About – The New Jim Crow

The New Jim Crow is a stunning account of the rebirth of a caste-like system in the United States, one that has resulted in millions of African Americans locked behind bars and then relegated to a permanent second-class statusdenied the very rights supposedly won in the Civil Rights Movement. Since its publication in 2010, the book has appeared on theNew York Timesbestseller list for more than a year; been dubbed the secular bible of a new social movement by numerous commentators, including Cornel West;and has led to consciousness-raising efforts in universities, churches, community centers, re-entry centers, and prisons nationwide. The New Jim Crow tells a truth our nation has been reluctant to face.

As the United States celebrates its triumph over race with the election of Barack Obama, the majority of black men in major urban areas are under correctional control or saddled with criminal records for life. Jim Crow laws were wiped off the books decades ago, but today an extraordinary percentage of the African American community is warehoused in prisons or trapped in a parallel social universe, denied basic civil and human rightsincluding the right to vote; the right to serve on juries; and the right to be free of legal discrimination in employment, housing, access to education and public benefits. Today, it is no longer socially permissible to use race explicitly as a justification for discrimination, exclusion, and social contempt. Yet as civil-rights-lawyer-turned-legal-scholar Michelle Alexander demonstrates, it is perfectly legal to discriminate against convicted criminals in nearly all the ways in which it was once legal to discriminate against African Americans. Once labeled a felon, even for a minor drug crime, the old forms of discrimination are suddenly legal again. In her words, we have not ended racial caste in America; we have merely redesigned it.

Alexander shows that, by targeting black men through the War on Drugs and decimating communities of color, the U.S. criminal justice system functions as a contemporary system of racial control, even as it formally adheres to the principle of colorblindness.

The New Jim Crowchallenges the civil rights communityand all of usto place mass incarceration at the forefront of a new movement for racial justice in America.

Click here to read an excerpt from the Introduction.

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About – The New Jim Crow

A Brief History of the Drug War | Drug Policy Alliance

This video from hip hop legend Jay Z and acclaimed artist Molly Crabapple depicts the drug wars devastating impact on the Black community from decades of biased law enforcement.

The video traces the drug war from President Nixon to the draconian Rockefeller Drug Laws to the emerging aboveground marijuana market that is poised to make legal millions for wealthy investors doing the same thing that generations of people of color have been arrested and locked up for. After you watch the video, read on to learn more about the discriminatory history of the war on drugs.

Many currently illegal drugs, such as marijuana, opium, coca, and psychedelics have been used for thousands of years for both medical and spiritual purposes. So why are some drugs legal and other drugs illegal today? It’s not based on any scientific assessment of the relative risks of these drugs but it has everything to do with who is associated with these drugs.

The first anti-opium laws in the 1870s were directed at Chinese immigrants. The first anti-cocaine laws in the early 1900s were directed at black men in the South. The first anti-marijuana laws, in the Midwest and the Southwest in the 1910s and 20s, were directed at Mexican migrants and Mexican Americans. Today, Latino and especially black communities are still subject to wildly disproportionate drug enforcement and sentencing practices.

In the 1960s, as drugs became symbols of youthful rebellion, social upheaval, and political dissent, the government halted scientific research to evaluate their medical safety and efficacy.

In June 1971, President Nixon declared a war on drugs. He dramatically increased the size and presence of federal drug control agencies, and pushed through measures such as mandatory sentencing and no-knock warrants.

A top Nixon aide, John Ehrlichman, later admitted: You want to know what this was really all about. The Nixon campaign in 1968, and the Nixon White House after that, had two enemies: the antiwar left and black people. You understand what Im saying. We knew we couldnt make it illegal to be either against the war or black, but by getting the public to associate the hippies with marijuana and blacks with heroin, and then criminalizing both heavily, we could disrupt those communities. We could arrest their leaders, raid their homes, break up their meetings, and vilify them night after night on the evening news. Did we know we were lying about the drugs? Of course we did.Nixon temporarily placed marijuana in Schedule One, the most restrictive category of drugs, pending review by a commission he appointed led by Republican Pennsylvania Governor Raymond Shafer.

In 1972, the commission unanimously recommended decriminalizing the possession and distribution of marijuana for personal use. Nixon ignored the report and rejected its recommendations.

Between 1973 and 1977, however, eleven states decriminalized marijuana possession. In January 1977, President Jimmy Carter was inaugurated on a campaign platform that included marijuana decriminalization. In October 1977, the Senate Judiciary Committee voted to decriminalize possession of up to an ounce of marijuana for personal use.

Within just a few years, though, the tide had shifted. Proposals to decriminalize marijuana were abandoned as parents became increasingly concerned about high rates of teen marijuana use. Marijuana was ultimately caught up in a broader cultural backlash against the perceived permissiveness of the 1970s.

The presidency of Ronald Reagan marked the start of a long period of skyrocketing rates of incarceration, largely thanks to his unprecedented expansion of the drug war. The number of people behind bars for nonviolent drug law offenses increased from 50,000 in 1980 to over 400,000 by 1997.

Public concern about illicit drug use built throughout the 1980s, largely due to media portrayals of people addicted to the smokeable form of cocaine dubbed crack. Soon after Ronald Reagan took office in 1981, his wife, Nancy Reagan, began a highly-publicized anti-drug campaign, coining the slogan “Just Say No.”

This set the stage for the zero tolerance policies implemented in the mid-to-late 1980s. Los Angeles Police Chief Daryl Gates, who believed that casual drug users should be taken out and shot, founded the DARE drug education program, which was quickly adopted nationwide despite the lack of evidence of its effectiveness. The increasingly harsh drug policies also blocked the expansion of syringe access programs and other harm reduction policies to reduce the rapid spread of HIV/AIDS.

In the late 1980s, a political hysteria about drugs led to the passage of draconian penalties in Congress and state legislatures that rapidly increased the prison population. In 1985, the proportion of Americans polled who saw drug abuse as the nation’s “number one problem” was just 2-6 percent. The figure grew through the remainder of the 1980s until, in September 1989, it reached a remarkable 64 percent one of the most intense fixations by the American public on any issue in polling history. Within less than a year, however, the figure plummeted to less than 10 percent, as the media lost interest. The draconian policies enacted during the hysteria remained, however, and continued to result in escalating levels of arrests and incarceration.

Although Bill Clinton advocated for treatment instead of incarceration during his 1992 presidential campaign, after his first few months in the White House he reverted to the drug war strategies of his Republican predecessors by continuing to escalate the drug war. Notoriously, Clinton rejected a U.S. Sentencing Commission recommendation to eliminate the disparity between crack and powder cocaine sentences.

He also rejected, with the encouragement of drug czar General Barry McCaffrey, Health Secretary Donna Shalalas advice to end the federal ban on funding for syringe access programs. Yet, a month before leaving office, Clinton asserted in a Rolling Stone interview that “we really need a re-examination of our entire policy on imprisonment” of people who use drugs, and said that marijuana use “should be decriminalized.”

At the height of the drug war hysteria in the late 1980s and early 1990s, a movement emerged seeking a new approach to drug policy. In 1987, Arnold Trebach and Kevin Zeese founded the Drug Policy Foundation describing it as the loyal opposition to the war on drugs. Prominent conservatives such as William Buckley and Milton Friedman had long advocated for ending drug prohibition, as had civil libertarians such as longtime ACLU Executive Director Ira Glasser. In the late 1980s they were joined by Baltimore Mayor Kurt Schmoke, Federal Judge Robert Sweet, Princeton professor Ethan Nadelmann, and other activists, scholars and policymakers.

In 1994, Nadelmann founded The Lindesmith Center as the first U.S. project of George Soros Open Society Institute. In 2000, the growing Center merged with the Drug Policy Foundation to create the Drug Policy Alliance.

George W. Bush arrived in the White House as the drug war was running out of steam yet he allocated more money than ever to it. His drug czar, John Walters, zealously focused on marijuana and launched a major campaign to promote student drug testing. While rates of illicit drug use remained constant, overdose fatalities rose rapidly.

The era of George W. Bush also witnessed the rapid escalation of the militarization of domestic drug law enforcement. By the end of Bush’s term, there were about 40,000 paramilitary-style SWAT raids on Americans every year mostly for nonviolent drug law offenses, often misdemeanors. While federal reform mostly stalled under Bush, state-level reforms finally began to slow the growth of the drug war.

Politicians now routinely admit to having used marijuana, and even cocaine, when they were younger. When Michael Bloomberg was questioned during his 2001 mayoral campaign about whether he had ever used marijuana, he said, “You bet I did and I enjoyed it.” Barack Obama also candidly discussed his prior cocaine and marijuana use: “When I was a kid, I inhaled frequently that was the point.”

Public opinion has shifted dramatically in favor of sensible reforms that expand health-based approaches while reducing the role of criminalization in drug policy.

Marijuana reform has gained unprecedented momentum throughout the Americas. Alaska, California, Colorado, Nevada, Oregon, Maine, Massachusetts, Washington State, and Washington D.C. have legalized marijuana for adults. In December 2013, Uruguay became the first country in the world to legally regulate marijuana. In Canada, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau plans legalize marijuana for adults by 2018.

In response to a worsening overdose epidemic, dozens of U.S. states passed laws to increase access to the overdose antidote, naloxone, as well as 911 Good Samaritan laws to encourage people to seek medical help in the event of an overdose.

Yet the assault on American citizens and others continues, with 700,000 people still arrested for marijuana offenses each year and almost 500,000 people still behind bars for nothing more than a drug law violation.

President Obama, despite supporting several successful policy changes such as reducing the crack/powder sentencing disparity, ending the ban on federal funding for syringe access programs, and ending federal interference with state medical marijuana laws did not shift the majority of drug policy funding to a health-based approach.

Now, the new administration is threatening to take us backward toward a 1980s style drug war. President Trump is calling for a wall to keep drugs out of the country, and Attorney General Jeff Sessions has made it clear that he does not support the sovereignty of states to legalize marijuana, and believes good people dont smoke marijuana.

Progress is inevitably slow, and even with an administration hostile to reform there is still unprecedented momentum behind drug policy reform in states and localities across the country. The Drug Policy Alliance and its allies will continue to advocate for health-based reforms such as marijuana legalization, drug decriminalization, safe consumption sites, naloxone access, bail reform, and more.

We look forward to a future where drug policies are shaped by science and compassion rather than political hysteria.

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A Brief History of the Drug War | Drug Policy Alliance

Political crime – Wikipedia

In criminology, a political crime or political offence is an offence involving overt acts or omissions (where there is a duty to act), which prejudice the interests of the state, its government, or the political system. It is to be distinguished from state crime, in which it is the states that break both their own criminal laws or public international law.[1]

States will define as political crimes any behaviour perceived as a threat, real or imagined, to the state’s survival, including both violent and non-violent oppositional crimes. A consequence of such criminalisation may be that a range of human rights, civil rights, and freedoms are curtailed, and conduct which would not normally be considered criminal per se (in other words, that is not antisocial according to those who engage in it) is criminalised at the convenience of the group holding power.

Thus, there may be a question of the morality of a law which simply criminalises ordinary political dissent,[2] even though the majority of those who support the current regime may consider criminalisation of politically motivated behaviour an acceptable response when the offender is driven by more extreme political, ideological, religious or other beliefs,

At one extreme, crimes such as treason, sedition, and terrorism are political because they represent a direct challenge to the government in power. Espionage is usually considered a criminal act.[3] But offenders do not have to aim to overthrow the government or to depose its leaders to be acting in a way perceived as “political”. A state may perceive it threatening if individuals advocate change to the established order, or argue the need for reform of long-established policies, or engage in acts signifying some degree of disloyalty, e.g. by burning the nation’s flag in public. But the scope of such crimes can be rather less direct.

Structural functionist criminologists recognise that states invest their resources in maintaining order through social conformity, i.e. a particular culture is encouraged and maintained through the primary social discourses which may include religious, economic, social, or other less formal concerns. Any interference with the media of communication or the sets of meanings embedded in the communications themselves may be perceived as a threat to the political authority of the state. Hence, whether in hard copy or electronically, if individuals distribute material containing uncensored information which undermines the credibility of state-controlled news media, this may be considered threatening.

Moreover, even an offence against non-governmental institutions, persons, or practices may be deemed political. Violence or even discrimination against an ethnic or racial group, as well trade union strikes or picketing against private employers, can be perceived as a political crime when those in power see such conduct as undermining the political (and economic) stability of the state. In this context, note that the Law Enforcement Code of Conduct passed by the International Association of Chiefs of Police says in part: “The fundamental duties of a police officer include serving the community, safeguarding lives and property, protecting the innocent, keeping the peace and ensuring the rights of all to liberty, equality and justice” (cited in Robinson, 2002). This code requires that police behave in a courteous and fair manner, that they treat all citizens in a respectable and decent manner, and that they never use unnecessary force. When they do, it is argued that this constitutes a crime (e.g. as an assault) and, if it is institutionalised, then over time, the use of unnecessary force become a state crime.

Marxist criminologists argue that most political crime arises from the efforts of the state to reproduce the structures of inequality: racism, sexism, ethnic preference as well as class advantages. Thus, states will protect property rights and reduce the rights of trade unions to represent the interests of the poor. Even war could be grounded in the problems of local capitalists in wealthy countries in the effort to move raw materials, profits and jobs in a globalised political economy, and opposing such a war will be a political crime. Marxists do not dispute that, for a society to function efficiently, social order is necessary. But they consider that, in all societies, one class, usually characterised as the “ruling class”, gains far more than other classes. Marxists agree with functionalists that socialisation plays a crucial role in promoting conformity and order. However, unlike the latter, they are highly critical of the ideas, values and norms of “capitalist ideology”. Modern Marxists point to education and the media as socialising agencies, which delude or “mystify” the working class into conforming to a social order, which works against its real interests. Thus, all controls which directly or indirectly explit the criminal law to control access to the discourses are political crimes.

Miller says that one of the defining characteristics of power in modern history has been the rationalisation and bureaucratisation of law. Legal codification, or at least debates over the merits of legal codification, became an almost global phenomenon in the nineteenth century as state power was centralised. In particular, the rationalisation of criminal law standardised not just the concept of crime, but was adopted as the means to eliminate the “deviant” as a threat to a modern, uniform, moral standard. In this, the religious establishment began to play a new role in defining “evil” in which threats to the political or social norm became as dangerous as threats to religious orthodoxy. Thus, political speech became one of the most likely activities to be criminalised. The freedom of association and to meet may also be criminalised if the purpose is to express oppositional political views.

Because a political offender may be fighting against a tyrannical government, treaties have usually specified that a person cannot be extradited for a political offense. Thomas Jefferson wrote:[4]

People convicted or suspected of certain crimes classified as terrorism by the government of their country (or some foreign countries) reject that classification. They consider that their fight is a legitimate one using legitimate means, and thus their crimes should be more appropriately called political crimes and justify special treatment in the penal system (as if they were soldiers in a war and therefore covered by the Geneva Convention). States tend to consider the political nature of the crimes an aggravating factor in the sentencing process and make no distinction between the terrorists and “ordinary” offenders, e.g. the convicted murderers of Action Directe consider themselves political prisoners.

Where there is no clear separation between the state and the prevailing religion, the edicts of the church may be codified as law and enforced by the secular policing and judicial authorities. This is a highly functionalist mechanism for enforcing conformity in all aspects of cultural life and the use of the label “crime” adds an extra layer of stigma to those convicted.

See more here:

Political crime – Wikipedia

Environmental Crimes – UNICRI

Environmental crimes

UNICRI considers environmental crime, including its links with other forms of crime, a serious and growing danger for development, global stability and international security.

Since 1991, UNICRI has contributed to combating crimes against the environment and related emerging threats through applied research, awareness and capacity-building initiatives. UNICRI has built a strong international network of experts and practitioners from major international organization, law enforcement agencies, NGOs and academic entities active in the field.

Environmental crimes encompass a broad list of illicit activities, including illegal trade in wildlife; smuggling of ozone-depleting substances (ODS); illicit trade of hazardous waste; illegal, unregulated, and unreported fishing; and illegal logging and trade in timber. On one side, environmental crimes are increasingly affecting the quality of air, water and soil, threatening the survival of species and causing uncontrollable disasters. On the other, environmental crimes also impose a security and safety threat to a large number of people and have a significant negative impact on development and the rule of law. Despite these issues, environmental crimes often fail to prompt the appropriate governmental response. Often perceived as victimless and incidental crimes, environmental crimes frequently rank low on the law enforcement priority list, and are commonly punished with administrative sanctions, themselves often unclear and low.

The involvement of organized criminal groups acting across borders is one of many factors that have favoured the considerable expansion of environmental crimes in recent years. Led by vast financial gains and facilitated by a low risk of detection and scarce conviction rates, criminal networks and organized criminal groups are becoming increasingly interested in such illicit transnational activities. These phenomena fuel corruption and money-laundering, and undermine the rule of law, ultimately affecting the public twice: first, by putting at risk citizens health and safety; and second, by diverting resources that would otherwise be allocated to services other than criminal activities.

The level of organization needed for these crimes indicates a link with other serious offences, including theft, fraud, corruption, drugs and human trafficking, counterfeiting, firearms smuggling, and money laundering, several of which have been substantiated by investigations. Therefore, environmental crimes represent today an emerging form of transnational organized crime requiring more in-depth analysis and better-coordinated responses at national, regional and international levels.

The first research projects conducted by UNICRI addressed the issue of environmental law, and in particular explored the limits and potentials of applying criminal law in crimes related to environment. In June 1998, UNICRI organised in Rome a seminar on international environmental conventions and the administration of criminal law. Since then, the Institute has focused on the involvement of organized criminal groups in environmental crime.

To increase awareness of the threat of environmental crime, UNICRI contributed to the organization of the conference entitled Illicit trafficking in waste: a global emergency (Rome, December 2011), with the participation of the Ministry of the Environment of Italy, parliamentarians, international partners such as the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL), and many stakeholders involved in countering trafficking in and dumping of toxic waste. To enhance understanding of the dynamics of environmental crime, the Institute implemented a research and data collection project focused on the dumping of illegal waste and hazardous materials, including e-waste, and the involvement of organized crime.

In partnership with several research institutes, civil society organizations, and municipalities, UNICRI has launched a process for consultation at the international level on the involvement of organized crime in environmental crime, with a view to identify a set of recommendations for more effective policies and actions at the national, regional and international levels. To that end, the Institute, in partnership with the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), has organized an international conference in Italy on 29 and 30 October 2012 (see dedicated section).

UNICRI has implemented several international and regional applied-research projects related to the illegal trade and trafficking goods having an adverse impact on the environment, including e-waste, illicit pesticides and precious metals (see dedicated sections).

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Environmental Crimes – UNICRI

Buy The Best Nootropics Online Today at Nootropics Depot

Nootropics Depot features an extensive range of dietary supplements and nootropic compounds. Nootropics Depot offers the best nootropics and natural extracts from industry leading manufacturers including Nammex, Verdure Sciences, Embria Health Science, and Ixoreal Biomed.

We provide a variety of dietary supplements and nootropic compounds in both capsule and powder forms, allowing you to develop the best nootropic stack.

From common cholinergics to whole fruiting body medicinal mushroom extracts and fish oil supplements, Nootropics Depot provides a wide range of dietary supplements and nootropic compounds. Sort our product selection by use such as nootropics, amino acid supplements, mushroom extract supplements, or increasingly popular ayurvedic supplements.

When you buy from Nootropics Depot, you can trust that you are getting a quality product that has undergone extensive testing for both purity and identity. Nootropics Depot routinely conducts in-house and third-party lab testing to ensure product authenticity and efficacy.


See the latest updates to our nootropics blog below to begin exploring the vast world of nootropics and dietary supplements.

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THE NOOTROPIC SYNERGY OF CAFFEINE AND L-THEANINEOne of the most popular natural nootropic stacks is a simple combination of L-theanine and caffeine…

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Nootropics Expert | The Authority on Nootropic Supplements

Hi David,So Im relatively new to Nootropics. I have done extensive reading on your website, but had a specific help question. Below is a brief summary of my medicated world of mental health:

Last year, a psychiatrist diagnosed me with Anxiety induced ADHD. (Which explained a lot of my academic struggles, feelings of self-worth, etc.)

She started out by prescribing me a Sustained Release (generic version of) Wellbutrin. (150mg) This helped considerably with my feelings of fatigue and lethargy, but didnt do very much in terms of motivation/focus/desire to study or get work done. (I am both a teacher and a student) She had also prescribed some sort of non-addictive anti-anxiety medication which made me feel ill (so I discontinued use within just a few days.)

I like to think Im very aware of both my body and my mind Ive practiced yoga for close to ten years now. I try to eat healthfully, and I try to practice self-care as much as possible.

About 7 months ago, though my doctor added Adderall (combination dosage 20mg XR & 20 mg IR) to my regimen p/day. That, and a new hormonal birth control, has really thrown my life off kilter.

At first, Adderall helped with getting all my work done! Staying focused, on-task, memory, etc. But more recently, I have experienced increased irritability and strong fits of anger(paired with a seemingly greater tolerance to Adderall? It seems to last for a shorter time.)

I have been trying to track how these emotional reactions relate to the time of the month, but is increasingly difficult to track the timing of my mood swings. (My partner has also noticed a change in my behavior.)

I try to take breaks from Adderall, but I find it quite difficult with an increased workload as of late. The days I do take breaks, I get by with combination Caffeine/L-Theanine.

Research into Nootropics, though, gives me hope that there is a better solution for my struggles.

What would you recommend? Ive looked at your suggestions for ADHD and Anxiety (separately), I was just wondering if there was something youd suggest based on my current RX. (I would like to taper off of prescription drugs, ideally. Perhaps come summer time, when I experience a true break, I will be able to relax more with a decreased work schedule

My current idea for a stack includes: Vitamin B-complex, L-theanine, L-tyrosine, Magnesium. Perhaps a cycled 5HTP? (for when PMS is nearly debilitating)

Anyways, if youve read this far, I sincerely appreciate it! Thank you in advance for your consideration.

All the best,M.

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Nootropics Expert | The Authority on Nootropic Supplements

What are "Nootropics"? – Smart Drug Smarts

Nootropics is an umbrella term for a class of chemicals some naturally-occurring, some manmade that give cognitive benefits to the human brain.

To get really technical, in order to be a nootropic, a substance must meet five criteria set by Dr. Corneliu E. Giurgea, the man who coined the term nootropic. The substance must

This is a pretty hefty list of requirements for any chemical. In fact, anything that meets this full definition, could equally well be called a miracle drug, not just a nootropic.

However, normally when you hear the term nootropickicked around, people really mean a cognitive enhancer something thatdoesbenefit thinking in some way (improved memory, faster speed-of-processing, increased concentration, or a combination of these, etc.), but might not meet the more rigorous definition above. Smart drugs is another largely-interchangeable term.

With this looser definition, discussions about nootropics can range from innocuous everyday substances like caffeine and Omega-3 fatty acids to regulated (and deservedly so) substances like Adderall.

For a more visual definition of nootropics, check out our infographic What Are Nootropics?

Category: General

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What are "Nootropics"? – Smart Drug Smarts

Best Nootropics 2019 (Updated from 2018) Nootropics Expert

Ask a group of neurohackers which are the best nootropics and youll get a symphony of opinions. But when you drill down to what people are taking every day you start to see a pattern.

Experienced biohackers working on cognitive enhancement find its easier to focus their brain hacking goals into a few well-defined categories. Then look for the best nootropic to address each one.

One thing we learn quickly in the biohacking community is that there is no one-pill solution to cognitive optimization. We soon find that it takes a stack of several supplements to get to where we want to go.

And our list looks something like this

Best Nootropics for

Recommended nootropics

Cognition, Decision-Making, Focus, Flow, & Thinking

Acetyl-L-Carnitine, Aniracetam, CDP-Choline, Lions Mane, NALT, Noopept, B-Complex

Learning & Memory

Aniracetam, Bacopa Monnieri, CDP-Choline, DHA, L-Theanine, Noopept, Phosphatidylserine, Pine Bark Extract

Anxiety & Depression

Aniracetam, CDP-Choline, Bacopa Monnieri, Rhodiola Rosea, Sulbutiamine, B-Complex, Lithium Orotate

Energy & Motivation

Acetyl-L-Carnitine, Alpha Lipoic Acid, CDP-Choline, Rhodiola, CoQ10, PQQ

Brain Repair & Maintenance

Acetyl-L-Carnitine, Aniracetam, CDP-Choline, DHA, Phosphatidylserine, Noopept, Vinpocetine, Rhodiola Rosea, Pine Bark Extract, Lithium Orotate

I have my favorite nootropics after 12-years of trial and error. And chances are that what works for me may work well for you too. The nootropics Im talking about here are part of the stack I use every day.

Youll notice in the categories above that some nootropics work in multiple areas of cognitive enhancement. The obvious benefit is fewer nootropics in a well-rounded stack.

And once you dive into the neuroscience behind each nootropic, youll find synergy on how many of these compounds work together. This extends to smaller doses of each for a bigger benefit.

Brain optimization comes with a lot of experimenting to find what works best. Trying different compounds, keeping a log of what works and how well, and a considerable investment.

Naturally, Im on the lookout for how to save money without cutting corners. So once Ive narrowed my stack choices, the search begins for a quality pre-made nootropic stack that will save me buying individual packs, tubs of powder or capsules.

Fortunately, I found the best pre-made nootropic stack in late 2015 which covered the bulk of the nootropics Id selected for my stack. Its called Mind Lab Pro.

Ill talk more about Mind Lab Pro in a few minutes and how it ties into my brain hacking goals.

The company that makes MLP just recently introduced a new line of supplements called Performance Lab. Offering even more options for brain optimization. More on that later as well.

Before I get into detail on how my stack works, here are what many neurohackers consider the best nootropics available today.

For a more detailed dive into how to build the best nootropic stack, check my other posts:

Beginners Guide to Nootropic Stacks

How to Create the Best Nootropic Stack

Here well do a quick review on building a great nootropic stack.

The more we learn about some of nootropics that have been used for thousands of years for cognitive enhancement. The more we realize these natural compounds are often as good as or better than modern prescription medications.

As you gain experience, youll also come to realize that some pre-made nootropic stacks simply dont make sense. Amounts are well below therapeutic doses to expect any reasonable kind of benefit.

And understand that no one is a master of the science and art of nootropics. Dont believe anything I have to say. Find out for yourself if something is true. And change course when you need to if you want to achieve your neurohacking goals.

Next, well take a closer look at each of the nootropics I recommend and use every day.

Each of the nootropics covered below contain links through to a complete and thorough report. When you click through to each individual nootropic supplement review youll find more detail on what it is, why we use it as a nootropic, how it feels, mechanism of action in the brain, side effects, forms available and recommended doses.

Youll also notice in the table above and each nootropic listed below some are marked with an asterisk (*). This means it is part of the Mind Lab Pro formula of two capsules per day.

Each of these nootropics are generally regarded as safe and non-toxic at recommended doses. Your mileage may vary. How you respond to each of these compounds depends on a host of variables including:

So please click through to each nootropic and read the side effects, prescription drug interactions and any other notes or warnings. But in general, these are among the safest cognitive enhancers we know of.

Read more about Nootropics Safety and Side Effects

ALCAR helps transport of fatty acids into mitochondria where theyre needed for energy metabolism.[i] Fueling your cells power plants can boost physical and mental energy.

ALCAR is a necessary ingredient for acetylcholine formation.[ii] Which boosts memory, mental alertness, and fluid thought.

The antioxidant properties of Acetyl-L-Carnitine provide neuroprotective qualities, boosts Brain-Derived Nerve Growth Factor (BDNF) and promotes cerebral blood circulation.

Aniracetam is one of the best nootropics available today. Its well-known among experienced nootropics users for reducing anxiety, depression, fear and improving sociability.[iii] But it does so much more.

Aniracetam enhances your brains ability to repair damaged cell membranes. It desensitizes glutamate (AMPA) receptors in your brain.[iv] Which boosts neural signaling by increasing the effectiveness of glutamate. Resulting in better focus and concentration.

Aniracetam also improves memory and recall by releasing 200 300% more acetylcholine in the brain.[v] Which increases focus, and clarity of thought.

Bacopa Monnieri is one of the best nootropics for studying. Researchers at Banaras Hindu University in India showed Bacopa as effective for anxiety as the benzodiazepine drug lorazepam. Unlike benzodiazepines, Bacopa did not cause memory loss. But in fact, it boosted cognition.[vi]

Another study done in Portland Oregon demonstrated that 300 mg of Bacopa per day for 12 weeks:

A valuable addition to any great nootropic stack, CDP-Choline is a multitasker which improves cognition and brain function, improves focus and motivation, and reduces fatigue.

CDP-Choline aids in the synthesis of acetylcholine, and the release of dopamine.[viii] Both neurotransmitters involved in learning and memory.

CDP-Choline also helps in the repair of brain cell membranes. The cytidine in CDP-Choline converts to uridine in your body. And works as a bridge between choline and neuron membrane synthesis. Uridine is needed to synthesize phosphatidylcholine (PC) which is needed to repair damaged neuron membranes.[ix]

Choline is so vital to cognition and nerve function that without it, we couldnt move, think, sleep or remember anything. And one the best ways to provide your brain and body with the choline it needs is supplementing with CDP-Choline.

DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) is an omega-3 fatty acid. DHA is crucial for the healthy structure and function of your brain. Your brain is made up of 60% fat. And much of that fat is DHA.

DHA can turn on brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF). Improving neuroplasticity leading to better learning and memory. And DHA acts as an anti-inflammatory by reducing the enzyme COX-2.

If you suffer from chronic depression, within a few weeks of adding DHA to your nootropic stack, you should feel the depression lift. Your cognition will be better. Youll think clearer and quicker. Your memory and ability to learn will improve. And youll likely have more energy and motivation.

But it is very likely you wont think to attribute these improvements to adding DHA to your stack. Something else will get the credit.

Lions Mane Mushroom is an ancient Chinese remedy for improving cognitive performance, and overall health.

In our modern world, Lions Mane makes it into some of the best nootropic stacks. Why?

Because Lions Mane stimulates enzyme production that releases Nerve Growth Factor (NGF).[x] It stimulates the repair and creation of neurons (neurogenesis). Boosting neurotransmitters and signaling that effects memory, learning, recall, and mood. And Lions Mane helps eliminate brain fog. Restoring memory and mental alertness. And lowers anxiety and depression symptoms.[xi]

Lions Mane is a great compliment to any nootropic stack including Aniracetam, CDP-Choline and DHA (Omega-3s) for an immediate cognitive boost.

Lithium is an alkali mineral considered essential for human reproductive health, and general health and wellness. Microdosing lithium using Lithium Orotate has become one of the best additions Ive made to my nootropic stack in years.

Lithium calms you by decreasing sensitivity of post-synaptic norepinephrine receptors.[xii] Preventing the release of this neurotransmitter for fast stabilization of mood and reducing aggression.

Lithium upregulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), neurotrophin-3 (NT3) and their receptors. And lithium stimulates the proliferation of stem cells in the brain. All boosting neurogenesis and assisting in repair from all types of brain injury.[xiii]

Lithium increases brain gray matter, increases DNA replication for neurogenesis, prevents apoptosis, increases N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), inhibits beta-amyloid secretion and protects against damage once its formed, chelates aluminum, and protects against glutamate toxicity.

Lithium provides a calming effect in healthy people as well as those dealing with depression, bipolar disorder and mania.

Adequate levels of lithium have been shown to reduce suicide risk in multiple studies worldwide.

Some say Lithium Orotate works better than any prescription that theyve ever tried to treat severe depression.

Lithium Orotate could be one of the most effective and least expensive additions to your nootropic stack this year. Highly recommended.

N-Acetyl L-Tyrosine produces the catecholamine-triad of neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine. As your dopamine levels increase, youre better able to concentrate, organize your thoughts, and stay productive.

NALT can be an effective treatment for ADHD symptoms. NALT works in synergy with pharmaceutical drugs like Ritalin and Adderall by boosting extracellular levels of dopamine. Helping these drugs be more effective. And mitigating side effects like crashes when the stimulant wears off.

N-Acetyl L-Tyrosine also improves memory and cognition under acute stress.[xiv] It helps improve decision making, flow state and creativity, cognitive flexibility, and working memory.

NALT is a great addition to any nootropic stack, especially if youre dealing with ADHD or ADD.

For more tips on how to deal with ADHD and ADD symptoms, see my post:Best Nootropics for ADHD/ADD

Noopept is a peptide-derived nootropic related to the racetam-family of nootropics. Much more potent than piracetam (up to 1,000X), its mechanism of action in your brain is similar to other racetams.

Noopept seems to stimulate dopamine, nicotinic, and serotonin receptors. It boosts cognition, memory, retention, logical thinking, improves reflexes, and improves mood.

Noopept has also been shown to increase Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and Nerve Growth Factor (NGF). Both critically important for memory formation and brain repair.[xv]

And we have clinical evidence that Noopept boosts Alpha and Beta brain wave activity.[xvi] You become calmer and more creative. Its easier to go into flow. And you are more prone to making innovative and resourceful decisions.

For more tips on supporting flow, see my post:

How to Hack Your Flow State with Nootropics

Phosphatidylserine is one of the best nootropics because:

Phosphatidylserine (PS) is arguably one of the most effective and important nootropics we have available today. It has a reputation for improving alertness, attention, cognition, memory, recall and mood.[xvii]

Pine Bark Extract is one of the best nootropics around but relatively unknown to the nootropic community. Its a naturally derived standardized extract of French maritime pine bark.

Pine Bark Extract helps prevent decreases in dopamine, norepinephrine, and the glutathione (GSH) and GSH-disulphide reductase (GSSG-R) ratio. Neurotransmitter problems which contribute to hyperactivity in ADHD.[xviii]

Pine Bark Extract helps boost blood flow to and within your brain.[xix] By increasing nitric oxide (NO) which helps dilate blood vessels. And helping repair and maintain the health of the lining of blood vessels. Crucial to overall brain health, maintaining signaling pathways and leading to improved learning and memory.

And Pine Bark Extract prevents accumulation of oxidatively damaged proteins. And may reduce the risk of diseases like Parkinsons, Alzheimers, and Huntingtons.

In Russia, Rhodiola Rosea is widely used as a remedy for fatigue, poor concentration, and decreased memory. Its also believed to make workers more productive.

As one of the best nootropics around, this adaptogen helps reduce stress and fatigue, increase energy, alertness and stamina, while boosting mental performance under periods of chronic stress.

Research shows Rhodiola Rosea can increase attention to detail-oriented tasks by improving concentration over a prolonged period. Making it one of the best nootropics for studying.

Rhodiola Rosea boosts mood by influencing serotonin and norepinephrine levels in your brain, and the feel-good opioids like beta-endorphins. It also helps in neurogenesis by repairing and growing new neurons. As well as activating the synthesis and re-synthesis of ATP, your body and brain cells main energy source.

One more reason to add Rhodiola Rosea to your nootropic stack it helps reduce the inflammatory C-reactive protein. And salidroside, one of many components of this incredible herb, protects neurons from oxidative stress-induced cell death.

Sulbutiamine is one of the best nootropics in my stack. Its a synthetic derivative of Vitamin B1 (thiamine). Two Vitamin B1 molecules joined together helps thiamine more easily cross the blood-brain barrier.

Sulbutiamine is directly involved in the citric acid cycle that provides adenosine triphosphate (ATP) energy for your mitochondria. It has been shown to improve glutamatergic, cholinergic, and dopaminergic neurological transmissions. It may also increase the density of D1 dopamine receptors.[xx]

Sulbutiamine also contributes to the production of the enzyme PDH which is essential in making the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.

I love this nootropic because it boosts cognition, memory, decision-making, improves athletic performance, reduces chronic fatigue[xxi] and erectile dysfunction,[xxii] and is one of the best antidepressants Ive ever used.[xxiii]

L-Theanine is an amino acid which naturally occurs in green and oolong tea. Many consider it the best nootropic when combined with caffeine for the synergistic effect of lowering blood pressure, rejuvenate and relax, boost thinking ability, improve focus and change your mood.

This amazing amino acid:

Most neurohackers report a calming effect within 30 45 minutes of taking L-Theanine. Cognition gets a boost, and energy levels rise without the jitteriness caused by stimulants like caffeine.

Some report L-Theanine has stopped their anxiety and panic attacks. (Just dont combine it with anti-anxiety meds like Xanax).

Continue reading here:

Best Nootropics 2019 (Updated from 2018) Nootropics Expert

Nootropic | Definition of Nootropic by Merriam-Webster

Recent Examples on the Web. Try Uplift Coffee, the first bottled coffee made with the revolutionary Warm Brewing process and infused with a patented melange of brain-enhancing nootropics! Christopher Mims, WSJ, “Why Youre Buying Products From Companies Youve Never Heard Of,” 4 Oct. 2018 Will nootropics combat it one day, or will some of these experiments end badly?

See the rest here:

Nootropic | Definition of Nootropic by Merriam-Webster

What are Nootropics? – Neurohacker Collective

Nootropics. You might have heard of them. The limitless pill that keeps Billionaires rich. The smart drugs that students are taking to help boost their hyperfocus. The cognitive enhancers that give corporate executives an advantage. All very exciting. But as always, the media are way behind the curve. Yes, for the past few decades, cognitive enhancers were largely sketchy substances that people used to grasp at a short term edge at the expense of their health and well being. But the days of taking prescription pills to pull an all-nighter are so 2010. The better, safer path isnt with these stimulants but with nootropics. Nootropics consist of dietary supplements and substances which enhance your cognition, in particular when it comes to motivation, creativity, memory, and other executive functions. They play an important role in supporting memory and promoting optimal brain function.

These days, nootropics are beginning to take their rightful place as a particularly powerful tool in the Neurohackers toolbox. After all, biochemistry is deeply foundational to neural function. Whether you are trying to fix the damage that is done to your nervous system by a stressful and toxic environment or support and enhance your neural functioning, getting the chemistry right is table-stakes. And we are starting to get good at getting it right. Whats changed?

A big part is that we are finally starting to apply complex systems science to psycho-neuro-pharmacology and a nootropic approach. The neural system is awesomely complex and old-fashioned reductionist science has a really hard time with complexity. Big companies spends hundreds of millions of dollars trying to separate the effects of just a single molecule from placebo and nootropics invariably show up as stacks of many different ingredients (ours, Qualia , currently has 42 separate synergistic nootropics ingredients from alpha GPC to bacopa monnieri and L-theanine). That kind of complex, multi pathway input requires a different methodology to understand well that goes beyond simply whats put in capsules.

But, thanks to the efforts of a number of remarkable scientists, researchers and plain-old neurohackers, we are beginning to put together a whole systems model of how all the different parts of the human brain work together and how they mesh with the complex regulatory structures of the body. Its going to take a lot more data and collaboration to dial this model in, but already we are empowered to design stacks that can meaningfully deliver on the promise of nootropics to enhance the quality of subjective experience and promote cognitive health, while having extremely low toxicity and possessing very few side effects. Its a type of brain hacking that is intended to produce noticeable cognitive benefits.

Before taking any supplement or chemical, people want to know if there will be long term effects or consequences, When Dr. Corneliu Giurgea first authored the term nootropics in 1972, he also outlined the characteristics that define nootropics. Besides the ability to benefit memory and support the cognitive processes, Dr. Giurgea believed that nootropics should be safe and non-toxic.

While some people focus on finding a short-term boost, nootropics emphasize long-term effects with noticeable cognitive support over a more extended period. Even though nootropics are intended to be safe, there are a few issues users want addressed before taking these supplements.

Many nootropics promote cognitive functioning as well as cognitive performance. Dr. Giurega also saw improved memory and reduced stress in many patients as well.

The first concern users have is with developing a tolerance to the nootropic. Developing a tolerance means the more you have of a substance, the less effective it gets over time.

Second, users are concerned with the possibility of withdrawal if they stop taking the nootropics. They worry that if they stop taking nootropics they wont be as smart as when they were taking nootropics, and will need to continue taking them to function. Some users report feeling a slight brain fog when discontinuing nootropics, but that isnt a sign of regression.

One of the most common strategies to beat this is cycling. Users who cycle their nootropics take them for a predetermined period, (usually around five days) before taking a two-day break from using them. Once the two days are up, they resume the cycle. By taking a break, nootropic users reduce the tolerance for nootropics and lessen the risk of regression and tolerance symptoms.

With so many different ones to choose from, choosing the best nootropics for you can be overwhelming at times. As usual, a decision this important will require research. Study up on the top nootropics which catch your eye the most. The nootropics you take will depend on what you want the enhancement for. The ingredients within each nootropic determine its specific function. For example, some nootropics contain ginkgo biloba, which can help memory, thinking speed, and increase attention span. Check the nootropic ingredients as you determine what end results you want to see. Some nootropics supplements can increase brain chemicals such as dopamine and serotonin. An increase in dopamine levels can be very useful for memory, alertness, reward and more. Many healthy adults, as well as college students take nootropics. This really supports the central nervous system and the brain.

Another factor to consider is whether the nootropic is natural or synthetic. Natural nootropics generally have effects which are a bit more subtle, while synthetic nootropics can have more pronounced effects. Its also important to note that there are natural and synthetic nootropics. Some natural nootropics include Ginkgo biloba and ginseng. One benefit to using natural nootropics is they boost brain function and support brain health. They do this by increasing blood flow and oxygen delivery to the arteries and veins in the brain. Moreover, some nootropics contain Rhodiola rosea, panxax ginseng, and more.

Some nootropics are more commonly used than others. These include nutrients like Alpha GPC, huperzine A, L-Theanine, bacopa monnieri, and vinpocetine. Other types of nootropics ware still gaining traction. With all that in mind, to claim there is a best nootropic for everyone would be the wrong approach since every person is unique and looking for different benefits.

Even the best of todays nootropics only just barely scratch the surface. You might say that we are in the Nokia 1100 phase of taking nootropics, and as better tools and more data come along, the leading thinkers in the space see a powerful future. For example, they are already beginning to look past biochemistry to the epigenome. Not only is the epigenome the code that runs much of your native biochemistry, we now know that experiences in life can be recorded in your epigenome and then passed onto future generations. There is every reason to believe that you are currently running epigenetic code that you inherited from your great-grandmothers life experiences. And there is every reason to believe that the epigenome can be hacked that the nootropics of the future can not only support and enhance our biochemistry, but can permanently change the epigenetic code that drives that biochemistry and that we pass onto our children. This is why many healthy individuals use nootropics. They have great benefits and can promote brain function and reduce oxidative stress. They can also improve sleep quality.

Well dive into the cognition – enhancing possibilities in future posts such as brain plasticity and more, but for now, here are just a few resources to get you started in exploring this domain of neurohacking:

Steven Fowkes – quora – facebook – google+ – youtube – linkedin

* Organic chemist who co-wrote the foundational book on Smart Drugs

* Founded the Cognitive Enhancement Research Institute

* Founded Project Wellbeing

* Related interests: Nutrition, Neurohacking/ Biohacking, Human Performance, Nano-tech

David Pearce – @webmasterdave – facebook* Wrote the online bible of nootropics at nootropics.com* Founder of The Hedonistic Imperative, a project outlining how bioengineering and nanotechnology will abolish suffering in all sentient life* The Hedonistic Imperative Facebook public group* The Abolitionist Project* Related Interests: Philosophy of mind, Ethics, Transhumanism, AI

Joe Cohen – @Selfhacked* Authors the blog SelfHacked* Embodies much of the neurohacker ethos; taking responsibility for his health & wellbeing and upgrading his experience through research and self-experimentation

Longecity: Brain Health – @imminst – facebook

* Forum for discussing nootropic stacks and mental health

Reddit Forum Groups – Forum for discussing nootropics and cognitive enhancers

* r/Nootropics/ – @CognitvEnhancer , @Smart_Drugs, @Nootropix

* r/CognitiveEnhancement/

* r/DrugNerds – @DrugNerds


* Forum for discussing brain nootropics and psychedelics


* An independent encyclopedia on supplementation and nutrition.


* Citations for biomedical literature


* Independent testing of health and nutrition products

Educational Blogs & WebsitesNootriment* Research-backed content & reviews of effectiveness of supplementsSmarter Nootropics

Self Tracking Apps & Brain Training ProgramsCambridge Brain SciencesTrackMyStackStackDB.netNootDBDual N-BackQuantified Mind

Vendors / SuppliersCeretropic


Read the original post:

What are Nootropics? – Neurohacker Collective

What are Nootropics? | Braintropic

Nootropics are supplements, drugs, or functional foods, that enhance cognitive functions such as intelligence, memory, creativity, and attention.

Nootropics have seen an influx of interest over the last several years as people search for ways to maximize their brains potential.

The word itself, coined by the Romanian psychologist and chemist Dr. Corneliu E. Giurgea who synthesized the first nootropic piracetam over 50 years ago, is a combination of the Greek words nous (mind) and trepein (to bend or turn).

According to Dr. Giurgeas definition, nootropics:

Piracetam, the first nootropic created, is still widely regarded as one of the best nootropics available, particularly a good choice for first-time users.

However, since piracetam was first synthesized, several more nootropics have been created meaning that today we now have a whole array of options to choose from.

While nootropics are not a miracle drugs that will turn an ordinary person into a genius overnight, research suggests that some nootropics are able to augment the power of the human brain, especially its capacity for memory and ability to learn, essentially making people smarter.

Nootropics are not a substitute for a healthy lifestyle. You still need to work hard when learning. However, nootropics may provide an edge that allows your brain to function at its best.

Nootropics are also regarded for their ability to contribute to the brains overall long-term well-being. Billions of neurotransmitters and receptors control the brain and all of its functions and modulating their behavior can result in improved brain function.

In addition to providing enhanced learning ability, the improved responses of neurotransmitters mean greater resistance to the normal cognitive decline that comes with aging as well as to cognitive disorders such as amnesia and dementia.

Some nootropics work by increasing the supply of oxygen-rich blood to the brain or by increasing the brains acetylcholine levels, the neurotransmitter that is largely responsible for the brains memory, learning, and mood functions.

Other nootropics, such as Lions Mane can even stimulate the production of Nerve Growth Factor wherein protein synthesis results in the growth of brain cells, particularly in the cells dendrites that make the communication of impulses possible throughout the central nervous system. Dendritic growth means faster communication, which in turn translates into improved learning and memory. It must be noted that some nootropics must be taken for days or weeks for its beneficial effects to kick in.

There are others, such as Noopept or phenylpiracetam, that have immediate effects.

With so many options out there, its important to do your research and find the right nootropic for your needs.

Nootropics are generally categorized into three main groups: racetams, stimulants, and nutraceuticals. Each nootropic group has a specific set of functions that contribute to preserving and improving the brains capability and health.

It is possible also possible to combine different nootropics, known as stacking, resulting in a powerful synergistic effect where the individual components of the stack produce an effect greater than the sum of their individual effects.

If youre a student facing difficulty in exams, a working professional looking for that extra edge, and an older person that wants to continue enjoying the mental agility of a young mind, nootropics may be the answer youre looking for.

Planning to start a new supplementation regimen? See our medical disclaimer.

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What are Nootropics? | Braintropic

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Nootroo 5.0 The Gold Standard in Nootropics

Nootroo 5.0 – The Gold Standard in Nootropics – Nootroo

Nootropics have been shown to enhance the learning ability of healthy adults.

The brain is more able to process and recall verbalized words if nootropics were administered prior.

Increase Memory Formation

Memory formation is facilitated by the presence of nootropics in the brain.

Greater Interconnectivity

The amount of information passing between hemispheres of the brain is significantly increased by nootropics

Enhance Learning & Memory

Improve learning acquistion and enhance resistance to learning impairments from casues such as lack of oxygen (hypoxia), electroconvulsive shock (ECS), and chemicals that tend to prevent memory formation (scopolamine).

Facilitate Interhemispheric Transfer & Synchronization

Facilitate the transfer of information from one hemisphere to the other, across the corpus callosum which increases synchronization between the hemispheres.

Non-Stimulant & Non-Sedative

Work by increasing the integration of higher-level (telencephalic) activity. On over 30 classical pharmacological tests, the original nootropic shows no activity, including as neither a central nervous stimulant nor a sedative.

Enhance Cerebral Resistance

Increase the brain’s ability to resist aggressions and increase recovery time after loss of oxygen, physical trauma, and many chemical intoxications.

StrengthenControl of SubcorticalProcesses

While not acting on directly the central nervous system, nootropics are still able to modulate cortical tonic control, as seen in central nystagmus and spinal fixiation.

Non-Toxic & Low-to-No Side Effects

Must work in harmony with the brain, being virtually free of side-effects and non-toxic even in high doses. Nootropics must not be habit-forming or cause withdrawal.

The nootropic concept had to be developed because a molecule was discovered that had properties unilke anything before it. This molecule, now known as Piracetam, was able to enhance learning and memory while being protective of the brain, and had little to no side effects.

Piracetam was the prototype for the nootropic concept and forms the greatest body of evidence on the efficacy of nootropics. The Nootroo Gold and Silver Formulas are based off of this research and include next-generation, more advanced versions of piracetam each stacked synergystically with citicoline (Cognizin).

The term nootropics is derived from the Greek words for mind and towards and means towards the mind. Nootropics are molecules that have a selective activity upon the higher-integrative mechanisms of the brain. They act directly on the parts of the brain where information is brought together on the highest level and as such are able to positively enhance the processes related to learning, speech, and memory acquisition, consolidation, and recall. To be considered a nootropic, these properties of enhanced activity must occur while also being protective of the brain and while having little to no side-effects.

In 1964, scientists in Belgium were working to develop a sleep-aid. The scientists modified the naturally occurring neurotransmitter GABA, but what resulted instead of a sleep-aid, was something much more profound, a molecule that would come to be known as piracetam. As they probed the properties of the molecule, it became increasingly clear that it was so unqiue, that an entirely new category would be required to describe it, and so in 1972, Cornlieu Giurgea proposed the nootropic concept.

Nootroo Gold & Silver is our premium nootropic stack based on the continued research into nootropics over the last 50 years. The Gold and Silver Formulas each have a different main, next-generation nootropic paired with the precursor for the memory neurotransmitter. The Gold Formula contains Noopept and Citicoline (Cognizin) and the Silver Formula contains Phenylpiracetam and Citicoline (Cognizin). Each bottle contains 30 total pills, with 15 of the Gold Formula and 15 of the Silver Formula and can be distinguished by their non-artifically colored capsules. We are now shipping our 5.0 version of Nootroo Gold & Silver Formulas.

The combination of the ingredients in both the Gold & Silver Formulas are considered to besynergistic stacks. Research shows that the underlying mechanism of the combination has a profound effect on memory enhancement. Citicoline administration alone in healthy adults alone increases the levels of the main neurotransmitter responsible for memory formation, acetylcholine in the outside areas of the brain. When combined with piracetam-like nootropics, the increased acetylcholine is brought into the hippocampus where it is more fully utilized by the brain. The combined effects of nootropics+choline are greater than either alone.

Founded in 2014, Nootroo is dedicated to creating the highest quality nootropic stacks available. Our tagline is The Gold Standard in Nootropics because of our commitment to using only the highest possible quality ingredients. In fact, that tagline (and our gold branding) comes from the fact that we used to use actual 23.5k gold flakes in our Gold Formula and 100% pure silver flakes in our Silver Formula to distinguish betwen them, before we manufactured our custom, non-artifically colored capsules. Our commitment to quality goes beyond aesthethics though, as we are commited to making sure everything else in the capsules is pure as possible. We carry out 3rd-party lab testing on all of our ingredients with a spec of 99% purity and A+ ratings, and we license the purest form of citicoline, a patented bioidentical form from Japan called Cognizin. Our capsules also contain no binding agents, fillers, excipients or anything besides the high-purity ingredients listed. With Nootroo you can be confident knowing that we never cut corners and that you always have the best nootropics available.

Understanding the Original Nootropic: Piracetam

Piracetam was shown to significantly increase the memory of healthy college students in less than 14 days of daily use on a word recall test. Nootropic effects generally increase over time and this study concluded that nootropics are “capable of extending the intellectual functions of man.”

Healthy adults had a 15% increase in the number of words recalled on a test of verbal recall. Words heard by the left ear had to cross the corpus callosum in order to reach the verbal processing region on the other side of the brain in order to be verbalized.

Piracetam is not a stimulant and does not work by directly affecting the central nervous system as caffeine or an amphetamine does. Piracetam shows no activity on over 30 different tests and has demonstrated little to no side-effects, including no toxicity, even in extremely high doses.

Next-Generation Nootropics

While piracetam is an amazing molecule, its accidental discovery meant that it wasn’t invented with a directed focus on cognitive enhancement or neuroprotection. Fortunately, in the intervening decades since piracetam’s discovery, research labs around the world set out to make improved versions with additional benefits and they succeeded beyond their expectations. Two of the best versions created were noopept and phenylpiracetam.

Noopept is a di-peptide version of piracetam that has very high bioavailability and demonstrated anxiolytic properties. Phenylpiracetam was created by adding a “phenyl” group to piracetam which gives it increased bioavailability and some psychomotor activity.

The circles below show where the piracetam structure is within these new molecules. Taking these advanced forms of piracetam and adding a bio-identical form of the body’s preferred choline source is how you get the Nootroo Gold & Silver Formulas.

Discounted For Subscription15 Gold Formula & 15 Silver FormulaUnlimited Protocol AccessNever Run Out of Supply1-Click Unsubscribe

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Noopept is a di-peptide version of piracetam specifically developed to be more powerful and absorbable from oral administration. The researchers from the lab that created it, specialized in creating peptide versions of other molecules, and created hundreds of modified versions of piracetam before selecting Noopept because it is was highly absorbed and “demonstrated a wide spectrum of cognition improving effects.” This molecule has been demonstrated to have both positive short-term and long-term effects at enhancing memory and mental processing, especially in older populations.

In adults with (a) cognitive decline and (b) post-concussional syndrome, Noopept was shown to have an even more powerful and consistent effect compared to piracetam.

Noopept significantly increased the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the brain. BDNF levels control the quantity of new neurons created by the brain.

Noopept has been shown to increase the firing rate of pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus. These neurons are implicated in memory formation and recall.

CDP-Choline, as will be discussed more in depth down below, is the bodys preferred precursor for the memory neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Supplementation of acetylcholine alone will increase acetylcholine production in the brain. Nootropics alone will increase the bodys use of acetylcholinein the process of forming memory. So when combined, the power of this increased supply to meet the brains increased neurochemical demands, has been shown to have profound effects compared to either alone.

Phenylpiracetam is a version of piracetam with an added phenyl group designed to increase processing speed and provide mental endurance. This added group increases piracetam’s affinity for the receptors that control psychomotor activity (where movement and thinking are combined), while not not being a central nervous stimulant. Phenylpiraceatam has been shown to significantly speed up processing and endurance, even in single doses. It was utilized by the Russian space program for use by cosmonauts on extended missions.

Phenylpiracetam was shown to increase the amount of distance covered in exploratory trials. This correlates to an increase in mental activation and endurance.

Phenylpiracetam was shown in this study to regulate the brain waves against aggression in an epilepsy model. Autonomic normalization is a property that helps ensure consistent brain activity against things that would tend to disrupt it.

Phenylpiracetam has also been shown to prevent a memory blocking agent, scopolamine, from blocking memory formation. This is a powerful indicator of the effect of phenylpiracetam on memory formation.

One way phenylpiracetam works,is by activating and enhancing the activity of the cholinergicsystem in the brain. The cholinergic system modulates memory and learning and in order for it to operate optimally, it needs the molecule acetylcholine to be at certain levels in synapses. CDP-Choline is the precursor for acetylcholine, and by adding it to the body, the brain will increase its choline levels. By increasing the amount of choline available, the brain will then utilize more of it and in doing so, will enhance the firing mechanisms of this system. This allows phenylpiracetam to have an optimized cholinergic system to interact with.

CiticolineIn Gold & Silver Formulas:

CDP-Choline, also known as citicoline, is a precursor for the memory neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Supplementation has been shown to increase acetylcholine production in the brain. Citicoline administration has also been shown to increase brain bioenergetics by increasing energy reserves and utilization of energy.. Studies in healthy adult women show that taking Cognizin citicoline significantly improved their verbal memory after just 28 days. Studies suggest that citicoline also can help increase dopamine receptor densities , which is the neurotransmitter associated with motivation. We license Cognizin, a patented form of Citicoline, that is the only pure, free-base form of citicoline that is bioidentical to the form found in nature.

Healthy adult women taking CDP-Choline have been shown to have an improvement in memory and focus after 28 days.

The levels of the energy carrier molecule (ATP) were increased by 13.6% by CDP Choline and cell membrane turnover was increased by more than 25%.

CDP-Choline alone in adolescent males for 28 days was shown to significantly increase psychomotor speed and improve attention compared to placebo.

CDP-Choline is an essential nutrient that is crucial in the brains processes of memory formation, attention and learning, yet most people are deficient in it. CDP-Choline is typically obtained by the body from food and supplies choline for the brain to make the neurotransmitter acetylcholine as well as neuronal cell membranes. That is why simply adding it to the body results in a >25% increase in cell membrane formation as well as >10% increase in cellular energy (ATP) levels. The recommendations for adults is between 450-550 mg per day, both Nootroo Gold & Silver have approximately 500 mg of the purest form of CDP-Choline available, Cognizin branded CDP-Choline. It is made in an enzymatic process in a bioreactor that takes 6 months and is imported from Japan. This patented-form of CDP-Choline is the only form that is bioidentical to the form found in nature, in a free-base and not a salt.

Meditation is a key element to enhancing your brains ability to focus and stay on task. Mindfulness meditation can change your brain in as little at 8 weeks. We will provide resources to help you learn and sustain a meditation practice.

Exercise is crucial for optimizing brain health, metabolism and neuroplasticity. The Nootroo Protocol will teach you the most effective and efficient exercises for the brain from both the physical and mental realms.

Nootroo Gold & Silver have you covered in this category, but we will also share with you additional tips, tricks, nutrients, and supplements that can help you get the most out of your nootropics (and brain).

Sleep is crucial to memory formation, consolidation, and general brain health. We will teach you techniques to help you sleep better, increase neurotransmitter synthesis, wake up feeling more refreshed and even how to fall asleep more easily.

Diet is a key regulator of energy and how you feel. We will teach you dietary tricks to optimize your bodys metabolism so that your brain can receive more energy and utilize that energy more effectively.

The Nootroo Protocol has been designed to bring together all of the most important aspects for optimal performance and health. As a subscriber, you will receive continued access to our knowledge-base as well as a step-by-step tips and information to aid you in achieving optimal performance.

Its not like every tech worker in Silicon Valley is taking nootropics to get ahead, Burke acknowledges. Its the few who are getting ahead who are using supplements to do that… These days, he buys his stack from Nootroo, a San Francisco company.

“Tweaking brains with smart drugs to get ahead in Silicon Valley”

Nootropics are a broad category of cognitive-enhancing supplements that include a range of compounds to improve memory, focus and mood…Matzner said he wants to get these things out to as many smart people as possible so people could get smarter and make the world better.

‘Nootropics gain momentum as ‘smart pills

Were talking about…a new type of biology where were taking these things into our own hands but also to try and proactively go from baseline to above, said Matzner.

A real-life ‘Limitless’ pill? Silicon Valley entrepreneurs pursue brain hacking with nootropics, or ‘smart drugs’

Nootropics are trending right now in Silicon Valley. A crop of new companies are selling these so-called productivity pills to “biohackers” looking to get an edge in work and life…A company based in San Francisco called Nootroo sells two pills — one gold, one silver…

Nootropics, Biohacking and Silicon Valley’s Pursuit of Productivity

“Eric takes nootropics…a mix of compounds…that claim to improve cognitive function, increase alertness and strengthen memory and recall.”

Billion Dollar Deals and How They Changed Your World | Health

[Nootroos] pills come in gold and silver formulas, which are to be taken on alternating days. Over time, theyre intended to enhance focus, memory, and cognitive function.

Nightline News dropped by to see what all the hype over nootropics is about. They interviewed a Nootroo customer to find the secret to her work hard play hard lifestyle.

The BBC came to check out what is going on in Silicon Valley with those choosing to enhance their biology and push forward science, to see if they just might end up pushing forward the world.

NPR wanted some tips on how biohacker and Nootroo founder, Eric Matzner, starts his day, so he showed them a basic adaption of the Nootroo Protocol.

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Humanity will not wait millions of years until Mother Nature will hand it a functionally better brain…[Humankind] will directly, openly and consciously take part in evolution.

In the early 1960s, scientists were working to develop a form of the neurotransmitter GABA, that would be able to cross the blood-brain barrier and potentially work as a sleep aid..

While they succeeded in developing a molecule with the ability to enter the brain, they failed at creating a sleep aid. What they discovered instead, however, was a molecule that would later prove to be much more profound.

Like a sculptor removing parts of the stone to reveal the beauty within, Corneliu Giurgea, the lead scientist at the lab, and his team would work diligently to chip away at the unknowns of piracetam, to reveal the properties within it.

After 9 years of research, Giurgea had determined that this molecule (piracetam) acted in such a unique way on the higher-level, integrative activities of the brain, that in order to classify it, the creation of an entirely new classification was required: ” the nootropic approach to integrative activity of the mind.”

On over 30 pharmacological tests, Piracetam was found to have no activity, including being neither a sedative nor a stimulant. It also had no toxicity and few side effects, even when given in extremely high doses, such as grams per kilogram of body weight, to mice, rats, cats, dogs, and monkeys with single or multiple doses, even over long-term administration.

In fact, because of those properties, piracetam seemed to be inactive. Had it not been for a test on nystagmus (involuntary eye movements), where they found it immediately active, piracetam likely would have been passed over. This discovery was especially intriguing to the researchers because all of the then-known agents active against nystagmus were either antihistamines or anticholinergics.

It was clear that piracetam did not fit into either of those classes, so the researchers set out to understand which class it did fit into. As they would eventually discover, no existing class embodied the properties of this “unusual” molecule.

The first human trials began in 1965 and showed that piracetam was able to significantly inhibit nystagmus. Because there was extremely low toxicity and seemingly few side-effects, they began to test piracetam in other populations. Further data reported internally then claimed “fairly good efficacy against motion sickness and vertigo” in humans. These findings lead them to search for a “more comprehensive picture of piracetam from the neurophysiological point of view.”

As they were carrying out these follow up studies over 1966-1967, a series of surprising results were reported. First, results came in from a study done at a hospital in Finland on post-concussion patients. The scientists running the study wrote to Giurgea to let him know that the “patients memory seemed somehow improved, that they declared to ‘think’ better.”.

Then came word from a trial in Brusseles on epileptic children administered piracetam. The parents of the children in the study “claimed a kind of improvement in the overall mental efficiency.” And then another researcher reported to him that his Parkinsonian patients under Piracetam were “somehow more aware of their sickness.”

Since Giurgea and his team had previously demonstrated piracetam selectively enhanced interhemispheric communication (see associated image), he had suspected that the compound might facilitate other cortically integrated mental functions, but at that time, he had no idea the extent.

This new information changed the course of their clinical work and they began to focus on “studies related to a potential beneficial effect of Piracetam on mental activity.”

Nootropic Properties Revealed

As experimental data on the neurochemical mechanisms of piracetam continued to expand, Giurgea and his team began to zero in on some overarching properties of the molecule that would come to define the nootropic class.

In normal subjects, piracetam appeared to “activate efficiency of higher nervous function” and in the case of injury, piracetam appeared to “protect and/or facilitate restoration of normal brain activity.”

From these observations and others, Giurgea surmised that piracetam, and potentially other molecules like it, “appeared to have a selective activity upon the higher-integrative mechanisms of the brain.”

Enhancement of Learning & Memory

Rats learned how to exit a water maze much more quickly when on piracetam.

Facilitation of Interhemispheric Transfer

Notice the change in the amplitude of the evoked potential of the corpus callosum, without a change in morphology. Demonstrating telencephalic selectivity.

Protection Against Loss of Oxygen

Memory is protected from disruption during a loss of oxygen (hypoxia) if the rats are given Piracetam prior.

Protection From Electroconvulsive Shock

After having their brains electroconvulsively shocked, after 24-hours, rats given piracetam prior remembered 100%, while rats on placebo remembered less than 20% of the time.

Increased Control of SubcorticalProcesses

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Nootroo 5.0 The Gold Standard in Nootropics

Nootropics | Cognitive Enhancers | Nootropics Supplements

Nootropics Also referred to as smart drugsandcognitive enhancers, are supplements, drugs, and nutraceuticals that can help (if used properly) to improve mental functions such as concentration, cognition, memory, and motivation. Here at Nootropics City, we believe that nootropics can help to accomplish this if used responsibly in a recorded and measured manner.

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Nootropics | Cognitive Enhancers | Nootropics Supplements

Nootropics | definition of Nootropics by Medical dictionary

(redirected from Nootropics)Also found in: Dictionary.nootropic (n–trop’ik),

Denotes an agent having an effect on memory.


a chemical designed to increase brain metabolism.

There is little clinical evidence that most agents advertised as nootropics actually work as advertised.

Capable of improving or preserving memory, of potentiating learning, or of preventing cognitive decline or dementia.

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Nootropics | definition of Nootropics by Medical dictionary

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At Nootropics Depot, we carry a wide variety of nootropics capsules and powders. Browse our nootropics for sale below.

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Nootropic stacks can maximise your learning capacity, memory, focus, concentration and prevent high levels of stress. The best nootropic stack for beginners is caffeine and L-theanine. If you are an intermediate user you should try either Pramiracetam and Alpha GPC or Phenylpiracetam and Choline. Four popular nootropics: Aniracetam, Alpha GPC, Huperzina A and Vinpocetine are used by those who consider themselves as advanced users. Learning accelerator is the latest category of nootropics. iQuzil is the best cognitive enhancer for expert users. Although nootropic stacks are best known for their ability to enhance mental capacity, concentration, focus and memory, they can also be very effective at preventing the high levels of anxiety, including social anxiety. Students are likely to experience enough challenges and pressures without having to think about dealing with high levels of anxiety. The best nootropic stack to reduce anxiety and help with studying is Choline Bitatrate, Phenibut and Picamilon. The above nootropic stacks will help students to maximise their potential and reach goals by improving their brain power, working memory and focus.

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Nootropics | HVMN Biohacker Guide

Nootropics are a broad classification of cognition-enhancing compounds that produce minimal side effects and are suitable for long-term use. These compounds include those occurring in nature or already produced by the human body (such as neurotransmitters), and their synthetic analogs. We already regularly consume some of these chemicals: B vitamins, caffeine, and L-theanine, in our daily diets.

A fundamental aspect of human evolution has been the drive to augment our capabilities. The neocortex is the neural seat of abstract and higher order cognitive processes. As it grew, so did our ability to create. The invention of tools and weapons, writing, the steam engine, and the computer have exponentially increased our capacity to influence and understand the world around us. These advances are being driven by improved higher-order cognitive processing.1Fascinatingly, the practice of modulating our biology through naturally occurring flora predated all of the above discoveries. Indeed, Sumerian clay slabs as old as 5000 BC detail medicinal recipes which include over 250 plants2. The enhancement of human cognition through natural compounds followed, as people discovered plants containing caffeine, theanine, and other cognition-enhancing, or nootropic, agents.

There is an ancient precedent to humans using natural compounds to elevate cognitive performance. Incan warriors in the 15th century would ingest coca leaves (the basis for cocaine) before battle. Ethiopian hunters in the 10th century developed coffee bean paste to improve hunting stamina. Modern athletes ubiquitously consume protein powders and hormones to enhance their training, recovery, and performance. The most widely consumed psychoactive compound today is caffeine. Millions of people use coffee and tea to be more alert and focused.

The term nootropic is simply a descriptor, and this descriptor spans across all legal classifications of compounds. Broadly speaking, there are four main classifications:

Nootrobox stacks are strictly derived from the first category – compounds that are GRAS and approved for human consumption as dietary supplements.

The mechanisms by which nootropic compounds influence our cognition and neurophysiology are as diverse as those of prescription drugs. We present below our in-progress work, detailing the mechanisms, effects, and history of various nootropic compounds. Check in for updates and additions.

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Nootropics | HVMN Biohacker Guide