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The Future Of Nano Medicine

Nanomedicine, refers to highly specific medical intervention at the molecular level for curing disease or repairing damaged tissues. Though in its infancy, could we be looking at the future of medicine? Early clinical trials certainly look promising.How Nanomedicine Works

- Nanomedicine works by injecting nanoparticles into the body- Can be used to:- Deliver medicine- Find and treat disease- Repair damaged cells

One human hair is approximately 80,000 nanometers wideApplications of Nanomedicine

- Drug Delivery- Using nanotechnology to deliver medicine, diabetic rats kept stable blood sugar levels for 10 days after injection- Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment- Using microRNA from a patient's blood plasma and nanotechnology:- Medical professionals can determine if lung cancer is present- Begin treatment the same day- Using Nano-Therm therapy to overheat brain cancer cells helps to destroy them- In clinical trials, those with recurrent glioblastoma survived a median of 13 months- More than double the survival rate of those not receiving Nano-Therm therapyNanotechnology is already commonly used in sunscreen and to make tennis balls more bouncy

- Flu Testing- Today's flu tests are:- Time consuming- Inaccurate- Nanomedicine gold flu testing provides:- Instant results- Immediate treatment cycle to avoid spreading to others- commercial nanotech testing no more than 5 years away- Cell Feedback- Nanomedicine can be used to test cell's response to drugs offering new drug testing methods- Provides instant feedback to how cells respond to medicine- Can save years and millions of dollars on testing and clinical trials- Can improve current medications

In a 1956, Arthur C. Clarke first envisioned the concept of nanotechnology in a short story, The Next TenantsAdvantages of Nanomedicine

- Faster diagnosis of many ailments- More precise treatments of conditions such as cancer- Repair tissue deep within the body- Target only diseased organs, lessening the need for drugsSources

- https://commonfund.nih.gov/nanomedicine/overview.aspx- http://www.understandingnano.com/medicine.html- http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/nn400630x- http://www.nature.com/nnano/journal/v6/n10/full/nnano.2011.147.html- http://www.dana.org/news/features/detail_bw.aspx?id=35592- http://pubs.rsc.org/en/Content/ArticleLanding/2011/AN/C1AN15303J- http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/smll.201001642/abstract- http://www.clinam.org/benefits.html

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The Future Of Nano Medicine

Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine …

The mission of Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine (Nanomedicine: NBM) is to promote the emerging interdisciplinary field of nanomedicine.

Nanomedicine: NBM is an international, peer-reviewed journal presenting novel, significant, and interdisciplinary theoretical and experimental results...

The mission of Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine (Nanomedicine: NBM) is to promote the emerging interdisciplinary field of nanomedicine.

Nanomedicine: NBM is an international, peer-reviewed journal presenting novel, significant, and interdisciplinary theoretical and experimental results related to nanoscience and nanotechnology in the life and health sciences. Content includes basic, translational, and clinical research addressing diagnosis, treatment, monitoring, prediction, and prevention of diseases.

Nanomedicine: NBM journal publishes articles on artificial cells, regenerative medicine, gene therapy, infectious disease, nanotechnology, nanobiotechnology, nanomedicine, stem cell and tissue engineering.

Sub-categories include synthesis, bioavailability, and biodistribution of nanomedicines; delivery, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacokinetics of nanomedicines; imaging; diagnostics; improved therapeutics; innovative biomaterials; interactions of nanomaterials with cells, tissues, and living organisms; public health; toxicology; theranostics; point of care monitoring; nutrition; nanomedical devices; prosthetics; biomimetics; and bioinformatics.

Article formats include Rapid Communications, Original Articles, Reviews, Perspectives, Technical and Commercialization Notes, and Letters to the Editor. We invite authors to submit original manuscripts in these categories.

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Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine ...

Nanomedicine | medicine | Britannica

Nanomedicine, branch of medicine that seeks to apply nanotechnologythat is, the manipulation and manufacture of materials and devices that are smaller than 1 nanometre [0.0000001 cm] in sizeto the prevention of disease and to imaging, diagnosis, monitoring, treatment, repair, and regeneration of biological systems.

Although nanomedicine remains in its early stages, a number of nanomedical applications have been developed. Research thus far has focused on the development of biosensors to aid in diagnostics and vehicles to administer vaccines, medications, and genetic therapy, including the development of nanocapsules to aid in cancer treatment.

An offshoot of nanotechnology, nanomedicine is an emerging field and had garnered interest as a site for global research and development, which gives the field academic and commercial legitimacy. Funding for nanomedicine research comes both from public and private sources, and the leading investors are the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, and Japan. In terms of the volume of nanomedicine research, these countries are joined by China, France, India, Brazil, Russia, and India.

Working at the molecular-size scale, nanomedicine is animated with promises of the seamless integration of biology and technology, the eradication of disease through personalized medicine, targeted drug delivery, regenerative medicine, as well as nanomachinery that can substitute portions of cells. Although many of these visions may not come to fruition, some nanomedicine applications have become reality, with the potential to radically transform the practice of medicine, as well as current understandings of the health, disease, and biologyissues that are of vital importance for contemporary societies. The fields global market share totalled some $78 billion dollars in 2012, driven by technological advancements. By the end of the decade, the market is expected to grow to nearly $200 billion.

Nanomedicine derives much of its rhetorical, technological, and scientific strength from the scale on which it operates (1 to 100 nanometers), the size of molecules and biochemical functions. The term nanomedicine emerged in 1999, the year when American scientist Robert A. Freitas Jr. published Nanomedicine: Basic Capabilities, the first of two volumes he dedicated to the subject.

Extending American scientist K. Eric Drexlers vision of molecular assemblers with respect to nanotechnology, nanomedicine was depicted as facilitating the creation of nanobot devices (nanoscale-sized automatons) that would navigate the human body searching for and clearing disease. Although much of this compelling imagery still remains unrealized, it underscores the underlying vision of doctors being able to search and destroy diseased cells, or of nanomachines that substitute biological parts, which still drives portrayals of the field. Such illustrations remain integral to the field, being used by scientists, funding agencies, and the media alike.

Attesting to the fields actuality are numerous dedicated scientific and industry-oriented conferences, peer-reviewed scientific journals, professional societies, and a growing number of companies. However, nanomedicines identity, scope, and goals are a matter of controversy. In 2006, for instance, the prestigious journal Nature Materials discussed the ongoing struggle of policy makers to understand if nanomedicine is a rhetorical issue or a solution to a real problem. This ambivalence is reflected in the numerous definitions of nanomedicine that can be found in scientific literature, that range from complicated drugs to the above mentioned nanobots. Despite the lack of a shared definition, there is a general agreement that nanomedicine entails the application of nanotechnology in medicine and that it will profoundly impact medical practice.

A further topic of debate is nanomedicines genealogy, in particular its connections to molecular medicine and nanotechnology. The case of nanotechnology is exemplary: on one hand, its potentialin terms of science but also in regard to funding and recognitionis often mobilized by nanomedicine proponents; on the other, there is an attempt to distance nanomedicine from nanotechnology, for fear of being damaged by the perceived hype that surrounds it. The push is then for nanomedicine to emerge not as a subdiscipline of nanotechnology but as a parallel field.

Although nanomedicine research and development is actively pursued in numerous countries, the United States, the EU (particularly Germany), and Japan have made significant contributions from the fields outset. This is reflected both in the number of articles published and in that of patents filed, both of which have grown exponentially since 2004. By 2012, however, nanomedicine research in China grew with respect to publications in the field, and the country ranked second only to the United States in the number of research articles published.

In 2004, two U.S. funding agenciesthe National Institutes of Health and the National Cancer Instituteidentified nanomedicine as a priority research area allocating $144 million and $80 million, respectively, to its study. In the EU meanwhile, public granting institutions did not formally recognize nanomedicine as a field, providing instead funding for research that falls under the headers of nanotechnology and health. Such lack of coordination had been the target of critiques by the European Science Foundation (ESF), warning that it would result in lost medical benefits. In spite of this, the EU ranked first in number of nanomedicine articles published and in 2007 the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) allocated 250 million to nanomedicine research. Such work has also been heavily funded by the private sector. A study led by the European Science and Technology Observatory found that over 200 European companies were researching and developing nanomedicine applications, many of which were coordinating their efforts.

Much of nanomedicine research is application oriented, emphasizing methods to transfer it from the laboratory to the bedside. In 2005 the ESF pointed to four main subfields in nanomedicine research: analytical tools and nanoimaging, nanomaterials and nanodevices, novel therapeutics and drug delivery systems, and clinical, regulatory, and toxicological issues. Research in analytical tools and nanoimaging seeks to develop noninvasive, reliable, cheap, and highly sensitive tools for in vivo diagnosis and visualization. The ultimate goal is to create fully functional mobile sensors that can be remotely controlled to conduct in vivo, real-time analysis. Research on nanomaterials and nanodevices aims to improve the biocompatibility and mechanical properties of biomaterials used in medicine, so as to create safer implants, substitute damaged cell parts, or stimulate cell growth for tissue engineering and regeneration, to name a few. Work in novel therapeutics and drug delivery systems strives to develop and design nanoparticles and nanostructures that are noninvasive and can target specific diseases, as well as cross biological barriers. Allied with very precise means for diagnosis, these drug delivery systems would enable equally precise site-specific therapeutics and fewer side effects. The area of drug delivery accounts for a large portion of nanomedicines scientific publications.

Finally, the subfield of clinical, regulatory, and toxicological issues lumps together research that examines the field as a whole. Questions of safety and toxicology are prevalent, an issue that is all the more important given that nanomedicine entails introducing newly engineered nanoscale particles, materials, and devices into the human body. Regulatory issues revolve around the management of this newness, with some defending the need for new regulation, and others the ability of systems to deal with it. This subfield should also include other research by social scientists and humanists, namely on the ethics of nanomedicine.

Combined, these subfields build a case for preventive medicine and personalized medicine. Building upon genomics, personalized medicine envisions the possibility of individually tailored diagnostics and therapeutics. Preventive medicine takes this notion further, conjuring the possibility of treating a disease before it manifests itself. If realized, such shifts would have radical impacts on understandings of health, embodiment, and personhood. Questions remain concerning the cost and accessibility of nanomedicine and also about the consequences of diagnostics based on risk propensity or that lack a cure.

medicine

Medicine, the practice concerned with the maintenance of health and the prevention, alleviation, or cure of disease. The

nanotechnology

Nanotechnology, the manipulation and manufacture of materials and devices on the scale of atoms or small groups of atoms. The nanoscale is typically measured in nanometres, or billionths of a metre (nanos, the Greek word for dwarf, being the source of the prefix), and materials built at this scale often

disease

Disease, any harmful deviation from the normal structural or functional state of an organism, generally associated with certain signs and symptoms and differing in nature from physical injury. A diseased organism commonly exhibits signs or symptoms indicative of its abnormal state. Thus, the normal condition of an organism must be

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Nanomedicine | medicine | Britannica

New Approaches in Breast Cancer Therapy Through Green Nanotechnology a | IJN – Dove Medical Press

Menka Khoobchandani, 1, 2 Kavita K Katti, 1, 2 Alice Raphael Karikachery, 1, 2 Velaphi C Thipe, 1, 2 Deepak Srisrimal, 3 Darsha Kumar Dhurvas Mohandoss, 3 Rashmi Dhurvas Darshakumar, 3 Chintamani M Joshi, 3 Kattesh V Katti 1, 2, 4

1Department of Radiology, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65212, USA; 2Institute of Green Nanotechnology, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65212, USA; 3Dhanvantari Nano Ayushadi Pvt Ltd, Chennai 600017, India; 4Department of Physics, Department of Pharmacology, Department of Biological Engineering, University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR), University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65212, USA

Correspondence: Kattesh V KattiDepartment of Radiology, University of Missouri, One Hospital Drive, Columbia, MO 65212 USATel +1 573 882-5656Email KattiK@health.missouri.edu

Purpose: The overarching objective of this investigation was to investigate the intervention of green nanotechnology to transform the ancient holistic Ayurvedic medicine scientifically credible through reproducible formulations and rigorous pre-clinical/clinical evaluations.Methods: We provide, herein, full details: (i) on the discovery and full characterization of gold nanoparticles-based Nano Swarna Bhasma (henceforth referred to as NSB drug); (ii) In vitro anti-tumor properties of NSB drug in breast tumor cells; (iii) pre-clinical therapeutic efficacy studies of NSB drug in breast tumor bearing SCID mice through oral delivery protocols and (iv) first results of clinical translation, from mice to human breast cancer patients, through pilot human clinical trials, conducted according to the Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy (abbreviated as AYUSH) regulatory guidelines of the Government of India in metastatic breast cancer patients.Results: The preclinical in vitro and in vivo investigations, in breast tumor bearing mice, established unequivocally that the NSB Nano-Ayurvedic medicine-gold nanoparticles-based drug is highly effective in controlling the growth of breast tumors in a dose dependent fashion in vivo. These encouraging pre-clinical results prompted us to seek permission from the Indian Governments holistic medicine approval authority, AYUSH, for conducting clinical trials in human patients. Patients treated with the NSB drug capsules along with the standard of care treatment (Arm B) exhibited 100% clinical benefits when compared to patients in the treatment Arm A, thus indicating the tremendous clinical benefits of NSB drug in adjuvant therapy.Conclusion: We have succeeded in clinically translating, from mice to humans, in using proprietary combinations of gold nanoparticles and phytochemicals to develop the Nano-Ayurvedic drug: Nano Swarna Bhasma (NSB), through innovative green nanotechnology, for treating human metastatic breast cancer patients.

Keywords: gold nanoparticles, mangiferin, mango peel, Nano Swarna Bhasma, NSB, triple negative breast tumor, pilot clinical

This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License.By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

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New Approaches in Breast Cancer Therapy Through Green Nanotechnology a | IJN - Dove Medical Press

Most engineered nanoparticles enter tumours through cells not between them, U of T researchers find – News@UofT

University of Toronto researchers have discovered that an active rather than passive process dictates which nanoparticles enter solid tumours, upending decades of thinking in the field of cancer nanomedicine and pointing toward more effective nanotherapies.

The prevailing theory in cancer nanomedicine an approach that enables more targeted therapies than standard chemotherapy has been that nanoparticles mainly diffuse passively into tumours through tiny gaps between cells in the endothelium, which lines the inner wall of blood vessels that support tumour growth.

The researchers previously showed thatless than one per centof nanoparticle-based drugs typically reach their tumour targets. In the current study, they found that among nanoparticles that do penetrate tumours, more than 95 per cent pass through endothelial cells not between gaps among those cells.

Our work challenges long-held dogma in the field and suggests a completely new theory, saysAbdullah Syed, a co-lead author on the study and post-doctoral researcher in the lab ofWarren Chan, a professor at theInstitute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineeringand theDonnelly Centre for Cellular and Biomolecular Research.

We saw many nanoparticles enter the endothelial cells from blood vessels and exit into the tumour in various conditions. Endothelial cells appear to be crucial gatekeepers in the nanoparticle transport process.

The findings were recently published in thejournalNature Materials.

From left to right: U of T researchers Jessica Ngai, Shrey Sindhwani, Abdullah Syed and Benjamin Kingston (photo by Qin Dai)

Syed compares nanoparticles to people trying to get into popular restaurants on a busy night. Some restaurants dont require a reservation, while others have bouncers who check if patrons made reservations, he says. The bouncers are a lot more common than researchers thought, and most places only accept patrons with a reservation.

The researchers established that passive diffusion was not the mechanism of entry with multiple lines of evidence. They took over 400 images of tissue samples from animal modelsand saw few endothelial gaps relative to nanoparticles. They observed the same trend using 3D fluorescent imaging and live-animal imaging.

Similarly, they found few gaps between endothelial cells in samples from human cancer patients.

The group then devised an animal model that completely stopped the transportation of nanoparticles through endothelial cells. This allowed them to isolate the contribution of passive transport via gaps between endothelial cells, which proved to be miniscule.

The researchers posit several active mechanisms by which endothelial cells might transport nanoparticles into tumours, including binding mechanisms, intra-endothelial channels and as-yet undiscovered processes all of which they are investigating.

Meanwhile, the results have major implications for nanoparticle-based therapeutics.

These findings will change the way we think about delivering drugs to tumours using nanoparticles, saysShrey Sindhwani, also a co-lead author on the paper and an MD/PhD student in the Chan lab. A better understanding of the nanoparticle transport phenomenon will help researchers design more effective therapies.

The research included collaborators from U of Ts department of physics in the Faculty of Arts & Science, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory In New York and the University of Ottawa. The study was funded by the Canada Research Chairs Program, Canadian Cancer Society, Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canadaand the Canadian Institutes of Health Research.

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Most engineered nanoparticles enter tumours through cells not between them, U of T researchers find - News@UofT

Controlled phage therapy hints at future alternative to antibiotics – New Atlas

Phages, viruses that thrive by infecting bacteria, have long been mooted as a potential replacement for antibiotics. But where antibiotics pose the problem of the bacteria they target mutating into dangerous resistant strains, phages pose risks due to their own fast-paced evolution, though those risks are poorly understood.

But new research suggests it may be possible to mitigate those risks. Left to nature, particular phages are able to seek out and destroy particular types of bacteria. But here its only the seeking that the researchers are interested in, using the phages to deliver a payload of gold nanorods which, with the help of light, destroy both the target bacteria and their phages at once. If youll forgive the grim analogy, you can think of the phage as the guidance system and the nanorods the warhead of this particular antibacterial guided missile.

What we did was to conjugate the phages to gold nanorods, UC Santa Barbaras Irene Chen explains in a press release. If you thought conjugation was something that happened only to verbs, dont panic: it can also simply mean to join or couple. When these nanorods are photo-excited, they translate the energy from light to heat, and that creates very high local temperatures.

The so-called phanorod combinations of nanorods and phages were added to in-vitro cultures of mammal cells with an added bacteria biofilm. They were then exposed to light in near-infrared wavelengths to cause the all-important photo-excitement. The resulting heat kills both the bacteria and the phage.

In experiments, the phanorods successfully destroyed the potent human pathogens E. coli, P. aeruginosa and V. cholerae. Its important to note that the phanorods also destroyed 20 percent of the mammal cells in the culture, which the research categorizes as a low rate of damage.

This issue of whether it damages mammalian tissues is very important, Chen explains. Work in nanotechnology and nanomedicine treating bacterial infections indicates that when its non-targeted, it really does burden the surrounding tissues.

As well as the unpredictable nature of unchecked phage evolution, there are other issues with their historical use. They can potentially carry toxins, and its hard to gauge the success of the treatment. You might see it completely work or you might see it completely fail, but you dont have the kind of dose response you want, Chen explains. But this new controlled approach to phage therapy could potentially mitigate these issues as well.

The teams research will go on to look at more phages to target more types of bacteria, as well as exploring photothermal methods to treat several bacterial infections at once. However, the work is very much at the research stage, and theres no suggestion of clinical use at this stage.

The teams research was published Monday in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Its free to read online.

Sources: UC Santa Barbara, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

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Controlled phage therapy hints at future alternative to antibiotics - New Atlas

A New Old Therapy – The UCSB Current

The fight against drug-resistant pathogens remains an intense one. While the Centers for Disease Controls (CDC) 2019 biggest threats report reveals an overall decrease in drug-resistant microbe-related deaths as compared to its previous report (2013) the agency also cautions that new forms of drug-resistant pathogens are still emerging.

Meanwhile, the options for treating infections by these germs are diminishing, confirming doctors and scientists worries about the end of the age of antibiotics.

We knew it was going to be a problem early on, said UC Santa Barbara chemistry and biochemistry professor Irene Chen. Basically as soon as penicillin was discovered, a few years later it was reported that there was a resistant organism. Thanks to factors such as horizontal gene transfer and rapid reproduction, organisms such as Gram-negative bacteria are able to evolve faster than we can produce antibiotics to control them.

So Chen and her research group are seeking alternatives to antibiotics, in a growing effort to head off the tide of incurable bacterial infections. In their work, the group has turned to bacteriophages, a naturally occurring group of viruses that colonize on bacteria.

Thats their natural function, really, to grow on and kill bacteria, said Chen, author of a paper that appears in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. By taking advantage of the bacteriophages ability to home in on specific bacteria without damaging the rest of the microbiome, the researchers were able to use a combination of gold nanorods and near-infrared light to destroy even multidrug-resistant bacteria without antibiotics.

Phage therapy isnt new, Chen said. In fact, it has been used in the former Soviet Union and Europe for about a century, though they are seen largely as last-resort alternatives to antibiotics. Among the unresolved issues of phage therapy is the incomplete characterization of the phages biology a biology that could allow for unintended consequences due to the phages own rapid evolution and reproduction, as well as potential toxins the viruses may carry. Another issue is the all-or-nothing aspect of phage therapy, Chen added.

Its difficult to analyze the effect of a phage treatment, she said. You might see it completely work or you might see it completely fail, but you dont have the kind of dose response you want.

To surmount these challenges, the Chen lab developed a method of controlled phage therapy.

What we did was to conjugate the phages to gold nanorods, she explained. These phanorods were applied to bacteria on in-vitro cultures of mammalian cells and then exposed to near-infrared light.

Conjugated to phages,gold nanorods find their target: a bacterial cell wall

Photo Credit: COURTESY IMAGE

When these nanorods are photo-excited, they translate the energy from light to heat, Chen said, and that creates very high local temperatures.

The heat is enough to kill the bacteria, and it also kills the phages, preventing any unwanted further evolutions. The result is a guided missile of targeted phage therapy that also allows for dosage control. The lab found success in destroying E. coli, P. aeruginosa and V. cholerae human pathogens that cause acute symptoms if left unchecked. They also were able to successfully destroy X. campestris, a bacteria that causes rot in plants.

In a collaboration with UC Santa Barbara mechanical engineer Beth Pruitt, the lab determined that while the heat successfully destroyed bacteria and phage, more than 80% of the mammalian cell culture underneath the bacteria biofilm survived.

Bacteria under fire: Green bacteria are alive, while the red ones are dead

Photo Credit: COURTESY IMAGE

This issue of whether it damages mammalian tissues is very important, Chen said. Work in nanotechnology and nanomedicine treating bacterial infections indicates that when its non-targeted, it really does burden the surrounding tissues.

The lab plans to investigate other possible phages to counter other bacteria, possibly engineering a photothermal method that could treat multiple bacterial infections.

Research on this study was conducted also by UCSB postdoctoral fellow Huan Peng (lead author), Raymond E. Borg and Liam P. Dow.

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A New Old Therapy - The UCSB Current

Canterbury father and son’s invention will revolutionise medical treatment – Stuff.co.nz

A typical father and son project might mean restoring a classic car or completing a home renovation, but this Christchurch pair have set their sights a little higher. LEE KENNY reports.

Phil and Anthony Butlerhave utilised cutting-edge technologyused in the hunt for the Higgs Boson to invent the world's first 3-D colour X-ray.

Phil is a professor at University of Canterbury and a Fellow of New Zealand Institute of Physics, while Anthony is a clinical radiologist and a professor at University of Otago.

Together they have created the MARS scanner, which will one day replace many of the functions of the X-ray, positron emission tomography (PET) scans and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

ALDEN WILLIAMS/STUFF

Phil and Anthony Butler work on an arm scanner at MARS' Christchurch laboratory.

READ MORE:* What will be the biggest scientific breakthrough of 2020?* Defence Force medic's bleeding edge invention wins Manawat's Innovate 2019* Where did the curiosity go?

The non-invasive technique will enable doctors to see colour images from inside the body, allowing them to make a more accurate diagnosis when treating everything from a broken bone to heart disease.

Phil, 72, first thought about the concept while he was atCERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) in 2002.

Scientists working on the Large Hadron Collider used high-tech Medipix detectors to track particles and it was theorisedthey could also be used to detect X-ray photons.

Anthony joined CERN in 2005 and it was while the Butlerswere on a family holiday in Croatia that they decided to put the theory to the test.

Supplied

A 3-D image of Phil Butler's wrist taken by the MARS scanner in 2018.

They founded MARS Bioimaging in 2007 and today their 50-strong team consists of physicists, radiologists, mathematicians, biologists, engineers and computer scientists.

The company is part owned by University of Canterbury where it is based and has close ties to Otago Medical School.

Anthony, 44, explains the machine works by shining X-rays through the body and measuring the tissue composition before a computer reconstructs the information into a high-resolution 3-D colour image.

"The underlying process is often called spectral photon counting we measure the X-ray beam one photon at a time, which means we need to have very fast electronics to do this."

He says they have been looking at several medical applications for the scanners, across a range of clinical disciplines.

ALDEN WILLIAMS/STUFF

Professor Phil Butler is the chief executive of MARS Bioimaging but still takes a hands-on role.

"We've been working with orthopedic surgeons looking at fracture healing, cardiologists looking at the causes of heart disease and stroke, cancer specialists looking whether we can look at cell lines and the way they progress and we've looked at infectious diseases.

"That covers a large chunk of medicine and I expect we'll see [the scanners]hit the clinics at different times.

"It's going to be routine within a few years for a lot of point-of-care stuff."

The primary difference between the MARS scanner and other techniques is the level of detailed information it can record.

Anthony says the work is so cutting edge that components had to be built from scratch.

Dean Mouhtaropoulos

The MARS scanner was inspired by technology used at CERN, the World's Largest Particle Physics Laboratory.

"We did computer simulations to work out what we should be doing, then we had to come up with the designs, then manufacture it."

Dipanjan Pan, professor in chemical and biological engineering and radiology at University of Maryland Baltimore County, is an expert in nanomedicine and molecular imaging.

He collaborated with the MARS team for several years and says the3-D scanner has the potential to "dramatically change the ambiguity often found in black and white conventional CT imaging".

"Looking through MARS's proprietary photon counting CT 'magic lenses', you are visualising in colour the future of various biological processes as it merges with the present," he says.

"Their powerful reconstruction technique is astounding."

The technology has a range of uses from security and engineeringto physics and astronomy.

123rf

The traditional 2-D X-ray is good at showing solid objects like bones.

But the Butlers are focused on clinical applications and in July 2018 Phil became the first person to be scanned, with images generated of his wrist and ankle.

The next stage will be clinical trials next year when orthopaedic and rheumatology patients from Christchurch will bescanned.

Phil saysthe breakthrough is comparable to the first X-ray images in 1895 and the first low-resolution Computed Tomography (CT) in 1972.

"It's a major step. We went from 2-D to 3-D, now we're going from black and white to colour.

"The other thing that makes ours different from pretty much any other clinical system is we've got very high-resolution, basically 10 times the resolution of any other comparable technology."

Dr Diana Siew, associate director at MedTech Centre of Research Excellence at Auckland Bioengineering Institute, said the MARS X-ray scanner is a "game changer in medical diagnostics" because "it visualises what is happening in the body in a way that has not been achieved before".

"Different components of the body like fat, calcium, water and disease biomarkers show-up on the X-ray images in different colours, thus allowing a fuller and more accurate picture of a patient's condition," she says.

SUPPLIED

The new MRI scanner at Palmerston North Hospital had to be slotted through a hole in the wall when it was installed in April 2019.

"From a research perspective, this is exciting as it could underpin new understanding of disease onset and progression and be used to determine the efficacy of treatments.

"The MARS technology is a world's first and it is so exciting that it is happening in NZ."

As well as heralding a quantum leap in imaging capability, Anthony says the MARS technology will improve health treatment for Kiwis, as not everywhere has access to PET or MRI scanners.

"About half the people in rural New Zealand don't get appropriate cancer treatment, not because the country can't afford it but because the cancer centres are in large hospitals, the same is true for imaging," he says.

"If you are on the West Coast you cannot get a PET scan, you have to come over to Christchurch.

123RF

MRI scanners can record incredible detail but they are large and not widely available.

"So those access issues, we beat most of them because we use X-rays and they are very easy to have in a local practice, every dentist has got one."

Phil added: "One of the design goals for this system is to make it as easy to operate as a dentist's X-ray".

As well as the high cost of PET and MRI scanners, Anthony says there are other practicalities that make them less accessible.

"MRI requires rooms with big machines, you have to have liquid helium cooling it down, you can't put someone in with a pacemaker, certain vascular clips can't go in there [or] hip replacements," he says.

"With PET you have similar things, you have radioisotopes. In New Zealand we have one cyclotron in Wellington producing radioisotopes and they have to be flown around the country, so if it's a windy day in Wellington, no PET imaging can happen in the country."

Supplied

A 3-D image of Phil Butler's ankle, scanned in 2018.

MARS is operated from a secure area of University of Canterbury and as well as full-time staff, research is carried out by 15 PhD candidates.

Phil is in no doubt that a key component of the project's success is that it's based in Canterbury.

"If you look at the electronics or mechanical engineering skills of Christchurch, we can build anything," he says.

"We've got the skills to do it but the people also know each other, whereas if you go to a big city of several million, they can do it but they can't talk to their allied disciplines.

"That goes back to the farming industries, where people had to build their own machines and those skills of being able to build anything are all part of that."

Anthony agrees.

"If you go to really large research institutes they can be really skilled but they tend to have big silos. In New Zealand we tend not to operate that way.

Don Scott/Stuff

The Butlers, pictured here in 2010, examine coloured Iodine and Barium infused tissue.

"I think we're the sweet-spot in terms of size, where there's enough skill around that there's experts but we're not so big that we can't talk to each other."

Almost 15 years since the father and son team decided to embark on the research, they have made huge advances but there is still work to be done.

"If you look at where we were in 2006 or 2007 we were able to measure four colours but we had to do them one after the other, not simultaneously," Anthony says.

"We scanned the abdomen of a mouse, a pretty small object, and it [took] a day to image it and a month to do all the data reconstruction to get a picture to look at."

Day-to-day, Anthony is the company's chief medical officer and scientific lead.

Phil is the chief executive but, but according to Anthony, he still "does a lot of the technical work".

Working with family members can bring its challenges but Anthony says one of the advantages of partnering with his dad is the "innate trust" they have.

"It's actually a real pleasure," he says.

"I'm quite lucky, I didn't start working with him until I was in my early 30s, which meant I'd done all of my qualifications, established my own life.

"He had done many things himself and been pro-vice chancellor of the university and wanted to get more into practical applications so we founded this project together and that's been really nice.

"You're always going to have problems in any relationship but the fact that it's a family member gives you structure where you can actually work through problems and solve them and know that you're on the same team."

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Canterbury father and son's invention will revolutionise medical treatment - Stuff.co.nz

Rewind 2019: A Look Back at Significant Developments in Indian Science This Year – The Weather Channel

Representational image: A young science enthusiast peering at the sky using a telescope

Chandrayaan-2 may have dominated popular imagination during 2019 despite the Vikram Lander failing to soft-land on the lunar surface, but the year was marked by several significant developments by Indian scientists in fields ranging from nanotechnology to climate change.

The run-up to the lunar mission with planned landing of the lander-cum-rover, the launch campaign, the journey to the lunar orbit and the landing sequence all attracted national and international attention. The year ended in triumph for citizen science when Chennai-based software engineer, Shanmuga Subramanian, discovered debris of Vikram on the lunar surface using publicly available high-resolution images of the landing site. This development comes close to a rise in citizen science initiatives in the country.

Staying with space and astronomy, star of an exoplanet was named after Indian physicist, Bibha Chowdhury. During the year, Indian software engineers got readied software that will run the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT), which is slated to be the worlds largest ground-based telescope operating at optical and infrared wavelengths. Details about TMT and other international Big Science projects in which India is participating were on display in a roving exhibition called Vigyan Samagam which attracted huge crowds.

Climate change: Responding to climate change impacts being seen in the Himalayan region, Indian scientists developed a common framework for assessment of climate change vulnerability in all the states in the region, using an index based on socio-economic factors, demographic and health status, sensitivity of agricultural production, forest-dependent livelihoods, and access to information, services and infrastructure. This knowledge will now be applied to develop a countrywide map of climate vulnerability.

Scientists from the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM) found a link between warming of the Indo-Pacific Ocean and changing rainfall patterns in many parts of the globe, including India. The warming pools of the Indo-Pacific Ocean are expanding, and this, in turn, is altering a major weather phenomenon known as the Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO). The warming of Indo-Pacific Ocean is occurring due to man-made emissions. Another group from the Indian Institute of Science warned that as many as 55 percent of glaciers in the Satluj basin may disappear by 2050. and 97 percent by 2090, under extreme climate change scenario. Using ice thickness of glaciers as the basis, scientists also estimated that glaciers in the Hindu Kush Himalayas might contain 27% less ice than previously suggested.

Eco-friendly technologies: The year saw progress towards development of less polluting crackers, with the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) releasing first set of green crackers. A national centre to pursue R&D in clean coal technologies was also opened in Bangalore. Eight teams of innovators from different parts of the world were selected for an international competition to develop more efficient and climate-friendly cooling solutions for residential buildings. The team will get seed money to translate their ideas into prototypes. The final winner of the Global Climate Prize will be announced in November 2020.

Representational image: Microscopic bacteria

Indian genomic data: In an important development, Delhi-based Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology (IGIB) and Hyderabad-based Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB) completed whole genome sequencing of 1008 Indian individuals representing diverse ethnic groups in the country. The data will act as baseline information for developing various applications in predictive and preventive medicine.

Scientists from CCMB also found underlying genetic factors for infertility among Indian men. This knowledge could help in developing a genetic test for male infertility in near future. As part of genetic studies to trace the origins of population groups in the Indian sub-continent, it had been seen that sizeable population group of Mundas in central and northeast India shares genetic ancestry with Southeast Asian populations as well. A study revealed how and when this admixture between Mundas and Southeast Asian populations took place.

The Department of Biotechnology (DBT) launched a new human atlas initiative called Manav to develop a unified database of molecular network of all the tissues in the human body, and to derive a holistic picture of the working of human body. This mega project will collate and integrate molecular information on human tissues and organs that currently lies hidden in research articles in an unstructured and disorganized form.

Developments in gene editing: Indian scientists developed a new variant of currently popular gene editing tool, CRISPR-Cas9, and showed that it can increase precision in editing genome while avoiding unintended changes in DNA. The researchers showed that this type of gene editing can be used to correct sickle cell anemia, a genetic blood disorder. The experiments were done in human-derived cells from patients of sickle cell anemia, according to findings published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS).

New nano materials: Continuing their work in nano science and technology in 2019, scientists at the Mumbai-based Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) used gold nanoparticles, and by rearranging size and gaps between them, developed a new material with unique properties like capacity to absorb light and carbon dioxide. Gold does not have these properties, and therefore, the new material has been named black gold, dye to its black appearance.

Boosting rice productivity: Scientists at the National Institute of Plant Genome Research (NIPGR) identified a gene involved in regulating the size of rice grain. The new development represents a new approach towards developing rice varieties that produce bigger and consequently heavier grains. Scientists from the Bose Institute came up with a new salt-tolerant transgenic rice plant by over-expressing a gene from a wild rice called Porteresia coarctata into the commonly used IR 64 indica rice variety.

Other important developments during the year included a new plan to establish a museum for marine archaeology at Lothal, a new satellite-based weather information service for deep sea fishers, grand challenge for cancer research to develop affordable cancer diagnostics and treatment, a white paper on e-cigarettes that led to its ban in India, and new initiative to boost malaria research in the country.

(This article was originally published on India Science Wire.)

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Rewind 2019: A Look Back at Significant Developments in Indian Science This Year - The Weather Channel

Electroplating method makes conductive nanostraws for injecting into and sampling from cells – Chemical & Engineering News

Credit: ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces

An array of platinum nanostraws can be used to deliver molecules to cells or sample their contents.

Hollow nanosized needles, or nanostraws, are a promising tool for opening up tiny, temporary holes in cell membranes to deliver molecules or sample a cells contents. Nanostraws could also deliver gene editors into cells for immunotherapy, cutting the need to use costly viruses for the job. But making nanostraws requires expensive manufacturing equipment in a clean room facility, and using nanostraws often requires applying a high voltage in order to open up the cell membrane. Now, researchers have developed a more affordable fabrication approach that can be done in an ordinary lab. Whats more, the new nanostraws are conductive, thus lowering the amount of voltage needed to levels less likely to damage cells (ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2019, DOI: 10.1021/acsami.9b15619).

Researchers made earlier iterations of nanostraws with atomic layer deposition (ALD), which grows thin films of materials such as metal oxides one layer of atoms at a time. In their new approach, Xi Xie of Sun Yat-Sen University and colleagues replaced ALD with electroplating, a simple process which uses an electrical potential to deposit ions in a solution onto a surface.

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They first sputtered a thin layer of gold on the bottom surface of a polycarbonate template containing an array of pores in order to make a conductive base layer. Then they electroplated platinum, gold, or the conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)three common materials used in electrophysiology studiesfrom the top. The materials lined the pores of the template, creating the hollow nanostraws. The team then used mechanical polishing and oxygen plasma etching to remove the polycarbonate template, revealing an array of vertical nanostraws, each a few hundred nanometers in diameter. According to Xie, their method can work with templates of various pore sizes or pore densities, or with other plating materials.

Ciro Chiappini, a nanomedicine researcher at Kings College London, says this study is a needed and significant step toward developing affordable nanostraws.

Using a representative platinum nanostraw array, Xie and colleagues demonstrated that they could deliver a fluorescent dye into cultured human cells and extract intracellular materials to examine how the levels of an enzyme changed over time.

The conductivity of the new nanostraws allowed the researchers to open tiny pores in the cell membrane by applying a voltage of only 35 V, a safer range for cells compared with 1020 V needed when using nonconductive nanostraws.

These straws could make cellular treatments such as CAR-T therapy faster, safer, and cheaper, says Nicholas A. Melosh, a materials scientist at Stanford University who has done nanostraw research. Typical immunotherapy delivers therapy to a patients immune cells using viruses, which is costly and carries the risk of dangerous immune responses once the cells are put back into the patient, he says. Nanostraws could potentially deliver the necessary therapies to cells without the need for viruses.

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Electroplating method makes conductive nanostraws for injecting into and sampling from cells - Chemical & Engineering News

Protein-Protected Metal Nanoclusters That Behave Like Natural Enzymes – Advanced Science News

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Metal nanoclusters, made up of several to one hundred metal atoms (e.g., Au, Ag, Cu, Pt), are a novel class of intermediate between metal atoms and nanoparticles. As their size (<2 nm) borders on the Fermi wavelength of electrons, metal nanoclusters possess strong photoluminescence in comparison with large metal nanoparticles (>2 nm). This, combined with tunable fluorescence emissions, high photostability, good quantum yields and facile synthesis, make them excellent fluorescent labels for biomedical applications.

However, the reduction of metal ions in liquid solution during synthesis usually causes large nanoparticles rather than small metal nanocluster formation because of their tendency to aggregate. In light of this, proteins whose thiol, amino, and carboxyl groups have a strong affinity for metal atoms are typically used to stabilize metal nanoclusters to protect them from aggregationthese proctected clusters are commonly called protein-protected metal nanoclusters.

Protein-protected metal nanoclusters have excellent biocompatibility and have received considerable attention as a luminescent probe in a number of fields such as biosensing, bioimaging, and imaging-guided therapy. However, apart from unique optical properties, protein-protected metal nanoclusters also possess interesting biological properties such as enzyme-like activity similar to that of natural enzymes; until recently, this has been an overlooked quality that is starting to shine in basic research and practical applications.

Nanozymes is a new termed used to refer to nanomaterials with intrinsic enzyme-like activity. Since professor Yan and coworkers first discovered that nanoparticleswhich are traditionally assumed to be inertpossessed intrinsic enzyme-like activity, a substantial amount of work has focused on further developing and harnessing the advantageous properties of nanozymes, which include high catalytic ability, high stability, and low cost. Nowadays, more than 540 kinds of nanomaterials, which possess intrinsic enzymatic activity, have been reported from 350 laboratories in 30 countries and have been used in biological analysis, environmental treatment, as antibacterial agents, cancer therapy, and antioxidation therapy.

In a recent study published in WIREs Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology, Professor Xiyun Yan and Kelong Fan explore the newly developing field of biologically active protein-protected metal nanoclusters, namely those that possess peroxidase, oxidase, and catalase activities, and are consequently used for biological analysis and environmental treatment.

An intriguing example of this is bovine serum albumin-protected gold (Au) nanoclusters, which exhibit peroxidase enzymatic activity to catalyze the oxidation of colored organic substrates, which is currently carried out using natural peroxidases. This method showed an advantage over the natural peroxidase-based methods because bovine serum albumin-protected Au nanoclusters exhibited higher robustness and retained enzymatic activity over a wide range of pH and temperatures. In another example, lysozyme-protected platinum (Pt) nanoclusters exhibit oxidase enzymatic activity which has been applied to the oxidative degradation of pollutants, such as methylene blue in lake water.

The proteins themselves not only provide protection and stabilization during synthesis, but can also provide a myriad of other functions to the nanoclusters. Proteins have been shown to enable in vivo applications because of their enhanced biocompatibility. In fact, a protease-responsive sensor for in vivo disease monitoring was designed by utilizing the peroxidase activity of peptide-protected Au nanoclusters and their ultra-small size dependent tumor accumulation and renal clearance properties.

The sensor was developed using peptides which are the substrates/targets of disease related proteases as protective ligands to synthesis the Au nanoclusters nanozymes, which were then conjugated to a carrier. After reaching the site of disease, the sensor was disassembled in response to the dysregulated protease and the liberated Au nanoclusters were filtered through the kidneys and into urine to produce a rapid and sensitive colorimetric readout of diseases state. By employing different enzymatic substrate as protective ligands for Au nanoclusters, this modular approach could enable the rapid detection of a diverse range of diseases with dysregulated protease activities such as cancer, inflammation, and thrombosis.

These findings have extended the horizon of protein-protected metal nanoclusters properties as well as their application in various fields, says Kelong Fan. Furthermore, in the field of nanozymes, protein-protected metal nanoclusters have emerged as an outstanding new addition. Due to their ultra-small size (<2 nm), they usually have higher catalytic activity, more suitable size for in vivo application, better biocompatibility and photoluminescence in comparison with large size nanozymes. We think that ultra-small nanozymes based on protein-protected MNCs are on the verge of attracting great interest across various disciplines and will stimulate research in the fields of nanotechnology and biology.

Despite the advantages and advancedprogress in the development of protein-protected metal nanoclusters asultra-small nanozymes, there are still some challenges that need to be addressedin future work.

First, most researchers still only rely on bovine serum albumin as both the reducing agent and stabilizer. Since we know that protein-protected metal nanoclusters may retain the bioactivity of the protein ligand, it is necessary to explore methods for synthesizing other new protein-protected metal nanoclusters, which will widen the diagnostic and therapeutic applications of protein-protected metal nanoclusters nanozymes.

Second, there are six types of catalytic reactions in nature: oxidoreductases, transferases, hydrolases, isomerases, ligases, and lyases. Thus far, although many protein-protected metal nanoclusters have demonstrated enzyme activities they all are oxidoreductase-like activities such as peroxidase, oxidase, and catalase. Therefore, there is a ample room to develop other types of nanozymes based on protein-protected metal nanoclusters. In this regard, more understanding of the structures and catalytic mechanisms of protein-protected metal nanoclusters is required in addition to the deeper understanding on natural enzymes themselves.

Third, a considerable number of reports have suggested that ultra-small nanozymes based on protein-protected metal nanoclusters are promising tools for biological analysis. However, little is known about the therapeutic function of these ultra-small clusters in vivo despite their advantages of suitable size and good biocompatibility. It is well known that peroxidase, oxidase, and catalase are main enzymes in biological systems involved in the maintenance of redox homeostasis. Thus, more attention should be paid to the usage of these ultra-small nanozymes based on protein-protected metal nanoclusters as bio-catalysts in various human diseases involved in redox dysregulation such as cancer, inflammation, cardiovascular diseases. It is also possible to employ the products of redox nanozymes to treat other diseases, for example, use the toxic hydroxyl radicals produced by peroxidase nanozymes to treat bacterial infection.

Overall, there is still much room for future research and application of ultra-small nanozymes based on protein-protected metal nanoclusters. It is expected that the enzyme-like activity of protein-protected metal nanoclusters will certainly attract broader interests across various disciplines and stimulate research in the fields of nanotechnology and biology, making these emerging ultra-small nanozymes become novel multifunctional nanomaterials for a number of biomedical applications.

Kindly contributed by the authors.

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Protein-Protected Metal Nanoclusters That Behave Like Natural Enzymes - Advanced Science News

Design and Synthesis of Gold-Gadolinium-Core-Shell Nanoparticles as Co | IJN – Dove Medical Press

Fatima Aouidat,1 Sarah Boumati,2 Memona Khan,1 Frederik Tielens,3 Bich-Thuy Doan,2 Jolanda Spadavecchia1

1CNRS, UMR 7244, CSPBAT, Laboratory of Chemistry, Structures and Properties of Biomaterials And Therapeutic Agents University Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cit, Bobigny, France; 2UTCBS Chimie ParisTech University Paris Descartes - CNRS UMR 8258 INSERM U1022 Equipe Synthesis, Electrochemistry, Imaging and Analytical Systems for Diagnostics SEISAD, Paris, France; 3General Chemistry (ALGC), Vrije University of Brussel (Free University Brussels-VUB), Brussel, Belgium

Correspondence: Jolanda Spadavecchia Email jolanda.spadavecchia@univ-paris13.fr

Introduction: The development of biopolymers for the synthesis of Gd(III) nanoparticles, as therapeutics, could play a key role in nanomedicine. Biocompatible polymers are not only used for complex monovalent biomolecules, but also for the realization of multivalent active targeting materials as diagnostic and/or therapeutic hybrid nanoparticles. In this article, it was reported for the first time, a novel synthesis of Gd(III)biopolymerAu(III) complex, acting as a key ingredient of core-shell gold nanoparticles (Gd(@AuNPs).Material and methods: The physical and chemical evaluation was carried out by spectroscopic analytical techniques (Raman spectroscopy, UV-visible and TEM). The theoretical characterization by DFT (density functional theory) analysis was carried out under specific conditions to investigate the interaction between the Au and the Gd precursors, during the first nucleation step. Magnetic features with relaxivity measurements at 7T were also performed as well as cytotoxicity studies on hepatocyte cell lines for biocompatibility studies. The in vivo detailed dynamic biodistribution studies in mice to characterize the potential applications for biology as MRI contrast agents were then achieved.Results: Physicalchemical evaluation confirms the successful design and reaction supposed. Viabilities of TIB-75 (hepatocytes) cells were evaluated using Alamar blue cytotoxic tests with increasing concentrations of nanoparticles. In vivo biodistribution studies were then accomplished to assess the kinetic behavior of the nanoparticles in mice and characterize their stealthiness property after intravenous injection.Conclusion: We demonstrated that Gd@AuNPs have some advantages to display hepatocytes in the liver. Particularly, these nanoconjugates give a good cellular uptake of several quantities of Gd@NPs into cells, while preserving a T1 contrast inside cells that provide a robust in vivo detection using T1-weighted MR images. These results will strengthen the role of gadolinium as complex to gold in order to tune Gd(@AuNPs) as an innovative diagnostic agent in the field of nanomedicine.

Keywords: Gd-gold complex, theoretical study, MRI, relaxivity, biodistribution

This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License.By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

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Design and Synthesis of Gold-Gadolinium-Core-Shell Nanoparticles as Co | IJN - Dove Medical Press

Biochips Technologies, Companies, Applications & Markets, 2028 – 94 Companies are Included Along with a Listing of 121 Collaborations Between…

DUBLIN--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Dec 3, 2019--

The "Biochips - Technologies, Markets & Companies" report from Jain PharmaBiotech has been added to ResearchAndMarkets.com's offering.

This report is an analysis of biochip/microarray markets based on technologies and applications. The report starts with a description of technologies as a basis for the estimation of markets.

Technologies include array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), copy number variation (CNV), DNA methylation, ChIP-Chip, RNA splice variants, and microRNA. Separate chapters are devoted to protein biochips/microarrays, microfluidics and nanobiotechnology-based nano-arrays.

Various applications of biochips and microarrays are described throughout the report. Areas of application such as point-of-care, genetic screening, cancer, and diagnosis of infections are included. Separate chapters are devoted to applications in drug discovery and development as well as personalized medicine

The report provides current share of each segment: market size in 2018 and projected value for the years 2023 and 2028. Gene expression has the largest share and is an established market. Share of microarray technologies in other areas will grow with the maximum growth in RNA splice variants followed by epigenetics.

The growth in protein microarrays is somewhat less, partly because it is more mature than the other submarkets and has already shown considerable growth in the past. The impact of next generation sequencing on segments of microarray markets is identified. Customer requirements and unmet needs are described. Markets are also analyzed according to geographical areas.

Brief profiles of companies involved in biochip/microarray technologies are provided. Currently selected 94 companies are included along with a listing of 121 collaborations between companies. The text is supplemented by 21 tables, 11 figures and 140 references to literature.

Key Topics Covered:

0. Executive Summary

1. Introduction

Definitions of biochips/microarray

Terms used for biochips

Historical aspects of biochip/microarray technology

Relation of microarrays to other technologies

Applications of biochips/microarrays

Advantages of biochips/microarrays

2. Biochip and Microarray Technologies

Introduction

Nucleic acid amplification and microarrays

PCR on a chip

Fast PCR biochip

Multiplex microarray-enhanced PCR for DNA analysis

Universal DNA microarray combining PCR and ligase detection reaction

NASBA combined with microarray

Rolling circle amplification on microarrays

LiquiChip-RCAT

Multiplexed Molecular Profiling

Genomewide association scans

Whole genome microarrays

GeneChip Human Genome Arrays

Arrayit's H25K

Transposon insertion site profiling chip

Standardizing the microarrays

Optical Mapping

Imaging technologies used for detection in biochips/microarray

Fluorescence and chemiluminescence

MALDI-MS imaging and tissue microarrays

Surface plasmon resonance technology for microarrays

Microarray imaging systems

Vidia Microarray Imaging Systems

GenePix 4100A Microarray Scanner

Tecan LS Reloaded

Microarrays based on detection by physico-chemical methods

Electrical biochips

Photoelectrochemical synthesis of DNA microarrays

Microchip capillary electrophoresis

Strand displacement amplification on a biochip

Biosensor technologies for biochips

DNA-based biosensors

Arrayed Imaging Reflectometry

Digital electronic biosensor chips

Phototransistor biochip biosensor

Applications of biosensor biochips

Biosensors in food safety

Cholesterol biosensor

Glucose biosensors

Biochips and microarrays for cytogenetics

Chromosomal microarrays

Comparative genomic hybridization

Array-based CGH

NimbleGen CGH arrays

Single-cell array CGH

Regulatory requirements for array CGH

Combination of FISH and gene chips

Combination of CGH and SNP microarray platforms

Fish-on-chip

SignatureChip

Tissue microarrays

Pathology tissue-ChIP

Carbohydrate microarrays

RNA profiling

RNA splice variants

RIP-Chip

miRNAs

Microarrays for miRNAs

Microarrays vs qPCR for measuring miRNAs

Quantitative analysis of miRNAs in tissue microarrays by ISH

Exon microarrays

Microarrays & DNA sequencing

Microarray-based emerging DNA sequencing technologies

Exome sequencing for study of human variation

High-throughput array-based resequencing

Sequencing by hybridization

SOLiD-System based ChIP-Sequencing

Next generation sequencing vs microarrays for expression profiling

Microarrays for synthetic biology

Arrayit microarray platform for synthetic biology

Microarray-based gene synthesis

Magnetophoretic array-based cell sorting for further studies

3. Microfluidics-based Biochips and Microarrays

Introduction

Use of technologies from other industries in microfluidics

Digital dispensing

Lab-on-a-chip

Amplification of fluorescence signal from lab-on-a-chip

Use of glass in microfluidics

LabChip

LabCD

Lab-on-a-brain

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Biochips Technologies, Companies, Applications & Markets, 2028 - 94 Companies are Included Along with a Listing of 121 Collaborations Between...

Invicro LLC Joins Accenture’s INTIENT Network to Help Advance Innovation in Drug Discovery and Scientific Research – BioSpace

Dec. 3, 2019 14:48 UTC

BOSTON--(BUSINESS WIRE)-- Today, InvicroLLC, a Konica Minolta Company, has joined Accentures open partner ecosystemthe INTIENT Networkwhich is designed to help solution providers, software vendors and life sciences companies team more effectively to accelerate drug discovery and improve patient outcomes. Invicro is a global provider of imaging biomarkers, core lab services, advanced analytics and software solutions for drug discovery and development.

The INTIENT Network is an integral part of INTIENT Research, Accentures cloud-based informatics suite that is focused on improving productivity, efficiency and innovation in the drug discovery process. Accenture is currently working with a select number of independent software vendors and organizations, including Invicro, to integrate their technology and content into the INTIENT platform.

Through the INTIENT Network, research scientists can access Invicros industry-leading imaging software platforms, iPACS and VivoQuant, that help transform the way translational medicine research is conducted. Invicro joining the network contributes to a robust ecosystemone that offers the most advanced, cloud-based informatics solutions to help accelerate precision medicine studies across all therapeutic areas.

By providing access to Invicros novel software solutions, researchers will easily gain insights from complex biological data at each drug discovery and development phase, stated Mr. Chris Fuller, Vice President of Software for Invicro. The advanced and collaborative capabilities offered by Invicro and Accenture will improve operational efficiencies and help streamline drug discovery efforts by using a data-driven approach.

Invicros capabilities will be available to life sciences companies within a common informatics framework that handles core infrastructure requirements such as data ingestion and cleansing, security and IP management, request management workflow, enterprise search, data governance, and collaboration environments.

Imaging data is enabling some incredible opportunities in early drug discovery, yet there remain challenges around the effective image management, interpretation, and sharing, said Joe Donahue, managing director, Accenture Life Sciences. I look forward to working closely with Invicro to leverage their capabilities to help address these challenges which will, ultimately, lead to better outcomes for patients.

About Invicro Headquartered in Boston, MA, Invicro was founded in 2008 and today has offices, laboratories and clinics around the world, from coast-to-coast within the United States, to Europe and Asia that support leading pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies and top research universities. Invicros multi-disciplinary team provides solutions to help enhance the discovery and development of life-changing drugs across all stages of the drug development pipeline (Phase 0-IV), leveraging all imaging modalities within a broad scope of therapeutic areas, including neurology, oncology, cardiology, and pulmonary. Invicros quantitative biomarker services, advanced analytics tools, and clinical operational services are backed by their industry-leading software informatics platforms, VivoQuant and iPACS.

Invicro is a Konica Minolta company and part of their precision medicine initiative, which aims to accelerate personalized medicine, discover novel therapeutic targets and develop innovative therapeutic technologies for unmet medical needs. Along with their sister company Ambry Genetics, Invicro develops and leverages the latest approaches in quantitative biomarkers including imaging, quantitative pathology and genomics. Visit http://www.invicro.com for more information

About Konica Minolta Konica Minolta, Inc. (Konica Minolta) is a global digital technology company with core strengths in imaging and data analysis, optics, materials, and nano-fabrication. Through innovation, Konica Minolta creates products and digital solutions for the betterment of business and societytoday and for generations to come. Across its Business Technologies, Healthcare, and Industrial-facing businesses, the company aspires to be an Integral Value Provider that applies the full range of its expertise to offer comprehensive solutions to the customers most pressing problems, works with the partners to ensure the solutions are sustainable, anticipates and addresses tomorrows issues, and tailors each solution to meet the unique and specific needs of its valued customers. Leveraging these capabilities, Konica Minolta contributes to productivity improvement and workflow change for its customers and provides leading-edge service solutions in the IoT era. Headquartered in Tokyo and with operations in more than 50 countries, Konica Minolta has more than 43,000 employees serving approximately two million customers in over 150 countries. Konica Minolta is listed on the Tokyo Stock Exchange, (TSE4902). For further information, visit: https://www.konicaminolta.com/.

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Invicro LLC Joins Accenture's INTIENT Network to Help Advance Innovation in Drug Discovery and Scientific Research - BioSpace

Nanoparticle therapy shows promise for treatment of rare cancer – The Brown Daily Herald

This month, a paper published by University researchers Richard Terek and Qian Chen highlighted a potential nanotechnology therapy that targets chondrosarcoma, a rare type of bone cancer. Using nanoparticles, the team effectively delivered therapies directly into tumor cells and observed decreases in tumor volume and prolonged survival in mouse models.

Chondrosarcoma currently has no FDA approved treatments. The complex makeup of these cancer cells makes them uniquely difficult to treat. Specifically, one challenge to (drug) delivery in chondrosarcoma is the negatively charged proteoglycan-rich extracellular matrix that needs to be penetrated to reach the tumor cells, according to the study.

Terek, the chief of musculoskeletal oncology at Rhode Island Hospital, an orthopedic oncology surgeon with the Lifespan Cancer Institute and a professor of orthopedic surgery at Warren Alpert, studies chondrosarcoma and collaborated with Chen, a molecular and nano-medicine researcher, director of the NIH-funded Center of Biomedical Research Excellence in Skeletal Health and Repair at Rhode Island Hospital and a professor of orthopedic research and medical science, on this study. The pair aimed to develop a nanopiece delivery platform capable of penetrating the convoluted chondrosarcoma matrix.

We develop nanomaterial (that) we call nanopieces and we found that it can deliver nucleic acid therapeutics to tissues that normally are very difficult to be penetrated, Chen said.

In addition to getting drugs to the tumor tissue, the researchers also studied the biology of how chondrosarcoma spreads. The other thing is we dont totally understand what drives cancer cells to metastasize. That part of the work involves trying to disentangle which types of pathways have gone awry, Terek said.

The underlying principle of the therapy is that miRNA, short 21-nucleotide sequences, are overexpressed in chondrosarcoma tumor cells. These miRNA end up functioning in a way similar to oncogenes, genes which drive cancer formation, by indirectly affecting other genes in the cancer pathway.

Tereks work over the past decade has culminated in the identification of the cancer-causing, or oncogenic, miRNA involved in chondrosarcoma formation. That process involved microarray analysis of primary human tumor tissues. We used a variety of screening techniques to identify which miRNA were overexpressed in tumors, Terek said.

These detrimental effects of the oncogenic miRNA can be prevented by synthesizing a molecule of the opposite sequence of nucleotides. Once delivered into the cell with the nanoparticles it will counteract and annihilate the overexpressed miRNA Terek said.

Once the target miRNA was identified, the small, opposing sequence of RNA needed to be delivered, a process that is normally very difficult because of the charge and structure of the matrix formed by the tumor. What we do in the lab is formulate this nanomaterial specifically for penetrating into the matrix, Chen said.

The laws kind of break down when you get to these nano levels. At the nano level, these particles somehow get through the cell wall and into the cell, even though the cell wall is classically thought of as this impenetrable structure around the cell, Terek said.

The nanomaterial delivery vehicle is composed of a small molecule, weighing about 400 daltons, which assembles into a nanotube structure that contains RNA. The molecule itself is biomimetic. Its half composed of nucleic bases and half of the molecule is amino acids, so its fused together. Because of that it also has a very low level of cell toxicity, Chen said. The nanoparticle is designed to be comparable to a natural biological structure, enabling the particle to be generally accepted by cells, so it can enter and affect them.

In previous studies, Chens lab has shown successful use of nanoparticle therapy in the treatment of multiple other diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis. Recently, they also received a grant from the National Institutes of Health funding research on the treatment of Alzheimers disease using a similar nanopiece delivery system that can traverse the blood brain barrier.

In further developing this drug therapy, Terek said one possibility is to combine multiple miRNA sequences with these nanoparticles to impact more pathways and get maximal inhibition of tumor spread. This involves both counteracting overexpressed miRNA, and restoring beneficial cancer suppressor miRNAs to combine multiple therapeutics with one dose of the nanoparticles.

Another potential approach is to pair the miRNA therapy with other cancer drug therapies. Since some miRNAs prevent the effective use of typical cancer treatment drugs, this approach can be used to reverse drug resistance, allowing for the use of conventional therapies, like chemotherapy.

In order for nanoparticle therapy development to succeed, investors, pharmaceutical companies, biotech companies and other collaborators need to give time and money to projects like this, Chen said. As far as moving it into the clinic, thats always a big hurdle, Terek said. One intermediate step the team might take is to collaborate with veterinarians allowing them to incorporate their treatment method beyond mouse models.

Brown and Lifespan have helped establish a startup called NanoDe so that we can continue the process, Chen said. Moving forward, the team will continue to work on collaborating with other researchers and developers to advance this drug therapy for chondrosarcoma.

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Nanoparticle therapy shows promise for treatment of rare cancer - The Brown Daily Herald

Nanotherapies for Rheumatoid Arthritis: Advantages, Challenges, and Future Direction – Rheumatology Advisor

Despite recent advances in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis(RA) attributed to biologic medications, only a minority of patients achieve andmaintain disease remission without the need for continuous immunosuppressive therapy.1Complicating the treatment of RA further is the development of tolerance over timeor failure of patients to respond to currently available therapies.1Thus, the development of new treatment strategies for RA remains a priority.

Nanotherapies for RA have received increasing attention in the past decade because they offer several potential advantages compared with conventional systemic therapies.2 Nanocarriers are submicron transport particles designed to deliver the drug at the site of inflammation the synovium thereby maximizing its therapeutic effect and avoiding unwanted systemic adverse effects.1 This targeted drug delivery approach also has the potential to minimize the amount of drug required to control joint inflammation3 and increase local bioavailability by protecting it from degradation in the circulation.1

In essence, nanotechnology enables the redesign of alreadyeffective rheumatologic medications into nanoformulations that may confer greaterspecificity, longer therapeutic effect, and more amenable safety profile.4Nanoencapsulated nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs),5 liposomaland polymeric preparations of glucocorticoids,6 and nanosystems thatdirectly inhibit angiogenesis are just several examples of nanotherapies that havebeen tested in experimental models of inflammatory arthritis.7

Despite the promising findings observed in studies to date, further development and subsequent integration of nanotherapies in the management of RA remains hampered by the lack of efficacy and toxicity studies in humans. In an interview with Rheumatology Advisor, Christine Pham, MD, chief of the Division of Rheumatology at the Washington University School of Medicine in St Louis, discussed the advantages and challenges of applying nanotherapies in RA.

RheumatologyAdvisor: How can nanotechnology be applied in the treatment of RA?

ChristinePham, MD: Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary approach aimed at the deliveryof therapeutic agents using submicron nanocarriers. In RA, the vessels at the siteof inflammation are leaky, allowing passage of these nanocarriers from the circulationto specific target sites in the joint environment.

RheumatologyAdvisor: Which RA drugs are suitable forthis approach?

DrPham: Many conventionalantirheumatic drugs such as methotrexate, glucocorticoids, and NSAIDs have beensuccessfully delivered by nanocarriers to mitigate inflammatory arthritis in experimentalmodels.

RheumatologyAdvisor: Whatare the main advantages of using nanotherapy/nanocarriers, as opposed to systemictherapy, in the treatment of RA?

DrPham: The mainadvantages are selective drug delivery to desired sites of action through passiveor active targeting, which can lead to increased local bioavailability and potentiallycan reduce unwanted off-target side effects. In addition, nanocarriers may increasethe solubility of certain drugs and protect therapeutics against degradation inthe circulation.

RheumatologyAdvisor: Howfar has the medical community gotten in developing (and testing) nanotherapies forRA? Which nanotherapies have shown the most promise?

DrPham: A numberof nanotherapeutics have been developed and tested in animal models of RA. Mosthave shown disease mitigation, however, none has so far made it to the clinic.

RheumatologyAdvisor: Whatneeds to happen before nanotherapies can get fully integrated into clinical practiceand treatment of patients with RA?

DrPham: Insufficientdata regarding long-term toxicity and optimal therapeutic efficacy have hamperedtheir integration into clinical practice. Anticytokine biologics have been verysuccessful, so nanotherapeutics need to show clearly that they have higher efficacyand lower toxicity for pharmaceutical companies to invest in their development forthe clinic.

Rheumatology Advisor: Are any other promising treatment strategies for RA currently under investigation?

DrPham: RNA interference(RNAi) has recently emerged as a specific way to silence gene expression. The invivo delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA), however, remains a significant hurdle,given the short half-life of the molecule in the circulation. We have used a self-assemblingpeptide-based nanosystem that protects the siRNA from degradation when injectedintravenously and which has shown to mitigate experimental RA.8,9 siRNAworks by knocking down NFkappaB p65, asubunit of NF-kappa-B transcription complex which plays acentral role in inflammation in general and in RA in particular. This platform promisesto have real translational potential.

References

1. Pham CTN. Nanotherapeutic approaches for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Nanomed Nanobiotechnol. 2011;3(6):607-619.

2. Dolati S, Sadreddini S, Rostamzadek D, Ahmadi M, Jadidi-Niaragh F, Yousefi M. Utilization of nanoparticle technology in rheumatoid arthritis treatment. Biomed Pharmacother. 2016;80:30-41.

3. Rubinstein I, Weinberg GL. Nanomedicine for chronic non-infectious arthritis: the clinicians perspective. Nanomedicine. 2012;8(Suppl 1):S77-S82.

4. Henderson CS, Madison AC, Shah A. Size matters nanotechnology and therapeutics in rheumatology and immunology. Curr Rheumatol Rev. 2014;10(1):11-21.

5. Srinath P, Chary MG, Vyas SP, Diwan PV. Long-circulating liposomes of indomethacin in arthritic ratsa biodisposition study. Pharm Acta Helv. 2000;74:399-404.

6. Metselaar JM, Wauben MH, Wagenaar-Hilbers JP, Boerman OC, Storm G. Complete remission of experimental arthritis by joint targeting of glucocorticoids with long-circulating liposomes. Arthritis Rheum. 2003;48:2059-2066.

7. Koo OM, Rubinstein I, nyuksel H. Actively targeted low-dose camptothecin as a safe, long-acting, disease-modifying nanomedicine for rheumatoid arthritis. Pharm Res. 2011;28:776-787.

8. Zhou H-F, Yan H, Pan H, et al. Peptide-siRNA nanocomplexes targeting the NF-kB subunit p65 suppress nascent experimental arthritis. J Clin Invest. 2014;124:4363-4374.

9. Rai MF, Pan H, Yan H, Sandell L, Pham C, Wickline SA. Applications of RNA interference in the treatment of arthritis. Transl Res. 2019;214:1-16.

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Nanotherapies for Rheumatoid Arthritis: Advantages, Challenges, and Future Direction - Rheumatology Advisor

At 9.6% CAGR, Healthcare Nanotechnology Market Global Industry to Reach Valuation over 306100 Million USD by 2025 – Markets Gazette 24

Healthcare Nanotechnology Market delivers a succinct analysis on industry size, regional growth and revenue forecasts for the upcoming years. The report further sheds light on significant challenges and latest growth strategies adopted by manufacturers who are a part of the competitive spectrum of this business domain.

In 2018, the global Healthcare Nanotechnology (Nanomedicine) market size was 160800 million US$ and it is expected to reach 306100 million US$ by the end of 2025, with a CAGR of 9.6% during 2019-2025.

The key players covered in this study

Amgen

Teva Pharmaceuticals

Abbott

UCB

Roche

Celgene

Sanofi

Merck & Co

Biogen

Stryker

Gilead Sciences

Pfizer

3M Company

Johnson & Johnson

Smith & Nephew

Leadiant Biosciences

Kyowa Hakko Kirin

Shire

Ipsen

Endo International

Get Sample Copy of this Report@ https://brandessenceresearch.biz/Request/Sample?ResearchPostId=63256&RequestType=Sample

It is defined as the study of controlling, manipulating and creating systems based on their atomic or molecular specifications. As stated by the US National Science and Technology Council, the essence of nanotechnology is the ability to manipulate matters at atomic, molecular and supra-molecular levels for creation of newer structures and devices. Generally, this science deals with structures sized between 1 to 100 nanometer (nm) in at least one dimension and involves in modulation and fabrication of nanomaterials and nanodevices.

Nanotechnology is becoming a crucial driving force behind innovation in medicine and healthcare, with a range of advances including nanoscale therapeutics, biosensors, implantable devices, drug delivery systems, and imaging technologies. The classification of Healthcare Nanotechnology includes Nanomedicine, Nano Medical Devices, Nano Diagnosis and Other product. And the sales proportion of Nanomedicine in 2017 is about 86.5%, and the proportion is in increasing trend from 2013 to 2017.

This report focuses on the global Healthcare Nanotechnology (Nanomedicine) status, future forecast, growth opportunity, key market and key players. The study objectives are to present the Healthcare Nanotechnology (Nanomedicine) development in United States, Europe and China.

Market segment by Type, the product can be split into

Nanomedicine

Nano Medical Devices

Nano Diagnosis

Other

Market segment by Application, split into

Anticancer

CNS Product

Anti-infective

Other

The study objectives of this report are:

To analyze global Healthcare Nanotechnology (Nanomedicine) status, future forecast, growth opportunity, key market and key players.

To present the Healthcare Nanotechnology (Nanomedicine) development in United States, Europe and China.

To strategically profile the key players and comprehensively analyze their development plan and strategies.

To define, describe and forecast the market by product type, market and key regions.

In this study, the years considered to estimate the market size of Healthcare Nanotechnology (Nanomedicine) are as follows:

History Year: 2014-2018

Base Year: 2018

Estimated Year: 2019

Forecast Year 2019 to 2025

For the data information by region, company, type and application, 2018 is considered as the base year. Whenever data information was unavailable for the base year, the prior year has been considered.

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At 9.6% CAGR, Healthcare Nanotechnology Market Global Industry to Reach Valuation over 306100 Million USD by 2025 - Markets Gazette 24

World Pancreatic Cancer Day: increasing awareness and inspiring action – UNSW Newsroom

Pancreatic cancer is an insidious disease itis often diagnosedat an advanced stage, with about 90% of patients dying within five years of diagnosis.New projections suggest pancreatic cancer will be the second leading cause of cancer mortality by 2025.

This World Pancreatic Cancer Day, we are celebrating some of the many UNSWresearchers who are dedicated to changing those statistics. Cancers with poor outcomes like pancreatic cancer are a key focus area in UNSW Medicine's cancer theme.

Associate Professor Phillips is the Head of the Pancreatic Cancer Translational Research Group and Deputy Director of the Adult Cancer Program at the Lowy Cancer Research Centre at UNSW Medicine.

This year, A/Prof Phillips was a key driver in establishing the Pancreatic Cancer Research Hub, which aims to double the survival of patients with pancreatic cancer by 2030.

She says World Pancreatic Cancer Day is a powerful advocacy event to increase community and government awareness of pancreatic cancer.

It is also a time to reflect on the progress we have made in understanding this terrible disease and focus on the next steps to overcome current clinical challenges to ensure our research efforts bridge the gap and, as in other cancers, improve the outcomes for our patients with pancreatic cancer.

I know that we are on the brink of overturning the unacceptable statistics. Uniting researchers with the community who, unlike in other cancers, dont often get to be a strong voice advocating for themselves and Government will ensure Australian researchers continue to make positive change for pancreatic cancer patients globally.

A/Prof Phillips group has developed a novel cutting-edge way to keep pieces of human pancreatic tumours alive in the laboratory for two weeks after surgical resection.

Our capacity to grow human tumour tissue in the laboratory provides a valuable new clinical tool to test how a patients tumour responds to different chemotherapies and has the potential to immediately inform patient treatment options. Our unique tumour model is superior to other models because it is human in origin and it contains the complex tumour environment present in patients.

In 2016 A/Prof Phillips had a major breakthrough, successfully developing a novel nanomedicine a tiny drug delivery vehicle consisting of a state-of-the-art nanoparticle that can package gene therapy to inhibit any tumour-promoting gene in pancreatic cancer.

With the generous support from the Brian O'Neill Pancreatic Cancer Fundraising Dinner held last night the team will be able to perform essential preclinical studies to test the therapeutic potential of their nano-gene therapy in combination with a clinically approved drug. They also plan on using their expertise to improve the bioavailability of the clinically approved drugs using a nanomedicine approach.

Professor Minoti Apte was the first in the world to isolate and characterise pancreatic stellate cells, a cell type that is now known to play a major role in the progression of both chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. Coming up with ways to target these cells to prevent them from doing harm is now a major focus of her teams research.

The group has now shown that interrupting the cross-talk between cancer cells and surrounding cells in the microenvironment by targeting a certain signalling pathway reduces tumour growth and eliminates metastasis in early as well as advanced pre-clinical models of pancreatic cancer.

We have also shown that targeting this pathway reduces the risk of recurrence and progression after surgical resection of pancreatic cancer in a mouse model, and are currently working on possible pathways to take our laboratory findings to the clinic, Professor Apte says.

To me, World Pancreatic Cancer Day is a great opportunity to raise awareness in the community about this deadly cancer, but it is also a day to admire the courage and resilience of patients and their carers. These are the people that spur us researchers on to continue working hard to develop new therapeutic approaches to improve outcomes.

Last year, Professor Apte received the Gastroenterological Society of Australia (GESA) Distinguished Researcher Prize 2018. In 2014 she was awarded the Medal of the Order of Australia (OAM), after being named the NSW Woman of the Year in 2015. She was also the 2016 recipient of the Professor Rob Sutherland AO Make a Difference Award at the NSW Premiers Awards for Outstanding Cancer Research an award that recognises highly successful research that is actively changing cancer treatment and improving patient survival.

Dr Angelica Merlot, who is based at the Childrens Cancer Institute, focuses her research on developing new anti-cancer drugs that target drug resistance and suppress cancer spread.

This year, the cancer researcher has won the 2019 NSW Young Woman of the Year award for her achievements and research into treatments for pancreatic and brain cancer. She also won a 2019 Young Tall Poppy Science Award and the 2019 NSW Early Career Researcher of the Year (Biological Sciences) at the NSW Premiers Prizes for Science & Engineering.

Dr Merlot says today is an important day to raise awareness about one of the world's toughest cancers.

This is crucial as it broadens community knowledge, inspires action and supports further research funding for this cancer. It's also a time to remember those whom we have lost and those currently fighting this disease, she says.

Although we've seen a small improvement in the current survival rate, a lot of progress is still required. Further translational research means that there is a greater likelihood that the survival rates can be increased and the journey and treatment of those affected by the cancer can be improved.

Dr Merlot became focused on cancer research as an undergraduate. Her interest in aggressive cancers, such as pancreatic and brain cancer, was motivated by lack of improvement in survival rates over the past decades, largely due to late diagnosis, a lack of screening programs, low awareness of symptoms and a lack of treatment options.

After moving to UNSW Medicine as a Scientia Fellow in 2018, Dr Merlot focused on understanding the mechanisms by which cancer cells grow and adapt to their environment, why drugs become less effective and the development of nanoparticles to improve drug delivery.

Dr Merlots current projects are investigating part of a human cell called the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The ER is a type of organelle, or subunit within a cell, that has been shown to help cancers grow, spread and develop drug resistance.

Dr Ying Zhu will lead a team of researchers from UNSW to discover much needed early detection methods for pancreatic cancer patients: the UNSW Medicine researcher today received $100,000 grant from the Avner Pancreatic Cancer Foundation. A/Prof Phillips is a co-investigator on this grant.

As current approaches to this research are time and labour intensive, the team will develop an integrated and small device based on nanotechnology for rapid and sensitive exosome analysis. The team will define a set of biomarkers that can differentiate between cancer and non-cancer subjects from cells and plasma carrying early signs of human pancreatic cancer. This novel technology will also be applicable for doctors monitoring the development and customising the treatment of a patients tumour.

Pancreatic cancer is difficult to diagnose in the early stages. Early tumour cant be observed during routine physical exams as the pancreas is deep inside the body. Most patients are diagnosed when the cancer has become very large or has spread to other organs. A method to detect pancreatic cancer early on is urgently needed, Dr Zhu said.

My project team aims to develop a blood test to detect pancreatic cancer in the early stages. The team will target exosomes, which are nanosized fragments released by cancer cells. Exosomes are important for communicating messages and transporting materials between cells. Exosomes have been identified as more accurate and promising biomarkers, or biological clues for pancreatic cancer diagnosis, Dr Zhu continued.

We are pleased to award funding to this innovative project, said Michelle Stewart, CEO of the Avner Pancreatic Cancer Foundation. We are encouraged by the high calibre of the research and believe that investment into projects like these will help us to increase survival for people diagnosed with pancreatic cancer.

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World Pancreatic Cancer Day: increasing awareness and inspiring action - UNSW Newsroom

Bankrupt biopharmas are rare. 2019 has some worried that’s changing. – BioPharma Dive

Editors note: This is part of a series about bankruptcy in the biopharma industry. Click here to see a running list of 2019 biopharma bankruptcies, and click here to see 31 biopharmas at high risk of bankruptcy for 2020.

Six years ago, Bind Therapeutics was flying high, with little idea how hard it would soon crash.

Headed into a public stock offering in 2013, the biotech, founded by top MIT and Harvard researchers, generated buzz with its lofty scientific ambitions. Company executives believed its nanomedicine platform, while only through Phase 1 tests, represented the next advance in cancer therapies.

Those dreams came undone within three years. As its experimental therapies struggled in clinical testing, Bind was punished by the market, and debt repayments forced the company into bankruptcy in 2016.

Bind may be a cautionary story in todays life sciences ecosystem, one that features biotechs going public at earlier stages and with heightened ambitions.

While bankruptcy is a rare outcome for biopharmas, 2019 has bucked that trend with an uptick in Chapter 11 filings. Eleven companies have declared bankruptcy so far this year, compared to an average of four per year during the past decade, according to a review of data tracked by the firm BankruptcyData.

That increase may forewarn of more companies falling to zero, industry experts said in interviews with BioPharma Dive, especially at a time of rising legal and political headwinds for the sector. After a decade of booming growth, the ballooning ranks of newly public biotechs may struggle to withstand market pressures.

I think theres a turning point now, said Andrew Hirsch, the former CEO of Bind, in an interview. I think its not sustainable.

Hirsch highlighted the rising prominence of early-stage platform companies, like Bind, going public in greater numbers and at larger valuations. That can bring steeper downside, he warned.

Things arent always going to work the first time, thats just the rule in this industry. A lot of times, companies are valued for perfection, said Hirsch, now Agios Pharmaceuticals chief financial officer.

If they are lucky and it works, thats great. But if you have a setback because youre doing novel things, the public markets can be a cruel place to be.

Biotech vastly outperformed the broader stock market over the past decade, and a steady inflow of capital supported more companies going public at rich valuations.

But those tides have turned. A leading biotech index has fallen more than 15% since peaking in the summer of last year, while the S&P 500 has ticked up nearly 13% in the same timeframe. The capital required for funding biopharmas ambitions is leaving too, with one Wall Street firm calculating $8.7 billion in net capital outflows this year rivaling a stretch in late 2015 and early 2016.

After years of outperformance, biotech has lagged the market for the past year

Price per share of a leading biotech index (XBI) and the S&P 500 (SPX) from January 2018 to October 2019 (indexed)

The base value of the index is trading value on Jan. 2, 2018.

Nami Sumida/BioPharma Dive

Investor anxiety is rising at a time when more companies are fighting for funding than in past decades. Evercore ISI analyst Josh Schimmer said this year hes noticed a marked shift in investor attitudes.

When they stumble, the markets are more unforgiving than ever, Schimmer said in an interview. They arent given second chances the way they used to be given. That may be a factor that does lead to a higher rate of bankruptcies.

And small biotechs arent the only ones facing elevated bankruptcy risk. The weight of thousands of lawsuits related to opioid marketing has already taken down Purdue Pharma and Insys Therapeutics. Several others, like Teva Pharmaceutical, Mallinckrodt and Amneal, are at risk of joining them.

The legal uncertainty has made these companies perceived as uninvestable, SVB Leerink analyst Ami Fadia said in an interview. Additionally, many of these pharmas are highly leveraged and face issues in generating cash going forward, she added.

Its pretty obvious that some of these companies are at high risk of bankruptcy, said Fadia, who covers several of these drugmakers including Mallinckrodt and Amneal.

To be sure, the effect of opioid liabilities is constrained to a comparatively small set of companies. But heading into an election year with drug pricing as a top issue, worries about capital fleeing the industry and a legal crackdown on opioid makers could be exacerbated by political threats as well.

Industry lobbyists have blasted HR3, the leading Democratic drug pricing proposal, saying it would trigger a nuclear winter by eroding the upside of biopharmas high-risk, high-reward investment premise.

If HR3 becomes law, it is lights out for a lot of very small biotech companies that are pre-revenue and depend on attracting capital, PhRMA CEO Stephen Ubl said at a recent media briefing.

Industry-specific concerns, of course, come against the backdrop of fears of a broader economic slowdown. Financial analysts have flagged recession signals in the U.S., which, if materialized, would further squeeze the industry.

It may be coming, in which capital itself is scarcer for companies, said Bob Eisenbach, a lawyer at Cooley specializing in bankruptcies. And when that happens, it puts pressure even on good companies.

Biopharmas are structured to avoid bankruptcies. Pre-revenue companies typically carry little debt and have little to restructure through a bankruptcy court if their pipeline fizzles.

Privately held biotechs that suffer clinical failures can also avoid bankruptcy by having their financial backers buy them out, saving face for those venture capitalists.

It just disappears into this great maw of the biotech universe, said Kevin Kinsella, a venture capitalist and founder of Avalon Ventures, referring to distressed biotechs in an interview.

Having launched more than 100 biopharmas, including prominent names like Vertex, Neurocrine and Onyx, Kinsella said hes been lucky enough to avoid getting entangled in any bankruptcies.

Someone absolutely failing, shutting the doors and turning off the lights, you dont really see that a lot in our industry, he said.

Drug companies, both young and old, derive value from ideas and hope more than tangible assets or resources. Just last year, early-stage platform companies like Moderna Therapeutics and Rubius Therapeutics went public with multi-billion dollar valuations despite lacking profits and significant clinical data.

But investor attitudes appear to have shifted. Rubius stock, for instance, has dropped more than 70% since its IPO. While up this month, shares in Moderna are 30% off their 52-week high in May.

Speaking generally about platform companies, Binds former CEO said market sentiment has turned.

Investors have lost their appetite for companies going public with preclinical data, Hirsch said.

Youre probably going to see more of these situations going forward, where a company is preclinical, went public and is left on their own and has to raise additional money from the public markets and they flounder.

Yet even floundering biotechs can persist for years, even decades. Long-standing industry veterans like Xoma, Novavax and Geron have survived in as-yet fruitless searches for their first drugs, suffering clinical failures along the way. Despite accumulated deficits exceeding $1 billion, these companies can find the necessary capital to keep chugging along.

Theres always someone else whos willing to bet the next discovery is around the corner, or the next asset, or if we get this clinical trial enrolled and finished, all will be good, Kinsella said. Theres always hope.

Besides selling hope, biopharmas, like all businesses, have practical options to stave off bankruptcy. Restructuring and raising cash are the main focuses, turnaround experts said.

Corporate restructurings typically shrink the business, either by laying off employees, selling assets or killing off R&D projects. Raising capital can include licensing rights to experimental therapies, taking on debt or tapping the public markets for secondary stock offerings.

If those options are exhausted, M&A can be another way out for shareholders. Firms like Deerfield Management, Hercules Capital and Highbridge Capital Management often aid distressed biotechs in such endeavours.

Deerfield, for instance, reached deals to finance R&D costs for Dynavax and helped fund Melinta Therapeutics acquisition of an infectious disease business.

A last resort can be merging with another struggling biotech, or becoming the shell in a reverse merger for another company seeking an easy path to a public listing.

Both happened in just the past few weeks. Foamix Pharmaceuticals and Menlo Therapeutics merged into one dermatology company, while NewLink Genetics was the shell through which Lumos Pharma joined public markets.

These strategies act as moats that insulate a high-risk industry from bankruptcy. In recent years, they have worked tremendously well. Among the 333 biopharmas that have gone public since 2012, just 3% filed for bankruptcy while 6% became reverse merger shells and 10% exited via M&A, according to data tracked by Evercore ISI.

But with 2019 looking shaky for biopharma, some have begun to wonder how markets will respond.

The last few years have featured record levels of capital raising, according to the investment bank Jefferies, which tallied 100 initial public offerings and 270 follow-on raises in 2018 and 2019 that drummed up tens of billions in cash.

At the same time, the number of public small and mid-sized biotechs has doubled in the past decade. There arent just more of these smaller firms; they also are worth more and consume more capital on average. From 2010 to present, these companies have seen their typical market values double, R&D budgets triple and cash burn rates quadruple, Jefferies found.

The annual burn rate for these biotechs, which includes market values from $200 million to $5 billion, has increased from $20 million to $80 million. Jefferies analyst Michael Yee credited that to free-flowing capital, more platform companies and an arms race in oncology.

Biotechs impressive market performance has made that possible. A leading biotech index, for instance, outperformed the S&P 500 by 30% since the market bottomed out in March 2009.

But of late, biotech has struggled, creating a tougher environment to raise cash.

The question is whether this is sustainable if market and macro conditions get tougher and political uncertainty gets more obvious, forcing companies to tighten their belts to ride out 2020, Yee wrote.

2019 has brought an uptick in industry bankruptcy filings

Credit: Data from Bankruptcy Data

Conditions have clearly worsened by some metrics, such as the amount of money invested in healthcare- or biotech-dedicated funds. Data tracked by a Piper Jaffray found $8.7 billion in investment has left such funds in 2019. Ten of the past 12 weeks have registered net capital outflows, a streak a Piper Jaffray analyst called seemingly the new normal.

Billions of dollars flowed out of biotech in 2015 and 2016, too, at a time when many biotech shares were falling and the prospect of a Hillary Clinton presidency had raised investor fears on drug pricing.

Biotech weathered that storm, with few companies entering bankruptcy, and has grown since. Going forward, a critical question will be gauging whether the sector is on a new trajectory or if it will emerge from this period relatively unscathed.

Getting investor attention is harder than ever to begin with, said Evercores Schimmer. For a company that has faltered, even if they are doing the right thing, its a struggle.

Continued here:

Bankrupt biopharmas are rare. 2019 has some worried that's changing. - BioPharma Dive

Healthcare Nanotechnology Market Needs and Demand Analysis 2019 to 2025 – The Chicago Sentinel

The Healthcare Nanotechnology Market report delivers a comprehensive overview of the crucial elements of the market and elements such as drivers, current trends of the past and present times, supervisory scenario & technological growth. The report provides useful insights into a wide range of business aspects such as pillars, features, sales strategies, planning models, in order to be enable readers to gauge market scope more proficiently.

Healthcare Nanotechnology Report is based on exploratory techniques like qualitative and quantitative analysis to uncover and present data on the target market. Efficient sales strategies have been mentioned that would business and multiply customers in record time.

The major manufacturers covered in this report:

Amgen

Teva Pharmaceuticals

Abbott

UCB

Roche

Celgene

Sanofi

Merck & Co

Biogen

Stryker

Gilead Sciences

Pfizer

3M Company

Johnson & Johnson

Smith & Nephew

Leadiant Biosciences

Kyowa Hakko Kirin

Shire

Ipsen

Endo International

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Healthcare Nanotechnology Market Product Type:

Nanomedicine

Nano Medical Devices

Nano Diagnosis

Other

Healthcare Nanotechnology Market Applications:

Anticancer

CNS Product

Anti-infective

Other

Healthcare Nanotechnology Market Report has been studied and presents an actionable idea to key contributors working in it. The report integrates several drivers as well as factors that impede the growth of this market during the forecast to 2019-2025. An extensive qualitative analysis of factors responsible for driving the market growth and future opportunities has been provided in the market overview section.

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This report covers regional analysis including several regions such as North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Middle East & Africa and Latin America. It focuses on the leading and the progressing countries from every region in detail. South East Asia, Japan, China, and India are also predictable to witness vigorous growth in their respective markets for Global Healthcare Nanotechnology Market in the near future, states the research report.

Important Features that are under Offering and Key Highlights of the Reports:

Detailed overview of Healthcare Nanotechnology Market Changing market dynamics of the industry In-depth market segmentation by Type, Application etc. Historical, current and projected market size in terms of volume and value Recent industry trends and developments Competitive landscape of Healthcare Nanotechnology Market Strategies of key players and product offerings Potential and niche segments/regions exhibiting promising growth

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A thorough study of the competitive landscape of the Global Healthcare Nanotechnology Market has been given, presenting insights into the company profiles, financial status, recent developments, mergers and acquisitions, and the SWOT analysis. This research report will give a clear idea to readers about the overall market scenario to further decide on this market project.

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Healthcare Nanotechnology Market Needs and Demand Analysis 2019 to 2025 - The Chicago Sentinel


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