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What is Virtual Reality? – Virtual Reality Society

The definition of virtual reality comes, naturally, from the definitions for both virtual and reality. The definition of virtual is near and reality is what we experience as human beings. So the term virtual reality basically means near-reality. This could, of course, mean anything but it usually refers to a specific type of reality emulation.

We know the world through our senses and perception systems. In school we all learned that we have five senses: taste, touch, smell, sight and hearing. These are however only our most obvious sense organs. The truth is that humans have many more senses than this, such as a sense of balance for example. These other sensory inputs, plus some special processing of sensory information by our brains ensures that we have a rich flow of information from the environment to our minds.

Everything that we know about our reality comes by way of our senses. In other words, our entire experience of reality is simply a combination of sensory information and our brains sense-making mechanisms for that information. It stands to reason then, that if you can present your senses with made-up information, your perception of reality would also change in response to it. You would be presented with a version of reality that isnt really there, but from your perspective it would be perceived as real. Something we would refer to as a virtual reality.

So, in summary, virtual reality entails presenting our senses with a computer generated virtual environment that we can explore in some fashion.

Answering what is virtual reality in technical terms is straight-forward. Virtual reality is the term used to describe a three-dimensional, computer generated environment which can be explored and interacted with by a person. That person becomes part of this virtual world or is immersed within this environment and whilst there, is able to manipulate objects or perform a series of actions.

Although we talk about a few historical early forms of virtual reality elsewhere on the site, today virtual reality is usually implemented using computer technology. There are a range of systems that are used for this purpose, such as headsets, omni-directional treadmills and special gloves. These are used to actually stimulate our senses together in order to create the illusion of reality.

This is more difficult than it sounds, since our senses and brains are evolved to provide us with a finely synchronised and mediated experience. If anything is even a little off we can usually tell. This is where youll hear terms such asimmersiveness and realism enter the conversation. These issues that divide convincing or enjoyable virtual reality experiences from jarring or unpleasant ones are partly technical and partly conceptual. Virtual reality technology needs to take our physiology into account. For example, the human visual field does not look like a video frame. We have (more or less) 180 degrees of vision and although you are not always consciously aware of your peripheral vision, if it were gone youd notice. Similarly when what your eyes and the vestibular system in your ears tell you are in conflict it can cause motion sickness. Which is what happens to some people on boats or when they read while in a car.

If an implementation of virtual reality manages to get the combination of hardware, software and sensory synchronicity just right it achieves something known as a sense of presence. Where the subject really feels like they are present in that environment.

This may seems like a lot of effort, and it is! What makes the development of virtual reality worthwhile? The potential entertainment value is clear. Immersive films and video games are good examples. The entertainment industry is after all a multi-billion dollar one and consumers are always keen on novelty. Virtual reality has many other, more serious, applications as well.

There are a wide variety of applications for virtual reality which include:

Virtual reality can lead to new and exciting discoveries in these areas which impact upon our day to day lives.

Wherever it is too dangerous, expensive or impractical to do something in reality, virtual reality is the answer. From trainee fighter pilots to medical applications trainee surgeons, virtual reality allows us to take virtual risks in order to gain real world experience. As the cost of virtual reality goes down and it becomes more mainstream you can expect more serious uses, such as education or productivity applications, to come to the fore. Virtual reality and its cousin augmented reality could substantively change the way we interface with our digital technologies. Continuing the trend of humanising our technology.

There are many different types of virtual reality systems but they all share the same characteristics such as the ability to allow the person to view three-dimensional images. These images appear life-sized to the person.

Plus they change as the person moves around their environment which corresponds with the change in their field of vision. The aim is for a seamless join between the persons head and eye movements and the appropriate response, e.g. change in perception. This ensures that the virtual environment is both realistic and enjoyable.

A virtual environment should provide the appropriate responses in real time- as the person explores their surroundings. The problems arise when there is a delay between the persons actions and system response or latency which then disrupts their experience. The person becomes aware that they are in an artificial environment and adjusts their behaviour accordingly which results in a stilted, mechanical form of interaction.

The aim is for a natural, free-flowing form of interaction which will result in a memorable experience.

Virtual reality is the creation of a virtual environment presented to our senses in such a way that we experience it as if we were really there. It uses a host of technologies to achieve this goal and is a technically complex feat that has to account for our perception and cognition. It has both entertainment and serious uses. The technology is becoming cheaper and more widespread. We can expect to see many more innovative uses for the technology in the future and perhaps a fundamental way in which we communicate and work thanks to the possibilities of virtual reality.

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What is Virtual Reality? – Virtual Reality Society

What is Virtual Reality? – Virtual Reality Society

The definition of virtual reality comes, naturally, from the definitions for both virtual and reality. The definition of virtual is near and reality is what we experience as human beings. So the term virtual reality basically means near-reality. This could, of course, mean anything but it usually refers to a specific type of reality emulation.

We know the world through our senses and perception systems. In school we all learned that we have five senses: taste, touch, smell, sight and hearing. These are however only our most obvious sense organs. The truth is that humans have many more senses than this, such as a sense of balance for example. These other sensory inputs, plus some special processing of sensory information by our brains ensures that we have a rich flow of information from the environment to our minds.

Everything that we know about our reality comes by way of our senses. In other words, our entire experience of reality is simply a combination of sensory information and our brains sense-making mechanisms for that information. It stands to reason then, that if you can present your senses with made-up information, your perception of reality would also change in response to it. You would be presented with a version of reality that isnt really there, but from your perspective it would be perceived as real. Something we would refer to as a virtual reality.

So, in summary, virtual reality entails presenting our senses with a computer generated virtual environment that we can explore in some fashion.

Answering what is virtual reality in technical terms is straight-forward. Virtual reality is the term used to describe a three-dimensional, computer generated environment which can be explored and interacted with by a person. That person becomes part of this virtual world or is immersed within this environment and whilst there, is able to manipulate objects or perform a series of actions.

Although we talk about a few historical early forms of virtual reality elsewhere on the site, today virtual reality is usually implemented using computer technology. There are a range of systems that are used for this purpose, such as headsets, omni-directional treadmills and special gloves. These are used to actually stimulate our senses together in order to create the illusion of reality.

This is more difficult than it sounds, since our senses and brains are evolved to provide us with a finely synchronised and mediated experience. If anything is even a little off we can usually tell. This is where youll hear terms such asimmersiveness and realism enter the conversation. These issues that divide convincing or enjoyable virtual reality experiences from jarring or unpleasant ones are partly technical and partly conceptual. Virtual reality technology needs to take our physiology into account. For example, the human visual field does not look like a video frame. We have (more or less) 180 degrees of vision and although you are not always consciously aware of your peripheral vision, if it were gone youd notice. Similarly when what your eyes and the vestibular system in your ears tell you are in conflict it can cause motion sickness. Which is what happens to some people on boats or when they read while in a car.

If an implementation of virtual reality manages to get the combination of hardware, software and sensory synchronicity just right it achieves something known as a sense of presence. Where the subject really feels like they are present in that environment.

This may seems like a lot of effort, and it is! What makes the development of virtual reality worthwhile? The potential entertainment value is clear. Immersive films and video games are good examples. The entertainment industry is after all a multi-billion dollar one and consumers are always keen on novelty. Virtual reality has many other, more serious, applications as well.

There are a wide variety of applications for virtual reality which include:

Virtual reality can lead to new and exciting discoveries in these areas which impact upon our day to day lives.

Wherever it is too dangerous, expensive or impractical to do something in reality, virtual reality is the answer. From trainee fighter pilots to medical applications trainee surgeons, virtual reality allows us to take virtual risks in order to gain real world experience. As the cost of virtual reality goes down and it becomes more mainstream you can expect more serious uses, such as education or productivity applications, to come to the fore. Virtual reality and its cousin augmented reality could substantively change the way we interface with our digital technologies. Continuing the trend of humanising our technology.

There are many different types of virtual reality systems but they all share the same characteristics such as the ability to allow the person to view three-dimensional images. These images appear life-sized to the person.

Plus they change as the person moves around their environment which corresponds with the change in their field of vision. The aim is for a seamless join between the persons head and eye movements and the appropriate response, e.g. change in perception. This ensures that the virtual environment is both realistic and enjoyable.

A virtual environment should provide the appropriate responses in real time- as the person explores their surroundings. The problems arise when there is a delay between the persons actions and system response or latency which then disrupts their experience. The person becomes aware that they are in an artificial environment and adjusts their behaviour accordingly which results in a stilted, mechanical form of interaction.

The aim is for a natural, free-flowing form of interaction which will result in a memorable experience.

Virtual reality is the creation of a virtual environment presented to our senses in such a way that we experience it as if we were really there. It uses a host of technologies to achieve this goal and is a technically complex feat that has to account for our perception and cognition. It has both entertainment and serious uses. The technology is becoming cheaper and more widespread. We can expect to see many more innovative uses for the technology in the future and perhaps a fundamental way in which we communicate and work thanks to the possibilities of virtual reality.

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What is Virtual Reality? – Virtual Reality Society

Virtual Reality – YouTube

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Immerse yourself in a few of today’s most beloved games.

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Vast landscapes, iconic cities, and other mind-blowing natural places will leave you in awe at the beauty of planet Earth.

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The places, people, and events that are shaping our world.

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Explore training camp, go inside the huddle, and take the field with these VR experiences.

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Virtual Reality – YouTube

What is Virtual Reality? – Virtual Reality Society

The definition of virtual reality comes, naturally, from the definitions for both virtual and reality. The definition of virtual is near and reality is what we experience as human beings. So the term virtual reality basically means near-reality. This could, of course, mean anything but it usually refers to a specific type of reality emulation.

We know the world through our senses and perception systems. In school we all learned that we have five senses: taste, touch, smell, sight and hearing. These are however only our most obvious sense organs. The truth is that humans have many more senses than this, such as a sense of balance for example. These other sensory inputs, plus some special processing of sensory information by our brains ensures that we have a rich flow of information from the environment to our minds.

Everything that we know about our reality comes by way of our senses. In other words, our entire experience of reality is simply a combination of sensory information and our brains sense-making mechanisms for that information. It stands to reason then, that if you can present your senses with made-up information, your perception of reality would also change in response to it. You would be presented with a version of reality that isnt really there, but from your perspective it would be perceived as real. Something we would refer to as a virtual reality.

So, in summary, virtual reality entails presenting our senses with a computer generated virtual environment that we can explore in some fashion.

Answering what is virtual reality in technical terms is straight-forward. Virtual reality is the term used to describe a three-dimensional, computer generated environment which can be explored and interacted with by a person. That person becomes part of this virtual world or is immersed within this environment and whilst there, is able to manipulate objects or perform a series of actions.

Although we talk about a few historical early forms of virtual reality elsewhere on the site, today virtual reality is usually implemented using computer technology. There are a range of systems that are used for this purpose, such as headsets, omni-directional treadmills and special gloves. These are used to actually stimulate our senses together in order to create the illusion of reality.

This is more difficult than it sounds, since our senses and brains are evolved to provide us with a finely synchronised and mediated experience. If anything is even a little off we can usually tell. This is where youll hear terms such asimmersiveness and realism enter the conversation. These issues that divide convincing or enjoyable virtual reality experiences from jarring or unpleasant ones are partly technical and partly conceptual. Virtual reality technology needs to take our physiology into account. For example, the human visual field does not look like a video frame. We have (more or less) 180 degrees of vision and although you are not always consciously aware of your peripheral vision, if it were gone youd notice. Similarly when what your eyes and the vestibular system in your ears tell you are in conflict it can cause motion sickness. Which is what happens to some people on boats or when they read while in a car.

If an implementation of virtual reality manages to get the combination of hardware, software and sensory synchronicity just right it achieves something known as a sense of presence. Where the subject really feels like they are present in that environment.

This may seems like a lot of effort, and it is! What makes the development of virtual reality worthwhile? The potential entertainment value is clear. Immersive films and video games are good examples. The entertainment industry is after all a multi-billion dollar one and consumers are always keen on novelty. Virtual reality has many other, more serious, applications as well.

There are a wide variety of applications for virtual reality which include:

Virtual reality can lead to new and exciting discoveries in these areas which impact upon our day to day lives.

Wherever it is too dangerous, expensive or impractical to do something in reality, virtual reality is the answer. From trainee fighter pilots to medical applications trainee surgeons, virtual reality allows us to take virtual risks in order to gain real world experience. As the cost of virtual reality goes down and it becomes more mainstream you can expect more serious uses, such as education or productivity applications, to come to the fore. Virtual reality and its cousin augmented reality could substantively change the way we interface with our digital technologies. Continuing the trend of humanising our technology.

There are many different types of virtual reality systems but they all share the same characteristics such as the ability to allow the person to view three-dimensional images. These images appear life-sized to the person.

Plus they change as the person moves around their environment which corresponds with the change in their field of vision. The aim is for a seamless join between the persons head and eye movements and the appropriate response, e.g. change in perception. This ensures that the virtual environment is both realistic and enjoyable.

A virtual environment should provide the appropriate responses in real time- as the person explores their surroundings. The problems arise when there is a delay between the persons actions and system response or latency which then disrupts their experience. The person becomes aware that they are in an artificial environment and adjusts their behaviour accordingly which results in a stilted, mechanical form of interaction.

The aim is for a natural, free-flowing form of interaction which will result in a memorable experience.

Virtual reality is the creation of a virtual environment presented to our senses in such a way that we experience it as if we were really there. It uses a host of technologies to achieve this goal and is a technically complex feat that has to account for our perception and cognition. It has both entertainment and serious uses. The technology is becoming cheaper and more widespread. We can expect to see many more innovative uses for the technology in the future and perhaps a fundamental way in which we communicate and work thanks to the possibilities of virtual reality.

See the article here:

What is Virtual Reality? – Virtual Reality Society

Virtual Reality – YouTube

This item has been hidden

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Witness those who have conquered the impossible.

This item has been hidden

Immerse yourself in a few of today’s most beloved games.

This item has been hidden

Instead of merely listening to music: live it.

This item has been hidden

Vast landscapes, iconic cities, and other mind-blowing natural places will leave you in awe at the beauty of planet Earth.

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Watch as these stories unfold all around you.

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The places, people, and events that are shaping our world.

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Explore training camp, go inside the huddle, and take the field with these VR experiences.

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Virtual Reality – YouTube

VIVE | Discover Virtual Reality Beyond Imagination

Thailand

Australia

sterreich

Belgi

Canada

Canada – Franais

esk republika

Denmark

Deutschland

France

HongKong

Iceland

India

Ireland

Italia

Korea

Latvija

Lietuva

Ltzebuerg

Malta

Nederland

New Zealand

Norge

Polska

Portugal

Russia

Saudi Arabia

Singapore

Espaa

Suisse

Suomi

Sverige

United Arab Emirates

United Kingdom

United States

(Arabic)

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VIVE | Discover Virtual Reality Beyond Imagination

Virtual Reality Solutions|NVIDIA

Virtual Reality (VR) is set to change the way we enjoy entertainment, interact with friends, and get our jobs done. As the leader in visual computing, NVIDIA is at the forefront of this exciting new computing platform. From gaming to product design to cinematic experiences and beyond, NVIDIA delivers groundbreaking solutions for VRincluding industry-leading Pascal GPUs, drivers, and SDKsto meet the needs of professionals, gamers, and developers.

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Virtual Reality Solutions|NVIDIA

What is Virtual Reality? VR Definition and Examples | Marxent

For more information on how retailers are using mixed commerce solutions, check out our Mixed Commerce Glossary, which defines the terminology being used by businesses to describe the changes currently sweeping retail.For a rundown of the biggest developments in Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality from the past 12 months, check out our 2016 roundup,Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality The Year In Review. And for a look ahead, check out the5 top Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality technology trends for 2017.

Virtual Reality (VR) is the use of computer technology to create a simulated environment. Unlike traditional user interfaces, VR places the user inside an experience. Instead of viewing a screen in front of them, users are immersedand able to interact with3D worlds. By simulating as many senses as possible, such as vision, hearing,touch, evensmell,the computer is transformed into agatekeeper to thisartificial world.The only limits to near-real VR experiences are the availability of content and cheapcomputing power.

Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality are two sides of the same coin. You could think of Augmented Reality as VR with one foot in the real world: Augmented Reality simulates artificial objects in the real environment; Virtual Reality creates an artificial environment to inhabit.

In Augmented Reality, the computer uses sensors and algorithms to determine the position and orientation of a camera. AR technology then renders the 3D graphics as they would appear from the viewpoint of the camera, superimposing the computer-generated images over ausers view of the real world.

In Virtual Reality, the computer uses similar sensors and math. However,rather than locating a real camera within a physical environment, the position of the users eyes are located within the simulated environment. If the users head turns, the graphics react accordingly. Rather than compositing virtual objects and a real scene, VR technology creates a convincing, interactive world for the user.

Virtual Realitys most immediately-recognizable component is the head-mounted display (HMD). Human beings are visual creatures, and display technology is often the single biggest difference between immersive Virtual Reality systems and traditional user interfaces. For instance,CAVEautomatic virtual environments actively display virtual content onto room-sized screens. While they arefun for people in universities and big labs, consumer and industrial wearables are the wild west.

With a multiplicity of emerging hardware and software options, the future of wearables is unfolding but yet unknown. Concepts suchGoogle Cardboard, Samsung GearVR and Epson Movario are leading the way but there are also players like Meta, Avegant Glyph, Daqri and Magic Leap who may surprise the industry with new levels of immersion and usability. Whomever comes out ahead,the simplicity of buying a helmet-sized device that can work in a living-room, office, or factory floor has made HMDs center stage when it comes to Virtual Reality technologies.

Hearing is arguably more relevant than vision to a persons sense of space and human beings react more quickly to audio cues than to visual cues. In order create truly immersive Virtual Realityexperiences, accurate environmental soundsand spatial characteristics are a must. Theselenda powerful sense of presence toa virtual world. To experience the binaural audio details that go into a Virtual Reality experience, put on some headphones and tinkerwith this audio infographicpublished byThe Verge.

While audiovisual information is most easily replicated in Virtual Reality, active research and development efforts are still being conducted into the other senses. Tactile inputs such as omni-directional treadmills allow users to feel as though theyre actually walking through a simulation, rather than sitting in a chair or on a couch. Haptics, also known as kinesthetic ortouch feedback, has progressed from simple spinning-weight rumble motors to futuristic ultrasound technology.

Perhaps the largest silhouette on the Virtual Reality horizon is cast by Oculus VR, the makers of the Oculus Rift headsets. Originally funded as a Kickstarter project in 2012, and engineered with the help of John Carmack (founder of Id Software, of Doom and Quake fame), the company became the de facto leader in Virtual Reality hardware for video games. After Facebook bought Oculus in 2014, social experiences via VR became an additional priority for the company. With their more recent acquisition of Surreal Vision, a 3D scene reconstruction research group from England, Oculus is poised to bring telepresence to the VR headset. While two versions of Oculus headsets have already been released to developers, with a third on the way, the customer version is set to be released in early 2016.

Microsoft HoloLensis shaping up to be another formidable competitor in the Virtual Reality market. Unlike the Oculus Rift, Microsofts ambitious research teams are basing their display on holographic technology. While this lends itself to Augmented Reality (or, as Microsoft prefers to call it, mixed reality) more than VR, its clear that the display technology alone is meant to be a jumping-off point for virtual experiences to come.

Sonys entry into the market, Project Morpheus. attempts to streamline what Oculus offers, with integration into the already-successful PlayStation game systems. Like the Oculus Rift, the Morpheus headset is scheduled for early 2016.

Valve, makers of the wildly successful Steam platform for games distribution on PC, Mac OS, and Linux, have also thrown their hat in the ring. The Vive, to be manufactured by HTC, is to be the first of many headsets on an open platform called SteamVR. While development kits are to be released by the end of 2015, its not yet clear when the consumer version will become available.

While the above VR companies have all shown promise in immersive head-mounted display technology, they tend to focus on the deep end of the pool: powerful computers or desktop PCs with gaming hardware. Samsungs approach to VR has been different: the Gear VR uses Oculus head-tracking technology in combination with Android smartphones like the Galaxy Note 4 to power mobile VR experiences. Instead of dedicated display technology, lenses allow the phones screen to act as a stereoscopic display, making the device simpler and less expensive than other options.

Not to be left out, Googles entry into VR came as a surprise during last years I/O conference. The Google Cardboard is a do-it-yourself approach to mobile VR, is an enclosure for Android phones that can be built for less than twenty dollars. Several demos and games for the Cardboard SDK are already available on the Google Play store, and while the experience isnt quite as immersive or groundbreaking as other companies offerings, Googles ad hoc Virtual Reality experiment shows a surprising amount of interest in even basic VR technology.

On the other end of the Google spectrum, their 2014 investment in the mysterious Magic Leap startup (to the tune of $540 million along with a few of its venture capital partners) promises innovation in light field display technology, 3D mapping, gesture tracking, and telepresence. While their only engagement with the public so far has been a highly controversial Augmented Reality demo, many high-profile names such as venerable science fiction author Neal Stephenson are attached to Magic Leap, and their presence in the industry continues to challenge well-established brands, making them an unusual, but noteworthy company.

Many other companies are developing Virtual Reality headsets and other peripherals. From recognizable names, like Carl Zeiss and Archos to lesser-known companies such as Razer and Avegant, the coming VR renaissance electrifies an entire ecosystem of hardware manufacturers, software developers, and content providers.

Unsurprisingly, the video games industry is one of the largest proponents of Virtual Reality. Support for the Oculus Rift headsets has already been jerry-rigged into games like Skyrim and Grand Theft Auto , but newer games like Elite: Dangerous come with headset support built right in. Many tried-and-true user interface metaphors in gaming have to be adjusted for VR (after all, who wants to have to pick items out of a menu that takes up your entire field of vision?), but the industry has been quick to adapt as the hardware for true Virtual Reality gaming has become more widely available.

Scientific and engineering data visualization has benefited for years from Virtual Reality, although recent innovation in display technology has generated interest in everything frommolecular visualization to architecture toweather models.

In aviation, medicine, and the military, Virtual Reality training is an attractive alternative to live training with expensive equipment, dangerous situations, or sensitive technology. Commercial pilots can use realistic cockpits with VR technology in holistic training programs that incorporate virtual flight and live instruction. Surgeons can train with virtual tools and patients, and transfer their virtual skills into the operating room, and studies have already begun to show that such training leads to faster doctors who make fewer mistakes. Police and soldiers are able to conduct virtual raids that avoid putting lives at risk.

Speaking of medicine, the treatment of mental illness, including post-traumatic stress disorder, stands to benefit from the application of Virtual Reality technology to ongoing therapy programs. Whether its allowing veterans to confront challenges in a controlled environment, or overcoming phobias in combination with behavioral therapy, VR has apotentialbeyond gaming, industrial and marketing applications tohelp people heal from, reconcile andunderstandreal world experiences.

Dr. Brian Jackson is a Senior Research Scientist at Marxent. He holds a PhD in Computer Science with a focus in computer vision.

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What is Virtual Reality? VR Definition and Examples | Marxent

Virtual Reality Headsets | GameStop

Are You Ready for Virtual Reality?

The future of VR gaming is finally here! The Virtual Reality technology (VR headsets, VR glasses, VR goggles, etc.) that only existed in Science Fiction novels has gone mainstream and it’s a natural fit for the video game industry.

What Is Virtual Reality?

Virtual Reality can be defined as a fully immersive computer simulated environment that gives one the feeling of being in a virtual world, instead of their actual world. VR is a super-realistic reality that replicates sensory experiences like sight, touch, hearing and smell.

Headset devices (like PSVR, Oculus VR, HTC Vive) use stereoscopic displays to make what you see three dimensional and give depth to the image that you are looking at. Sensors track your motion and allow the image to change with your perspective. Our other senses such as sound and touch help to convince our brains that the virtual reality is real. VR is all about immersion and the feeling of presence, so you can truly become the character that you are playing in the game.

Virtual Reality Cost

Virtual Reality gaming equipment is expected to cost anywhere from $19.99 to $1,500 (with a high-end computer to properly run the more expensive VR systems). From driving games to first person shooters, there are literally hundreds of Virtual Reality games in development right now. The price for each virtual reality game depends that particular game and the gaming system.

Stay Up-To-Date with Virtual Reality

Virtual Reality is the future of gaming and entertainment, and GameStop wants to make sure that you are in-the-know about the best VR headsets and all that virtual gaming has to offer. Be sure and sign up for our VR email updates above to stay current on the latest on PlayStation VR, Oculus Rift, HTC Vive and more!

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Virtual Reality Headsets | GameStop

What is Virtual Reality? VR Definition and Examples | Marxent

For more information on how retailers are using mixed commerce solutions, check out our Mixed Commerce Glossary, which defines the terminology being used by businesses to describe the changes currently sweeping retail.For a rundown of the biggest developments in Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality from the past 12 months, check out our 2016 roundup,Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality The Year In Review. And for a look ahead, check out the5 top Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality technology trends for 2017.

Virtual Reality (VR) is the use of computer technology to create a simulated environment. Unlike traditional user interfaces, VR places the user inside an experience. Instead of viewing a screen in front of them, users are immersedand able to interact with3D worlds. By simulating as many senses as possible, such as vision, hearing,touch, evensmell,the computer is transformed into agatekeeper to thisartificial world.The only limits to near-real VR experiences are the availability of content and cheapcomputing power.

Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality are two sides of the same coin. You could think of Augmented Reality as VR with one foot in the real world: Augmented Reality simulates artificial objects in the real environment; Virtual Reality creates an artificial environment to inhabit.

In Augmented Reality, the computer uses sensors and algorithms to determine the position and orientation of a camera. AR technology then renders the 3D graphics as they would appear from the viewpoint of the camera, superimposing the computer-generated images over ausers view of the real world.

In Virtual Reality, the computer uses similar sensors and math. However,rather than locating a real camera within a physical environment, the position of the users eyes are located within the simulated environment. If the users head turns, the graphics react accordingly. Rather than compositing virtual objects and a real scene, VR technology creates a convincing, interactive world for the user.

Virtual Realitys most immediately-recognizable component is the head-mounted display (HMD). Human beings are visual creatures, and display technology is often the single biggest difference between immersive Virtual Reality systems and traditional user interfaces. For instance,CAVEautomatic virtual environments actively display virtual content onto room-sized screens. While they arefun for people in universities and big labs, consumer and industrial wearables are the wild west.

With a multiplicity of emerging hardware and software options, the future of wearables is unfolding but yet unknown. Concepts suchGoogle Cardboard, Samsung GearVR and Epson Movario are leading the way but there are also players like Meta, Avegant Glyph, Daqri and Magic Leap who may surprise the industry with new levels of immersion and usability. Whomever comes out ahead,the simplicity of buying a helmet-sized device that can work in a living-room, office, or factory floor has made HMDs center stage when it comes to Virtual Reality technologies.

Hearing is arguably more relevant than vision to a persons sense of space and human beings react more quickly to audio cues than to visual cues. In order create truly immersive Virtual Realityexperiences, accurate environmental soundsand spatial characteristics are a must. Theselenda powerful sense of presence toa virtual world. To experience the binaural audio details that go into a Virtual Reality experience, put on some headphones and tinkerwith this audio infographicpublished byThe Verge.

While audiovisual information is most easily replicated in Virtual Reality, active research and development efforts are still being conducted into the other senses. Tactile inputs such as omni-directional treadmills allow users to feel as though theyre actually walking through a simulation, rather than sitting in a chair or on a couch. Haptics, also known as kinesthetic ortouch feedback, has progressed from simple spinning-weight rumble motors to futuristic ultrasound technology.

Perhaps the largest silhouette on the Virtual Reality horizon is cast by Oculus VR, the makers of the Oculus Rift headsets. Originally funded as a Kickstarter project in 2012, and engineered with the help of John Carmack (founder of Id Software, of Doom and Quake fame), the company became the de facto leader in Virtual Reality hardware for video games. After Facebook bought Oculus in 2014, social experiences via VR became an additional priority for the company. With their more recent acquisition of Surreal Vision, a 3D scene reconstruction research group from England, Oculus is poised to bring telepresence to the VR headset. While two versions of Oculus headsets have already been released to developers, with a third on the way, the customer version is set to be released in early 2016.

Microsoft HoloLensis shaping up to be another formidable competitor in the Virtual Reality market. Unlike the Oculus Rift, Microsofts ambitious research teams are basing their display on holographic technology. While this lends itself to Augmented Reality (or, as Microsoft prefers to call it, mixed reality) more than VR, its clear that the display technology alone is meant to be a jumping-off point for virtual experiences to come.

Sonys entry into the market, Project Morpheus. attempts to streamline what Oculus offers, with integration into the already-successful PlayStation game systems. Like the Oculus Rift, the Morpheus headset is scheduled for early 2016.

Valve, makers of the wildly successful Steam platform for games distribution on PC, Mac OS, and Linux, have also thrown their hat in the ring. The Vive, to be manufactured by HTC, is to be the first of many headsets on an open platform called SteamVR. While development kits are to be released by the end of 2015, its not yet clear when the consumer version will become available.

While the above VR companies have all shown promise in immersive head-mounted display technology, they tend to focus on the deep end of the pool: powerful computers or desktop PCs with gaming hardware. Samsungs approach to VR has been different: the Gear VR uses Oculus head-tracking technology in combination with Android smartphones like the Galaxy Note 4 to power mobile VR experiences. Instead of dedicated display technology, lenses allow the phones screen to act as a stereoscopic display, making the device simpler and less expensive than other options.

Not to be left out, Googles entry into VR came as a surprise during last years I/O conference. The Google Cardboard is a do-it-yourself approach to mobile VR, is an enclosure for Android phones that can be built for less than twenty dollars. Several demos and games for the Cardboard SDK are already available on the Google Play store, and while the experience isnt quite as immersive or groundbreaking as other companies offerings, Googles ad hoc Virtual Reality experiment shows a surprising amount of interest in even basic VR technology.

On the other end of the Google spectrum, their 2014 investment in the mysterious Magic Leap startup (to the tune of $540 million along with a few of its venture capital partners) promises innovation in light field display technology, 3D mapping, gesture tracking, and telepresence. While their only engagement with the public so far has been a highly controversial Augmented Reality demo, many high-profile names such as venerable science fiction author Neal Stephenson are attached to Magic Leap, and their presence in the industry continues to challenge well-established brands, making them an unusual, but noteworthy company.

Many other companies are developing Virtual Reality headsets and other peripherals. From recognizable names, like Carl Zeiss and Archos to lesser-known companies such as Razer and Avegant, the coming VR renaissance electrifies an entire ecosystem of hardware manufacturers, software developers, and content providers.

Unsurprisingly, the video games industry is one of the largest proponents of Virtual Reality. Support for the Oculus Rift headsets has already been jerry-rigged into games like Skyrim and Grand Theft Auto , but newer games like Elite: Dangerous come with headset support built right in. Many tried-and-true user interface metaphors in gaming have to be adjusted for VR (after all, who wants to have to pick items out of a menu that takes up your entire field of vision?), but the industry has been quick to adapt as the hardware for true Virtual Reality gaming has become more widely available.

Scientific and engineering data visualization has benefited for years from Virtual Reality, although recent innovation in display technology has generated interest in everything frommolecular visualization to architecture toweather models.

In aviation, medicine, and the military, Virtual Reality training is an attractive alternative to live training with expensive equipment, dangerous situations, or sensitive technology. Commercial pilots can use realistic cockpits with VR technology in holistic training programs that incorporate virtual flight and live instruction. Surgeons can train with virtual tools and patients, and transfer their virtual skills into the operating room, and studies have already begun to show that such training leads to faster doctors who make fewer mistakes. Police and soldiers are able to conduct virtual raids that avoid putting lives at risk.

Speaking of medicine, the treatment of mental illness, including post-traumatic stress disorder, stands to benefit from the application of Virtual Reality technology to ongoing therapy programs. Whether its allowing veterans to confront challenges in a controlled environment, or overcoming phobias in combination with behavioral therapy, VR has apotentialbeyond gaming, industrial and marketing applications tohelp people heal from, reconcile andunderstandreal world experiences.

Dr. Brian Jackson is a Senior Research Scientist at Marxent. He holds a PhD in Computer Science with a focus in computer vision.

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What is Virtual Reality? VR Definition and Examples | Marxent

Virtual Reality Headsets | GameStop

Are You Ready for Virtual Reality?

The future of VR gaming is finally here! The Virtual Reality technology (VR headsets, VR glasses, VR goggles, etc.) that only existed in Science Fiction novels has gone mainstream and it’s a natural fit for the video game industry.

What Is Virtual Reality?

Virtual Reality can be defined as a fully immersive computer simulated environment that gives one the feeling of being in a virtual world, instead of their actual world. VR is a super-realistic reality that replicates sensory experiences like sight, touch, hearing and smell.

Headset devices (like PSVR, Oculus VR, HTC Vive) use stereoscopic displays to make what you see three dimensional and give depth to the image that you are looking at. Sensors track your motion and allow the image to change with your perspective. Our other senses such as sound and touch help to convince our brains that the virtual reality is real. VR is all about immersion and the feeling of presence, so you can truly become the character that you are playing in the game.

Virtual Reality Cost

Virtual Reality gaming equipment is expected to cost anywhere from $19.99 to $1,500 (with a high-end computer to properly run the more expensive VR systems). From driving games to first person shooters, there are literally hundreds of Virtual Reality games in development right now. The price for each virtual reality game depends that particular game and the gaming system.

Stay Up-To-Date with Virtual Reality

Virtual Reality is the future of gaming and entertainment, and GameStop wants to make sure that you are in-the-know about the best VR headsets and all that virtual gaming has to offer. Be sure and sign up for our VR email updates above to stay current on the latest on PlayStation VR, Oculus Rift, HTC Vive and more!

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Virtual Reality Headsets | GameStop

What is Virtual Reality? – Virtual Reality Society

The definition of virtual reality comes, naturally, from the definitions for both virtual and reality. The definition of virtual is near and reality is what we experience as human beings. So the term virtual reality basically means near-reality. This could, of course, mean anything but it usually refers to a specific type of reality emulation.

We know the world through our senses and perception systems. In school we all learned that we have five senses: taste, touch, smell, sight and hearing. These are however only our most obvious sense organs. The truth is that humans have many more senses than this, such as a sense of balance for example. These other sensory inputs, plus some special processing of sensory information by our brains ensures that we have a rich flow of information from the environment to our minds.

Everything that we know about our reality comes by way of our senses. In other words, our entire experience of reality is simply a combination of sensory information and our brains sense-making mechanisms for that information. It stands to reason then, that if you can present your senses with made-up information, your perception of reality would also change in response to it. You would be presented with a version of reality that isnt really there, but from your perspective it would be perceived as real. Something we would refer to as a virtual reality.

So, in summary, virtual reality entails presenting our senses with a computer generated virtual environment that we can explore in some fashion.

Answering what is virtual reality in technical terms is straight-forward. Virtual reality is the term used to describe a three-dimensional, computer generated environment which can be explored and interacted with by a person. That person becomes part of this virtual world or is immersed within this environment and whilst there, is able to manipulate objects or perform a series of actions.

Although we talk about a few historical early forms of virtual reality elsewhere on the site, today virtual reality is usually implemented using computer technology. There are a range of systems that are used for this purpose, such as headsets, omni-directional treadmills and special gloves. These are used to actually stimulate our senses together in order to create the illusion of reality.

This is more difficult than it sounds, since our senses and brains are evolved to provide us with a finely synchronised and mediated experience. If anything is even a little off we can usually tell. This is where youll hear terms such asimmersiveness and realism enter the conversation. These issues that divide convincing or enjoyable virtual reality experiences from jarring or unpleasant ones are partly technical and partly conceptual. Virtual reality technology needs to take our physiology into account. For example, the human visual field does not look like a video frame. We have (more or less) 180 degrees of vision and although you are not always consciously aware of your peripheral vision, if it were gone youd notice. Similarly when what your eyes and the vestibular system in your ears tell you are in conflict it can cause motion sickness. Which is what happens to some people on boats or when they read while in a car.

If an implementation of virtual reality manages to get the combination of hardware, software and sensory synchronicity just right it achieves something known as a sense of presence. Where the subject really feels like they are present in that environment.

This may seems like a lot of effort, and it is! What makes the development of virtual reality worthwhile? The potential entertainment value is clear. Immersive films and video games are good examples. The entertainment industry is after all a multi-billion dollar one and consumers are always keen on novelty. Virtual reality has many other, more serious, applications as well.

There are a wide variety of applications for virtual reality which include:

Virtual reality can lead to new and exciting discoveries in these areas which impact upon our day to day lives.

Wherever it is too dangerous, expensive or impractical to do something in reality, virtual reality is the answer. From trainee fighter pilots to medical applications trainee surgeons, virtual reality allows us to take virtual risks in order to gain real world experience. As the cost of virtual reality goes down and it becomes more mainstream you can expect more serious uses, such as education or productivity applications, to come to the fore. Virtual reality and its cousin augmented reality could substantively change the way we interface with our digital technologies. Continuing the trend of humanising our technology.

There are many different types of virtual reality systems but they all share the same characteristics such as the ability to allow the person to view three-dimensional images. These images appear life-sized to the person.

Plus they change as the person moves around their environment which corresponds with the change in their field of vision. The aim is for a seamless join between the persons head and eye movements and the appropriate response, e.g. change in perception. This ensures that the virtual environment is both realistic and enjoyable.

A virtual environment should provide the appropriate responses in real time- as the person explores their surroundings. The problems arise when there is a delay between the persons actions and system response or latency which then disrupts their experience. The person becomes aware that they are in an artificial environment and adjusts their behaviour accordingly which results in a stilted, mechanical form of interaction.

The aim is for a natural, free-flowing form of interaction which will result in a memorable experience.

Virtual reality is the creation of a virtual environment presented to our senses in such a way that we experience it as if we were really there. It uses a host of technologies to achieve this goal and is a technically complex feat that has to account for our perception and cognition. It has both entertainment and serious uses. The technology is becoming cheaper and more widespread. We can expect to see many more innovative uses for the technology in the future and perhaps a fundamental way in which we communicate and work thanks to the possibilities of virtual reality.

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What is Virtual Reality? – Virtual Reality Society

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Virtual reality | computer science | Britannica.com

Virtual reality (VR), the use of computer modeling and simulation that enables a person to interact with an artificial three-dimensional (3-D) visual or other sensory environment. VR applications immerse the user in a computer-generated environment that simulates reality through the use of interactive devices, which send and receive information and are worn as goggles, headsets, gloves, or body suits. In a typical VR format, a user wearing a helmet with a stereoscopic screen views animated images of a simulated environment. The illusion of being there (telepresence) is effected by motion sensors that pick up the users movements and adjust the view on the screen accordingly, usually in real time (the instant the users movement takes place). Thus, a user can tour a simulated suite of rooms, experiencing changing viewpoints and perspectives that are convincingly related to his own head turnings and steps. Wearing data gloves equipped with force-feedback devices that provide the sensation of touch, the user can even pick up and manipulate objects that he sees in the virtual environment.

The term virtual reality was coined in 1987 by Jaron Lanier, whose research and engineering contributed a number of products to the nascent VR industry. A common thread linking early VR research and technology development in the United States was the role of the federal government, particularly the Department of Defense, the National Science Foundation, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Projects funded by these agencies and pursued at university-based research laboratories yielded an extensive pool of talented personnel in fields such as computer graphics, simulation, and networked environments and established links between academic, military, and commercial work. The history of this technological development, and the social context in which it took place, is the subject of this article.

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electronic game: Networked games and virtual worlds

During the 1990s and 2000s, computer game designers exploited three-dimensional graphics, faster microprocessors, networking, handheld and wireless game devices, and the Internet to develop new genres for video consoles, personal computers, and networked environments. These included first-person shootersaction games in which the environment

Artists, performers, and entertainers have always been interested in techniques for creating imaginative worlds, setting narratives in fictional spaces, and deceiving the senses. Numerous precedents for the suspension of disbelief in an artificial world in artistic and entertainment media preceded virtual reality. Illusionary spaces created by paintings or views have been constructed for residences and public spaces since antiquity, culminating in the monumental panoramas of the 18th and 19th centuries. Panoramas blurred the visual boundaries between the two-dimensional images displaying the main scenes and the three-dimensional spaces from which these were viewed, creating an illusion of immersion in the events depicted. This image tradition stimulated the creation of a series of mediafrom futuristic theatre designs, stereopticons, and 3-D movies to IMAX movie theatresover the course of the 20th century to achieve similar effects. For example, the Cinerama widescreen film format, originally called Vitarama when invented for the 1939 New York Worlds Fair by Fred Waller and Ralph Walker, originated in Wallers studies of vision and depth perception. Wallers work led him to focus on the importance of peripheral vision for immersion in an artificial environment, and his goal was to devise a projection technology that could duplicate the entire human field of vision. The Vitarama process used multiple cameras and projectors and an arc-shaped screen to create the illusion of immersion in the space perceived by a viewer. Though Vitarama was not a commercial hit until the mid-1950s (as Cinerama), the Army Air Corps successfully used the system during World War II for anti-aircraft training under the name Waller Flexible Gunnery Traineran example of the link between entertainment technology and military simulation that would later advance the development of virtual reality.

Sensory stimulation was a promising method for creating virtual environments before the use of computers. After the release of a promotional film called This Is Cinerama (1952), the cinematographer Morton Heilig became fascinated with Cinerama and 3-D movies. Like Waller, he studied human sensory signals and illusions, hoping to realize a cinema of the future. By late 1960, Heilig had built an individual console with a variety of inputsstereoscopic images, motion chair, audio, temperature changes, odours, and blown airthat he patented in 1962 as the Sensorama Simulator, designed to stimulate the senses of an individual to simulate an actual experience realistically. During the work on Sensorama, he also designed the Telesphere Mask, a head-mounted stereoscopic 3-D TV display that he patented in 1960. Although Heilig was unsuccessful in his efforts to market Sensorama, in the mid-1960s he extended the idea to a multiviewer theatre concept patented as the Experience Theater and a similar system called Thrillerama for the Walt Disney Company.

The seeds for virtual reality were planted in several computing fields during the 1950s and 60s, especially in 3-D interactive computer graphics and vehicle/flight simulation. Beginning in the late 1940s, Project Whirlwind, funded by the U.S. Navy, and its successor project, the SAGE (Semi-Automated Ground Environment) early-warning radar system, funded by the U.S. Air Force, first utilized cathode-ray tube (CRT) displays and input devices such as light pens (originally called light guns). By the time the SAGE system became operational in 1957, air force operators were routinely using these devices to display aircraft positions and manipulate related data.

During the 1950s, the popular cultural image of the computer was that of a calculating machine, an automated electronic brain capable of manipulating data at previously unimaginable speeds. The advent of more affordable second-generation (transistor) and third-generation (integrated circuit) computers emancipated the machines from this narrow view, and in doing so it shifted attention to ways in which computing could augment human potential rather than simply substituting for it in specialized domains conducive to number crunching. In 1960 Joseph Licklider, a professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) specializing in psychoacoustics, posited a man-computer symbiosis and applied psychological principles to human-computer interactions and interfaces. He argued that a partnership between computers and the human brain would surpass the capabilities of either alone. As founding director of the new Information Processing Techniques Office (IPTO) of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), Licklider was able to fund and encourage projects that aligned with his vision of human-computer interaction while also serving priorities for military systems, such as data visualization and command-and-control systems.

Another pioneer was electrical engineer and computer scientist Ivan Sutherland, who began his work in computer graphics at MITs Lincoln Laboratory (where Whirlwind and SAGE had been developed). In 1963 Sutherland completed Sketchpad, a system for drawing interactively on a CRT display with a light pen and control board. Sutherland paid careful attention to the structure of data representation, which made his system useful for the interactive manipulation of images. In 1964 he was put in charge of IPTO, and from 1968 to 1976 he led the computer graphics program at the University of Utah, one of DARPAs premier research centres. In 1965 Sutherland outlined the characteristics of what he called the ultimate display and speculated on how computer imagery could construct plausible and richly articulated virtual worlds. His notion of such a world began with visual representation and sensory input, but it did not end there; he also called for multiple modes of sensory input. DARPA sponsored work during the 1960s on output and input devices aligned with this vision, such as the Sketchpad III system by Timothy Johnson, which presented 3-D views of objects; Larry Robertss Lincoln Wand, a system for drawing in three dimensions; and Douglas Engelbarts invention of a new input device, the computer mouse.

Within a few years, Sutherland contributed the technological artifact most often identified with virtual reality, the head-mounted 3-D computer display. In 1967 Bell Helicopter (now part of Textron Inc.) carried out tests in which a helicopter pilot wore a head-mounted display (HMD) that showed video from a servo-controlled infrared camera mounted beneath the helicopter. The camera moved with the pilots head, both augmenting his night vision and providing a level of immersion sufficient for the pilot to equate his field of vision with the images from the camera. This kind of system would later be called augmented reality because it enhanced a human capacity (vision) in the real world. When Sutherland left DARPA for Harvard University in 1966, he began work on a tethered display for computer images (see photograph). This was an apparatus shaped to fit over the head, with goggles that displayed computer-generated graphical output. Because the display was too heavy to be borne comfortably, it was held in place by a suspension system. Two small CRT displays were mounted in the device, near the wearers ears, and mirrors reflected the images to his eyes, creating a stereo 3-D visual environment that could be viewed comfortably at a short distance. The HMD also tracked where the wearer was looking so that correct images would be generated for his field of vision. The viewers immersion in the displayed virtual space was intensified by the visual isolation of the HMD, yet other senses were not isolated to the same degree and the wearer could continue to walk around.

An important area of application for VR systems has always been training for real-life activities. The appeal of simulations is that they can provide training equal or nearly equal to practice with real systems, but at reduced cost and with greater safety. This is particularly the case for military training, and the first significant application of commercial simulators was pilot training during World War II. Flight simulators rely on visual and motion feedback to augment the sensation of flying while seated in a closed mechanical system on the ground. The Link Company, founded by former piano maker Edwin Link, began to construct the first prototype Link Trainers during the late 1920s, eventually settling on the blue box design acquired by the Army Air Corps in 1934. The first systems used motion feedback to increase familiarity with flight controls. Pilots trained by sitting in a simulated cockpit, which could be moved hydraulically in response to their actions (see photograph). Later versions added a cyclorama scene painted on a wall outside the simulator to provide limited visual feedback. Not until the Celestial Navigation Trainer, commissioned by the British government in World War II, were projected film strips used in Link Trainersstill, these systems could only project what had been filmed along a correct flight or landing path, not generate new imagery based on a trainees actions. By the 1960s, flight trainers were using film and closed-circuit television to enhance the visual experience of flying. The images could be distorted to generate flight paths that diverted slightly from what had been filmed; sometimes multiple cameras were used to provide different perspectives, or movable cameras were mounted over scale models to depict airports for simulated landings.

Inspired by the controls in the Link flight trainer, Sutherland suggested that such displays include multiple sensory outputs, force-feedback joysticks, muscle sensors, and eye trackers; a user would be fully immersed in the displayed environment and fly through concepts which never before had any visual representation. In 1968 he moved to the University of Utah, where he and his colleague David Evans founded Evans & Sutherland Computer Corporation. The new company initially focused on the development of graphics applications, such as scene generators for flight simulator systems. These systems could render scenes at roughly 20 frames per second in the early 1970s, about the minimum frame rate for effective flight training. General Electric Company constructed the first flight simulators with built-in, real-time computer image generation, first for the Apollo program in the 1960s, then for the U.S. Navy in 1972. By the mid-1970s, these systems were capable of generating simple 3-D models with a few hundred polygon faces; they utilized raster graphics (collections of dots) and could model solid objects with textures to enhance the sense of realism (see computer graphics). By the late 1970s, military flight simulators were also incorporating head-mounted displays, such as McDonnell Douglas Corporations VITAL helmet, primarily because they required much less space than a projected display. A sophisticated head tracker in the HMD followed a pilots eye movements to match computer-generated images (CGI) with his view and handling of the flight controls.

Advances in flight simulators, human-computer interfaces, and augmented reality systems pointed to the possibility of immersive, real-time control systems, not only for research or training but also for improved performance. Since the 1960s, electrical engineer Thomas Furness had been working on visual displays and instrumentation in cockpits for the U.S. Air Force. By the late 1970s, he had begun development of virtual interfaces for flight control, and in 1982 he demonstrated the Visually Coupled Airborne Systems Simulatorbetter known as the Darth Vader helmet, for the armoured archvillain of the popular movie Star Wars. From 1986 to 1989, Furness directed the air forces Super Cockpit program. The essential idea of this project was that the capacity of human pilots to handle spatial information depended on these data being portrayed in a way that takes advantage of the humans natural perceptual mechanisms. Applying the HMD to this goal, Furness designed a system that projected information such as computer-generated 3-D maps, forward-looking infrared and radar imagery, and avionics data into an immersive, 3-D virtual space that the pilot could view and hear in real time. The helmets tracking system, voice-actuated controls, and sensors enabled the pilot to control the aircraft with gestures, utterances, and eye movements, translating immersion in a data-filled virtual space into control modalities. The more natural perceptual interface also reduced the complexity and number of controls in the cockpit. The Super Cockpit thus realized Lickliders vision of man-machine symbiosis by creating a virtual environment in which pilots flew through data. Beginning in 1987, British Aerospace (now part of BAE Systems) also used the HMD as the basis for a similar training simulator, known as the Virtual Cockpit, that incorporated head, hand, and eye tracking, as well as speech recognition.

Sutherland and Furness brought the notion of simulator technology from real-world imagery to virtual worlds that represented abstract models and data. In these systems, visual verisimilitude was less important than immersion and feedback that engaged all the senses in a meaningful way. This approach had important implications for medical and scientific research. Project GROPE, started in 1967 at the University of North Carolina by Frederick Brooks, was particularly noteworthy for the advancements it made possible in the study of molecular biology. Brooks sought to enhance perception and comprehension of the interaction of a drug molecule with its receptor site on a protein by creating a window into the virtual world of molecular docking forces. He combined wire-frame imagery to represent molecules and physical forces with haptic (tactile) feedback mediated through special hand-grip devices to arrange the virtual molecules into a minimum binding energy configuration. Scientists using this system felt their way around the represented forces like flight trainees learning the instruments in a Link cockpit, grasping the physical situations depicted in the virtual world and hypothesizing new drugs based on their manipulations. During the 1990s, Brookss laboratory extended the use of virtual reality to radiology and ultrasound imaging.

Virtual reality was extended to surgery through the technology of telepresence, the use of robotic devices controlled remotely through mediated sensory feedback to perform a task. The foundation for virtual surgery was the expansion during the 1970s and 80s of microsurgery and other less invasive forms of surgery. By the late 1980s, microcameras attached to endoscopic devices relayed images that could be shared among a group of surgeons looking at one or more monitors, often in diverse locations. In the early 1990s, a DARPA initiative funded research to develop telepresence workstations for surgical procedures. This was Sutherlands window into a virtual world, with the added dimension of a level of sensory feedback that could match a surgeons fine motor control and hand-eye coordination. The first telesurgery equipment was developed at SRI International in 1993; the first robotic surgery was performed in 1998 at the Broussais Hospital in Paris.

As virtual worlds became more detailed and immersive, people began to spend time in these spaces for entertainment, aesthetic inspiration, and socializing. Research that conceived of virtual places as fantasy spaces, focusing on the activity of the subject rather than replication of some real environment, was particularly conducive to entertainment. Beginning in 1969, Myron Krueger of the University of Wisconsin created a series of projects on the nature of human creativity in virtual environments, which he later called artificial reality. Much of Kruegers work, especially his VIDEOPLACE system, processed interactions between a participants digitized image and computer-generated graphical objects. VIDEOPLACE could analyze and process the users actions in the real world and translate them into interactions with the systems virtual objects in various preprogrammed ways. Different modes of interaction with names like finger painting and digital drawing suggest the aesthetic dimension of this system. VIDEOPLACE differed in several aspects from training and research simulations. In particular, the system reversed the emphasis from the user perceiving the computers generated world to the computer perceiving the users actions and converting these actions into compositions of objects and space within the virtual world. With the emphasis shifted to responsiveness and interaction, Krueger found that fidelity of representation became less important than the interactions between participants and the rapidity of response to images or other forms of sensory input.

The ability to manipulate virtual objects and not just see them is central to the presentation of compelling virtual worldshence the iconic significance of the data glove in the emergence of VR in commerce and popular culture. Data gloves relay a users hand and finger movements to a VR system, which then translates the wearers gestures into manipulations of virtual objects. The first data glove, developed in 1977 at the University of Illinois for a project funded by the National Endowment for the Arts, was called the Sayre Glove after one of the team members. In 1982 Thomas Zimmerman invented the first optical glove, and in 1983 Gary Grimes at Bell Laboratories constructed the Digital Data Entry Glove, the first glove with sufficient flexibility and tactile and inertial sensors to monitor hand position for a variety of applications, such as providing an alternative to keyboard input for data entry.

Zimmermans glove would have the greatest impact. He had been thinking for years about constructing an interface device for musicians based on the common practice of playing air guitarin particular, a glove capable of tracking hand and finger movements could be used to control instruments such as electronic synthesizers. He patented an optical flex-sensing device (which used light-conducting fibres) in 1982, one year after Grimes patented his glove-based computer interface device. By then, Zimmerman was working at the Atari Research Center in Sunnyvale, California, along with Scott Fisher, Brenda Laurel, and other VR researchers who would be active during the 1980s and beyond. Jaron Lanier, another researcher at Atari, shared Zimmermans interest in electronic music. Beginning in 1983, they worked together on improving the design of the data glove, and in 1985 they left Atari to start up VPL Research; its first commercial product was the VPL DataGlove.

By 1985, Fisher had also left Atari to join NASAs Ames Research Center at Moffett Field, California, as founding director of the Virtual Environment Workstation (VIEW) project. The VIEW project put together a package of objectives that summarized previous work on artificial environments, ranging from creation of multisensory and immersive virtual environment workstations to telepresence and teleoperation applications. Influenced by a range of prior projects that included Sensorama, flight simulators, and arcade rides, and surprised by the expense of the air forces Darth Vader helmets, Fishers group focused on building low-cost, personal simulation environments. While the objective of NASA was to develop telerobotics for automated space stations in future planetary exploration, the group also considered the workstations use for entertainment, scientific, and educational purposes. The VIEW workstation, called the Virtual Visual Environment Display when completed in 1985, established a standard suite of VR technology that included a stereoscopic head-coupled display, head tracker, speech recognition, computer-generated imagery, data glove, and 3-D audio technology.

The VPL DataGlove was brought to market in 1987, and in October of that year it appeared on the cover of Scientific American (see photograph). VPL also spawned a full-body, motion-tracking system called the DataSuit, a head-mounted display called the EyePhone, and a shared VR system for two people called RB2 (Reality Built for Two). VPL declared June 7, 1989, Virtual Reality Day. On that day, both VPL and Autodesk publicly demonstrated the first commercial VR systems. The Autodesk VR CAD (computer-aided design) system was based on VPLs RB2 technology but was scaled down for operation on personal computers. The marketing splash introduced Laniers new term virtual reality as a realization of cyberspace, a concept introduced in science fiction writer William Gibsons Neuromancer in 1984. Lanier, the dreadlocked chief executive officer of VPL, became the public celebrity of the new VR industry, while announcements by Autodesk and VPL let loose a torrent of enthusiasm, speculation, and marketing hype. Soon it seemed that VR was everywhere, from the Mattel/Nintendo PowerGlove (1989) to the HMD in the movie The Lawnmower Man (1992), the Nintendo VirtualBoy game system (1995), and the television series VR5 (1995).

Numerous VR companies were founded in the early 1990s, most of them in Silicon Valley, but by mid-decade most of the energy unleashed by the VPL and Autodesk marketing campaigns had dissipated. The VR configuration that took shape over a span of projects leading from Sutherland to LanierHMD, data gloves, multimodal sensory input, and so forthfailed to have a broad appeal as quickly as the enthusiasts had predicted. Instead, the most visible and successfully marketed products were location-based entertainment systems rather than personal VR systems. These VR arcades and simulators, designed by teams from the game, movie, simulation, and theme park industries, combined the attributes of video games, amusement park rides, and highly immersive storytelling. Perhaps the most important of the early projects was Disneylands Star Tours, an immersive flight simulator ride based on the Star Wars movie series and designed in collaboration with producer George Lucass Industrial Light & Magic. Disney had long built themed rides utilizing advanced technology, such as animatronic charactersnotably in Pirates of the Caribbean, an attraction originally installed at Disneyland in 1967. Star Tours utilized simulated motion and special-effects technology, mixing techniques learned from Hollywood films and military flight simulators with strong story lines and architectural elements that shaped the viewers experience from the moment they entered the waiting line for the attraction. After the opening of Star Tours in 1987, Walt Disney Imagineering embarked on a series of projects to apply interactive technology and immersive environments to ride systems, including 3-D motion-picture photography used in Honey, I Shrunk the Audience (1995), the DisneyQuest indoor interactive theme park (1998), and the multiplayer-gaming virtual world, Toontown Online (2001).

In 1990, Virtual World Entertainment opened the first BattleTech emporium in Chicago. Modeled loosely on the U.S. militarys SIMNET system of networked training simulators, BattleTech centres put players in individual pods, essentially cockpits that served as immersive, interactive consoles for both narrative and competitive game experiences. All the vehicles represented in the game were controlled by other players, each in his own pod and linked to a high-speed network set up for a simultaneous multiplayer experience. The players immersion in the virtual world of the competition resulted from a combination of elements, including a carefully constructed story line, the physical architecture of the arcade space and pod, and the networked virtual environment. During the 1990s, BattleTech centres were constructed in other cities around the world, and the BattleTech franchise also expanded to home electronic games, books, toys, and television.

While the Disney and Virtual World Entertainment projects were the best-known instances of location-based VR entertainments, other important projects included Iwerks Entertainments Turbo Tour and Turboride 3-D motion simulator theatres, first installed in San Francisco in 1992; motion-picture producer Steven Spielbergs Gameworks arcades, the first of which opened in 1997 as a joint project of Universal Studios, Sega Corporation, and Dreamworks SKG; many individual VR arcade rides, beginning with Sega Arcades R360 gyroscope flight simulator, released in 1991; and, finally, Visions of Realitys VR arcades, the spectacular failure of which contributed to the bursting of the investment bubble for VR ventures in the mid-1990s.

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Virtual reality | computer science | Britannica.com

What is Virtual Reality? – Virtual Reality Society

The definition of virtual reality comes, naturally, from the definitions for both virtual and reality. The definition of virtual is near and reality is what we experience as human beings. So the term virtual reality basically means near-reality. This could, of course, mean anything but it usually refers to a specific type of reality emulation.

We know the world through our senses and perception systems. In school we all learned that we have five senses: taste, touch, smell, sight and hearing. These are however only our most obvious sense organs. The truth is that humans have many more senses than this, such as a sense of balance for example. These other sensory inputs, plus some special processing of sensory information by our brains ensures that we have a rich flow of information from the environment to our minds.

Everything that we know about our reality comes by way of our senses. In other words, our entire experience of reality is simply a combination of sensory information and our brains sense-making mechanisms for that information. It stands to reason then, that if you can present your senses with made-up information, your perception of reality would also change in response to it. You would be presented with a version of reality that isnt really there, but from your perspective it would be perceived as real. Something we would refer to as a virtual reality.

So, in summary, virtual reality entails presenting our senses with a computer generated virtual environment that we can explore in some fashion.

Answering what is virtual reality in technical terms is straight-forward. Virtual reality is the term used to describe a three-dimensional, computer generated environment which can be explored and interacted with by a person. That person becomes part of this virtual world or is immersed within this environment and whilst there, is able to manipulate objects or perform a series of actions.

Although we talk about a few historical early forms of virtual reality elsewhere on the site, today virtual reality is usually implemented using computer technology. There are a range of systems that are used for this purpose, such as headsets, omni-directional treadmills and special gloves. These are used to actually stimulate our senses together in order to create the illusion of reality.

This is more difficult than it sounds, since our senses and brains are evolved to provide us with a finely synchronised and mediated experience. If anything is even a little off we can usually tell. This is where youll hear terms such asimmersiveness and realism enter the conversation. These issues that divide convincing or enjoyable virtual reality experiences from jarring or unpleasant ones are partly technical and partly conceptual. Virtual reality technology needs to take our physiology into account. For example, the human visual field does not look like a video frame. We have (more or less) 180 degrees of vision and although you are not always consciously aware of your peripheral vision, if it were gone youd notice. Similarly when what your eyes and the vestibular system in your ears tell you are in conflict it can cause motion sickness. Which is what happens to some people on boats or when they read while in a car.

If an implementation of virtual reality manages to get the combination of hardware, software and sensory synchronicity just right it achieves something known as a sense of presence. Where the subject really feels like they are present in that environment.

This may seems like a lot of effort, and it is! What makes the development of virtual reality worthwhile? The potential entertainment value is clear. Immersive films and video games are good examples. The entertainment industry is after all a multi-billion dollar one and consumers are always keen on novelty. Virtual reality has many other, more serious, applications as well.

There are a wide variety of applications for virtual reality which include:

Virtual reality can lead to new and exciting discoveries in these areas which impact upon our day to day lives.

Wherever it is too dangerous, expensive or impractical to do something in reality, virtual reality is the answer. From trainee fighter pilots to medical applications trainee surgeons, virtual reality allows us to take virtual risks in order to gain real world experience. As the cost of virtual reality goes down and it becomes more mainstream you can expect more serious uses, such as education or productivity applications, to come to the fore. Virtual reality and its cousin augmented reality could substantively change the way we interface with our digital technologies. Continuing the trend of humanising our technology.

There are many different types of virtual reality systems but they all share the same characteristics such as the ability to allow the person to view three-dimensional images. These images appear life-sized to the person.

Plus they change as the person moves around their environment which corresponds with the change in their field of vision. The aim is for a seamless join between the persons head and eye movements and the appropriate response, e.g. change in perception. This ensures that the virtual environment is both realistic and enjoyable.

A virtual environment should provide the appropriate responses in real time- as the person explores their surroundings. The problems arise when there is a delay between the persons actions and system response or latency which then disrupts their experience. The person becomes aware that they are in an artificial environment and adjusts their behaviour accordingly which results in a stilted, mechanical form of interaction.

The aim is for a natural, free-flowing form of interaction which will result in a memorable experience.

Virtual reality is the creation of a virtual environment presented to our senses in such a way that we experience it as if we were really there. It uses a host of technologies to achieve this goal and is a technically complex feat that has to account for our perception and cognition. It has both entertainment and serious uses. The technology is becoming cheaper and more widespread. We can expect to see many more innovative uses for the technology in the future and perhaps a fundamental way in which we communicate and work thanks to the possibilities of virtual reality.

Read more from the original source:

What is Virtual Reality? – Virtual Reality Society

What is Virtual Reality? – Virtual Reality Society

The definition of virtual reality comes, naturally, from the definitions for both virtual and reality. The definition of virtual is near and reality is what we experience as human beings. So the term virtual reality basically means near-reality. This could, of course, mean anything but it usually refers to a specific type of reality emulation.

We know the world through our senses and perception systems. In school we all learned that we have five senses: taste, touch, smell, sight and hearing. These are however only our most obvious sense organs. The truth is that humans have many more senses than this, such as a sense of balance for example. These other sensory inputs, plus some special processing of sensory information by our brains ensures that we have a rich flow of information from the environment to our minds.

Everything that we know about our reality comes by way of our senses. In other words, our entire experience of reality is simply a combination of sensory information and our brains sense-making mechanisms for that information. It stands to reason then, that if you can present your senses with made-up information, your perception of reality would also change in response to it. You would be presented with a version of reality that isnt really there, but from your perspective it would be perceived as real. Something we would refer to as a virtual reality.

So, in summary, virtual reality entails presenting our senses with a computer generated virtual environment that we can explore in some fashion.

Answering what is virtual reality in technical terms is straight-forward. Virtual reality is the term used to describe a three-dimensional, computer generated environment which can be explored and interacted with by a person. That person becomes part of this virtual world or is immersed within this environment and whilst there, is able to manipulate objects or perform a series of actions.

Although we talk about a few historical early forms of virtual reality elsewhere on the site, today virtual reality is usually implemented using computer technology. There are a range of systems that are used for this purpose, such as headsets, omni-directional treadmills and special gloves. These are used to actually stimulate our senses together in order to create the illusion of reality.

This is more difficult than it sounds, since our senses and brains are evolved to provide us with a finely synchronised and mediated experience. If anything is even a little off we can usually tell. This is where youll hear terms such asimmersiveness and realism enter the conversation. These issues that divide convincing or enjoyable virtual reality experiences from jarring or unpleasant ones are partly technical and partly conceptual. Virtual reality technology needs to take our physiology into account. For example, the human visual field does not look like a video frame. We have (more or less) 180 degrees of vision and although you are not always consciously aware of your peripheral vision, if it were gone youd notice. Similarly when what your eyes and the vestibular system in your ears tell you are in conflict it can cause motion sickness. Which is what happens to some people on boats or when they read while in a car.

If an implementation of virtual reality manages to get the combination of hardware, software and sensory synchronicity just right it achieves something known as a sense of presence. Where the subject really feels like they are present in that environment.

This may seems like a lot of effort, and it is! What makes the development of virtual reality worthwhile? The potential entertainment value is clear. Immersive films and video games are good examples. The entertainment industry is after all a multi-billion dollar one and consumers are always keen on novelty. Virtual reality has many other, more serious, applications as well.

There are a wide variety of applications for virtual reality which include:

Virtual reality can lead to new and exciting discoveries in these areas which impact upon our day to day lives.

Wherever it is too dangerous, expensive or impractical to do something in reality, virtual reality is the answer. From trainee fighter pilots to medical applications trainee surgeons, virtual reality allows us to take virtual risks in order to gain real world experience. As the cost of virtual reality goes down and it becomes more mainstream you can expect more serious uses, such as education or productivity applications, to come to the fore. Virtual reality and its cousin augmented reality could substantively change the way we interface with our digital technologies. Continuing the trend of humanising our technology.

There are many different types of virtual reality systems but they all share the same characteristics such as the ability to allow the person to view three-dimensional images. These images appear life-sized to the person.

Plus they change as the person moves around their environment which corresponds with the change in their field of vision. The aim is for a seamless join between the persons head and eye movements and the appropriate response, e.g. change in perception. This ensures that the virtual environment is both realistic and enjoyable.

A virtual environment should provide the appropriate responses in real time- as the person explores their surroundings. The problems arise when there is a delay between the persons actions and system response or latency which then disrupts their experience. The person becomes aware that they are in an artificial environment and adjusts their behaviour accordingly which results in a stilted, mechanical form of interaction.

The aim is for a natural, free-flowing form of interaction which will result in a memorable experience.

Virtual reality is the creation of a virtual environment presented to our senses in such a way that we experience it as if we were really there. It uses a host of technologies to achieve this goal and is a technically complex feat that has to account for our perception and cognition. It has both entertainment and serious uses. The technology is becoming cheaper and more widespread. We can expect to see many more innovative uses for the technology in the future and perhaps a fundamental way in which we communicate and work thanks to the possibilities of virtual reality.

Read more:

What is Virtual Reality? – Virtual Reality Society

Virtual Reality – YouTube

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Witness those who have conquered the impossible.

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Immerse yourself in a few of today’s most beloved games.

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Instead of merely listening to music: live it.

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Vast landscapes, iconic cities, and other mind-blowing natural places will leave you in awe at the beauty of planet Earth.

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Watch as these stories unfold all around you.

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The places, people, and events that are shaping our world.

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Continued here:

Virtual Reality – YouTube

History of Virtual Reality | The Franklin Institute

Todays virtual reality technologies build upon ideas that date back to the 1800s, almost to the very beginning of practical photography. In 1838, the first stereoscope was invented, using twin mirrors to project a single image. That eventually developed into the View-Master, patented in 1939 and still produced today.

The use of the term virtual reality, however, was first used in the mid-1980s when Jaron Lanier, founder of VPL Research, began to develop the gear, including goggles and gloves, needed to experience what he called virtual reality.

Even before that, however, technologists were developing simulated environments. One milestone was the Sensorama in 1956. Morton Heiligs background was in the Hollywood motion picture industry. He wanted to see how people could feel like they were in the movie. The Sensorama experience simulated a real city environment, which you rode through on a motorcycle. Multisensory stimulation let you see the road, hear the engine, feel the vibration, and smell the motors exhaust in the designed world.

Heilig also patented a head-mounted display device, called the Telesphere Mask, in 1960. Many inventors would build upon his foundational work.

By 1965, another inventor, Ivan Sutherland, offered the Ultimate Display, a head-mounted device that he suggested would serve as a window into a virtual world.

The 1970s and 1980s were a heady time in the field. Optical advances ran parallel to projects that worked on haptic devices and other instruments that would allow you to move around in the virtual space. At NASA Ames Research Center in the mid-1980s, for example, the Virtual Interface Environment Workstation (VIEW) system combined a head-mounted device with gloves to enable the haptic interaction.

Todays current virtual reality gear owes a debt of gratitude to the pioneering inventors of the past six decades who paved the way for the low-cost, high-quality devices which are easily accessible. Be sure to visit the VR stations at The Franklin Institute to experience a virtual environment yourself!

Read the original here:

History of Virtual Reality | The Franklin Institute

Virtual Reality Headsets & Viewers – Google Store

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Me=M(this.scrollbarYRail);this.scrollbarYRight=parseInt(Me.right,10),isNaN(this.scrollbarYRight)?(this.isScrollbarYUsingRight=!1,this.scrollbarYLeft=Z(Me.left)):this.isScrollbarYUsingRight=!0,this.scrollbarYOuterWidth=this.isRtl?te(this.scrollbarY):null,this.railBorderYWidth=Z(Me.borderTopWidth)+Z(Me.borderBottomWidth),I(this.scrollbarYRail,{display:’block’}),this.railYMarginHeight=Z(Me.marginTop)+Z(Me.marginBottom),I(this.scrollbarYRail,{display:”}),this.railYHeight=null,this.railYRatio=null,this.reach={x:0>=Pe.scrollLeft?’start’:Pe.scrollLeft>=this.contentWidth-this.containerWidth?’end’:null,y:0>=Pe.scrollTop?’start’:Pe.scrollTop>=this.contentHeight-this.containerHeight?’end’:null},this.isAlive=!0,this.settings.handlers.forEach(function(Ie){return Se[Ie](Ce)}),this.lastScrollTop=Pe.scrollTop,this.lastScrollLeft=Pe.scrollLeft,this.event.bind(this.element,’scroll’,function(Ie){return Ce.onScroll(Ie)}),fe(this)};ke.prototype.update=function(){this.isAlive&&(this.negativeScrollAdjustment=this.isNegativeScroll?this.element.scrollWidth-this.element.clientWidth:0,I(this.scrollbarXRail,{display:’block’}),I(this.scrollbarYRail,{display:’block’}),this.railXMarginWidth=Z(M(this.scrollbarXRail).marginLeft)+Z(M(this.scrollbarXRail).marginRight),this.railYMarginHeight=Z(M(this.scrollbarYRail).marginTop)+Z(M(this.scrollbarYRail).marginBottom),I(this.scrollbarXRail,{display:’none’}),I(this.scrollbarYRail,{display:’none’}),fe(this),pe(this,’top’,0,!1,!0),pe(this,’left’,0,!1,!0),I(this.scrollbarXRail,{display:”}),I(this.scrollbarYRail,{display:”}))},ke.prototype.onScroll=function(){this.isAlive&&(fe(this),pe(this,’top’,this.element.scrollTop-this.lastScrollTop),pe(this,’left’,this.element.scrollLeft-this.lastScrollLeft),this.lastScrollTop=this.element.scrollTop,this.lastScrollLeft=this.element.scrollLeft)},ke.prototype.destroy=function(){this.isAlive&&(this.event.unbindAll(),W(this.scrollbarX),W(this.scrollbarY),W(this.scrollbarXRail),W(this.scrollbarYRail),this.removePsClasses(),this.element=null,this.scrollbarX=null,this.scrollbarY=null,this.scrollbarXRail=null,this.scrollbarYRail=null,this.isAlive=!1)},ke.prototype.removePsClasses=function(){this.element.className=this.element.className.split(‘ ‘).filter(function(Pe){return!Pe.match(/^ps([-_].+|)$/)}).join(‘ ‘)},h.default=ke},function(o,h,w){‘use strict’;Object.defineProperty(h,’__esModule’,{value:!0}),h.Parallax=void 0;var M=w(367),I=w(97),N=w(370),q=function(){function W(H){this.ratio_=H}return W.prototype.run=function(H,U){var G=U*this.ratio_,X=M.Matrix.fromElementTransform(H),Q=X.set2dTranslation(new N.Vector2d(0,G));I.renderLoop.scrollMutate(function(){return Q.applyToElementTransform(H)})},W.prototype.destroy=function(){},W}();h.Parallax=q},function(o,h,w){‘use strict’;Object.defineProperty(h,’__esModule’,{value:!0}),h.VideoPlayUntilScroll=void 0;var M=w(97),I=w(141),N=function(){function q(){this.targetPercentages_=I.DynamicDefaultMap.usingFunction(function(){return 0}),this.destroyed_=!1,this.render_()}return q.prototype.run=function(W,H,U){this.targetPercentages_.set(W,U)},q.prototype.render_=function(){var W=this;this.destroyed_||M.renderLoop.mutate(function(){M.renderLoop.cleanup(function(){return W.render_()}),Array.from(W.targetPercentages_.entries()).forEach(function(H){var U=H[0],Y=H[1],G=_Mathround(100*(U.duration*Y))/100;isNaN(G)||isNaN(U.currentTime)||U.currentTime>=G?U.pause():U.play()})})},q.prototype.destroy=function(){this.destroyed_=!0},q}();h.VideoPlayUntilScroll=N},function(o,h,w){‘use strict’;Object.defineProperty(h,’__esModule’,{value:!0}),h.TimedEffect=void 0;var M=w(97),I=function(){function N(q,W,H){this.target_=q,this.startTime_=new Date().valueOf(),this.endTime_=this.startTime_+W,this.effectFunctions_=H,this.destroyed_=!1,this.init_()}return N.prototype.init_=function(){this.render_()},N.prototype.getTime_=function(){return new Date().valueOf()},N.prototype.render_=function(){var q=this;return this.destroyed_?void 0:this.getTime_()>this.endTime_?void this.runEffectFunctions_(1):void M.renderLoop.measure(function(){M.renderLoop.cleanup(function(){return q.render_()}),q.runEffectFunctions_(q.getPercent_())})},N.prototype.getPercent_=function(){return(this.getTime_()-this.startTime_)/(this.endTime_-this.startTime_)},N.prototype.runEffectFunctions_=function(q){var W=this;M.renderLoop.measure(function(){W.effectFunctions_.forEach(function(H){return H(W.target_,q)})})},N.prototype.destroy=function(){this.destroyed_=!0},N}();h.TimedEffect=I},function(o,h,w){‘use strict’;Object.defineProperty(h,’__esModule’,{value:!0}),h.generateScaleEffect=void 0;var I=w(367),N=w(97);h.generateScaleEffect=function(q,W,H){return void 0===H&&(H=!0),function(U,Y){var X=I.Matrix.fromElementTransform(U),Q=X.setScale(q+(W-q)*Y);H?Q.applyToElementTransformAsChange(U,X):N.renderLoop.mutate(function(){return Q.applyToElementTransform(U)})}}},function(o,h){‘use strict’;Object.defineProperty(h,’__esModule’,{value:!0}),h.areEqual=function(){for(var I=[],N=0;Nthis.to,ge=fe?this.current>=this.to+1:this.currentde&&-1==pe.indexOf(be)||he.push(new Promise(function(Ee){ge.fetchImg(ve).then(function(ke){ye++,ge.totalImagesLoadedCount++;var we=ge.totalImagesLoadedCount/ge.sources.length;ge.progressBarTarget=we,ge.imageData[be]=ke,Ee()})}))}),Promise.all(he).then(function(){me()})}},{key:’createImageAssets’,value:function(){var ce=this;return new Promise(function(de){var me=[];ce.imageData.forEach(function(fe,ge){fe&&me.push(new Promise(function(ye){ce.createImage(fe).then(function(ve){ce.images[ge]=ve,ye()})}))}),Promise.all(me).then(function(){ce.loadComplete_(),de()})})}},{key:’cleanup’,value:function(){this.imageData=null}},{key:’loadFrame’,value:function(ce){var de=this;return new Promise(function(pe){de.loadImg(de.sources[ce]).then(function(fe){de.images[ce]=fe,de.render(ce),pe()})})}},{key:’createImage’,value:function(ce){return new Promise(function(de){var pe=document.createElement(‘img’);pe.onload=function(){URL.revokeObjectURL(pe.src),de(pe)},pe.src=URL.createObjectURL(ce.response)})}},{key:’loadImg’,value:function(ce){var de=this;return new Promise(function(pe){(function fe(){new U.default(‘blob’).onProgress(function(){}).get(ce).then(function(ge){de.createImage(ge).then(function(ye){pe(ye)})}).catch(function(ge){console.warn(ce,ge),fe()})})()})}},{key:’fetchImg’,value:function(ce){return new Promise(function(de){(function me(){new U.default(‘blob’).onProgress(function(){}).get(ce).then(function(fe){de(fe)}).catch(function(fe){console.warn(ce,fe),me()})})()})}},{key:’normalizeFrame’,value:function(ce){var de=ce;return 0>ce&&(de=ce+180),180

Read the rest here:

Virtual Reality Headsets & Viewers – Google Store

Virtual Reality – CNET

Help, my PC with Windows 10 won’t shut down properly

Since upgrading to Windows 10 my computer won’t shut down properly. I use the menu button shutdown and the screen goes blank, but the system does not fully shut down. The only way to get it to shut down is to hold the physical power button down till it shuts down. Any suggestions?

Here is the original post:

Virtual Reality – CNET


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