess 2018/12/07 GreKo 2018.12 Vladimir Medvedev older GreKo files Kirill Kryukov JA builds JA Linux builds Julien Marcel Mac builds(old) SDChess Norbert Raimund Leisner XB, UCI C++ source; multiPV: limit strength; Linux, Mac, Win; Igel is a close derivative of GreKo 2018/12/07 Rodent III 0.276 Pablo Vazquez + Pawel Koziol downloads source latest build SDChess(Linux) Kirill Kryukov JA builds JA Linux builds Denis Mendoza old Sourceforge code dev code Julien Marcel Mac old build UCI C source; mp(48 threads max); MuliPV; supports Polyglot opening book; limit strength; Linux, Mac, Win; originally based on Sungorus code; supports personalities 2018/12/07 Stockfish 10 Tord Romstad, Marco Costalba, Joona Kiiski, et al Roman Korba builds latest Mac builds by Michael Byrne latest source official source Kirill Kryukov old JA builds old JA Linux builds Julien Marcel old Mac builds SDChess UCI C++ source; mp(512 threads max); multiPV; FRC; Linux, Mac, Win; supports Syzygy egtbs; successor to the Glaurung engine 2018/11/29 Dirty 21NOV2018 'Cucumber' Pradu Kannan, Andres Valverde & Fonzy Bluemers Kirill Kryukov JA builds JA Linux builds old homepage (slow) XB mp; Linux, Win 2018/11/29 Kingfisher 1.1.1 Eric Yip - UCI C++ source; Win 2018/11/23 Pirarucu 2.7.4 Raoni Campos - UCI Kotlin source; mp; cross-platform jar file 2018/11/23 RuyDos 1.1.9 lvaro Begu & Jos Manuel Morn SDChess alt site UCI C++ source; support for Syzygy egtbs; Linux, Win 2018/11/23 Schooner 2.0.34 Dennis Sceviour code XB, UCI* mp(128 threads max); own book & supports Polyglot books; * UCI support is limited; Win 2018/11/15 Jumbo 0.6.66 Sven Schle - XB mp(no max core limit); supports Polyglot opening books & Gaviota egtbs; Win; requires external dlls (not included with package); successor to Surprise, KnockOut & Femto and Femto 0.9 2018/11/15 Marvin 3.2.0 Martin Danielsson 1.30 XB, UCI C source; mp(64 threads max); supports Polyglot opening books & Syzygy egtbs; Linux, Mac, Win 2018/11/15 OliThink 5.3.3 / 4.12j JA Oliver Brausch 5.3.3 TP(Win64) Norbert Raimund Leisner SJCE* Kirill Kryukov JA builds JA Linux builds Julien Marcel Mac builds Norbert Raimund Leisner(old) XB C source & Java source; cross-platform; own GUI (Java version only); SJCE* indicates engine is one of many contained in the package; C source to fast OliPerft also 2018/11/15 Zevra 2.1.1.r216 Oleg Smirnov old source SDChess Norbert Raimund Leisner UCI C++ source; Linux, Mac, Win 2018/11/08 AdaChess 3.1 Alessandro Iavicoli G-Sei XB Ada source; Linux, Win 2018/11/08 Asymptote 0.3.0 Maximilian Lupke - UCI Rust source; Linux, Mac, Win 2018/11/08 Demolito 2018.10.29 Lucas Braesch 2018.10.29 TP rev252 UCI C++ source; mp(64 threads max); Win 2018/11/08 Dumb 1.2 Richard Delorme 1.2 DD(Mac) UCI D source; Linux, Mac, Win 2018/11/08 Mainsworthy 52 Mark Ainsworth zipped source .141 XB C++ source; Linux, Win; buggy; own GUI (GUI for native use only, no play vs other XB/UCI engines) 2018/11/08 Monik 2.2.7 Sylvain Lacombe 2.2.7 TP old JA builds old JA Linux builds 2.11 Julien Marcel Mac builds XB C++ source (French comments); Linux, Mac, Win 2018/11/08 Monolith 1.02 Jonas Mayr - UCI C++ source; mp; MultiPV; FRC; supports PolyGlot opening books and Syzygy egtbs; Linux, Windows 2018/11/01 BagaturChess 1.5f Krasimir Topchiyski Sourceforge downloads SJCE* Kirill Kryukov JA builds UCI Java source; cross-platform; mp(64 threads max); supports Gaviota ebtbs; SJCE* indicates engine is one of many contained in the package 2018/11/01 Donna 4.1 Michael Dvorkin source UCI Go source; Linux, Mac, Win; support for Polyglot opening books 2018/11/01 Zeta 0.99k Srdja Matovic Tony Mokonen Norbert Raimund Leisner XB C++ source; Win; experimental engine that uses a GPU for calculations 2018/10/25 Weini 0.0.24 Vivien Clauzon - XB*, UCI* C++ source; mp{20 threads max}; * - XB, UCI protocols are partially implemented; Linux, Win 2018/10/25 Zeta Dva 0306 Srdja Matovic Tony Mokonen Norbert Raimund Leisner Kirill Kryukov JA builds Julien Marcel XB C source; Linux, Mac, Win 2018/10/18 Tucano 7.06 TCEC Alcides Schulz JA Linux builds Julien Marcel Mac very old build XB C source; mp(8+ threads max); Linux, Mac, Win; successor to Sedicla engine; also Enxadrista 1.0*,*an educational engine written in C# w/ Portuguese comments 2018/10/11 Scorpio 2.8.9 MCTS Daniel Shawul source + downloads SDChess Kirill Kryukov JA builds JA Linux builds Julien Marcel Mac builds XB C++ source; mp(32 threads max); Linux, Mac, Win; own endgame bitbases 2018/10/11 Tom Thumb 0.2 Tom Kalmijn Norbert Raimund Leisner UCI Scala source; cross-platform jar file 2018/10/04 Apollo 1.2.1 Stuart Nevans Locke - UCI C++ source; Win 2018/10/04 Ares GB Charles Roberson - XB, UCI Win; XB support is minimal 2018/10/04 CT800 1.32 Rasmus Althoff - UCI C source; Linux, Win; NG-Play derivative 2018/10/04 Invictus r228 Edsel Apostol - UCI C++ source; mp; Win; other engines: Twisted Logic, Hannibal 2018/09/27 Ceibo 0.4.1 Federico Rojo - UCI Win 2018/09/27 Gdel 4.4.5 Juan Manuel Vzquez JA Linux builds XB, UCI Linux, Win 2018/09/27 Wowl Chess 1.3.8 Eric Yip - UCI C++ source; Linux, Win 2018/09/27 Xiphos 0.4 Milos Tatarevic unofficial build SDChess UCI C source; mp(64 cores max); Linux, Mac, Win 2018/09/14 Chenglite 1.1* Maksim Korzh 1.1TM (Win) SDChess UCI C source; Linux, Mac, Win; *official version has been reverted back to 1.0 2018/09/14 Ethereal 11.00 Andrew Grant SDChess UCI C source; mp; uses Syzygy egtbs; Linux, Mac, Win; successor to Chengine, which name was already taken 2018/09/14 Prophet 3 2018.08.11 James Swafford source Kirill Kryukov JA builds XB C++ source; Linux{JA only}, Win; successor to Galahad 2018/09/06 EnkoChess 29.08.18 Evgeniy Silchenko SDChess UCI own GUI; Win 2018/09/06 Safrad 2.2.40.360 David Safranek - UCI Win 2018/08/23 Dorky 4.8 Matt McKnight 4.8 XB Win; mp(8+ threads max); supports Nalimov egtbs 2018/08/23 Galjoen 0.39.2 Werner Taelemans SDChess *XB, UCI C++ source; FRC; MultiPV; own GUI; limit strength; uses Polyglot books; *XB - older version only Linux, Win 2018/08/10 Belofte 0.9.3 Yves De Billoz 0.9.3 TP (XB) Tony Mokonen Norbert Raimund Leisner Julien Marcel Mac builds XB, UCI C source; Linux, Mac, Win 2018/08/10 Uralochka 1.1d Ivan Maklyakov 1.1d SDChess Norbert Raimund Leisner UCI Win 2018/08/03 The Baron 3.43 Richard Pijl alternate homepage Ed Schrder Wayback Machine XB, UCI mp(12 threads max); multiPV; supports Syzygy egtbs; learning; FRC; Linux, Win 2018/08/03 K2 0.91 Sergey Meus SDChess Julien Marcel Mac builds XB, UCI C++ source; Linux, Mac, Win 2018/08/03 Nemorino 5.00 Christian Gnther - XB, UCI mp(128 threads max); multiPV; supports FRC; supports Syzygy egtbs; Win64 2018/08/03 Pedone 1.8 Fabio Gobbato 1.8 G-Sei UCI mp(128 threads max); multiPV; limit strength; FRC; Linux, Win; supports Syzygy egtbs & Polyglot opening books; also a didactic engine named PedoneBase 2018/07/19 Chenard 2018.03.05 Don Cross Kirill Kryukov JA builds Julien Marcel Mac very old build XB C++ source is public domain; uses custom egtbs; Linux, Mac, Win; own GUI 2018/07/19 Coiled 0.6 Oscar Gavira 0.6 UCI Linux, Win 2018/07/19 Hedgehog 1.9 Eugene Kotlov 1.9 SDChess UCI Win 2018/07/19 Laser 1.6 Jeffrey An & Michael An SDChess UCI C++ source; mp(128 threads max); supports Syzygy ebtbs; Linux, Mac, Win 2018/07/19 LittleWing 0.5.0 Vincent Ollivier downloads Tony Mokonen XB Rust source; mp; Win 2018/07/19 Sabrina 3.1.27 Stefano Gemma G-Sei XB tournament mode; Linux, Mac, Win; formerly named Satana 2018/07/19 Topple 0.2.1 Vincent Tang - UCI C++ source; Linux, Win 2018/07/12 Booot 6.3.1 Alex Morozov 6.3.1 SDChess Norbert Raimund Leisner UCI Pascal source (Russian language comments); mp(64 threads max); Win 2018/07/12 Xadreco 5.85.180710.005728 Ruben Carlo Benante Hermann Krause older versions Norbert Raimund Leisner Julien Marcel Mac builds JA Linux builds XB C source (Portugese language comments) mp; Linux, Mac; old version supports UCI 2018/06/28 Orion 0.5 David Carteau - UCI Win64 2018/06/21 Betsab II 1.84 fixed Juan Benitez, Dieter Steinwender, & Chrilly Donninger 1.84 fixed Kirill Kryukov JA builds JA Linux builds Julien Marcel Mac builds XB, UCI C source w/ Spanish comments & var names; Linux, Mac, Win; this is a MiniMAX derivative 2018/06/14 Drosophila 1.5.1 Gustaf Ullberg - XB Linux, Win; successor to Pawned engine 2018/06/14 Dimitri 4.00 Luigino Viscione 1.36, 1.0, 0.73 Norbert Raimund Leisner XB Win; requires VB6 runtime 2018/06/14 Swordfight 2018.02.28 ukasz Kouchowski - XB Clojure source; cross-platform jar file 2018/06/07 HoiChess 0.22.0 Holger Ruckdeschel latest downloads SDChess Jim Ablett JA Linux builds XB C++ source; mp(8+ threads max); Linux, Win; variant play 2018/06/07 Robocide 0.4 Daniel White Tony Mokonen UCI C source; FRC; Win 2018/05/31 Deuterium 2018.1.35.514 Ferdinand Mosca 2018.1.35.514 2018.1.35.514 UCI old versions were XB-only; Win; MultiPV; supports Polyglot books 2018/05/31 Fire 7.1 Norman Schmidt Kirill Kryukov JA builds JA Linux builds Julien Marcel Mac very old build UCI mp(64 threads max); multiPV; Linux, Mac, Win; Syzygy egtbs; original engine name was Firebird, renamed to Fire due to a trademark naming conflict 2018/05/24 Sayuri 2018.05.23 Ishibashi Hironori SDChess old MB build (Mac) UCI C++ source (Japanese comments); mp (up to 64 threads); Linux, Mac, Win 2018/05/24 Wchess 1.06 David Kittinger 1.06 Norbert Raimund Leisner UCI Win 2018/05/18 DanaSah 7.30 Pedro Castro 7.30 Kirill Kryukov JA builds JA Linux builds Julien Marcel Mac builds GitHub DanasahZ 0.4 XB, UCI C source (Spanish language comments); Limit strength; Linux, Mac, Win; FRC; supports Gaviota egtbs + Scorpio bitbases and ProDeo opening book 2018/05/04 Jonesy 1.0 Miguel Izquierdo - XB Win 2018/05/04 Popochin 4.1 Miguel Izquierdo 3.2 XB Win 2018/04/19 Lozza 1.18 Colin Jenkins 1.18 source UCI JavaScript source; Win, requires Node.js to run stand-alone (not dependent on a browser) 2018/04/05 Detroid 0.9.0 Victor Csomor - UCI Java source; mp(8+ threads max); supports Polyglot opening books & Gaviota egtbs; cross-platform jar file; own GUI; built-in static evaluation parameter tuning optimization 2018/04/05 Dorpsgek Eve's Temptation Matthew Brades SDChess Tony Mokonen XB C source; Linux, Win 2018/04/05 Isa 2.0.64 Daniel Anulliero 2.0.64 XB Linux, Win 2018/03/30 Napoleon 1.8.0 Marco Pampaloni 1.8.0 TP Julien Marcel Mac builds Italian page alt downloads UCI C++ source; mp(8 threads max); Linux, Mac, Win 2018/03/30 Teki 2.0 Manik Charan - UCI C++ source; FRC; mp; supports Syzygy EGTBs; Linux, Win; designed for weak play vs humans 2018/03/22 Abbess 2018.02.07 Robert Pope - XB C++ source; Win 2018/03/22 Amoeba 2.8 Richard Delorme - UCI D source; multiPV, Linux, Mac, Win 2018/03/22 Devel 2.0000 Per Skjerpe - UCI multiPV; Win 2018/03/22 Shikamaru 0 Sarv Shakti Singh - UCI Java source; mp; FRC; cross-platform jar file 2018/03/17 Feeks 2018.01.31 LM Folkert van Heusden 2018.01.31 LM UCI Python source; yet another engine from this author 2018/03/17 PyTuroChamp 2017.12.26 LM Martin C Doege 2017.12.26 LM XB, UCI Python3 source; cross-platform and Win; buggy; not a serious engine 2018/03/01 Skiull 0.4* Tony Soares - UCI Linux, Win; *version 0.4 has a serious bug and latest version is reverted back to 0.3 2018/03/01 Trappist rev36 Antar Azri rev36 UCI C source; Linux, Win 2018/02/15 Supra 26.0 Pedro Mouro Correia - UCI C++ source; Win 2018/02/10 Delocto 0.6.rev 7 Moritz Terink 0.6.rev 7 SDChess UCI C++ source; Linux, Win 2018/02/10 RapChess 18-02-01 Thibor Raven - UCI Javascript source 2018/02/01 Butter 1.0 Akhil Velagapudi - UCI C++ source; Win 2018/02/01 Karballo 1.8.rev45 Alberto Alonso Ruibal 1.8.rev45 Carballo SJCE* SourceForge Kirill Kryukov JA builds UCI Kotlin source; cross-platform; own GUI; supports Polyglot books; successor to Carballo engine; there is also a JavaScript version available; SJCE* indicates engine is one of many contained in the package 2018/02/01 SmarThink 1.98 Sergei Markoff SDChess blog (Russian) XB, UCI multiPV; supports Syzygy egtbs; Linux, Win; formerly commercial 2018/01/26 Atlas 3.91 Andrs Manzanares Campillo - UCI multiPV; Linux, Win 2018/01/26 ChessV 2.1 Gregory Strong old site Norbert Raimund Leisner XB* C# source; own GUI; multiPV; variant play; Linux, Mac, Win; requires .NET or Mono framework; *requires own GUI to play against other XB engines 2018/01/26 Clever Girl rev 160 Seth Kasmann rev 160 UCI Win 2018/01/26 Shield 2.1 Luigi Ripamonti G-Sei UCI Win64 2018/01/17 Hactar 0.9.0 Jost Triller - UCI Rust source; Linux, Win 2018/01/17 Shallow Blue 1.1.0 Rhys Rustad-Elliott - UCI C++ source; Win 2018/01/17 Snowy 0.2 Jason Creighton - UCI C++ source 2018/01/17 Soberango 0.12.0 Luis Babboni - XB Win 2018/01/17 Waxman 2017 Ivan Bacigal - XB Win

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computer_chess:engines:myrddin:index – Computer Chess Wiki

First of all, thanks very much to Ron Murawski for making this site available and hosting Myrddin here!

Version 0.87 to be released soon! This version supports SMP via processes (up to 16 instances) and is about 10 ELO stronger than v0.86 at 1 CPU and about 50 ELO stronger at 4 CPUs. This version has not been formally tested above 4 CPUs so it is unknown how well it will scale above 4 CPUs.

Myrddin 0.87 (released 1/25/15, CCRL rating estimated at 2385 at 1 CPU and 2435 at 4 CPUs)

Myrddin 0.86 (released 12/21/12, CCRL rated approximately 2360)This package contains Windows32/64, Linux32/64, & Android executables compiled by Jim Ablett, and a Mac executable compiled by Julien Marcel, author of the Prdateur chess engine. Myrddin 0.85 (released 5/3/11, CCRL rated approximately 2220) Myrddin 0.84 (released 9/17/10, CCRL rated approximately 2115) Myrddin 0.83 (released 2/22/10, CCRL rated approximately 2015) Myrddin 0.82 (released 9/26/09, estimated CCRL rating of 1915) Myrddin Alpha 2 (released 5/26/09, estimated CCRL rating of 1550) Myrddin Alpha 1 (released 3/9/09, estimated CCRL rating of 1150)

Myrddin 0.87 1/20/15

Myrddin is a winboard-compliant chess engine to a reasonable degree. It supports protover 1 primarily to support the Chessmaster interface, and also protover 2.

If you don't know what Winboard is, and you only just want to play against this engine, you can download Winboard-compliant interfaces here:

The 64-bit version of Myrddin should play approximately 2380 ELO against chess engines at 1 CPU (using CCRL rating), and probably 100 points higher against humans. This is an improvement of approximately 30 points compared to the previous release. Myrddin should play about 90 points stronger at 4 CPU.

The following winboard commands are supported:

Myrddin also supports the following non-winboard commands:

eval returns a static evaluation of the current game position

perft N standard perft algorithm to calculate the number of leaf nodes of depth N from the current position. Note that Myrddin will not respond to any input until the perft calculation is finished.

divide N extension to perft algorithm showing the number of leaf nodes of depth N from the current position, divided among each legal move from the current position.

tb toggles Gaviota endgame tablebase support

None of these commands are supported while Myrddin is searching/analyzing.

It is crucial that the winboard UI send the time command to the engine, as Myrddin does not have an internal clock. Post is ON by default, as opposed to the winboard protocol. This is just for debugging convenience and it appears that a lot of engines do it this way anyway.

This is the first version to support SMP. The implementation is based on Dan Homan's lazy SMP idea. Myrddin uses multiple slave processes to fill the transposition, eval and pawn hash tables so the parent process can search deeper in the same amount of time. Myrddin uses Pradyumna Kannan's magicmoves code for move generation of sliding pieces. Evaluation is rather simple: wood counting, piece square tables, pawn structure, rudimentary king safety, rooks behind passers. There's still a long way to go here. Search is basic alpha/beta, with reasonable and generally conservative extensions and reductions. All user-modifiable parameters are supported in the INI file, an example of which is included in the download. Max search depth is 128. The ProDeo opening book is used by kind permission of Ed Schrder. Draw claims from the opponent are not supported. Myrddin does, however, claim all draws by rule, as well as checkmate. There is enough winboard support to play games on ICS. But without support for draw I'm sure there are some scary loopholes and/or exploits. When the engine is in analysis mode, positive scores always favor White and negative scores always favor Black. When the engine is thinking or pondering, positive scores favor Myrddin. Logfiles will be in the logs folder below the folder where you ran Myrddin. The output of the log is not very interesting just PV output and communication reality-check stuff. If you are running Myrddin with multiple CPUs, there will be one logfile for each process.

Myrddin's first official tournament was in the Promotional division of ChessWar XIV and was rated at 1655 over 11 rounds. Myrddin scored 6.5 points (+5 =3 -3) and placed 51st out of 212 engines rated between 1859 and 812. The median engine rating was 1499. To see the PGN of Myrddin's games and see some comments, read this journal. Much of the development between Alpha 1 and Alpha 2 occurred during this tournament.

Myrddin participated in OpenWar 6. This was a round-robin tournament with 92 engines. Myrddin finished in 68th place with 27 points (+22 =10 -59). Myrddin's best legitimate results were a win against Firefly (rated about 2050) and a draw against Timea (rated about 2150). It managed to get a win against one of the top 10 (Cippolino) thanks to a crash. It also got two draws against two very strong engines (DanaSah and N2) due to endgame blunders, and a win against another top engine (Tornado) due to a crash. Much of the development for version 0.82 occurred during this tournament, and the last few rounds were played with 0.82.

Version 0.82f (unreleased and slightly better than 0.82) participated in the 5th Division of WBEC Ridderkerk 17. There were 84 engines in this division, and the division was broken down into three groups of 28 engines each, each group having a double round-robin tournament. As expected, Myrddin finished in the middle of the pack, in 14th place with 31.5 points out of 54 games (+28 =7 -19).

Version 0.82f also participated in the Promotional division of ChessWar XV. This tournament was very similar to Myrddin's first tournament, ChessWar XIV, except there are even more engines (242!). Because Myrddin was at least 300 points stronger than it was eight months previous, it finished in 9th place with 8.0 points (+7 =2 -2). This was a good enough performance to promote to the next division, Myrddin's first promotion. Myrddin now has a bit of a reputation as a very lucky engine, as it got a free point when GnuChess (a typically very stable engine) crashed in a Mate in 3 position. Without that crash, Myrddin would have finished about 20 places lower and would not have promoted.

Versions 0.83 through 0.83k participated in OpenWar 7. This was a round-robin tournament with 76 engines. I was hoping that Myrddin would place around 55th and score about 25 points. But, despite some noticeable improvements in Myrddin that went into version 0.84, Myrddin performed poorly and finished in 62nd place, with only 20.5 points (+14 =13 -48). Myrddin's best results were draws against the 11th place engine, WaDuuttie, and the 20th place engine, Rotor. Both of these engines are rated 2500+. Its best win was against the 45th place engine, Sungorus, rated 2300+. The only other good thing that can be said is that Myrddin had good results against the 18 engines that finished immediately above him (+3 =9 -6).

Version 0.84 participated in the F division of ChessWar XVI. There were 80 engines in the tournament and Myrddin was seeded 70th. Myrddin finished respectably in 49th place with 5 points (+3 =4 -4). Its best performance was a draw against the engine that finished in 6th place.

Version 0.84 (32-bit) was the first version to win any tournament, doing so in the 23rd Series the CCRL Amateur Division 7. It competed with nine other engines in a double-round robin and won with a score of 23.5 out of 36 (+20 =7 -9). This victory promoted Myrddin to Division 6.

Version 0.84g (unreleased and clearly better than 0.84) participated in the 5th Division of WBEC Ridderkerk 18. There were 98 engines in this division, and the division was broken down into three groups of 32-34 engines each, each group having a double round-robin tournament. The hope was that Myrddin could place in the top 6 in his group, thereby reaching the final. Myrddin did accomplish this, scoring 55 points in 66 games and placing 4th. The final was another double round-robin with the top 18 engines (6 from each group), and the top 7 would promote to the 4th division. Myrddin managed to achieve this by placing 7th, scoring 18 points in 34 games.

Versions 0.84g through 0.85 participated in OpenWar 8. This was a round-robin tournament with 78 engines. I was hoping that Myrddin would place close to 40th and score about 37-38 points. This tournament was a mixed bag, as Myrddin drew 10 of the engines that finished between 15th and 30th places (and all 6 engines between 15-20: Brutus, Hermann, Dirty, Arasan, Francesca MAD and Gaviota). But some poor performances against weaker engines kept Myrddin from achieving my goal. Myrddin finished in 46th place with 34.5 points.

All results are for the 64-bit version of 0.85 using 128MB hash and 5-man Gaviota tablebases. The tests are run on an AMD 9650 Quad 2.3GHz machine (although Myrddin does not support multiple CPUs). Running all of the below tests takes approximately 5 hours.

300 positions at 5s per position. Almost exclusively tactical positions, many leading to mate. Myrddin finds 295 correct moves within the time limit. Regarding the five missed positions, two (141, 222) are found within 10 seconds, one (293) is found within 30 seconds, and two (17, 230) are not found within one minute. This suite can be found here.

A series of (currently, but occasionally expanding) 14 individual suites of 100 positions each, primarily intending to test positional knowledge such as square vacancy, proper recapturing, pawn advancement, control of the center, etc. At 10s per move, Myrddin gets 789 out of 1400 positions correct. This suite is also interesting because it contains partial credit. In other words, you can still get some points by choosing moves other than the optimal. Myrddin gets 9,556 out of 14,000 points if partial credit is included. You can download this test suite here.

176 positions at 10s per position. Combinative middlegame and endgame suite. Myrddin finds 134 positions within the time limit. You can download this test suite here.

100 positions at 10s per position. Myrddin does not do very well at this suite, getting only 20 correct moves within the time limit. You can download this test suite here.

182 positions at 10s per position. Challenging tactical suite. Myrddin finds 149 positions within the time limit. You can download this test suite here.

For a list of (hopefully) interesting test positions that I have accumulated during the development of Myrddin, go here.

Many parts of the code from Myrddin contain ideas and/or algorithms gathered from studying the source code of other engines. Most notably, Stockfish, Fruit, Crafty and Greko are well-written, well-documented and relatively easy to understand even for a mediocre programmer like myself. The list of features implemented (and sometimes modified or discarded altogether) from these ideas would be too long to go into here. But I can safely say that all code in Myrddin is my own, written either from scratch or based on these ideas, with the following exceptions: Myrddin's Winboard interface is based on Tom Kerrigan's excellent TSCP engine, for which Tom has graciously given permission. Myrddin's SEE implementation is based on pseudo-code generously given to me by Andres Valverde, author of EveAnn and part of the Dirty development team.

Initial Release, rated approximately 1200-1300

Reduced move generation time by ~21% (perft 6 on initial position went from 57 to 44 seconds on P4-3.0) Search now pings the input command handler every 8K nodes (about 1/30-1/50 second, depending on position and hardware), so applicable commands can now be entered during search/analysis Search will allocate extra thinking time when it gets noticeable drop in score Evaluation improvements pawn structure, open and semi-open files for rooks, rooks behind passers, king safety Added MVV/LVA and PV Move Ordering Added Killer and History move ordering heuristics Added Null Move reductions Added Late Move reductions Added Opening Book (ProDeo Thanks, Ed!) Added pondering, so hard and easy commands are now supported analyze, ? and result commands are now supported level command is now fully supported for all time control types Added check for dirty pawn structure before evaluation Search can be interrupted due to time management considerations Added Hash Tables, with a fixed size of 128MB Maximum search depth increased from 20 to 30 Fixed a bug with evaluating castling moves Fixed a bug determining which King piece table to use Can now generate capturing moves only so quiescent search has less moves to sort/deal with Quiescent moves are added to PV Added code for pushing lone King towards edge of board Added material and 50-move draw detection Fixed a bug in the undo and remove commands Fixed some bugs in the 3-fold repetition detection Fixed a stupid bug that caused me to check for user input WAY too often many thanks to Bob Hyatt for pointing me in the right direction Significant code cleanup

Removed Alpha designation from version number Commandline parameters are now supported Increased max search depth to 50 Reduced move generation time by ~15% (perft 6 of initial position on a P4-3.0 went from 44s to 38s) Now claiming checkmates, 50-move draws and 3-fold repetition draws Plays a move after completing a depth 3 search if there is only one legal reply Will not play a move if in the middle of resolving a fail low or fail high at the root Will never use more than 1/4 of remaining time Greatly improved time management for bullet games. Version 0.81 could lose as many as 20% of its games on time at 2 minutes per game. Version 0.82 now only loses about 1% of its games on time at 1 minute per game, and only very rarely will lose a game on time at other time controls. Many thanks to Lars Hallerstrom (The Mad Tester!) for all of his assistance in helping determine if my fixes actually improved anything. Myrddin should never lose on time in games with increments. Quiescence search now only searches recaptures after depth 1 Added promotions to Quiescence search Added aspiration window Improved Late Move Reductions parameters Fixed a bug in the Principal Variation search Pondering is now OFF by default Evaluation adjustments:

bishops and knights are scored at 310 centipawns, as Myrddin was susceptible to trading two pieces for rook+pawn

increased penalty for doubled/tripled pawns

for doubled/tripled pawns, added further penalty if they are blocked

added larger bonus for passed pawn on the 7th

adjusted bishop piece tables to encourage occupation of long(er) diagonals

modified the lone king piece table to give larger penalites as the king goes towards the edge/corner

Added knowledge of knight outposts (in enemy territory, supported by pawn, cannot be attacked by enemy pawn) Piece and wood counting are now done incrementally Fixed a bug in which the 50-move counter could be set to zero if the move being pondered was a zeroing move and the opponent did not play that move Fixed a bug in which the engine would go into an endless loop if it reached (max_search_depth + 1) during pondering or analysis Fixed a bug in which the engine would go into an endless loop if there were no legal moves during analysis Fixed a bug in the evaluation of Black doubled/tripled pawns Added code to handle KPvK endings Added code to recognize various material draws, such as KNNvK Added code to recognize insufficient mating material for materially winning side (e.g. KNNvKP or KBvKP) Added code for rook pawn and wrong colored bishop against lone king in promoting corner (from a loss to Sorgenkind in OpenWar) Now only adding en passant square to hash signature if en passant capture is possible Added ? and ! comments to PV output for fail lows and fail highs Logfiles are now created in a logs folder below the Myrddin executable program, as requested by Lars

Only search to depth 1 when there is only one legal move and pondering is off No longer clearing the hash table before starting a depth 1 search Improved hash replacement strategy If a search depth was reduced by late-move reductions, and that search improves alpha, now researching at proper depth Reductions are now less aggressively implemented Adjusted the second aspiration window from 300 to 110 centipawns Doubled (or worse) passed pawns after the leading pawn no longer get the passed pawn bonus Will now play a move in a checkmating line as soon as it is confirmed to be optimal Removed Result from checkmate reporting Rook and minor vs rook (with no pawns) is now hard-coded as a draw should be safe in 99.99% of cases Re-removed bad king safety code Now using piece square table for knight outposts, rather than a hard-coded bonus Modified piece square table for kings in opening and middlegame Added penalty for having no pawns, to help avoid trading down into pawnless endgames (e.g. rook vs. minor) Sending the '.' command during analysis no longer restarts the analysis from depth 1. The '.' command is still not implemented, though. Fixed a bug in which most hash moves were not getting placed at the beginning of the move order Fixed a bug evaluating Black doubled and passed pawns Fixed a bug in which the initial position was not being checked for draw by repetition Fixed a bug maintaining wood tables when unmaking a promotion move Fixed an asymmetrical problem in the bishop piece square table Fixed a problem with determining if a rook or queen was behind a passed pawn Fixed a problem with calculating the pawn shield of a king on column h, or a king not on his home row fixed a bug updating the board signature after making a null move when en passant was possible king+rook vs. king+minor is now being scored as a draw

Added Gaviota tablebases (thanks so much to Miguel Ballicora, also the author of the Gaviota chess engine, for making this available!) Added initialization file for setting hash size, creating log file, turning on kibitz, and tablebase info Fixed a bug in which a hash probe would not return a hash move if the saved depth was less than the requested depth (thanks to Edmund Moshammer, author of Glass!), so in these cases the hash move would not be used for move ordering Implemented fail-hard Tweaked parameters for reductions (yet again) Adjusted queen value from 900 to 950 and minor piece value from 310 to 320 Adjusted bishop pair bonus from 20 to 30 Removed second aspiration window Lazy eval is now more conservative Will now analyze the entire depth if the first move searched fails low, or if first move fails high in a non-mate situation Increased maximum search time to half of the remaining clock (required due to above item) Added support for winboard computer command kibitz PV, book moves and Mate in N Increased max half-moves in a game to 1024 Fixed a bug in which the first move searched at the root was saved in the hash table as an exact value even if it did not improve alpha Fixed a bug in which Myrddin would run out of time by thinking indefinitely if it was told it had a negative amount of time on its clock (can happen on ICS due to lag) Modified the check to see if null move is allowable, previously was if any piece was on board, now only if side to move has at least one piece

Almost complete rewrite of the evaluation, in particular the pawn structure evaluation and king safety. Also added mobility factor and significantly adjusted many piece table values Added SEE (thanks, Andrs!) Added futility pruning Added resign. See Myrddin's INI file for instructions, as this is off by default Added second aspiration window at 150 centipawns Cleaned up code for how reductions/extensions are used to modify depth in search calls Will now claim draw by insufficient material, but only checking for bare kings or at most one minor on board Now generating all moves in quiescent search if side to move is in check Now searching all moves in order of their move score order, instead of just the first four moves and then taking the rest as they were generated Some changes to the transposition table replacement strategy Fixed a bug in which the en passant square was not being passed to the Gaviota tablebase probe Fixed a bug in which the 50-move draw check was not checking that the drawing move was also checkmate Fixed a bug in which the flag for a mate threat found during null move was not being stored in the hash table Fixed a bug in which a hash entry could be saved when the engine was forcibly bailing out of a search Fixed a bug that could cause Gaviota tablebases folder to not be read properly from the INI file

Finished conversion to bitboards from 088 Added pawn hash (thanks again, Dann!) Removed lazy eval Added support for winboard st and sd commands Lots of bug fixes either discovered by the bitboard conversion or removed by them (of course, new bugs added!)

Added SMP support for up to 16 instances (using processes and shared hash memory Very Lazy SMP!) only tested up to 4 instances! This use of shared memory for all hash tables (transposition, eval and pawn) means that the reported memory usage may appear to be incorrect depending on what program you use to get the information. Beware! Fixed very embarrassing bug in passer eval calculating the distance between two squares that could cause any number of other issues, even a hang or crash Added support for the cores command which changes the number of processes being used when SMP is enabled. The initial value will be based on ini file settings. Added a tb command which toggles tablebase support. The initial value will be based on ini file settings. Added Mate in N announcements to PV output when applicable Fixed a bug in saving scores near mate to the hash table Fixed a bug in determining valid knight outpost squares Fixed text output bug in kibitzing opening book moves on ICC Fixed a rare bug in determining material draw Fixed a bug in which Myrddin would hang or crash if the '.' command (used by Chessmaster GUI) was sent while Myrddin was pondering Fixed a bug that could cause hash memory allocation to fail if more than 1GB was requested. Thanks to Graham Banks for reporting this issue.

Many thanks to the following brilliant people who helped/guided me (either directly or indirectly) in countless ways with their work:

Lars Hallerstrm - The Mad Swedish Tester! I would never release anything without his (grudging) approval.

Dann Corbit Without whose generous help, huge speed improvements, bug fixes and general suggestions, the first bitboard version (v0.86) would not have been released

Pham Hong Nguyen Firstchess

Please send bug reports and general suggestions/comments to JohnVMerlino@gmail.com.

Thanks for playing!

John Merlino

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computer_chess:engines:myrddin:index - Computer Chess Wiki

Chess Engines list @wiki – Computer Chess Wiki

Latest Date Engine Site Latest Version Author Alternate Download Protocol Comment 2017/12/30 Dorpsgek Eve's Temptation beta 1 Matthew Brades SDChess Tony Mokonen XB C source; Linux, Win 2017/12/30 Fizbo 2.0 Youri Matiounine - UCI mp(56 threads max); Linux, Win; supports Syzygy egtbs 2017/12/30 Jumbo 0.6.10 Sven Schle - XB mp(no limit threads max); supports Polyglot opening books; Win; requires external dlls (not included with package); successor to Surprise, KnockOut & Femto and Femto 0.9 2017/12/30 Koedem 1.0 Kolja Khn 1.0 UCI Java source; cross-platform jar file 2017/12/30 Laser 1.5 Jeffrey An & Michael An SDChess UCI C++ source; mp(128 threads max); supports Syzygy ebtbs; Linux, Mac, Win 2017/12/30 PyChess 0.99.1 Thomas Dybdahl Ahle, Bajusz Tams & Justin Blanchard downloads source XB Python source; Win, Linux, Mac; requires Python interpreter with '-u' option invoked (to disable i/o buffering) 2017/12/30 Toga II 4.01 Fabien Letouzey, Thomas Gaksch, C. Formula, Michel Van den Bergh, Jerry Donald 4.01 Michel Van den Bergh Kirill Kryukov JA builds JA Linux builds Julien Marcel Mac builds XB, UCI C++ source; mp(16 threads max); multiPV; Linux, Mac, Win 2017/12/21 Nemorino 4.00 Christian Gnther - XB, UCI mp(128 threads max); multiPV; supports FRC; supports Syzygy egtbs; Win64 2017/12/21 Tucano 7.00 Alcides Schulz JA Linux builds Julien Marcel Mac very old build XB C source; mp(8+ threads max); Linux, Mac, Win; successor to Sedicla engine 2017/12/14 Amoeba 2.7 Richard Delorme - UCI D source; multiPV, Linux, Mac, Win 2017/12/14 Fruit Reloaded 3.2.1 Fabien Letouzey, Daniel Mehrmann & Ryan Benitez Steve Maughan UCI C++ source; Linux, Mac Win; multiPV; supports Syzygy & Nalimov egtbs; learning; directly based on Fruit code 2017/12/14 Tordenskiold 2018.12.06 Jonas Praem 2018.12.06 UCI Java source; buggy 2017/12/07 Embla 1.0.1 Folkert van Heusden source XB, UCI mp (INT_MAX threads); supports Polyglot opening books & Syzygy ebtbs; Linux, Mac, Win 2017/12/07 Gogobello 1.4 Salvatore Giannotti G-Sei UCI mp(8 threads max); supports Polyglot books; supports Syzygy egtbs; Win64; older versions supported XB only 2017/12/07 Rodent III 0.232 Pablo Vazquez + Pawel Koziol downloads Rodent III source + download Rodent II source + download SDChess(Linux) Kirill Kryukov JA builds JA Linux builds Denis Mendoza old Sourceforge code dev code Julien Marcel Mac old build UCI C source; mp(4 threads max); Linux, Mac, Win; limit strength; originally based on Sungorus code; supports Polyglot opening book; supports personalities 2017/12/01 Sabrina 3.1.25 Stefano Gemma G-Sei XB tournament mode; Linux, Mac, Win; formerly named Satana 2017/12/01 Defenchess 1.1f Can Cetin & Dogac Eldenk - UCI C++ source; Linux, Win; formerly known as SCTR 2017/11/24 Houdini 6.03 Robert Houdart ChessBase UCI commercial; Win; mp [6 threads (std) or 128 threads (pro)]; multiPV; FRC; limit strength; supports Nalimov, Gaviota, and Syzygy EBTBs 2017/11/24 IZII 2017.11.24 Elliot V Pourmand - XB Python source 2017/11/24 LittleWing 0.4.0 Vincent Ollivier downloads Tony Mokonen XB Rust source; mp; Win 2017/11/24 PyTuroChamp 2017.11.24 Martin C Doege - XB, UCI Python3 source; buggy; not a serious engine 2017/11/24 Wasp 2.60 John Stanback Frank's Chess Page UCI mp(64 threads max); Win; successor to Zarkov 2017/11/16 Fritz 16 Vasik Rajlich - UCI commercial; skill levels; mp(2048 threads max); own GUI; multi-PV; Win; GUI supports Syzygy egtbs; older versions programmed by Franz Morsch & Gyula Horvath 2017/11/16 Senpai 2.0 Fabien Letouzey Frank's Chess Page Steve Maughan 2.0 TM (win32) 2.0 (win64 no popcount) UCI C++ source; mp(16 threads max); FRC; Linux, Mac, Win 2017/11/09 Kasparov 1.0.0.r70 Eric Liu 1.0.0.r70 SJCE UCI Java source; cross-platform jar file 2017/11/02 ChessProj (Chess AI Engine) 17-10-28 LM Ken Leung Norbert Raimund Leisner UCI C++ source; mp (maybe?); Win; school project 2017/11/02 RapSpeed 17-10-28 Thibor Raven - UCI Javascript source 2017/10/26 Firefly 2.7.2 Andrew Fan older builds XB, UCI Win; mp(64 threads max) 2017/10/19 IQ23 v003 Mathias Mller WayBack Machine UCI Win32 2017/10/19 Orion 0.4 David Carteau - UCI Win64 2017/10/19 Soldat 4 Beta Marco Giusfredi Kirill Kryukov JA builds Julien Marcel Mac old build XB C source (Italian comments); Linux, Mac, Win 2017/10/12 DanaSah 7.0 Pedro Castro 7.0 Kirill Kryukov JA builds JA Linux builds Julien Marcel Mac builds GitHub DanasahZ 0.4 XB, UCI C source (Spanish language comments); Limit strength; Linux, Mac, Win; FRC; supports Gaviota egtbs + Scorpio bitbases and ProDeo opening book 2017/10/12 Devel 1.8090 Per Skjerpe - UCI multiPV; Win32 2017/10/05 ProDeo 2.6 Ed Schrder Ed Schrder XB, UCI mp (2 threads max); Win 2017/10/05 RomiChess P3n Michael Sherwin P3n P3L, 2c, 2k, 3d, 3g, 3i, NG5 Kirill Kryukov JA builds XB C source (older versions); mp; Win 2017/10/01 Prophet 3 James Swafford source Kirill Kryukov JA builds XB C++ source; Linux{JA only}, Win; successor to Galahad 2017/10/01 Texel 1.07 Peter sterlund Norbert Raimund Leisner Kirill Kryukov JA builds JA Linux builds Julien Marcel Mac builds SDChess UCI C++ source; mp(512 threads max); multiPV; supports Syzygy egtbs; Linux, Mac, Win; (replaces CuckooChess) 2017/09/28 Fire 6.1 Norman Schmidt Kirill Kryukov JA builds JA Linux builds Julien Marcel Mac very old build UCI mp(64 threads max); multiPV; Linux, Mac, Win; Syzygy egtbs; original engine name was Firebird, renamed to Fire due to a trademark naming conflict 2017/09/28 Nemeton 1.6 Stan Arts 1.6 1.41, 1.4 XB Pascal source; mp (4 threads max) Win 2017/09/28 Ramjet 0.14 Edoardo Manino - UCI FRC; Win 2017/09/28 SugaR XPro 1.3 Tord Romstad, Marco Costalba, Joona Kiiski, many others, & Marco Zerbinati Source + download alt site UCI C++ source; mp (128 threads max); multiPV; FRC; Win; supports Syzygy egtbs; Stockfish derivative 2017/09/22 Dirty-Bit 0.39 Andrew Backes WayBack Machine UCI C++ source; Win 2017/09/22 Joker(2) 0.7.7 Manlio Morini 0.7.7 alt site UCI C++ source; Linux, Win; poorly named: Joker engine already exists 2017/09/22 Monolith 0.3 Jonas Mayr - UCI C++ source; supports PolyGlot opening books; Linux, Windows 2017/09/14 EnkoChess 2017.09.01 Evgeniy Silchenko SDChess UCI own GUI; Win 2017/09/14 Zurichess Neuchatel Alexandru Mosoi alt site UCI Go source; skill levels; Multi PV; Linux, Win 2017/08/31 BullitChess 1.0.1 TM Arnaud Halle Tony Mokonen UCI C++ source; Win 2017/08/19 NirvanaChess 2.4 Thomas Kolarik - UCI mp; Win 2017/08/11 GNUchess6 6.2.5 Fabien Letouzey, Antonio Ceballos Hermann Krause Tony Mokonen source SDChess Julien Marcel Mac very old build Kirill Kryukov JA builds JA Linux builds (Fruit) XB, UCI C++ source; Linux, Mac, Win; directly based on Fruit 2.1 code 2017/08/11 Saruman 2017.08.10 HK Terry Bolt, Conor Griffin, Darragh Griffin Hermann Krause UCI C++ source; own GUI; Win 2017/08/03 JavaRival 1.03 Chris Moreton SJCE* Kirill Kryukov JA builds UCI Java source; cross-platform; SJCE* indicates engine is one of many contained in the package 2017/08/03 Xadreco 10.1.170722.114803 Ruben Carlo Benante Hermann Krause older versions Norbert Raimund Leisner Julien Marcel Mac builds JA Linux builds XB C source (Portugese language comments) mp; Linux, Mac; old version supports UCI 2017/07/29 Betsab II 1.75 Juan Benitez, Dieter Steinwender, & Chrilly Donninger 1.75 Kirill Kryukov JA builds JA Linux builds Julien Marcel Mac builds XB, UCI C source w/ Spanish comments & var names; Linux, Mac, Win; this is a MiniMAX derivative 2017/07/21 BagaturChess 1.5e Krasimir Topchiyski Sourceforge downloads SJCE* Kirill Kryukov JA builds UCI Java source; cross-platform; mp(64 threads max); supports Gaviota ebtbs; SJCE* indicates engine is one of many contained in the package 2017/07/21 Cicada 0.1 Mohammad Kayali - UCI Rust source; Linux, Win 2017/07/21 Robocide 20170718 TM Daniel White 20170718 TM Tony Mokonen UCI C source; Win 2017/07/06 Madchess 2.2 Erik Madsen - UCI C# source; multiPV; limit strength; Win; successor to RumbleMinze engine 2017/07/06 Napoleon 1.7.0 Marco Pampaloni Julien Marcel Mac builds Italian page alt downloads UCI C++ source; mp(8 threads max); Linux, Mac, Win 2017/07/06 WyldChess 1.51 Manik Charan - XB, UCI C source; supports Syzygy egtbs; Linux, Mac, Win 2017/06/29 Belofte 0.9.1 Yves De Billoz downloads Tony Mokonen Julien Marcel Mac builds XB, UCI C source; Linux, Mac, Win 2017/06/22 Baislicka 1.0 Robert Taylor - UCI C source; Win 2017/06/22 Monochrome TM 'CPirc' Tony Mokonen UCI C++ source; Win 2017/06/22 NG-Play 9.87b George Georgopoulos 9.87b SDChess JA Linux builds Julien Marcel Mac very old build XB C source; Linux, Mac, Win 2017/06/15 Dragontooth 0.2 Dylan Hunn - UCI Go source; mp(128 threads max); Linux, Mac, Win 2017/06/15 ECE X3 Luigio Viscione X3 UCI ECE = Easy Chess Engine; own GUI; Win 2017/06/01 Ghost 3.1 Philipp Claen SDChess XB mp; Linux, Win 2017/05/25 Leokom 0.2 Leonid Rozenblyum et al Norbert Raimund Leisner XB Java source; cross-platform jar file 2017/05/18 Alcibiades 0.3.0 TM Evgeni Pandurski Tony Mokonen Hermann Krause UCI Rust source; intended as a didactic engine; Linux64, Win64 2017/05/18 Ruffian 2.10 Perola Valfridsson Frank's Chess Page Ed Schrder XB, UCI formerly commercial, now free; Win; multiPV 2017/05/12 Booot 6.2 Alex Morozov SDChess Norbert Raimund Leisner UCI Pascal source (Russian language comments); mp(16 threads max); Win 2017/05/12 Detroid 1.0 Victor Csomor - UCI Java source; mp(8+ threads max); supports Polyglot opening books; cross-platform jar file; own GUI; built-in static evaluation parameter tuning optimization 2017/05/12 Tiny Chess 1.4.6 Kelvin Yang 1.42, 1.46 Norbert Raimund Leisner UCI C++ source; Linux, Mac, Win 2017/05/01 Dirty 30APR2017 Pradu Kannan, Andres Valverde & Fonzy Bluemers Kirill Kryukov JA builds JA Linux builds old homepage (slow) XB mp; Linux, Win 2017/05/01 Zeta 0.99d Srdja Matovic Tony Mokonen Norbert Raimund Leisner XB C++ source; Win; experimental engine that uses a GPU for calculations 2017/04/27 (Deep) Gandalf 7 Beta Steen Suurballe Frank's Chess Page UCI mp (2 threads max); older versions use XB protocol; Win 2017/04/27 MobMat 903d Vince A Sempronio - UCI Win; supports Polyglot opening books; MobMat=MOBility and MATerial 2017/04/14 Zeta Dva 0305 Srdja Matovic Tony Mokonen Norbert Raimund Leisner Kirill Kryukov JA builds Julien Marcel XB C source; Linux, Mac, Win 2017/04/06 EveAnn 1.72 Andres Valverde alt download XB Win 2017/04/06 Swordfight 2017.04.03 ukasz Kouchowski - XB Clojure source; cross-platform jar file 2017/03/31 Fischerle 0.9.80 SE Roland Stuckardt SJCE* UCI Java source; cross-platform; own GUI; SJCE* indicates engine is one of many contained in the package 2017/03/23 Deepov 0.4.1 TM Romain Goussault Tony Mokonen Hermann Krause Deepov 0.4.1 JP (Mac) UCI C++ source; Linux, Mac, Win; old Java version Jeepov 2017/03/14 Chess4J 3.2 James Swafford old Kirill Kryukov JA builds XB Java and Groovy source; cross-platform jvm jar file 2017/03/10 HoiChess 0.21.0 Holger Ruckdeschel latest downloads SDChess Jim Ablett JA Linux builds XB C++ source; mp(8+ threads max); Linux, Win; variant play 2017/03/05 Ronja 0.6.0 Johan Dykstrm 0.6.0 Norbert Raimund Leisner XB Java source; cross-platform 2017/02/26 GopherCheck 0.2.3 Stephen J Lovell - UCI Go source; mp(8 threads max); Linux, Mac, Win; only fixed-time per move is supported 2017/02/26 Krudo 0.15a Francesco Bianco SJCE* G-Sei old page UCI Java source; cross-platform; SJCE* indicates engine is one of many contained in the package 2017/02/17 Crafty 25.3 Bob Hyatt 25.3MB(Mac) SDChess(Linux) Kirill Kryukov JA builds JA Linux builds old XB C++ source; mp(64 threads max); limit strength; Linux, Mac, Win(older versions); supports Syzygy 2017/02/09 Chess(4) 1.3.1 David Cimbalista - UCI C++ source; Win; horrendously named engine, the 4th of its ilk 2017/02/09 EXchess 7.97 Dan Homan SDChess Kirill Kryukov JA builds JA Linux builds Julien Marcel Mac builds XB C++ source; mp(32 threads max); own GUI; FRC; limit strength; temporal difference learning; Linux, Mac, Win 2017/02/09 Superpawn build 110 John Byrd source + some releases UCI C++ source; Win 2017/02/03 Tornado 8 Engin stn - UCI FRC; multiPV; mp (64 threads max); Limit strength; Win; uses Nalimov egtbs 2017/01/16 Arabian Knight 1.55 Marcin Gardyjan 1.54 & 1.55 SJCE* Kirill Kryukov JA builds Polish Engine List XB Java source, cross-platform; own GUI; mp(256 threads max); SJCE* indicates engine is one of many contained in the package 2017/01/13 Casper 2016.06.28 Shikhar Srivastava rev4 UCI C++ source; Linux, Win 2017/01/13 Chengine commit 38 Henning Sperr commit 38 XB C source; Linux, Win 2017/01/13 Chiron 4 Ubaldo Andrea Farina - XB, UCI commercial, FRC, mp(512 threads max); multiPV; adjust strength; supports Polyglot & ctg opening books; supports Nalimov, Gaviota, & Syzyzgy egtbs; Win 2017/01/13 Jacksprat 0.9 Joshua Scholar download blog XB C++ source; TSCP derivative; Linux64, Win64 2017/01/13 Shallow2 rev. 8 Dmitry Sultanov rev 8 Kirill Kryukov JA builds dev branch XB C++ source; Win 2017/01/13 Sophy 0.1.0.0 rev.7 Teguramori Ryo 0.1.0.0 rev.7 (Linux64) 0.1.0.0 rev.7 (Win64) UCI Haskell source; Linux, Win 2017/01/05 Arminius 2017-01-01 Volker Annuss 2017-01-01(Linux) 2017-01-01(Win) XB, UCI FRC; mp(32 threads max); Linux, Win 2017/01/05 CDrill 1800, Build 4 Ferdinand Mosca - UCI win; not a serious competitive engine - designed to mimic human play at Elo 2000 max 2017/01/05 Irina 0.15 Lucas Monge - UCI C source; winglet derivative

See more here:

Chess Engines list @wiki - Computer Chess Wiki

Chess Engines Chess Tech

Chess engines are the brains of any chess program. Most modern engines come as separate entities to be added to your favorite GUI (Graphical User Interface). This post is aimed at helping you get some free chess engines and prepare them to install in your favorite GUI. Ill cover the GUI installation in separate posts.

How do you know what engines are the best?

Here is a list of the top rated free engines. http://www.computerchess.org.uk/ccrl/4040/rating_list_pure_free.html

Where can I get these engines? Well you can Google them by name. Komodo Chess Engine for example. Just Google Komodo and youll get a lot of links to the lizard.

Below are links to the current top three free engines. After you download them. You will need to unzip them. I recommend keeping them in their own folder. First I would make a folder called chess engines somewhere easy to find. Because you may want to use these engines in more than one program. Example c:chess enginesFire5

Komodo https://komodochess.com/Stockfish https://stockfishchess.org/Fire https://chesslogik.wixsite.com/fire

The engines will often come in 32 bit and 64 bit versions. They may have both versions inside the zipped file. If you have to select at the time of download you need to know which kind of computer you have. This is how you can tellhttps://www.computerhope.com/issues/ch001121.htm.

So there may be a x32 (32 bit) version a x64 (64 bit) version. Also you may see bmi2 and popcnt versions. These additional versions are compiled to take advantage of special features built into specific microprocessors. The speed gained by running these versions are small but feel free to try them. If they dont run just switch back to the plain version. The BMI version may require changing settings in your computer bios. If you you want to do that here is a thread on that topic.http://www.chess2u.com/t10505-bmi2-or-popcnt

All about chess engines. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chess_engine

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Chess Engines Chess Tech


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