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Nine Things to Know About Stem Cell Treatments

Stem cells have tremendous promise to help us understand and treat a range of diseases, injuries and other health-related conditions. Their potential is evident in the use of blood stem cells to treat diseases of the blood, a therapy that has saved the lives of thousands of children with leukemia; and can be seen in the use of stem cells for tissue grafts to treat diseases or injury to the bone, skin and surface of the eye. Important clinical trials involving stem cells are underway for many other conditions and researchers continue to explore new avenues using stem cells in medicine.

There is still a lot to learn about stem cells, however, and their current applications as treatments are sometimes exaggerated by the media and other parties who do not fully understand the science and current limitations, and also by clinics looking to capitalize on the hype by selling treatments to chronically ill or seriously injured patients. The information on this page is intended to help you understand both the potential and the limitations of stem cells at this point in time, and to help you spot some of the misinformation that is widely circulated by clinics offering unproven treatments.

It is important to discuss these Nine Things to Know and any research or information you gather with your primary care physician and other trusted members of your healthcare team in deciding what is right for you.

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Nine Things to Know About Stem Cell Treatments

Is Stem Cell Therapy for Arthritis Safe and Effective?

People considering stem cell treatment for arthritis want to know Is it safe? and Is it effective?

Most stem cell therapy using adult stem cells is considered safe because the stem cells are collected from the patient, minimizing the risk of an unwanted reaction. The most common side effects are temporary swelling and pain.3

While most stem cell therapy for arthritis is considered safe, it does carry the same risks as any other medical procedure, such as a small risk of infection. Risk may be increased if:

See What Are Stem Cells?

Some research suggests stem cell therapy engaging in these kinds of practices may elevate the risk of tumors.4

As with most regenerative medicine treatments, research is ongoing, and FDA regulations are relatively new and subject to change.

Article continues below

Whether or not stem cells therapy is effective in treating osteoarthritis is a controversial subject among medical professionals, and research in the area is ongoing.

See Osteoarthritis Treatment

How researchers think stem cell therapy worksResearchers theorize5 that when applied to an arthritic joint, stem cells might:

See Osteoarthritis Symptoms and Signs

It may be none, one, two, or all three processes at are work.

Proponents vs criticsLike many relatively new treatments, stem cell therapy has proponents and critics.

Critics emphasize that there have been no large-scale, prospective, double-blind research studiesthe kind of clinical studies that medical professionals consider the gold standardto support stem cell therapy for arthritis.

Factors that affect stem cell therapy researchAnother challenge associated with current stem cell research is that there is no standard stem cell therapy for arthritis treatment. So the stem cell therapy in one study is not necessarily the same as the stem cell therapy in another study.

Differences can include:

These differences are further complicated by more unknowns. For example, how many stem cells are needed for a particular treatment? And how do we determine if a patients own stem cells are competent enough to aid in healing?

Many physicians combine the use of stem cells with platelet rich plasma, or PRP.

See Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) Therapy for Arthritis

PRP is derived from a sample of the patients blood. In the body, platelets secrete substances called growth factors and other proteins that regulate cell division, stimulate tissue regeneration, and promote healing. Like stem cell therapy, PRP therapy is sometimes used alone with the hopes of healing an arthritic joint.

See PRP Injection Preparation and Composition

Physicians who use PRP and stem cells together think that the PRP can help maximize the healing effects of stem cells.7,8 Research in this area is ongoing.

See Platelet-Rich Plasma Injection Procedure

Stem cell therapy can vary depending on the doctor performing it. People considering stem cell therapy for an arthritic knee or other joint are advised to ask their doctors questions, including:

Both doctors and patients can benefit from having a frank conversation and setting reasonable expectations.

See Arthritis Treatment Specialists

Complete Listing of References

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Is Stem Cell Therapy for Arthritis Safe and Effective?

Stem Cell Therapy for Arthritis and Injuries | Regenexx

Select a Problem Area

If you have pain, we’re here to help. Regenexx Procedures are patented stem cell and blood platelet procedures that are used to treat a wide range of joint and spine conditions.

Click a problem area to discover what Regenexx can do for you.

The Regenexx family of non-surgical stem-cell & blood platelet procedures are next generation regenerative injection treatments for those who are suffering from shoulder pain due to arthritis, rotator cuff and shoulder labrum tears, overuse injuries, and other degenerative conditions. Regenexx is also a viable alternative for those considering shoulder replacement surgery.

View Details About Shoulder Treatments

Commonly Treated Conditions:

Shoulder Procedure Video

Regenexx Procedures are advanced stem cell and blood platelet procedures for foot and ankle conditions. Before you consider ankle surgery, fusion or replacement, consider the worlds leading stem cell and prp injection treatments.

View Details About Foot & Ankle Treatments

Commonly Treated Conditions:

Ankle Procedure Video

The Regenexx family of non-surgical stem-cell & blood platelet procedures are next generation regenerative injection treatments for those who are suffering from pain or reduced range of motion due to basal joint / cmc arthritis, hand arthritis, or other injuries & conditions in the hand.

View Details About Hand & Wrist Treatments

Commonly Treated Conditions:

The Regenexx family of non-surgical stem cell and blood platelet procedures offer next-generation injection treatments for those who are suffering from knee pain or may be facing knee surgery or knee replacement due to common injuries, arthritis, overuse and other conditions.

View Details About Knee Treatments

Commonly Treated Conditions:

ACL Procedure VideoIn-Depth with Dr. John Schultz ACL Procedure Video

The Regenexx family of non-surgical stem-cell & blood platelet procedures are next generation regenerative injection treatments for those who are suffering from pain, inflammation or reduced range of motion due tocommon elbow injuries, arthritis and overuse conditions.

View Details About Elbow Treatments

Commonly Treated Conditions:

The Regenexx family of hip surgery alternatives are breakthrough, non-surgical stem-cell treatments for people suffering from hip pain due to common injuries, hip arthritis & other degenerative problems related to the hip joint.

View Details About Hip Treatments

Commonly Treated Conditions:

Hip Labrum Procedure Video Hip Avascular Necrosis Procedure Video

Regenexx has many non-surgical platelet and stem cell based procedures developed to help patients avoid spine surgery and high dose epidural steroid side effects. These procedures utilize the patients own natural growth factors or stem cells to treat bulging or herniated discs, degenerative conditions in the spine, and other back and neck conditions that cause pain.

View Details About Spine Treatments

Commonly Treated Conditions:

Intradiscal Procedure Video

Regenexx has many non-surgical platelet and stem cell based procedures developed to help patients avoid spine surgery and high dose epidural steroid side effects. These procedures utilize the patients own natural growth factors or stem cells to treat bulging or herniated discs, degenerative conditions in the spine, and other back and neck conditions that cause pain.

View Details About Spine Treatments

Commonly Treated Conditions:

Cervical Spine Video

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Stem Cell Therapy for Arthritis and Injuries | Regenexx

Stem-cell therapy – Wikipedia

This article is about the medical therapy. For the cell type, see Stem cell.

Stem-cell therapy is the use of stem cells to treat or prevent a disease or condition.[1]

Bone marrow transplant is the most widely used stem-cell therapy, but some therapies derived from umbilical cord blood are also in use. Research is underway to develop various sources for stem cells, as well as to apply stem-cell treatments for neurodegenerative diseases and conditions such as diabetes and heart disease, among others.

Stem-cell therapy has become controversial following developments such as the ability of scientists to isolate and culture embryonic stem cells, to create stem cells using somatic cell nuclear transfer and their use of techniques to create induced pluripotent stem cells. This controversy is often related to abortion politics and to human cloning. Additionally, efforts to market treatments based on transplant of stored umbilical cord blood have been controversial.

For over 30 years, bone marrow has been used to treat people with cancer with conditions such as leukaemia and lymphoma; this is the only form of stem-cell therapy that is widely practiced.[2][3][4] During chemotherapy, most growing cells are killed by the cytotoxic agents. These agents, however, cannot discriminate between the leukaemia or neoplastic cells, and the hematopoietic stem cells within the bone marrow. It is this side effect of conventional chemotherapy strategies that the stem-cell transplant attempts to reverse; a donor’s healthy bone marrow reintroduces functional stem cells to replace the cells lost in the host’s body during treatment. The transplanted cells also generate an immune response that helps to kill off the cancer cells; this process can go too far, however, leading to graft vs host disease, the most serious side effect of this treatment.[5]

Another stem-cell therapy called Prochymal, was conditionally approved in Canada in 2012 for the management of acute graft-vs-host disease in children who are unresponsive to steroids.[6] It is an allogenic stem therapy based on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from the bone marrow of adult donors. MSCs are purified from the marrow, cultured and packaged, with up to 10,000 doses derived from a single donor. The doses are stored frozen until needed.[7]

The FDA has approved five hematopoietic stem-cell products derived from umbilical cord blood, for the treatment of blood and immunological diseases.[8]

In 2014, the European Medicines Agency recommended approval of limbal stem cells for people with severe limbal stem cell deficiency due to burns in the eye.[9]

Stem cells are being studied for a number of reasons. The molecules and exosomes released from stem cells are also being studied in an effort to make medications.[10] The paracrine soluble factors produced by stem cells, known as the stem cell secretome, has been found to be the predominant mechanism by which stem cell-based therapies mediate their effects in degenerative, auto-immune and inflammatory diseases.[11]

Research has been conducted on the effects of stem cells on animal models of brain degeneration, such as in Parkinson’s, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Alzheimer’s disease.[12][13][14] There have been preliminary studies related to multiple sclerosis.[15][16]

Healthy adult brains contain neural stem cells which divide to maintain general stem-cell numbers, or become progenitor cells. In healthy adult laboratory animals, progenitor cells migrate within the brain and function primarily to maintain neuron populations for olfaction (the sense of smell). Pharmacological activation of endogenous neural stem cells has been reported to induce neuroprotection and behavioral recovery in adult rat models of neurological disorder.[17][18][19]

Stroke and traumatic brain injury lead to cell death, characterized by a loss of neurons and oligodendrocytes within the brain. Clinical and animal studies have been conducted into the use of stem cells in cases of spinal cord injury.[20][21][22]

Stem cells are studied in people with severe heart disease.[23] The work by Bodo-Eckehard Strauer[24] was discredited by identifying hundreds of factual contradictions.[25] Among several clinical trials reporting that adult stem cell therapy is safe and effective, actual evidence of benefit has been reported from only a few studies.[26] Some preliminary clinical trials achieved only modest improvements in heart function following use of bone marrow stem cell therapy.[27][28]

Stem-cell therapy for treatment of myocardial infarction usually makes use of autologous bone marrow stem cells, but other types of adult stem cells may be used, such as adipose-derived stem cells.[29]

Possible mechanisms of recovery include:[12]

In 2013, studies of autologous bone marrow stem cells on ventricular function were found to contain “hundreds” of discrepancies.[30] Critics report that of 48 reports there seemed to be just five underlying trials, and that in many cases whether they were randomized or merely observational accepter-versus-rejecter, was contradictory between reports of the same trial. One pair of reports of identical baseline characteristics and final results, was presented in two publications as, respectively, a 578 patient randomized trial and as a 391 subject observational study. Other reports required (impossible) negative standard deviations in subsets of people, or contained fractional subjects, negative NYHA classes. Overall there were many more people published as having receiving stem cells in trials, than the number of stem cells processed in the hospital’s laboratory during that time. A university investigation, closed in 2012 without reporting, was reopened in July 2013.[31]

In 2014, a meta-analysis on stem cell therapy using bone marrow stem cells for heart disease revealed discrepancies in published clinical trial reports, whereby studies with a higher number of discrepancies showed an increase in effect sizes.[32] Another meta-analysis based on the intra-subject data of 12 randomised trials was unable to find any significant benefits of stem cell therapy on primary endpoints, such as major adverse events or increase in heart function measures, concluding there was no benefit.[33]

The TIME trial, which used a randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled trial design, concluded that “bone marrow mononuclear cells administration did not improve recovery of LV function over 2 years” in people who had a myocardial infarction.[34] Accordingly, the BOOST-2 trial conducted in 10 medical centres in Germany and Norway reported that the trial result “does not support the use of nucleated BMCs in patients with STEMI and moderately reduced LVEF”.[35] Furthermore, the trial also did not meet any other secondary MRI endpoints,[36] leading to a conclusion that intracoronary bone marrow stem cell therapy does not offer a functional or clinical benefit.[37]

The specificity of the human immune-cell repertoire is what allows the human body to defend itself from rapidly adapting antigens. However, the immune system is vulnerable to degradation upon the pathogenesis of disease, and because of the critical role that it plays in overall defense, its degradation is often fatal to the organism as a whole. Diseases of hematopoietic cells are diagnosed and classified via a subspecialty of pathology known as hematopathology. The specificity of the immune cells is what allows recognition of foreign antigens, causing further challenges in the treatment of immune disease. Identical matches between donor and recipient must be made for successful transplantation treatments, but matches are uncommon, even between first-degree relatives. Research using both hematopoietic adult stem cells and embryonic stem cells has provided insight into the possible mechanisms and methods of treatment for many of these ailments.[citation needed]

Fully mature human red blood cells may be generated ex vivo by hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which are precursors of red blood cells. In this process, HSCs are grown together with stromal cells, creating an environment that mimics the conditions of bone marrow, the natural site of red-blood-cell growth. Erythropoietin, a growth factor, is added, coaxing the stem cells to complete terminal differentiation into red blood cells.[38] Further research into this technique should have potential benefits to gene therapy, blood transfusion, and topical medicine.

In 2004, scientists at King’s College London discovered a way to cultivate a complete tooth in mice[39] and were able to grow bioengineered teeth stand-alone in the laboratory. Researchers are confident that the tooth regeneration technology can be used to grow live teeth in people.

In theory, stem cells taken from the patient could be coaxed in the lab turning into a tooth bud which, when implanted in the gums, will give rise to a new tooth, and would be expected to be grown in a time over three weeks.[40] It will fuse with the jawbone and release chemicals that encourage nerves and blood vessels to connect with it. The process is similar to what happens when humans grow their original adult teeth. Many challenges remain, however, before stem cells could be a choice for the replacement of missing teeth in the future.[41][42]

Heller has reported success in re-growing cochlea hair cells with the use of embryonic stem cells.[43]

Since 2003, researchers have successfully transplanted corneal stem cells into damaged eyes to restore vision. “Sheets of retinal cells used by the team are harvested from aborted fetuses, which some people find objectionable.” When these sheets are transplanted over the damaged cornea, the stem cells stimulate renewed repair, eventually restore vision.[44] The latest such development was in June 2005, when researchers at the Queen Victoria Hospital of Sussex, England were able to restore the sight of forty people using the same technique. The group, led by Sheraz Daya, was able to successfully use adult stem cells obtained from the patient, a relative, or even a cadaver. Further rounds of trials are ongoing.[45]

People with diabetes lose the function of insulin-producing beta cells within the pancreas.[46] In recent experiments, scientists have been able to coax embryonic stem cell to turn into beta cells in the lab. In theory if the beta cell is transplanted successfully, they will be able to replace malfunctioning ones in a diabetic patient.[47]

Clinical case reports in the treatment orthopaedic conditions have been reported. To date, the focus in the literature for musculoskeletal care appears to be on mesenchymal stem cells. Centeno et al. have published MRI evidence of increased cartilage and meniscus volume in individual human subjects.[48][unreliable medical source?][49] The results of trials that include a large number of subjects, are yet to be published. However, a published safety study conducted in a group of 227 subjects over a 3-4-year period shows adequate safety and minimal complications associated with mesenchymal cell transplantation.[50]

Wakitani has also published a small case series of nine defects in five knees involving surgical transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells with coverage of the treated chondral defects.[51]

Stem cells can also be used to stimulate the growth of human tissues. In an adult, wounded tissue is most often replaced by scar tissue, which is characterized in the skin by disorganized collagen structure, loss of hair follicles and irregular vascular structure. In the case of wounded fetal tissue, however, wounded tissue is replaced with normal tissue through the activity of stem cells.[52] A possible method for tissue regeneration in adults is to place adult stem cell “seeds” inside a tissue bed “soil” in a wound bed and allow the stem cells to stimulate differentiation in the tissue bed cells. This method elicits a regenerative response more similar to fetal wound-healing than adult scar tissue formation.[52] Researchers are still investigating different aspects of the “soil” tissue that are conducive to regeneration.[52]

Culture of human embryonic stem cells in mitotically inactivated porcine ovarian fibroblasts (POF) causes differentiation into germ cells (precursor cells of oocytes and spermatozoa), as evidenced by gene expression analysis.[53]

Human embryonic stem cells have been stimulated to form Spermatozoon-like cells, yet still slightly damaged or malformed.[54] It could potentially treat azoospermia.

In 2012, oogonial stem cells were isolated from adult mouse and human ovaries and demonstrated to be capable of forming mature oocytes.[55] These cells have the potential to treat infertility.

Destruction of the immune system by the HIV is driven by the loss of CD4+ T cells in the peripheral blood and lymphoid tissues. Viral entry into CD4+ cells is mediated by the interaction with a cellular chemokine receptor, the most common of which are CCR5 and CXCR4. Because subsequent viral replication requires cellular gene expression processes, activated CD4+ cells are the primary targets of productive HIV infection.[56] Recently scientists have been investigating an alternative approach to treating HIV-1/AIDS, based on the creation of a disease-resistant immune system through transplantation of autologous, gene-modified (HIV-1-resistant) hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (GM-HSPC).[57]

Stem cells are thought to mediate repair via five primary mechanisms: 1) providing an anti-inflammatory effect, 2) homing to damaged tissues and recruiting other cells, such as endothelial progenitor cells, that are necessary for tissue growth, 3) supporting tissue remodeling over scar formation, 4) inhibiting apoptosis, and 5) differentiating into bone, cartilage, tendon, and ligament tissue.[58][59]

To further enrich blood supply to the damaged areas, and consequently promote tissue regeneration, platelet-rich plasma could be used in conjunction with stem cell transplantation.[60][61] The efficacy of some stem cell populations may also be affected by the method of delivery; for instance, to regenerate bone, stem cells are often introduced in a scaffold where they produce the minerals necessary for generation of functional bone.[60][61][62][63]

Stem cells have also been shown to have a low immunogenicity due to the relatively low number of MHC molecules found on their surface. In addition, they have been found to secrete chemokines that alter the immune response and promote tolerance of the new tissue. This allows for allogeneic treatments to be performed without a high rejection risk.[64]

The ability to grow up functional adult tissues indefinitely in culture through Directed differentiation creates new opportunities for drug research. Researchers are able to grow up differentiated cell lines and then test new drugs on each cell type to examine possible interactions in vitro before performing in vivo studies. This is critical in the development of drugs for use in veterinary research because of the possibilities of species specific interactions. The hope is that having these cell lines available for research use will reduce the need for research animals used because effects on human tissue in vitro will provide insight not normally known before the animal testing phase.[65]

Stem cells are being explored for use in conservation efforts. Spermatogonial stem cells have been harvested from a rat and placed into a mouse host and fully mature sperm were produced with the ability to produce viable offspring. Currently research is underway to find suitable hosts for the introduction of donor spermatogonial stem cells. If this becomes a viable option for conservationists, sperm can be produced from high genetic quality individuals who die before reaching sexual maturity, preserving a line that would otherwise be lost.[66]

Most stem cells intended for regenerative therapy are generally isolated either from the patient’s bone marrow or from adipose tissue.[61][63] Mesenchymal stem cells can differentiate into the cells that make up bone, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments, as well as muscle, neural and other progenitor tissues, they have been the main type of stem cells studied in the treatment of diseases affecting these tissues.[67][68] The number of stem cells transplanted into damaged tissue may alter efficacy of treatment. Accordingly, stem cells derived from bone marrow aspirates, for instance, are cultured in specialized laboratories for expansion to millions of cells.[61][63] Although adipose-derived tissue also requires processing prior to use, the culturing methodology for adipose-derived stem cells is not as extensive as that for bone marrow-derived cells.[69][70] While it is thought that bone-marrow derived stem cells are preferred for bone, cartilage, ligament, and tendon repair, others believe that the less challenging collection techniques and the multi-cellular microenvironment already present in adipose-derived stem cell fractions make the latter the preferred source for autologous transplantation.[60]

New sources of mesenchymal stem cells are being researched, including stem cells present in the skin and dermis which are of interest because of the ease at which they can be harvested with minimal risk to the animal.[71] Hematopoetic stem cells have also been discovered to be travelling in the blood stream and possess equal differentiating ability as other mesenchymal stem cells, again with a very non-invasive harvesting technique.[72]

There is widespread controversy over the use of human embryonic stem cells. This controversy primarily targets the techniques used to derive new embryonic stem cell lines, which often requires the destruction of the blastocyst. Opposition to the use of human embryonic stem cells in research is often based on philosophical, moral, or religious objections.[73] There is other stem cell research that does not involve the destruction of a human embryo, and such research involves adult stem cells, amniotic stem cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells.

On 23 January 2009, the US Food and Drug Administration gave clearance to Geron Corporation for the initiation of the first clinical trial of an embryonic stem-cell-based therapy on humans. The trial aimed evaluate the drug GRNOPC1, embryonic stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, on people with acute spinal cord injury. The trial was discontinued in November 2011 so that the company could focus on therapies in the “current environment of capital scarcity and uncertain economic conditions”.[74] In 2013 biotechnology and regenerative medicine company BioTime (AMEX:BTX) acquired Geron’s stem cell assets in a stock transaction, with the aim of restarting the clinical trial.[75]

Scientists have reported that MSCs when transfused immediately within few hours post thawing may show reduced function or show decreased efficacy in treating diseases as compared to those MSCs which are in log phase of cell growth(fresh), so cryopreserved MSCs should be brought back into log phase of cell growth in invitro culture before these are administered for clinical trials or experimental therapies, re-culturing of MSCs will help in recovering from the shock the cells get during freezing and thawing. Various clinical trials on MSCs have failed which used cryopreserved product immediately post thaw as compared to those clinical trials which used fresh MSCs.[76]

Research has been conducted on horses, dogs, and cats can benefit the development of stem cell treatments in veterinary medicine and can target a wide range of injuries and diseases such as myocardial infarction, stroke, tendon and ligament damage, osteoarthritis, osteochondrosis and muscular dystrophy both in large animals, as well as humans.[77][78][79][80] While investigation of cell-based therapeutics generally reflects human medical needs, the high degree of frequency and severity of certain injuries in racehorses has put veterinary medicine at the forefront of this novel regenerative approach.[81] Companion animals can serve as clinically relevant models that closely mimic human disease.[82][83]

Veterinary applications of stem cell therapy as a means of tissue regeneration have been largely shaped by research that began with the use of adult-derived mesenchymal stem cells to treat animals with injuries or defects affecting bone, cartilage, ligaments and/or tendons.[84][67][85] There are two main categories of stem cells used for treatments: allogeneic stem cells derived from a genetically different donor within the same species[63][86] and autologous mesenchymal stem cells, derived from the patient prior to use in various treatments.[60] A third category, xenogenic stem cells, or stem cells derived from different species, are used primarily for research purposes, especially for human treatments.[65]

Bone has a unique and well documented natural healing process that normally is sufficient to repair fractures and other common injuries. Misaligned breaks due to severe trauma, as well as treatments like tumor resections of bone cancer, are prone to improper healing if left to the natural process alone. Scaffolds composed of natural and artificial components are seeded with mesenchymal stem cells and placed in the defect. Within four weeks of placing the scaffold, newly formed bone begins to integrate with the old bone and within 32 weeks, full union is achieved.[87] Further studies are necessary to fully characterize the use of cell-based therapeutics for treatment of bone fractures.

Stem cells have been used to treat degenerative bone diseases. The normally recommended treatment for dogs that have LeggCalvePerthes disease is to remove the head of the femur after the degeneration has progressed. Recently, mesenchymal stem cells have been injected directly in to the head of the femur, with success not only in bone regeneration, but also in pain reduction.[87]

Because of the general positive healing capabilities of stem cells, they have gained interest for the treatment of cutaneous wounds. This is important interest for those with reduced healing capabilities, like diabetics and those undergoing chemotherapy. In one trial, stem cells were isolated from the Wharton’s jelly of the umbilical cord. These cells were injected directly into the wounds. Within a week, full re-epithelialization of the wounds had occurred, compared to minor re-epithelialization in the control wounds. This showed the capabilities of mesenchymal stem cells in the repair of epidermal tissues.[88]

Soft-palate defects in horses are caused by a failure of the embryo to fully close at the midline during embryogenesis. These are often not found until after they have become worse because of the difficulty in visualizing the entire soft palate. This lack of visualization is thought to also contribute to the low success rate in surgical intervention to repair the defect. As a result, the horse often has to be euthanized. Recently, the use of mesenchymal stem cells has been added to the conventional treatments. After the surgeon has sutured the palate closed, autologous mesenchymal cells are injected into the soft palate. The stem cells were found to be integrated into the healing tissue especially along the border with the old tissue. There was also a large reduction in the number of inflammatory cells present, which is thought to aid in the healing process.[89]

Autologous stem cell-based treatments for ligament injury, tendon injury, osteoarthritis, osteochondrosis, and sub-chondral bone cysts have been commercially available to practicing veterinarians to treat horses since 2003 in the United States and since 2006 in the United Kingdom. Autologous stem cell based treatments for tendon injury, ligament injury, and osteoarthritis in dogs have been available to veterinarians in the United States since 2005. Over 3000 privately owned horses and dogs have been treated with autologous adipose-derived stem cells. The efficacy of these treatments has been shown in double-blind clinical trials for dogs with osteoarthritis of the hip and elbow and horses with tendon damage.[90][91]

Race horses are especially prone to injuries of the tendon and ligaments. Conventional therapies are very unsuccessful in returning the horse to full functioning potential. Natural healing, guided by the conventional treatments, leads to the formation of fibrous scar tissue that reduces flexibility and full joint movement. Traditional treatments prevented a large number of horses from returning to full activity and also have a high incidence of re-injury due to the stiff nature of the scarred tendon. Introduction of both bone marrow and adipose derived stem cells, along with natural mechanical stimulus promoted the regeneration of tendon tissue. The natural movement promoted the alignment of the new fibers and tendocytes with the natural alignment found in uninjured tendons. Stem cell treatment not only allowed more horses to return to full duty and also greatly reduced the re-injury rate over a three-year period.[64]

The use of embryonic stem cells has also been applied to tendon repair. The embryonic stem cells were shown to have a better survival rate in the tendon as well as better migrating capabilities to reach all areas of damaged tendon. The overall repair quality was also higher, with better tendon architecture and collagen formed. There was also no tumor formation seen during the three-month experimental period. Long-term studies need to be carried out to examine the long-term efficacy and risks associated with the use of embryonic stem cells.[64] Similar results have been found in small animals.[64]

Osteoarthritis is the main cause of joint pain both in animals and humans. Horses and dogs are most frequently affected by arthritis. Natural cartilage regeneration is very limited and no current drug therapies are curative, but rather look to reduce the symptoms associated with the degeneration. Different types of mesenchymal stem cells and other additives are still being researched to find the best type of cell and method for long-term treatment.[64]

Adipose-derived mesenchymal cells are currently the most often used because of the non-invasive harvesting. There has been a lot of success recently injecting mesenchymal stem cells directly into the joint. This is a recently developed, non-invasive technique developed for easier clinical use. Dogs receiving this treatment showed greater flexibility in their joints and less pain.[92]

Stem cells have successfully been used to ameliorate healing in the heart after myocardial infarction in dogs. Adipose and bone marrow derived stem cells were removed and induced to a cardiac cell fate before being injected into the heart. The heart was found to have improved contractility and a reduction in the damaged area four weeks after the stem cells were applied.[93]

A different trial is underway for a patch made of a porous substance onto which the stem cells are “seeded” in order to induce tissue regeneration in heart defects. Tissue was regenerated and the patch was well incorporated into the heart tissue. This is thought to be due, in part, to improved angiogenesis and reduction of inflammation. Although cardiomyocytes were produced from the mesenchymal stem cells, they did not appear to be contractile. Other treatments that induced a cardiac fate in the cells before transplanting had greater success at creating contractile heart tissue.[94]

Spinal cord injuries are one of the most common traumas brought into veterinary hospitals.[87] Spinal injuries occur in two ways after the trauma: the primary mechanical damage, and in secondary processes, like inflammation and scar formation, in the days following the trauma. These cells involved in the secondary damage response secrete factors that promote scar formation and inhibit cellular regeneration. Mesenchymal stem cells that are induced to a neural cell fate are loaded onto a porous scaffold and are then implanted at the site of injury. The cells and scaffold secrete factors that counteract those secreted by scar forming cells and promote neural regeneration. Eight weeks later, dogs treated with stem cells showed immense improvement over those treated with conventional therapies. Dogs treated with stem cells were able to occasionally support their own weight, which has not been seen in dogs undergoing conventional therapies.[95][96][97]

Treatments are also in clinical trials to repair and regenerate peripheral nerves. Peripheral nerves are more likely to be damaged, but the effects of the damage are not as widespread as seen in injuries to the spinal cord. Treatments are currently in clinical trials to repair severed nerves, with early success. Stem cells induced to a neural fate injected in to a severed nerve. Within four weeks, regeneration of previously damaged stem cells and completely formed nerve bundles were observed.[71]

Stem cells are also in clinical phases for treatment in ophthalmology. Hematopoietic stem cells have been used to treat corneal ulcers of different origin of several horses. These ulcers were resistant to conventional treatments available, but quickly responded positively to the stem cell treatment. Stem cells were also able to restore sight in one eye of a horse with retinal detachment, allowing the horse to return to daily activities.[72]

Pre-clinical models of Sjgrens syndrome[98][99] have culminated in allogeneic MSCs implanted around the lacrimal glands in KSC dogs that were refractory to current therapy. Significantly improved scores in ocular discharge, conjunctival hyperaemia, corneal changes and Schirmer tear tests (STT) were seen.[100]

In the late 1990s and early 2000s there was an initial wave of companies and clinics offering stem cell therapy to desperate people, often with extraordinary claims about what stem cells could do. Such companies and clinics included Advanced Cell Therapeutics, Stowe BioTherapy, Cells4Health run by Cornelis Kleinbloesem, the Beijing Xishan Institute for Neuroregeneration and Functional Recovery in Shijingshan run by Huang Hongyun, and EmCell in Kiev, Ukraine run by Alexandr Smikodub.[101][102] These clinics made strong claims about their outcomes, but rarely published their protocols or rigorous research showing that their therapies were safe and effective.[101]

By 2012 a second wave of companies and clinics had emerged, usually located in developing countries where medicine is less regulated and offering stem cell therapies on a medical tourism model.[102][103] Like the first wave companies and clinics, they have made similar strong claims and also have not published their protocols or rigorous research; Mexico, Thailand, and India have been centers of this activity,[102] as has South Africa.[103]

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Stem-cell therapy – Wikipedia

Stem Cell Malaysia | Stem Cell Therapy & Anti Ageing

When stem cells are diminished in your body, the number of dying and old cells continues to increase. Due to this, stem cell therapy is used to increase the number of stem cells in your body. This is an excellent method to fight various effects and signs of aging.

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Stem Cell Malaysia | Stem Cell Therapy & Anti Ageing

Stem-cell therapy – Wikipedia

This article is about the medical therapy. For the cell type, see Stem cell.

Stem-cell therapy is the use of stem cells to treat or prevent a disease or condition.[1]

Bone marrow transplant is the most widely used stem-cell therapy, but some therapies derived from umbilical cord blood are also in use. Research is underway to develop various sources for stem cells, as well as to apply stem-cell treatments for neurodegenerative diseases and conditions such as diabetes and heart disease, among others.

Stem-cell therapy has become controversial following developments such as the ability of scientists to isolate and culture embryonic stem cells, to create stem cells using somatic cell nuclear transfer and their use of techniques to create induced pluripotent stem cells. This controversy is often related to abortion politics and to human cloning. Additionally, efforts to market treatments based on transplant of stored umbilical cord blood have been controversial.

For over 30 years, bone marrow has been used to treat people with cancer with conditions such as leukaemia and lymphoma; this is the only form of stem-cell therapy that is widely practiced.[2][3][4] During chemotherapy, most growing cells are killed by the cytotoxic agents. These agents, however, cannot discriminate between the leukaemia or neoplastic cells, and the hematopoietic stem cells within the bone marrow. It is this side effect of conventional chemotherapy strategies that the stem-cell transplant attempts to reverse; a donor’s healthy bone marrow reintroduces functional stem cells to replace the cells lost in the host’s body during treatment. The transplanted cells also generate an immune response that helps to kill off the cancer cells; this process can go too far, however, leading to graft vs host disease, the most serious side effect of this treatment.[5]

Another stem-cell therapy called Prochymal, was conditionally approved in Canada in 2012 for the management of acute graft-vs-host disease in children who are unresponsive to steroids.[6] It is an allogenic stem therapy based on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from the bone marrow of adult donors. MSCs are purified from the marrow, cultured and packaged, with up to 10,000 doses derived from a single donor. The doses are stored frozen until needed.[7]

The FDA has approved five hematopoietic stem-cell products derived from umbilical cord blood, for the treatment of blood and immunological diseases.[8]

In 2014, the European Medicines Agency recommended approval of limbal stem cells for people with severe limbal stem cell deficiency due to burns in the eye.[9]

Stem cells are being studied for a number of reasons. The molecules and exosomes released from stem cells are also being studied in an effort to make medications.[10] The paracrine soluble factors produced by stem cells, known as the stem cell secretome, has been found to be the predominant mechanism by which stem cell-based therapies mediate their effects in degenerative, auto-immune and inflammatory diseases.[11]

Research has been conducted on the effects of stem cells on animal models of brain degeneration, such as in Parkinson’s, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Alzheimer’s disease.[12][13][14] There have been preliminary studies related to multiple sclerosis.[15][16]

Healthy adult brains contain neural stem cells which divide to maintain general stem-cell numbers, or become progenitor cells. In healthy adult laboratory animals, progenitor cells migrate within the brain and function primarily to maintain neuron populations for olfaction (the sense of smell). Pharmacological activation of endogenous neural stem cells has been reported to induce neuroprotection and behavioral recovery in adult rat models of neurological disorder.[17][18][19]

Stroke and traumatic brain injury lead to cell death, characterized by a loss of neurons and oligodendrocytes within the brain. Clinical and animal studies have been conducted into the use of stem cells in cases of spinal cord injury.[20][21][22]

Stem cells are studied in people with severe heart disease.[23] The work by Bodo-Eckehard Strauer[24] was discredited by identifying hundreds of factual contradictions.[25] Among several clinical trials reporting that adult stem cell therapy is safe and effective, actual evidence of benefit has been reported from only a few studies.[26] Some preliminary clinical trials achieved only modest improvements in heart function following use of bone marrow stem cell therapy.[27][28]

Stem-cell therapy for treatment of myocardial infarction usually makes use of autologous bone marrow stem cells, but other types of adult stem cells may be used, such as adipose-derived stem cells.[29]

Possible mechanisms of recovery include:[12]

In 2013, studies of autologous bone marrow stem cells on ventricular function were found to contain “hundreds” of discrepancies.[30] Critics report that of 48 reports there seemed to be just five underlying trials, and that in many cases whether they were randomized or merely observational accepter-versus-rejecter, was contradictory between reports of the same trial. One pair of reports of identical baseline characteristics and final results, was presented in two publications as, respectively, a 578 patient randomized trial and as a 391 subject observational study. Other reports required (impossible) negative standard deviations in subsets of people, or contained fractional subjects, negative NYHA classes. Overall there were many more people published as having receiving stem cells in trials, than the number of stem cells processed in the hospital’s laboratory during that time. A university investigation, closed in 2012 without reporting, was reopened in July 2013.[31]

In 2014, a meta-analysis on stem cell therapy using bone marrow stem cells for heart disease revealed discrepancies in published clinical trial reports, whereby studies with a higher number of discrepancies showed an increase in effect sizes.[32] Another meta-analysis based on the intra-subject data of 12 randomised trials was unable to find any significant benefits of stem cell therapy on primary endpoints, such as major adverse events or increase in heart function measures, concluding there was no benefit.[33]

The TIME trial, which used a randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled trial design, concluded that “bone marrow mononuclear cells administration did not improve recovery of LV function over 2 years” in people who had a myocardial infarction.[34] Accordingly, the BOOST-2 trial conducted in 10 medical centres in Germany and Norway reported that the trial result “does not support the use of nucleated BMCs in patients with STEMI and moderately reduced LVEF”.[35] Furthermore, the trial also did not meet any other secondary MRI endpoints,[36] leading to a conclusion that intracoronary bone marrow stem cell therapy does not offer a functional or clinical benefit.[37]

The specificity of the human immune-cell repertoire is what allows the human body to defend itself from rapidly adapting antigens. However, the immune system is vulnerable to degradation upon the pathogenesis of disease, and because of the critical role that it plays in overall defense, its degradation is often fatal to the organism as a whole. Diseases of hematopoietic cells are diagnosed and classified via a subspecialty of pathology known as hematopathology. The specificity of the immune cells is what allows recognition of foreign antigens, causing further challenges in the treatment of immune disease. Identical matches between donor and recipient must be made for successful transplantation treatments, but matches are uncommon, even between first-degree relatives. Research using both hematopoietic adult stem cells and embryonic stem cells has provided insight into the possible mechanisms and methods of treatment for many of these ailments.[citation needed]

Fully mature human red blood cells may be generated ex vivo by hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which are precursors of red blood cells. In this process, HSCs are grown together with stromal cells, creating an environment that mimics the conditions of bone marrow, the natural site of red-blood-cell growth. Erythropoietin, a growth factor, is added, coaxing the stem cells to complete terminal differentiation into red blood cells.[38] Further research into this technique should have potential benefits to gene therapy, blood transfusion, and topical medicine.

In 2004, scientists at King’s College London discovered a way to cultivate a complete tooth in mice[39] and were able to grow bioengineered teeth stand-alone in the laboratory. Researchers are confident that the tooth regeneration technology can be used to grow live teeth in people.

In theory, stem cells taken from the patient could be coaxed in the lab turning into a tooth bud which, when implanted in the gums, will give rise to a new tooth, and would be expected to be grown in a time over three weeks.[40] It will fuse with the jawbone and release chemicals that encourage nerves and blood vessels to connect with it. The process is similar to what happens when humans grow their original adult teeth. Many challenges remain, however, before stem cells could be a choice for the replacement of missing teeth in the future.[41][42]

Heller has reported success in re-growing cochlea hair cells with the use of embryonic stem cells.[43]

Since 2003, researchers have successfully transplanted corneal stem cells into damaged eyes to restore vision. “Sheets of retinal cells used by the team are harvested from aborted fetuses, which some people find objectionable.” When these sheets are transplanted over the damaged cornea, the stem cells stimulate renewed repair, eventually restore vision.[44] The latest such development was in June 2005, when researchers at the Queen Victoria Hospital of Sussex, England were able to restore the sight of forty people using the same technique. The group, led by Sheraz Daya, was able to successfully use adult stem cells obtained from the patient, a relative, or even a cadaver. Further rounds of trials are ongoing.[45]

People with diabetes lose the function of insulin-producing beta cells within the pancreas.[46] In recent experiments, scientists have been able to coax embryonic stem cell to turn into beta cells in the lab. In theory if the beta cell is transplanted successfully, they will be able to replace malfunctioning ones in a diabetic patient.[47]

Clinical case reports in the treatment orthopaedic conditions have been reported. To date, the focus in the literature for musculoskeletal care appears to be on mesenchymal stem cells. Centeno et al. have published MRI evidence of increased cartilage and meniscus volume in individual human subjects.[48][unreliable medical source?][49] The results of trials that include a large number of subjects, are yet to be published. However, a published safety study conducted in a group of 227 subjects over a 3-4-year period shows adequate safety and minimal complications associated with mesenchymal cell transplantation.[50]

Wakitani has also published a small case series of nine defects in five knees involving surgical transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells with coverage of the treated chondral defects.[51]

Stem cells can also be used to stimulate the growth of human tissues. In an adult, wounded tissue is most often replaced by scar tissue, which is characterized in the skin by disorganized collagen structure, loss of hair follicles and irregular vascular structure. In the case of wounded fetal tissue, however, wounded tissue is replaced with normal tissue through the activity of stem cells.[52] A possible method for tissue regeneration in adults is to place adult stem cell “seeds” inside a tissue bed “soil” in a wound bed and allow the stem cells to stimulate differentiation in the tissue bed cells. This method elicits a regenerative response more similar to fetal wound-healing than adult scar tissue formation.[52] Researchers are still investigating different aspects of the “soil” tissue that are conducive to regeneration.[52]

Culture of human embryonic stem cells in mitotically inactivated porcine ovarian fibroblasts (POF) causes differentiation into germ cells (precursor cells of oocytes and spermatozoa), as evidenced by gene expression analysis.[53]

Human embryonic stem cells have been stimulated to form Spermatozoon-like cells, yet still slightly damaged or malformed.[54] It could potentially treat azoospermia.

In 2012, oogonial stem cells were isolated from adult mouse and human ovaries and demonstrated to be capable of forming mature oocytes.[55] These cells have the potential to treat infertility.

Destruction of the immune system by the HIV is driven by the loss of CD4+ T cells in the peripheral blood and lymphoid tissues. Viral entry into CD4+ cells is mediated by the interaction with a cellular chemokine receptor, the most common of which are CCR5 and CXCR4. Because subsequent viral replication requires cellular gene expression processes, activated CD4+ cells are the primary targets of productive HIV infection.[56] Recently scientists have been investigating an alternative approach to treating HIV-1/AIDS, based on the creation of a disease-resistant immune system through transplantation of autologous, gene-modified (HIV-1-resistant) hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (GM-HSPC).[57]

Stem cells are thought to mediate repair via five primary mechanisms: 1) providing an anti-inflammatory effect, 2) homing to damaged tissues and recruiting other cells, such as endothelial progenitor cells, that are necessary for tissue growth, 3) supporting tissue remodeling over scar formation, 4) inhibiting apoptosis, and 5) differentiating into bone, cartilage, tendon, and ligament tissue.[58][59]

To further enrich blood supply to the damaged areas, and consequently promote tissue regeneration, platelet-rich plasma could be used in conjunction with stem cell transplantation.[60][61] The efficacy of some stem cell populations may also be affected by the method of delivery; for instance, to regenerate bone, stem cells are often introduced in a scaffold where they produce the minerals necessary for generation of functional bone.[60][61][62][63]

Stem cells have also been shown to have a low immunogenicity due to the relatively low number of MHC molecules found on their surface. In addition, they have been found to secrete chemokines that alter the immune response and promote tolerance of the new tissue. This allows for allogeneic treatments to be performed without a high rejection risk.[64]

The ability to grow up functional adult tissues indefinitely in culture through Directed differentiation creates new opportunities for drug research. Researchers are able to grow up differentiated cell lines and then test new drugs on each cell type to examine possible interactions in vitro before performing in vivo studies. This is critical in the development of drugs for use in veterinary research because of the possibilities of species specific interactions. The hope is that having these cell lines available for research use will reduce the need for research animals used because effects on human tissue in vitro will provide insight not normally known before the animal testing phase.[65]

Stem cells are being explored for use in conservation efforts. Spermatogonial stem cells have been harvested from a rat and placed into a mouse host and fully mature sperm were produced with the ability to produce viable offspring. Currently research is underway to find suitable hosts for the introduction of donor spermatogonial stem cells. If this becomes a viable option for conservationists, sperm can be produced from high genetic quality individuals who die before reaching sexual maturity, preserving a line that would otherwise be lost.[66]

Most stem cells intended for regenerative therapy are generally isolated either from the patient’s bone marrow or from adipose tissue.[61][63] Mesenchymal stem cells can differentiate into the cells that make up bone, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments, as well as muscle, neural and other progenitor tissues, they have been the main type of stem cells studied in the treatment of diseases affecting these tissues.[67][68] The number of stem cells transplanted into damaged tissue may alter efficacy of treatment. Accordingly, stem cells derived from bone marrow aspirates, for instance, are cultured in specialized laboratories for expansion to millions of cells.[61][63] Although adipose-derived tissue also requires processing prior to use, the culturing methodology for adipose-derived stem cells is not as extensive as that for bone marrow-derived cells.[69][70] While it is thought that bone-marrow derived stem cells are preferred for bone, cartilage, ligament, and tendon repair, others believe that the less challenging collection techniques and the multi-cellular microenvironment already present in adipose-derived stem cell fractions make the latter the preferred source for autologous transplantation.[60]

New sources of mesenchymal stem cells are being researched, including stem cells present in the skin and dermis which are of interest because of the ease at which they can be harvested with minimal risk to the animal.[71] Hematopoetic stem cells have also been discovered to be travelling in the blood stream and possess equal differentiating ability as other mesenchymal stem cells, again with a very non-invasive harvesting technique.[72]

There is widespread controversy over the use of human embryonic stem cells. This controversy primarily targets the techniques used to derive new embryonic stem cell lines, which often requires the destruction of the blastocyst. Opposition to the use of human embryonic stem cells in research is often based on philosophical, moral, or religious objections.[73] There is other stem cell research that does not involve the destruction of a human embryo, and such research involves adult stem cells, amniotic stem cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells.

On 23 January 2009, the US Food and Drug Administration gave clearance to Geron Corporation for the initiation of the first clinical trial of an embryonic stem-cell-based therapy on humans. The trial aimed evaluate the drug GRNOPC1, embryonic stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, on people with acute spinal cord injury. The trial was discontinued in November 2011 so that the company could focus on therapies in the “current environment of capital scarcity and uncertain economic conditions”.[74] In 2013 biotechnology and regenerative medicine company BioTime (AMEX:BTX) acquired Geron’s stem cell assets in a stock transaction, with the aim of restarting the clinical trial.[75]

Scientists have reported that MSCs when transfused immediately within few hours post thawing may show reduced function or show decreased efficacy in treating diseases as compared to those MSCs which are in log phase of cell growth(fresh), so cryopreserved MSCs should be brought back into log phase of cell growth in invitro culture before these are administered for clinical trials or experimental therapies, re-culturing of MSCs will help in recovering from the shock the cells get during freezing and thawing. Various clinical trials on MSCs have failed which used cryopreserved product immediately post thaw as compared to those clinical trials which used fresh MSCs.[76]

Research has been conducted on horses, dogs, and cats can benefit the development of stem cell treatments in veterinary medicine and can target a wide range of injuries and diseases such as myocardial infarction, stroke, tendon and ligament damage, osteoarthritis, osteochondrosis and muscular dystrophy both in large animals, as well as humans.[77][78][79][80] While investigation of cell-based therapeutics generally reflects human medical needs, the high degree of frequency and severity of certain injuries in racehorses has put veterinary medicine at the forefront of this novel regenerative approach.[81] Companion animals can serve as clinically relevant models that closely mimic human disease.[82][83]

Veterinary applications of stem cell therapy as a means of tissue regeneration have been largely shaped by research that began with the use of adult-derived mesenchymal stem cells to treat animals with injuries or defects affecting bone, cartilage, ligaments and/or tendons.[84][67][85] There are two main categories of stem cells used for treatments: allogeneic stem cells derived from a genetically different donor within the same species[63][86] and autologous mesenchymal stem cells, derived from the patient prior to use in various treatments.[60] A third category, xenogenic stem cells, or stem cells derived from different species, are used primarily for research purposes, especially for human treatments.[65]

Bone has a unique and well documented natural healing process that normally is sufficient to repair fractures and other common injuries. Misaligned breaks due to severe trauma, as well as treatments like tumor resections of bone cancer, are prone to improper healing if left to the natural process alone. Scaffolds composed of natural and artificial components are seeded with mesenchymal stem cells and placed in the defect. Within four weeks of placing the scaffold, newly formed bone begins to integrate with the old bone and within 32 weeks, full union is achieved.[87] Further studies are necessary to fully characterize the use of cell-based therapeutics for treatment of bone fractures.

Stem cells have been used to treat degenerative bone diseases. The normally recommended treatment for dogs that have LeggCalvePerthes disease is to remove the head of the femur after the degeneration has progressed. Recently, mesenchymal stem cells have been injected directly in to the head of the femur, with success not only in bone regeneration, but also in pain reduction.[87]

Because of the general positive healing capabilities of stem cells, they have gained interest for the treatment of cutaneous wounds. This is important interest for those with reduced healing capabilities, like diabetics and those undergoing chemotherapy. In one trial, stem cells were isolated from the Wharton’s jelly of the umbilical cord. These cells were injected directly into the wounds. Within a week, full re-epithelialization of the wounds had occurred, compared to minor re-epithelialization in the control wounds. This showed the capabilities of mesenchymal stem cells in the repair of epidermal tissues.[88]

Soft-palate defects in horses are caused by a failure of the embryo to fully close at the midline during embryogenesis. These are often not found until after they have become worse because of the difficulty in visualizing the entire soft palate. This lack of visualization is thought to also contribute to the low success rate in surgical intervention to repair the defect. As a result, the horse often has to be euthanized. Recently, the use of mesenchymal stem cells has been added to the conventional treatments. After the surgeon has sutured the palate closed, autologous mesenchymal cells are injected into the soft palate. The stem cells were found to be integrated into the healing tissue especially along the border with the old tissue. There was also a large reduction in the number of inflammatory cells present, which is thought to aid in the healing process.[89]

Autologous stem cell-based treatments for ligament injury, tendon injury, osteoarthritis, osteochondrosis, and sub-chondral bone cysts have been commercially available to practicing veterinarians to treat horses since 2003 in the United States and since 2006 in the United Kingdom. Autologous stem cell based treatments for tendon injury, ligament injury, and osteoarthritis in dogs have been available to veterinarians in the United States since 2005. Over 3000 privately owned horses and dogs have been treated with autologous adipose-derived stem cells. The efficacy of these treatments has been shown in double-blind clinical trials for dogs with osteoarthritis of the hip and elbow and horses with tendon damage.[90][91]

Race horses are especially prone to injuries of the tendon and ligaments. Conventional therapies are very unsuccessful in returning the horse to full functioning potential. Natural healing, guided by the conventional treatments, leads to the formation of fibrous scar tissue that reduces flexibility and full joint movement. Traditional treatments prevented a large number of horses from returning to full activity and also have a high incidence of re-injury due to the stiff nature of the scarred tendon. Introduction of both bone marrow and adipose derived stem cells, along with natural mechanical stimulus promoted the regeneration of tendon tissue. The natural movement promoted the alignment of the new fibers and tendocytes with the natural alignment found in uninjured tendons. Stem cell treatment not only allowed more horses to return to full duty and also greatly reduced the re-injury rate over a three-year period.[64]

The use of embryonic stem cells has also been applied to tendon repair. The embryonic stem cells were shown to have a better survival rate in the tendon as well as better migrating capabilities to reach all areas of damaged tendon. The overall repair quality was also higher, with better tendon architecture and collagen formed. There was also no tumor formation seen during the three-month experimental period. Long-term studies need to be carried out to examine the long-term efficacy and risks associated with the use of embryonic stem cells.[64] Similar results have been found in small animals.[64]

Osteoarthritis is the main cause of joint pain both in animals and humans. Horses and dogs are most frequently affected by arthritis. Natural cartilage regeneration is very limited and no current drug therapies are curative, but rather look to reduce the symptoms associated with the degeneration. Different types of mesenchymal stem cells and other additives are still being researched to find the best type of cell and method for long-term treatment.[64]

Adipose-derived mesenchymal cells are currently the most often used because of the non-invasive harvesting. There has been a lot of success recently injecting mesenchymal stem cells directly into the joint. This is a recently developed, non-invasive technique developed for easier clinical use. Dogs receiving this treatment showed greater flexibility in their joints and less pain.[92]

Stem cells have successfully been used to ameliorate healing in the heart after myocardial infarction in dogs. Adipose and bone marrow derived stem cells were removed and induced to a cardiac cell fate before being injected into the heart. The heart was found to have improved contractility and a reduction in the damaged area four weeks after the stem cells were applied.[93]

A different trial is underway for a patch made of a porous substance onto which the stem cells are “seeded” in order to induce tissue regeneration in heart defects. Tissue was regenerated and the patch was well incorporated into the heart tissue. This is thought to be due, in part, to improved angiogenesis and reduction of inflammation. Although cardiomyocytes were produced from the mesenchymal stem cells, they did not appear to be contractile. Other treatments that induced a cardiac fate in the cells before transplanting had greater success at creating contractile heart tissue.[94]

Spinal cord injuries are one of the most common traumas brought into veterinary hospitals.[87] Spinal injuries occur in two ways after the trauma: the primary mechanical damage, and in secondary processes, like inflammation and scar formation, in the days following the trauma. These cells involved in the secondary damage response secrete factors that promote scar formation and inhibit cellular regeneration. Mesenchymal stem cells that are induced to a neural cell fate are loaded onto a porous scaffold and are then implanted at the site of injury. The cells and scaffold secrete factors that counteract those secreted by scar forming cells and promote neural regeneration. Eight weeks later, dogs treated with stem cells showed immense improvement over those treated with conventional therapies. Dogs treated with stem cells were able to occasionally support their own weight, which has not been seen in dogs undergoing conventional therapies.[95][96][97]

Treatments are also in clinical trials to repair and regenerate peripheral nerves. Peripheral nerves are more likely to be damaged, but the effects of the damage are not as widespread as seen in injuries to the spinal cord. Treatments are currently in clinical trials to repair severed nerves, with early success. Stem cells induced to a neural fate injected in to a severed nerve. Within four weeks, regeneration of previously damaged stem cells and completely formed nerve bundles were observed.[71]

Stem cells are also in clinical phases for treatment in ophthalmology. Hematopoietic stem cells have been used to treat corneal ulcers of different origin of several horses. These ulcers were resistant to conventional treatments available, but quickly responded positively to the stem cell treatment. Stem cells were also able to restore sight in one eye of a horse with retinal detachment, allowing the horse to return to daily activities.[72]

Pre-clinical models of Sjgrens syndrome[98][99] have culminated in allogeneic MSCs implanted around the lacrimal glands in KSC dogs that were refractory to current therapy. Significantly improved scores in ocular discharge, conjunctival hyperaemia, corneal changes and Schirmer tear tests (STT) were seen.[100]

In the late 1990s and early 2000s there was an initial wave of companies and clinics offering stem cell therapy to desperate people, often with extraordinary claims about what stem cells could do. Such companies and clinics included Advanced Cell Therapeutics, Stowe BioTherapy, Cells4Health run by Cornelis Kleinbloesem, the Beijing Xishan Institute for Neuroregeneration and Functional Recovery in Shijingshan run by Huang Hongyun, and EmCell in Kiev, Ukraine run by Alexandr Smikodub.[101][102] These clinics made strong claims about their outcomes, but rarely published their protocols or rigorous research showing that their therapies were safe and effective.[101]

By 2012 a second wave of companies and clinics had emerged, usually located in developing countries where medicine is less regulated and offering stem cell therapies on a medical tourism model.[102][103] Like the first wave companies and clinics, they have made similar strong claims and also have not published their protocols or rigorous research; Mexico, Thailand, and India have been centers of this activity,[102] as has South Africa.[103]

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Stem-cell therapy – Wikipedia

Stem Cell Therapy in India, Low Cost Stem Cell Therapy in …

Plan your Stem Cell Therapy in India with Tour2India4Health Consultants

Stem cell therapy in India is performed by highly skilled and qualified doctors and surgeons in India. Our hospitals have state-of-art equipment that increase success rate of stem cell therapy in India. Tour2India4Health is a medical value provider that offers access to the stem cell therapy for patients from any corner of the world. We offer low cost stem cell therapy at the best hospitals in India.

Stem cells are cells that have the potential to develop into some or many different cell types in the body, depending on whether they are multipotent or pluripotent. Serving as a sort of repair system, they can theoretically divide without limit to replenish other cells for as long as the person or animal is still alive. When a stem cell divides, each “daughter” cell has the potential to either remain a stem cell or become another type of cell with a more specialized function, such as a muscle cell, a red blood cell, or a brain cell.

There are three classes of stem cells i.e totipotent, pluripotent and multipotent (also known as unipotent).

Many different terms are used to describe various types of stem cells, often based on where in the body or what stage in development they come from. You may have heard the following terms:

Adult Stem Cells or Tissue-specific Stem Cells: Adult stem cells are tissue-specific, meaning they are found in a given tissue in our bodies and generate the mature cell types within that particular tissue or organ. It is not clear whether all organs, such as the heart, contain stem cells. The term adult stem cells is often used very broadly and may include fetal and cord blood stem cells.

Fetal Stem Cells: As their name suggests, fetal stem cells are taken from the fetus. The developing baby is referred to as a fetus from approximately 10 weeks of gestation. Most tissues in a fetus contain stem cells that drive the rapid growth and development of the organs. Like adult stem cells, fetal stem cells are generally tissue-specific, and generate the mature cell types within the particular tissue or organ in which they are found.

Cord Blood Stem Cells: At birth the blood in the umbilical cord is rich in blood-forming stem cells. The applications of cord blood are similar to those of adult bone marrow and are currently used to treat diseases and conditions of the blood or to restore the blood system after treatment for specific cancers. Like the stem cells in adult bone marrow, cord blood stem cells are tissue-specific.

Embryonic Stem Cells: Embryonic stem cells are derived from very early embryos and can in theory give rise to all cell types in the body. While these cells are already helping us better understand diseases and hold enormous promise for future therapies, there are currently no treatments using embryonic stem cells accepted by the medical community.

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (IPS cells): In 2006, scientists discovered how to reprogram cells with a specialized function (for example, skin cells) in the laboratory, so that they behave like an embryonic stem cell. These cells, called induced pluripotent cells or IPS cells, are created by inducing the specialized cells to express genes that are normally made in embryonic stem cells and that control how the cell functions.

Embryonic stem cells are derived from the inner cell mass of a blastocyst: the fertilized egg, called the zygote, divides and forms two cells; each of these cells divides again, and so on. Soon there is a hollow ball of about 150 cells called the blastocyst that contains two types of cells, the trophoblast and the inner cell mass. Embryonic stem cells are obtained from the inner cell mass.

Stem cells can also be found in small numbers in various tissues in the fetal and adult body. For example, blood stem cells are found in the bone marrow that give rise to all specialized blood cell types. Such tissue-specific stem cells have not yet been identified in all vital organs, and in some tissues like the brain, although stem cells exist, they are not very active, and thus do not readily respond to cell injury or damage.

Stem cells can also be obtained from other sources, for example, the umbilical cord of a newborn baby is a source of blood stem cells. Recently, scientists have also discovered the existence of cells in baby teeth and in amniotic fluid that may also have the potential to form multiple cell types. Research on these cells is at a very early stage.

Stem cell therapy is the use of stem cells to treat certain diseases. Stem cells are obtained from the patients own blood bone marrow, fat and umbilical cord tissue or blood. They are progenitor cells that lead to creation of new cells and are thus called as generative cells as well.

The biological task of stem cells is to repair and regenerate damaged cells. Stem cell therapy exploits this function by administering these cells systematically and in high concentrations directly into the damaged tissue, where they advance its self-healing. The process that lies behind this mechanism is largely unknown, but it is assumed that stem cells discharge certain substances which activate the diseased tissue. It is also conceivable that single damaged somatic cells, e.g. single neurocytes in the spinal cord or endothelium cells in vessels, are replaced by stem cells. Most scientists agree that stem cell research has great life-saving potential and could revolutionize the study and treatment of diseases and injuries.

Stem cell therapy is useful in certain degenerative diseases like

If stem cell therapy is an option, a detailed treatment plan is prepared depending on the type of treatment necessary. Once the patient has consented to the treatment plan, an appointment is scheduled for bone marrow extraction. Please note that this is a minimally invasive surgical procedure, so it is important that patients do not take any blood-thinning medication in the ten days prior to the appointment. It is necessary for each patient to consult their own doctor before discontinuing this type of medication.

The treatment procedure include:

Bone Marrow Extraction: Bone marrow is extracted from the hip bone by the physicians. This procedure normally takes around 30 minutes. First, local anesthetic is administered to the area of skin where the puncture will be made. Then, a thin needle is used to extract around 150-200 ml of bone marrow. The injection of local anesthetic can be slightly painful, but the patient usually does not feel the extraction of bone marrow.

Isolation, Analysis and Concentration of the Stem Cells in the Laboratory: The quality and quantity of the stem cells contained in the collected bone marrow are tested at the laboratory. First, the stem cells are isolated. Then a chromatographical procedure is used to separate them from the red and white blood corpuscles and plasma. The sample is tested under sterile conditions so that the stem cells, which will be administered to the patient, are not contaminated with viruses, bacteria or fungi. Each sample is also tested for the presence of viral markers such as HIV, hepatitis B and C and cytomegalia. The cleaned stem cells are counted and viability checks are made. If there are enough viable stem cells, i.e. more than two million CD34+ cells with over 80 percent viability, the stem cell concentrate is approved for patient administration.

Stem Cell Implantation: The method of stem cell implantation depends on the patient’s condition. There are four different ways of administering stem cells:

Intravenous administration:

It is important to understand that while stem cell therapy can help alleviate symptoms in many patients and slow or even reverse degenerative processes, it does not work in all cases. Based on additional information, patient’s current health situation and/or unforeseen health risks, the medical staff can always, in the interest of the individual patient, propose another kind of stem cell transplantation or in exceptional situations cancel the treatment.

The side effects of stem cell therapy differ from person to person. Listed below are the side effects of stem cell therapy :

According to the Indian Council of Medical Research, all is considered to be experimental, with the exception of bone marrow transplants. However, the guidelines that were put into place in 2007 are largely non-enforceable. Regardless, stem cell therapy is legalized in India. Umbilical cord and adult stem cell treatment are considered permissible. Embryonic stem cell therapy and research is restricted.

There is about a 60% to 80% overall success rate in the use of stem cell therapy in both India and around the world. However, success rates vary depending on the disease being treated, the institute conducting the procedures, and the condition of the patient. In order to receive complete information you will have to contact the medical institutes and ask specific questions concerning the patient’s condition.

Mrs. Selina Naidoo with her Son from Malaysia

Tour2India4Health has proved to be a blessing in disguise for me. A medical tourism company with everything at par with our expectations has given me the most satisfactory and relieving experience of my life. I went to them for my sons surgery who was suffering from a serious illness and stem cell therapy was the only choice I had. Trust it was heart wrenching to leave my son under any hands on the operation table. Nevertheless, courageously I had to because thats what I was here for and thats what could get my son a new and healthy life. Sitting at a corner outside the operation theatre was taking my heartbeats away with every second. Finally, the surgery was over and I was there in front of the doctor with closed eyes. He declared that the surgery was successful and my son is fine but needs some extra care and some cautious post operative measures for recovery. All through our stay in the hospital, everything went on brilliantly and after my son recovered completely, I came back to my home country. Even after that for many months, I received regular calls to verify and virtually monitor the health of my child. Now, its been 5 years and when I see my child today it feels as if no surgery was ever done on him. Thanks to the doctor who treated him and to the entire team of nurses and travel professionals who displayed extra warmth and care. Thanks is just a small word to say as a mother of a child.

India is the most preferable destination for patients who are looking for low cost stem cell therapy. Indian doctors and healthcare professionals are renowned world over for their skills with many of them holding high positions in leading hospitals in US, UK and other countries around the world. There are significant numbers of highly skilled experts in India, including many who have relocated to India after having worked in the top hospitals across the world.

Stem Cell Therapy costs in India are generally about a tenth of the costs in US and are significantly cheaper compared with even other medical travel destinations like Thailand

*The price for the Stem Cell Therapy is an average collected from the 15 best corporate hospitals and 10 Top Stem Cell Experts of India.

*The final prices offered to the patients is based on their medical reports and is dependent on the current medical condition of the patient, type of room, type of therapy, hospital brand and the surgeon’s expertise.

We have worked out special packages of the Stem Cell Therapy for our Indian and International patients. You can send us your medical reports to avail the benefits of these special packages.

You would be provided with 3 TOP RECOMMENDED SURGEONS / HOSPITALS FOR YOUR STEM CELL THERAPY in India.

There are many reasons for India becoming a popular medical tourism spot is the low cost stem cell treatment in the area. When in contrast to the first world countries like, US and UK, medical care in India costs as much as 60-90% lesser, that makes it a great option for the citizens of those countries to opt for stem cell treatment in India because of availability of quality healthcare in India, affordable prices strategic connectivity, food, zero language barrier and many other reasons.

The maximum number of patients for stem cell therapy comes from Nigeria, Kenya, Ethiopia, USA, UK, Australia, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Uzbekistan, Bangladesh.

Cities where top and world renowned Stem Cell Therapy hospitals and clinics situated are :

We have PAN-India level tie ups with TOP Hospitals for Stem Cell Therapy across 15+ major cities in India. We can provide you with multiple top hospitals & best surgeons recommendations for Stem Cell Therapy in India.

India has now been recognized as one of the leaders in medical field of research and treatment. Tour2India4Health Group was established with an aim of providing best medical services to its patients and since then has been working hard in maintaining itself as one of the most professional healthcare tourism providers in India. With a number of world-renowned medical facilities affiliated, we have the resources to offer you the finest medical treatment in India, and help your speedy recovery. Tour2India4Health Group has always believed and practiced providing its patients best surgery and treatment procedure giving a second chance to live a more better and normal life. Our team serves the clientele most comfortable and convenient measures of healthcare services thus, making your medical tour to India very fruitful experience.

Our facilitation:

We has been operating patients from all major countries like USA, United Kingdom, Italy, Australia, Canada, Spain, New Zealand, and Kuwait etc. We have network of selected medical centers, surgeons and physicians around various cities in India, who qualify our assessment criteria to ensure that our core values of Safety, Excellence and Trust are maintained in all our services.

Below are the downloadable links that will help you to plan your medical trip to India in a more organized and better way. Attached word and pdf files gives information that will help you to know India more and make your trip to India easy and memorable one.

Stem Cell Therapy in India, Low Cost Stem Cell Therapy in India, Stem Cell Therapy Benefits India, stem cell therapy experience in india

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Stem Cell Therapy in India, Low Cost Stem Cell Therapy in …

National Stem Cell Centers | Stem Cell Therapy in New York …

At National Stem Cell Centers, our affiliate physicians focus on leading edge, regenerative medicine. Instead of synthetic compounds, prescription medications, or surgical procedures, we activate your own natural cellular resources to promote healing.

Our goal is to allow patients access to this potentially revolutionary form of treatment to harness your bodys natural healing cascade mechanism for the repair of damaged tissues.

Adult mesenchymal stem cells are a form of undifferentiated cells. These kinds of stem cells are found in great abundance within fatty tissue. Lying dormant (non-replicating), these remarkably intelligent cells can be activated to become other kinds of cells specific to tendons, muscle, blood vessels, nerves and bone.

This means that stem cell therapies can be the key to reducing pain, chronic inflammation, and the mitigation of many degenerative disease states.

At National Stem Cell Centers, our affiliated physicians utilize only adult stem cells harvested from your own fat tissue, without any form of artificial cellular manipulation. This means that our treatments are both effective and efficacious.

Stem cell therapies may be helpful in addressing conditions and injuries such as pain, erectile dysfunction, hair loss, chronic inflammation, autoimmune disorders, orthopedic diseases, urological disorders, nerve conditions, heart and lung diseases, and more.

Call National Stem Cell Centers today to find out if you are a good candidate for stem cell therapy.

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National Stem Cell Centers | Stem Cell Therapy in New York …

Stem-cell therapy – Wikipedia

This article is about the medical therapy. For the cell type, see Stem cell.

Stem-cell therapy is the use of stem cells to treat or prevent a disease or condition.[1]

Bone marrow transplant is the most widely used stem-cell therapy, but some therapies derived from umbilical cord blood are also in use. Research is underway to develop various sources for stem cells, as well as to apply stem-cell treatments for neurodegenerative diseases and conditions such as diabetes and heart disease, among others.

Stem-cell therapy has become controversial following developments such as the ability of scientists to isolate and culture embryonic stem cells, to create stem cells using somatic cell nuclear transfer and their use of techniques to create induced pluripotent stem cells. This controversy is often related to abortion politics and to human cloning. Additionally, efforts to market treatments based on transplant of stored umbilical cord blood have been controversial.

For over 30 years, bone marrow has been used to treat people with cancer with conditions such as leukaemia and lymphoma; this is the only form of stem-cell therapy that is widely practiced.[2][3][4] During chemotherapy, most growing cells are killed by the cytotoxic agents. These agents, however, cannot discriminate between the leukaemia or neoplastic cells, and the hematopoietic stem cells within the bone marrow. It is this side effect of conventional chemotherapy strategies that the stem-cell transplant attempts to reverse; a donor’s healthy bone marrow reintroduces functional stem cells to replace the cells lost in the host’s body during treatment. The transplanted cells also generate an immune response that helps to kill off the cancer cells; this process can go too far, however, leading to graft vs host disease, the most serious side effect of this treatment.[5]

Another stem-cell therapy called Prochymal, was conditionally approved in Canada in 2012 for the management of acute graft-vs-host disease in children who are unresponsive to steroids.[6] It is an allogenic stem therapy based on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from the bone marrow of adult donors. MSCs are purified from the marrow, cultured and packaged, with up to 10,000 doses derived from a single donor. The doses are stored frozen until needed.[7]

The FDA has approved five hematopoietic stem-cell products derived from umbilical cord blood, for the treatment of blood and immunological diseases.[8]

In 2014, the European Medicines Agency recommended approval of limbal stem cells for people with severe limbal stem cell deficiency due to burns in the eye.[9]

Stem cells are being studied for a number of reasons. The molecules and exosomes released from stem cells are also being studied in an effort to make medications.[10] The paracrine soluble factors produced by stem cells, known as the stem cell secretome, has been found to be the predominant mechanism by which stem cell-based therapies mediate their effects in degenerative, auto-immune and inflammatory diseases.[11]

Research has been conducted on the effects of stem cells on animal models of brain degeneration, such as in Parkinson’s, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Alzheimer’s disease.[12][13][14] There have been preliminary studies related to multiple sclerosis.[15][16]

Healthy adult brains contain neural stem cells which divide to maintain general stem-cell numbers, or become progenitor cells. In healthy adult laboratory animals, progenitor cells migrate within the brain and function primarily to maintain neuron populations for olfaction (the sense of smell). Pharmacological activation of endogenous neural stem cells has been reported to induce neuroprotection and behavioral recovery in adult rat models of neurological disorder.[17][18][19]

Stroke and traumatic brain injury lead to cell death, characterized by a loss of neurons and oligodendrocytes within the brain. Clinical and animal studies have been conducted into the use of stem cells in cases of spinal cord injury.[20][21][22]

Stem cells are studied in people with severe heart disease.[23] The work by Bodo-Eckehard Strauer[24] was discredited by identifying hundreds of factual contradictions.[25] Among several clinical trials reporting that adult stem cell therapy is safe and effective, actual evidence of benefit has been reported from only a few studies.[26] Some preliminary clinical trials achieved only modest improvements in heart function following use of bone marrow stem cell therapy.[27][28]

Stem-cell therapy for treatment of myocardial infarction usually makes use of autologous bone marrow stem cells, but other types of adult stem cells may be used, such as adipose-derived stem cells.[29]

Possible mechanisms of recovery include:[12]

In 2013, studies of autologous bone marrow stem cells on ventricular function were found to contain “hundreds” of discrepancies.[30] Critics report that of 48 reports there seemed to be just five underlying trials, and that in many cases whether they were randomized or merely observational accepter-versus-rejecter, was contradictory between reports of the same trial. One pair of reports of identical baseline characteristics and final results, was presented in two publications as, respectively, a 578 patient randomized trial and as a 391 subject observational study. Other reports required (impossible) negative standard deviations in subsets of people, or contained fractional subjects, negative NYHA classes. Overall there were many more people published as having receiving stem cells in trials, than the number of stem cells processed in the hospital’s laboratory during that time. A university investigation, closed in 2012 without reporting, was reopened in July 2013.[31]

In 2014, a meta-analysis on stem cell therapy using bone marrow stem cells for heart disease revealed discrepancies in published clinical trial reports, whereby studies with a higher number of discrepancies showed an increase in effect sizes.[32] Another meta-analysis based on the intra-subject data of 12 randomised trials was unable to find any significant benefits of stem cell therapy on primary endpoints, such as major adverse events or increase in heart function measures, concluding there was no benefit.[33]

The TIME trial, which used a randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled trial design, concluded that “bone marrow mononuclear cells administration did not improve recovery of LV function over 2 years” in people who had a myocardial infarction.[34] Accordingly, the BOOST-2 trial conducted in 10 medical centres in Germany and Norway reported that the trial result “does not support the use of nucleated BMCs in patients with STEMI and moderately reduced LVEF”.[35] Furthermore, the trial also did not meet any other secondary MRI endpoints,[36] leading to a conclusion that intracoronary bone marrow stem cell therapy does not offer a functional or clinical benefit.[37]

The specificity of the human immune-cell repertoire is what allows the human body to defend itself from rapidly adapting antigens. However, the immune system is vulnerable to degradation upon the pathogenesis of disease, and because of the critical role that it plays in overall defense, its degradation is often fatal to the organism as a whole. Diseases of hematopoietic cells are diagnosed and classified via a subspecialty of pathology known as hematopathology. The specificity of the immune cells is what allows recognition of foreign antigens, causing further challenges in the treatment of immune disease. Identical matches between donor and recipient must be made for successful transplantation treatments, but matches are uncommon, even between first-degree relatives. Research using both hematopoietic adult stem cells and embryonic stem cells has provided insight into the possible mechanisms and methods of treatment for many of these ailments.[citation needed]

Fully mature human red blood cells may be generated ex vivo by hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which are precursors of red blood cells. In this process, HSCs are grown together with stromal cells, creating an environment that mimics the conditions of bone marrow, the natural site of red-blood-cell growth. Erythropoietin, a growth factor, is added, coaxing the stem cells to complete terminal differentiation into red blood cells.[38] Further research into this technique should have potential benefits to gene therapy, blood transfusion, and topical medicine.

In 2004, scientists at King’s College London discovered a way to cultivate a complete tooth in mice[39] and were able to grow bioengineered teeth stand-alone in the laboratory. Researchers are confident that the tooth regeneration technology can be used to grow live teeth in people.

In theory, stem cells taken from the patient could be coaxed in the lab turning into a tooth bud which, when implanted in the gums, will give rise to a new tooth, and would be expected to be grown in a time over three weeks.[40] It will fuse with the jawbone and release chemicals that encourage nerves and blood vessels to connect with it. The process is similar to what happens when humans grow their original adult teeth. Many challenges remain, however, before stem cells could be a choice for the replacement of missing teeth in the future.[41][42]

Heller has reported success in re-growing cochlea hair cells with the use of embryonic stem cells.[43]

Since 2003, researchers have successfully transplanted corneal stem cells into damaged eyes to restore vision. “Sheets of retinal cells used by the team are harvested from aborted fetuses, which some people find objectionable.” When these sheets are transplanted over the damaged cornea, the stem cells stimulate renewed repair, eventually restore vision.[44] The latest such development was in June 2005, when researchers at the Queen Victoria Hospital of Sussex, England were able to restore the sight of forty people using the same technique. The group, led by Sheraz Daya, was able to successfully use adult stem cells obtained from the patient, a relative, or even a cadaver. Further rounds of trials are ongoing.[45]

People with diabetes lose the function of insulin-producing beta cells within the pancreas.[46] In recent experiments, scientists have been able to coax embryonic stem cell to turn into beta cells in the lab. In theory if the beta cell is transplanted successfully, they will be able to replace malfunctioning ones in a diabetic patient.[47]

Clinical case reports in the treatment orthopaedic conditions have been reported. To date, the focus in the literature for musculoskeletal care appears to be on mesenchymal stem cells. Centeno et al. have published MRI evidence of increased cartilage and meniscus volume in individual human subjects.[48][unreliable medical source?][49] The results of trials that include a large number of subjects, are yet to be published. However, a published safety study conducted in a group of 227 subjects over a 3-4-year period shows adequate safety and minimal complications associated with mesenchymal cell transplantation.[50]

Wakitani has also published a small case series of nine defects in five knees involving surgical transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells with coverage of the treated chondral defects.[51]

Stem cells can also be used to stimulate the growth of human tissues. In an adult, wounded tissue is most often replaced by scar tissue, which is characterized in the skin by disorganized collagen structure, loss of hair follicles and irregular vascular structure. In the case of wounded fetal tissue, however, wounded tissue is replaced with normal tissue through the activity of stem cells.[52] A possible method for tissue regeneration in adults is to place adult stem cell “seeds” inside a tissue bed “soil” in a wound bed and allow the stem cells to stimulate differentiation in the tissue bed cells. This method elicits a regenerative response more similar to fetal wound-healing than adult scar tissue formation.[52] Researchers are still investigating different aspects of the “soil” tissue that are conducive to regeneration.[52]

Culture of human embryonic stem cells in mitotically inactivated porcine ovarian fibroblasts (POF) causes differentiation into germ cells (precursor cells of oocytes and spermatozoa), as evidenced by gene expression analysis.[53]

Human embryonic stem cells have been stimulated to form Spermatozoon-like cells, yet still slightly damaged or malformed.[54] It could potentially treat azoospermia.

In 2012, oogonial stem cells were isolated from adult mouse and human ovaries and demonstrated to be capable of forming mature oocytes.[55] These cells have the potential to treat infertility.

Destruction of the immune system by the HIV is driven by the loss of CD4+ T cells in the peripheral blood and lymphoid tissues. Viral entry into CD4+ cells is mediated by the interaction with a cellular chemokine receptor, the most common of which are CCR5 and CXCR4. Because subsequent viral replication requires cellular gene expression processes, activated CD4+ cells are the primary targets of productive HIV infection.[56] Recently scientists have been investigating an alternative approach to treating HIV-1/AIDS, based on the creation of a disease-resistant immune system through transplantation of autologous, gene-modified (HIV-1-resistant) hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (GM-HSPC).[57]

Stem cells are thought to mediate repair via five primary mechanisms: 1) providing an anti-inflammatory effect, 2) homing to damaged tissues and recruiting other cells, such as endothelial progenitor cells, that are necessary for tissue growth, 3) supporting tissue remodeling over scar formation, 4) inhibiting apoptosis, and 5) differentiating into bone, cartilage, tendon, and ligament tissue.[58][59]

To further enrich blood supply to the damaged areas, and consequently promote tissue regeneration, platelet-rich plasma could be used in conjunction with stem cell transplantation.[60][61] The efficacy of some stem cell populations may also be affected by the method of delivery; for instance, to regenerate bone, stem cells are often introduced in a scaffold where they produce the minerals necessary for generation of functional bone.[60][61][62][63]

Stem cells have also been shown to have a low immunogenicity due to the relatively low number of MHC molecules found on their surface. In addition, they have been found to secrete chemokines that alter the immune response and promote tolerance of the new tissue. This allows for allogeneic treatments to be performed without a high rejection risk.[64]

The ability to grow up functional adult tissues indefinitely in culture through Directed differentiation creates new opportunities for drug research. Researchers are able to grow up differentiated cell lines and then test new drugs on each cell type to examine possible interactions in vitro before performing in vivo studies. This is critical in the development of drugs for use in veterinary research because of the possibilities of species specific interactions. The hope is that having these cell lines available for research use will reduce the need for research animals used because effects on human tissue in vitro will provide insight not normally known before the animal testing phase.[65]

Stem cells are being explored for use in conservation efforts. Spermatogonial stem cells have been harvested from a rat and placed into a mouse host and fully mature sperm were produced with the ability to produce viable offspring. Currently research is underway to find suitable hosts for the introduction of donor spermatogonial stem cells. If this becomes a viable option for conservationists, sperm can be produced from high genetic quality individuals who die before reaching sexual maturity, preserving a line that would otherwise be lost.[66]

Most stem cells intended for regenerative therapy are generally isolated either from the patient’s bone marrow or from adipose tissue.[61][63] Mesenchymal stem cells can differentiate into the cells that make up bone, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments, as well as muscle, neural and other progenitor tissues, they have been the main type of stem cells studied in the treatment of diseases affecting these tissues.[67][68] The number of stem cells transplanted into damaged tissue may alter efficacy of treatment. Accordingly, stem cells derived from bone marrow aspirates, for instance, are cultured in specialized laboratories for expansion to millions of cells.[61][63] Although adipose-derived tissue also requires processing prior to use, the culturing methodology for adipose-derived stem cells is not as extensive as that for bone marrow-derived cells.[69][70] While it is thought that bone-marrow derived stem cells are preferred for bone, cartilage, ligament, and tendon repair, others believe that the less challenging collection techniques and the multi-cellular microenvironment already present in adipose-derived stem cell fractions make the latter the preferred source for autologous transplantation.[60]

New sources of mesenchymal stem cells are being researched, including stem cells present in the skin and dermis which are of interest because of the ease at which they can be harvested with minimal risk to the animal.[71] Hematopoetic stem cells have also been discovered to be travelling in the blood stream and possess equal differentiating ability as other mesenchymal stem cells, again with a very non-invasive harvesting technique.[72]

There is widespread controversy over the use of human embryonic stem cells. This controversy primarily targets the techniques used to derive new embryonic stem cell lines, which often requires the destruction of the blastocyst. Opposition to the use of human embryonic stem cells in research is often based on philosophical, moral, or religious objections.[73] There is other stem cell research that does not involve the destruction of a human embryo, and such research involves adult stem cells, amniotic stem cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells.

On 23 January 2009, the US Food and Drug Administration gave clearance to Geron Corporation for the initiation of the first clinical trial of an embryonic stem-cell-based therapy on humans. The trial aimed evaluate the drug GRNOPC1, embryonic stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, on people with acute spinal cord injury. The trial was discontinued in November 2011 so that the company could focus on therapies in the “current environment of capital scarcity and uncertain economic conditions”.[74] In 2013 biotechnology and regenerative medicine company BioTime (AMEX:BTX) acquired Geron’s stem cell assets in a stock transaction, with the aim of restarting the clinical trial.[75]

Scientists have reported that MSCs when transfused immediately within few hours post thawing may show reduced function or show decreased efficacy in treating diseases as compared to those MSCs which are in log phase of cell growth(fresh), so cryopreserved MSCs should be brought back into log phase of cell growth in invitro culture before these are administered for clinical trials or experimental therapies, re-culturing of MSCs will help in recovering from the shock the cells get during freezing and thawing. Various clinical trials on MSCs have failed which used cryopreserved product immediately post thaw as compared to those clinical trials which used fresh MSCs.[76]

Research has been conducted on horses, dogs, and cats can benefit the development of stem cell treatments in veterinary medicine and can target a wide range of injuries and diseases such as myocardial infarction, stroke, tendon and ligament damage, osteoarthritis, osteochondrosis and muscular dystrophy both in large animals, as well as humans.[77][78][79][80] While investigation of cell-based therapeutics generally reflects human medical needs, the high degree of frequency and severity of certain injuries in racehorses has put veterinary medicine at the forefront of this novel regenerative approach.[81] Companion animals can serve as clinically relevant models that closely mimic human disease.[82][83]

Veterinary applications of stem cell therapy as a means of tissue regeneration have been largely shaped by research that began with the use of adult-derived mesenchymal stem cells to treat animals with injuries or defects affecting bone, cartilage, ligaments and/or tendons.[84][67][85] There are two main categories of stem cells used for treatments: allogeneic stem cells derived from a genetically different donor within the same species[63][86] and autologous mesenchymal stem cells, derived from the patient prior to use in various treatments.[60] A third category, xenogenic stem cells, or stem cells derived from different species, are used primarily for research purposes, especially for human treatments.[65]

Bone has a unique and well documented natural healing process that normally is sufficient to repair fractures and other common injuries. Misaligned breaks due to severe trauma, as well as treatments like tumor resections of bone cancer, are prone to improper healing if left to the natural process alone. Scaffolds composed of natural and artificial components are seeded with mesenchymal stem cells and placed in the defect. Within four weeks of placing the scaffold, newly formed bone begins to integrate with the old bone and within 32 weeks, full union is achieved.[87] Further studies are necessary to fully characterize the use of cell-based therapeutics for treatment of bone fractures.

Stem cells have been used to treat degenerative bone diseases. The normally recommended treatment for dogs that have LeggCalvePerthes disease is to remove the head of the femur after the degeneration has progressed. Recently, mesenchymal stem cells have been injected directly in to the head of the femur, with success not only in bone regeneration, but also in pain reduction.[87]

Because of the general positive healing capabilities of stem cells, they have gained interest for the treatment of cutaneous wounds. This is important interest for those with reduced healing capabilities, like diabetics and those undergoing chemotherapy. In one trial, stem cells were isolated from the Wharton’s jelly of the umbilical cord. These cells were injected directly into the wounds. Within a week, full re-epithelialization of the wounds had occurred, compared to minor re-epithelialization in the control wounds. This showed the capabilities of mesenchymal stem cells in the repair of epidermal tissues.[88]

Soft-palate defects in horses are caused by a failure of the embryo to fully close at the midline during embryogenesis. These are often not found until after they have become worse because of the difficulty in visualizing the entire soft palate. This lack of visualization is thought to also contribute to the low success rate in surgical intervention to repair the defect. As a result, the horse often has to be euthanized. Recently, the use of mesenchymal stem cells has been added to the conventional treatments. After the surgeon has sutured the palate closed, autologous mesenchymal cells are injected into the soft palate. The stem cells were found to be integrated into the healing tissue especially along the border with the old tissue. There was also a large reduction in the number of inflammatory cells present, which is thought to aid in the healing process.[89]

Autologous stem cell-based treatments for ligament injury, tendon injury, osteoarthritis, osteochondrosis, and sub-chondral bone cysts have been commercially available to practicing veterinarians to treat horses since 2003 in the United States and since 2006 in the United Kingdom. Autologous stem cell based treatments for tendon injury, ligament injury, and osteoarthritis in dogs have been available to veterinarians in the United States since 2005. Over 3000 privately owned horses and dogs have been treated with autologous adipose-derived stem cells. The efficacy of these treatments has been shown in double-blind clinical trials for dogs with osteoarthritis of the hip and elbow and horses with tendon damage.[90][91]

Race horses are especially prone to injuries of the tendon and ligaments. Conventional therapies are very unsuccessful in returning the horse to full functioning potential. Natural healing, guided by the conventional treatments, leads to the formation of fibrous scar tissue that reduces flexibility and full joint movement. Traditional treatments prevented a large number of horses from returning to full activity and also have a high incidence of re-injury due to the stiff nature of the scarred tendon. Introduction of both bone marrow and adipose derived stem cells, along with natural mechanical stimulus promoted the regeneration of tendon tissue. The natural movement promoted the alignment of the new fibers and tendocytes with the natural alignment found in uninjured tendons. Stem cell treatment not only allowed more horses to return to full duty and also greatly reduced the re-injury rate over a three-year period.[64]

The use of embryonic stem cells has also been applied to tendon repair. The embryonic stem cells were shown to have a better survival rate in the tendon as well as better migrating capabilities to reach all areas of damaged tendon. The overall repair quality was also higher, with better tendon architecture and collagen formed. There was also no tumor formation seen during the three-month experimental period. Long-term studies need to be carried out to examine the long-term efficacy and risks associated with the use of embryonic stem cells.[64] Similar results have been found in small animals.[64]

Osteoarthritis is the main cause of joint pain both in animals and humans. Horses and dogs are most frequently affected by arthritis. Natural cartilage regeneration is very limited and no current drug therapies are curative, but rather look to reduce the symptoms associated with the degeneration. Different types of mesenchymal stem cells and other additives are still being researched to find the best type of cell and method for long-term treatment.[64]

Adipose-derived mesenchymal cells are currently the most often used because of the non-invasive harvesting. There has been a lot of success recently injecting mesenchymal stem cells directly into the joint. This is a recently developed, non-invasive technique developed for easier clinical use. Dogs receiving this treatment showed greater flexibility in their joints and less pain.[92]

Stem cells have successfully been used to ameliorate healing in the heart after myocardial infarction in dogs. Adipose and bone marrow derived stem cells were removed and induced to a cardiac cell fate before being injected into the heart. The heart was found to have improved contractility and a reduction in the damaged area four weeks after the stem cells were applied.[93]

A different trial is underway for a patch made of a porous substance onto which the stem cells are “seeded” in order to induce tissue regeneration in heart defects. Tissue was regenerated and the patch was well incorporated into the heart tissue. This is thought to be due, in part, to improved angiogenesis and reduction of inflammation. Although cardiomyocytes were produced from the mesenchymal stem cells, they did not appear to be contractile. Other treatments that induced a cardiac fate in the cells before transplanting had greater success at creating contractile heart tissue.[94]

Spinal cord injuries are one of the most common traumas brought into veterinary hospitals.[87] Spinal injuries occur in two ways after the trauma: the primary mechanical damage, and in secondary processes, like inflammation and scar formation, in the days following the trauma. These cells involved in the secondary damage response secrete factors that promote scar formation and inhibit cellular regeneration. Mesenchymal stem cells that are induced to a neural cell fate are loaded onto a porous scaffold and are then implanted at the site of injury. The cells and scaffold secrete factors that counteract those secreted by scar forming cells and promote neural regeneration. Eight weeks later, dogs treated with stem cells showed immense improvement over those treated with conventional therapies. Dogs treated with stem cells were able to occasionally support their own weight, which has not been seen in dogs undergoing conventional therapies.[95][96][97]

Treatments are also in clinical trials to repair and regenerate peripheral nerves. Peripheral nerves are more likely to be damaged, but the effects of the damage are not as widespread as seen in injuries to the spinal cord. Treatments are currently in clinical trials to repair severed nerves, with early success. Stem cells induced to a neural fate injected in to a severed nerve. Within four weeks, regeneration of previously damaged stem cells and completely formed nerve bundles were observed.[71]

Stem cells are also in clinical phases for treatment in ophthalmology. Hematopoietic stem cells have been used to treat corneal ulcers of different origin of several horses. These ulcers were resistant to conventional treatments available, but quickly responded positively to the stem cell treatment. Stem cells were also able to restore sight in one eye of a horse with retinal detachment, allowing the horse to return to daily activities.[72]

Pre-clinical models of Sjgrens syndrome[98][99] have culminated in allogeneic MSCs implanted around the lacrimal glands in KSC dogs that were refractory to current therapy. Significantly improved scores in ocular discharge, conjunctival hyperaemia, corneal changes and Schirmer tear tests (STT) were seen.[100]

In the late 1990s and early 2000s there was an initial wave of companies and clinics offering stem cell therapy to desperate people, often with extraordinary claims about what stem cells could do. Such companies and clinics included Advanced Cell Therapeutics, Stowe BioTherapy, Cells4Health run by Cornelis Kleinbloesem, the Beijing Xishan Institute for Neuroregeneration and Functional Recovery in Shijingshan run by Huang Hongyun, and EmCell in Kiev, Ukraine run by Alexandr Smikodub.[101][102] These clinics made strong claims about their outcomes, but rarely published their protocols or rigorous research showing that their therapies were safe and effective.[101]

By 2012 a second wave of companies and clinics had emerged, usually located in developing countries where medicine is less regulated and offering stem cell therapies on a medical tourism model.[102][103] Like the first wave companies and clinics, they have made similar strong claims and also have not published their protocols or rigorous research; Mexico, Thailand, and India have been centers of this activity,[102] as has South Africa.[103]

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Stem-cell therapy – Wikipedia

Stem Cell Therapy and Stem Cell Injection Provider Finder …

Stem cell therapy can be described as a means or process by which stem cells are used for the prevention, treatment or the cure of diseases. Stem cells are a special kind of cells that have features other types of cells dont have. As an illustration, stem cells are capable of proliferation. This implies that they can develop into any type of cell, and grow to start performing the functions of the tissue. In addition, they can regenerate. This means they can multiply themselves. This is most important when a new tissue has to be formed. Also, they modulate immune reactions. This has made them useful for the treatment of autoimmune diseases, especially those that affect the musculoskeletal system such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and so on. Stem cells can be derrived from different sources. They can be extracted from the body, and in some specific parts of the body. This includes the blood, bone marrow, umbilical cord in newborns, adipose tissue, and from embryos. There are 2 main types of stem cell transplant. These are autologous stem cell transplant, and allogeneic stem cell transplant. The autologous stem cell transplant means that stem cells are extracted from the patient, processed, and then transplanted back to the patient, for therapeutic purposes. On the other hand, allogeneic stem cell transplant means the transplant of stem cells or from another individual, known as the donor, to another person, or recipient. Some treatments must be given to the receiver to prevent any cases of rejections, and other complications. The autologous is usually the most preferred type of transplant because of its almost zero side effects. Below are some of the stem cell treatments. Our goal is to provide education, research and an opportunity to connect with Stem Cell Doctors, as well as provide stem cell reviews

Adipose Stem Cell TreatmentsAdipose stem cell treatment is one of the most commonly used. This is because large quantities of stem cells can be derrived from them. According to statistics, the number of stem cells in adipose tissue are usually hundreds of times higher than what can be obtained from other sources, such as the bone marrow stem cells. Adipose stem cells have taken the center stage in the world of stem cell therapy. Apart from the ease that comes with the harvesting of these cells from the adipose tissue, they also have some special features, that separates them from other types of cells. Adipose stem cells are capable of regulating and modulating the immune system. This includes immune suppression, which is important for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. In addition, adipose stem cells can differentiate to form other types of cells. Some of them include the bone forming cells, cardiomyocytes, and cells of the nervous system.

This process can be divided into four parts. These are

Stem cell joint injection is fast becoming the new treatment of joint diseases. Stem cells derived from bone marrow, adipose and mesenchymal stem cells are the most commonly used. The stem cells are injected into the joints, and they proceed to repair and replace the damaged tissues. The cells also modulate the inflammatory process going on. Overall, stem cell joint injections significantly reduce the recovery time of patients and also eliminates pain and risks associated with surgery. Examples of diseases where this treatment is used include osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and so on. Researchers and physicians have rated this procedure to be the future of joint therapy.

Losing a tooth as a kid isnt news because youd eventually grow them back, but losing one as an adult isnt a pleasant experience. Youd have to go through the pains of getting a replacement from your dentist. Apart from the cost of these procedures, the pain and number of days youd have to stay at home nursing the pain is also a problem. Nevertheless, there are great teeth replacement therapies available for all kinds of dental problems. Although there are already good dental treatment methods, stem cell therapy might soon become the future of dental procedures. Currently, a lot of research is being done on how stem cells can be used to develop teeth naturally, especially in patients with dental problems. The aim of the project is to develop a method whereby peoples stem cells are used in regenerating their own teeth and within the shortest time possible. Some of the benefits of the stem cell tooth would be:

The quality of life of those that underwent serious procedures, especially those that had an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation done was studied. It was discovered that this set of people had to cope with some psychological problems, even years after the procedure. In addition, allogeneic stem cell transplantation often comes with some side effects. However, this a small price to pay, considering that the adverse effects are not usually life-threatening. Also theses types of procedures are used for severe disorders or even terminal diseases. On the other hand, autologous stem cell transplantation bears the minimum to no side effects. Patients do have a great quality of life, both in the short term and in the long term.

This is one of the many uses of stem cells. The stem cell gun is a device that is used in treating people with wounds or burns. This is done by simply triggering it, and it sprays stem cells on the affected part. This kind of treatment is crucial for victims of a severe burn. Usually, people affected by severe burns would have to endure excruciating pain. The process of recovery is usually long, which might vary from weeks to months, depending on the severity of the burn. Even after treatment, most patients are left with scars forever. However, the stem cell gun eliminates these problems, the skin can be grown back in just a matter of days. The new skin also grows evenly and blends perfectly with the other part of the body. This process is also without the scars that are usually associated with the traditional burns therapy. The stem cell gun is without any side effects.

There is one company that focuses on the production of stem cell supplements. These stem cells are usually natural ingredients that increase the development of stem cells, and also keeps them healthy. The purpose of the stem cell supplements is to help reduce the aging process and make people look younger. These supplements work by replacing the dead or repairing the damaged tissues of the body. There have been a lot of testimonials to the efficacy of these supplements.

It is the goal of researchers to make stem cell therapy a good alternative for the millions of patients suffering from cardiac-related diseases. According to some experiments carried out in animals, stem cells were injected into the ones affected by heart diseases. A large percentage of them showed great improvement, even within just a few weeks. However, when the trial was carried out in humans, some stem cells went ahead to develop into heart muscles, but overall, the heart function was generally improved. The reason for the improvement has been attributed to the formation of new vessels in the heart. The topic that has generated a lot of arguments have been what type of cells should be used in the treatment of heart disorders. Stem cells extracted from the bone marrow, embryo have been in use, although bone marrow stem cells are the most commonly used. Stem cells extracted from bone marrow can differentiate into cardiac cells, while studies have shown that other stem cells cannot do the same. Even though the stem cell therapy has a lot of potential in the future, more research and studies have to be done to make that a reality.

The use of stem cells for the treatment of hair loss has increased significantly. This can be attributed to the discovery of stem cells in bone marrow, adipose cells, umbilical cord, and so on. Stem cells are extracted from the patient, through any of the sources listed above. Adipose tissue stem cells are usually the most convenient in this scenario, as they do not require any special extraction procedure. Adipose tissue is harvested from the abdominal area. The stem cells are then isolated from the other cells through a process known as centrifugation. The stem cells are then activated and are now ready for use. The isolated stem cells are then introduced into the scalp, under local anesthesia. The entire process takes about three hours. Patients are free to go home, after the procedure. Patients would begin to see improvements in just a few months, however, this depends largely on the patients ability to heal. Every patient has a different outcome.

Human umbilical stem cells are cells extracted from the umbilical cord of a healthy baby, shortly after birth. Umbilical cord tissue is abundant in stem cells, and the stem cells can differentiate into many types of cells such as red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. They are also capable of differentiating into non-blood cells such as muscle cells, cartilage cells and so on. These cells are usually preferred because its’ extraction is minimally non invasive. It also is nearly painless. It also has zero risks of rejecting, as it does not require any form of matching or typing.Human umbilical stem cell injections are used for the treatment of spinal cord injuries. A trial was done on twenty-five patients that had late-stage spinal cord injuries. They were placed on human umbilical stem cell therapy, while another set of 25 patients were simultaneously placed on the usual rehabilitation therapy. The two groups were studied for the next twelve months. The results of the trial showed that those people placed on stem cell therapy by administering the human umbilical cell tissue injections had a significant recovery, as compared to the other group that underwent the traditional rehabilitation therapy. It was concluded that human umbilical tissue injections applied close to the injured part gives the best outcomes.

Stem cell therapy has been used for the treatment of many types diseases. This ranges from terminal illnesses such as cancer, joint diseases such as arthritis, and also autoimmune diseases. Stem cell therapy is often a better alternative to most traditional therapy today. This is because stem cell procedure is minimally invasive when compared to chemotherapy and so on. It harnesses the bodys own ability to heal. The stem cells are extracted from other parts of the body and then transplanted to other parts of the body, where they would repair and maintain the tissues. They also perform the function of modulating the immune system, which makes them important for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. Below are some of the diseases that stem cell therapies have been used successfully:

A stem cell bank can be described as a facility where stem cells are stored for future purposes. These are mostly amniotic stem cells, which are derived from the amnion fluid. Umbilical cord stem cells are also equally important as it is rich in stem cells and can be used for the treatment of many diseases. Examples of these diseases include cancer, blood disorders, autoimmune diseases, musculoskeletal diseases and so on. According to statistics, umbilical stem cells can be used for the treatment of over eighty diseases. Storing your stem cells should be seen as an investment in your health for future sake. Parents do have the option of either throwing away their babys umbilical cord or donating it to stem cell banks.

The adipose tissue contains a lot of stem cells, that has the ability to transform into other cells such as muscle, cartilage, neural cells. They are also important for the treatment of some cardiovascular diseases. This is what makes it important for people to want to store their stem cells. The future health benefit is huge. The only way adults can store their stem cells in sufficient amounts is to extract the stem cells from their fat tissues. This process is usually painless and fast. Although, the extraction might have to be done between 3 to 5 times before the needed quantity is gotten. People that missed the opportunity to store their stem cells, using their cord cells, can now store it using their own adipose tissues. This can be used at any point in time.

Side effects often accompany every kind of treatment. However, this depends largely on the individual. While patients might present with side effects, some other people wouldnt. Whether a patient will present with adverse effects, depends on the following factors;

Some of the common side effects of stem cell transplant are;

Stem cell treatment has been largely successful so far, however, more studies and research needs to be done. Stem cell therapy could be the future.

Stem cells are unique cells that have some special features such as self-regeneration, tissue repair, and modulation of the immune system. These are the features that are employed in the treatment of diseases.

Our doctors are certified by iSTEMCELL but operate as part of a medical group or as independent business owners and as such are free to charge what the feel to be the right fit for their practice and clients. We have seen Stem Cell Treatment costs range from $3500 upwards of $30,000 depending on the condition and protocol required for intended results. Find the Best Stem Cell Doctor Near me If you are interested in saving money, try our STEM CELL COUPON!

Travel Medcations are becoming very popular around the globe for several reasons but not for what one might think. It is not about traveling to Mexico to save money, but to get procedures or protocols that are not yet available in your home country. Many procedures are started in your home country, then the tissue is set to the tissue lab where it is then grown in a process to maximize live cells, then sent to a hospital in Mexico designed to treat or provide different therapies for different conditions. If you’re ready to take a medical vacation call 972-800-6670 for our”WHITE GLOVE” service.

Chen, C. and Hou, J. (2016). Mesenchymal stem cell-based therapy in kidney transplantation. Stem Cell Research & Therapy, 7(1).

Donnelly, A., Johar, S., OBrien, T. and Tuan, R. (2010). Welcome to Stem Cell Research & Therapy. Stem Cell Research & Therapy, 1(1), p.1.

Groothuis, S. (2015). Changes in Stem Cell Research. Stem Cell Research, 14(1), p.130.

Rao, M. (2012). Stem cells and regenerative medicine. Stem Cell Research & Therapy, 3(4), p.27.

Vunjak-Novakovic, G. (2013). Physical influences on stem cells. Stem Cell Research & Therapy, 4(6), p.153.

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Stem cell – Wikipedia

Stem cells are biological cells that can differentiate into other types of cells and can divide to produce more of the same type of stem cells. They are found in multicellular organisms.

In mammals, there are two broad types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells, which are isolated from the inner cell mass of blastocysts, and adult stem cells, which are found in various tissues. In adult organisms, stem cells and progenitor cells act as a repair system for the body, replenishing adult tissues. In a developing embryo, stem cells can differentiate into all the specialized cellsectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm (see induced pluripotent stem cells)but also maintain the normal turnover of regenerative organs, such as blood, skin, or intestinal tissues.

There are three known accessible sources of autologous adult stem cells in humans:

Stem cells can also be taken from umbilical cord blood just after birth. Of all stem cell types, autologous harvesting involves the least risk. By definition, autologous cells are obtained from one’s own body, just as one may bank his or her own blood for elective surgical procedures.

Adult stem cells are frequently used in various medical therapies (e.g., bone marrow transplantation). Stem cells can now be artificially grown and transformed (differentiated) into specialized cell types with characteristics consistent with cells of various tissues such as muscles or nerves. Embryonic cell lines and autologous embryonic stem cells generated through somatic cell nuclear transfer or dedifferentiation have also been proposed as promising candidates for future therapies.[1] Research into stem cells grew out of findings by Ernest A. McCulloch and James E. Till at the University of Toronto in the 1960s.[2][3]

The classical definition of a stem cell requires that it possesses two properties:

Two mechanisms exist to ensure that a stem cell population is maintained:

1. Obligatory asymmetric replication: a stem cell divides into one mother cell that is identical to the original stem cell, and another daughter cell that is differentiated.

When a stem cell self-renews it divides and does not disrupt the undifferentiated state. This self-renewal demands control of cell cycle as well as upkeep of multipotency or pluripotency, which all depends on the stem cell.[4]

2. Stochastic differentiation: when one stem cell develops into two differentiated daughter cells, another stem cell undergoes mitosis and produces two stem cells identical to the original.

Potency specifies the differentiation potential (the potential to differentiate into different cell types) of the stem cell.[5]

In practice, stem cells are identified by whether they can regenerate tissue. For example, the defining test for bone marrow or hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is the ability to transplant the cells and save an individual without HSCs. This demonstrates that the cells can produce new blood cells over a long term. It should also be possible to isolate stem cells from the transplanted individual, which can themselves be transplanted into another individual without HSCs, demonstrating that the stem cell was able to self-renew.

Properties of stem cells can be illustrated in vitro, using methods such as clonogenic assays, in which single cells are assessed for their ability to differentiate and self-renew.[8][9] Stem cells can also be isolated by their possession of a distinctive set of cell surface markers. However, in vitro culture conditions can alter the behavior of cells, making it unclear whether the cells shall behave in a similar manner in vivo. There is considerable debate as to whether some proposed adult cell populations are truly stem cells.[citation needed]

Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are the cells of the inner cell mass of a blastocyst, an early-stage embryo.[10] Human embryos reach the blastocyst stage 45 days post fertilization, at which time they consist of 50150 cells. ESCs are pluripotent and give rise during development to all derivatives of the three primary germ layers: ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm. In other words, they can develop into each of the more than 200 cell types of the adult body when given sufficient and necessary stimulation for a specific cell type. They do not contribute to the extra-embryonic membranes or the placenta.

During embryonic development these inner cell mass cells continuously divide and become more specialized. For example, a portion of the ectoderm in the dorsal part of the embryo specializes as ‘neurectoderm’, which will become the future central nervous system.[11] Later in development, neurulation causes the neurectoderm to form the neural tube. At the neural tube stage, the anterior portion undergoes encephalization to generate or ‘pattern’ the basic form of the brain. At this stage of development, the principal cell type of the CNS is considered a neural stem cell. These neural stem cells are pluripotent, as they can generate a large diversity of many different neuron types, each with unique gene expression, morphological, and functional characteristics. The process of generating neurons from stem cells is called neurogenesis. One prominent example of a neural stem cell is the radial glial cell, so named because it has a distinctive bipolar morphology with highly elongated processes spanning the thickness of the neural tube wall, and because historically it shared some glial characteristics, most notably the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP).[12][13] The radial glial cell is the primary neural stem cell of the developing vertebrate CNS, and its cell body resides in the ventricular zone, adjacent to the developing ventricular system. Neural stem cells are committed to the neuronal lineages (neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes), and thus their potency is restricted.[11]

Nearly all research to date has made use of mouse embryonic stem cells (mES) or human embryonic stem cells (hES) derived from the early inner cell mass. Both have the essential stem cell characteristics, yet they require very different environments in order to maintain an undifferentiated state. Mouse ES cells are grown on a layer of gelatin as an extracellular matrix (for support) and require the presence of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) in serum media. A drug cocktail containing inhibitors to GSK3B and the MAPK/ERK pathway, called 2i, has also been shown to maintain pluripotency in stem cell culture.[14] Human ESCs are grown on a feeder layer of mouse embryonic fibroblasts and require the presence of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF or FGF-2).[15] Without optimal culture conditions or genetic manipulation,[16] embryonic stem cells will rapidly differentiate.

A human embryonic stem cell is also defined by the expression of several transcription factors and cell surface proteins. The transcription factors Oct-4, Nanog, and Sox2 form the core regulatory network that ensures the suppression of genes that lead to differentiation and the maintenance of pluripotency.[17] The cell surface antigens most commonly used to identify hES cells are the glycolipids stage specific embryonic antigen 3 and 4 and the keratan sulfate antigens Tra-1-60 and Tra-1-81. By using human embryonic stem cells to produce specialized cells like nerve cells or heart cells in the lab, scientists can gain access to adult human cells without taking tissue from patients. They can then study these specialized adult cells in detail to try and catch complications of diseases, or to study cells reactions to potentially new drugs. The molecular definition of a stem cell includes many more proteins and continues to be a topic of research.[18]

There are currently no approved treatments using embryonic stem cells. The first human trial was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in January 2009.[19] However, the human trial was not initiated until October 13, 2010 in Atlanta for spinal cord injury research. On November 14, 2011 the company conducting the trial (Geron Corporation) announced that it will discontinue further development of its stem cell programs.[20] ES cells, being pluripotent cells, require specific signals for correct differentiationif injected directly into another body, ES cells will differentiate into many different types of cells, causing a teratoma. Differentiating ES cells into usable cells while avoiding transplant rejection are just a few of the hurdles that embryonic stem cell researchers still face.[21] Due to ethical considerations, many nations currently have moratoria or limitations on either human ES cell research or the production of new human ES cell lines. Because of their combined abilities of unlimited expansion and pluripotency, embryonic stem cells remain a theoretically potential source for regenerative medicine and tissue replacement after injury or disease.[22]

Human embryonic stem cell colony on mouse embryonic fibroblast feeder layer

The primitive stem cells located in the organs of fetuses are referred to as fetal stem cells.[23]There are two types of fetal stem cells:

Adult stem cells, also called somatic (from Greek , “of the body”) stem cells, are stem cells which maintain and repair the tissue in which they are found.[25] They can be found in children, as well as adults.[26]

Pluripotent adult stem cells are rare and generally small in number, but they can be found in umbilical cord blood and other tissues.[27] Bone marrow is a rich source of adult stem cells,[28] which have been used in treating several conditions including liver cirrhosis,[29] chronic limb ischemia [30] and endstage heart failure.[31] The quantity of bone marrow stem cells declines with age and is greater in males than females during reproductive years.[32] Much adult stem cell research to date has aimed to characterize their potency and self-renewal capabilities.[33] DNA damage accumulates with age in both stem cells and the cells that comprise the stem cell environment. This accumulation is considered to be responsible, at least in part, for increasing stem cell dysfunction with aging (see DNA damage theory of aging).[34]

Most adult stem cells are lineage-restricted (multipotent) and are generally referred to by their tissue origin (mesenchymal stem cell, adipose-derived stem cell, endothelial stem cell, dental pulp stem cell, etc.).[35][36] Muse cells (multi-lineage differentiating stress enduring cells) are a recently discovered pluripotent stem cell type found in multiple adult tissues, including adipose, dermal fibroblasts, and bone marrow. While rare, muse cells are identifiable by their expression of SSEA-3, a marker for undifferentiated stem cells, and general mesenchymal stem cells markers such as CD105. When subjected to single cell suspension culture, the cells will generate clusters that are similar to embryoid bodies in morphology as well as gene expression, including canonical pluripotency markers Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog.[37]

Adult stem cell treatments have been successfully used for many years to treat leukemia and related bone/blood cancers through bone marrow transplants.[38] Adult stem cells are also used in veterinary medicine to treat tendon and ligament injuries in horses.[39]

The use of adult stem cells in research and therapy is not as controversial as the use of embryonic stem cells, because the production of adult stem cells does not require the destruction of an embryo. Additionally, in instances where adult stem cells are obtained from the intended recipient (an autograft), the risk of rejection is essentially non-existent. Consequently, more US government funding is being provided for adult stem cell research.[40]

Multipotent stem cells are also found in amniotic fluid. These stem cells are very active, expand extensively without feeders and are not tumorigenic. Amniotic stem cells are multipotent and can differentiate in cells of adipogenic, osteogenic, myogenic, endothelial, hepatic and also neuronal lines.[41]Amniotic stem cells are a topic of active research.

Use of stem cells from amniotic fluid overcomes the ethical objections to using human embryos as a source of cells. Roman Catholic teaching forbids the use of embryonic stem cells in experimentation; accordingly, the Vatican newspaper “Osservatore Romano” called amniotic stem cells “the future of medicine”.[42]

It is possible to collect amniotic stem cells for donors or for autologuous use: the first US amniotic stem cells bank [43][44] was opened in 2009 in Medford, MA, by Biocell Center Corporation[45][46][47] and collaborates with various hospitals and universities all over the world.[48]

Adult stem cells have limitations with their potency; unlike embryonic stem cells (ESCs), they are not able to differentiate into cells from all three germ layers. As such, they are deemed multipotent.

However, reprogramming allows for the creation of pluripotent cells, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), from adult cells. These are not adult stem cells, but adult cells (e.g. epithelial cells) reprogrammed to give rise to cells with pluripotent capabilities. Using genetic reprogramming with protein transcription factors, pluripotent stem cells with ESC-like capabilities have been derived.[49][50][51] The first demonstration of induced pluripotent stem cells was conducted by Shinya Yamanaka and his colleagues at Kyoto University.[52] They used the transcription factors Oct3/4, Sox2, c-Myc, and Klf4 to reprogram mouse fibroblast cells into pluripotent cells.[49][53] Subsequent work used these factors to induce pluripotency in human fibroblast cells.[54] Junying Yu, James Thomson, and their colleagues at the University of WisconsinMadison used a different set of factors, Oct4, Sox2, Nanog and Lin28, and carried out their experiments using cells from human foreskin.[49][55] However, they were able to replicate Yamanaka’s finding that inducing pluripotency in human cells was possible.

Induced pluripotent stem cells differ from embryonic stem cells. They share many similar properties, such as pluripotency and differentiation potential, the expression of pluripotency genes, epigenetic patterns, embryoid body and teratoma formation, and viable chimera formation,[52][53] but there are many differences within these properties. The chromatin of iPSCs appears to be more “closed” or methylated than that of ESCs.[52][53] Similarly, the gene expression pattern between ESCs and iPSCs, or even iPSCs sourced from different origins.[52] There are thus questions about the “completeness” of reprogramming and the somatic memory of induced pluripotent stem cells. Despite this, inducing adult cells to be pluripotent appears to be viable.

As a result of the success of these experiments, Ian Wilmut, who helped create the first cloned animal Dolly the Sheep, has announced that he will abandon somatic cell nuclear transfer as an avenue of research.[56]

Furthermore, induced pluripotent stem cells provide several therapeutic advantages. Like ESCs, they are pluripotent. They thus have great differentiation potential; theoretically, they could produce any cell within the human body (if reprogramming to pluripotency was “complete”).[52] Moreover, unlike ESCs, they potentially could allow doctors to create a pluripotent stem cell line for each individual patient.[57] Frozen blood samples can be used as a valuable source of induced pluripotent stem cells.[58] Patient specific stem cells allow for the screening for side effects before drug treatment, as well as the reduced risk of transplantation rejection.[57] Despite their current limited use therapeutically, iPSCs hold create potential for future use in medical treatment and research.

To ensure self-renewal, stem cells undergo two types of cell division (see Stem cell division and differentiation diagram). Symmetric division gives rise to two identical daughter cells both endowed with stem cell properties. Asymmetric division, on the other hand, produces only one stem cell and a progenitor cell with limited self-renewal potential. Progenitors can go through several rounds of cell division before terminally differentiating into a mature cell. It is possible that the molecular distinction between symmetric and asymmetric divisions lies in differential segregation of cell membrane proteins (such as receptors) between the daughter cells.[59]

An alternative theory is that stem cells remain undifferentiated due to environmental cues in their particular niche. Stem cells differentiate when they leave that niche or no longer receive those signals. Studies in Drosophila germarium have identified the signals decapentaplegic and adherens junctions that prevent germarium stem cells from differentiating.[60][61]

Stem cell therapy is the use of stem cells to treat or prevent a disease or condition. Bone marrow transplant is a form of stem cell therapy that has been used for many years without controversy.[62][63]

Stem cell treatments may lower symptoms of the disease or condition that is being treated. The lowering of symptoms may allow patients to reduce the drug intake of the disease or condition. Stem cell treatment may also provide knowledge for society to further stem cell understanding and future treatments.[64]

Stem cell treatments may require immunosuppression because of a requirement for radiation before the transplant to remove the person’s previous cells, or because the patient’s immune system may target the stem cells. One approach to avoid the second possibility is to use stem cells from the same patient who is being treated.

Pluripotency in certain stem cells could also make it difficult to obtain a specific cell type. It is also difficult to obtain the exact cell type needed, because not all cells in a population differentiate uniformly. Undifferentiated cells can create tissues other than desired types.[65]

Some stem cells form tumors after transplantation;[66] pluripotency is linked to tumor formation especially in embryonic stem cells, fetal proper stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells. Fetal proper stem cells form tumors despite multipotency.[67]

Some of the fundamental patents covering human embryonic stem cells are owned by the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation (WARF) they are patents 5,843,780, 6,200,806, and 7,029,913 invented by James A. Thomson. WARF does not enforce these patents against academic scientists, but does enforce them against companies.[68]

In 2006, a request for the US Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) to re-examine the three patents was filed by the Public Patent Foundation on behalf of its client, the non-profit patent-watchdog group Consumer Watchdog (formerly the Foundation for Taxpayer and Consumer Rights).[68] In the re-examination process, which involves several rounds of discussion between the USPTO and the parties, the USPTO initially agreed with Consumer Watchdog and rejected all the claims in all three patents,[69] however in response, WARF amended the claims of all three patents to make them more narrow, and in 2008 the USPTO found the amended claims in all three patents to be patentable. The decision on one of the patents (7,029,913) was appealable, while the decisions on the other two were not.[70][71] Consumer Watchdog appealed the granting of the ‘913 patent to the USPTO’s Board of Patent Appeals and Interferences (BPAI) which granted the appeal, and in 2010 the BPAI decided that the amended claims of the ‘913 patent were not patentable.[72] However, WARF was able to re-open prosecution of the case and did so, amending the claims of the ‘913 patent again to make them more narrow, and in January 2013 the amended claims were allowed.[73]

In July 2013, Consumer Watchdog announced that it would appeal the decision to allow the claims of the ‘913 patent to the US Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit (CAFC), the federal appeals court that hears patent cases.[74] At a hearing in December 2013, the CAFC raised the question of whether Consumer Watchdog had legal standing to appeal; the case could not proceed until that issue was resolved.[75]

Diseases and conditions where stem cell treatment is being investigated include:

Research is underway to develop various sources for stem cells, and to apply stem cell treatments for neurodegenerative diseases and conditions, diabetes, heart disease, and other conditions.[91] Research is also underway in generating organoids using stem cells, which would allow for further understanding of human development, organogenesis, and modeling of human diseases.[92]

In more recent years, with the ability of scientists to isolate and culture embryonic stem cells, and with scientists’ growing ability to create stem cells using somatic cell nuclear transfer and techniques to create induced pluripotent stem cells, controversy has crept in, both related to abortion politics and to human cloning.

Hepatotoxicity and drug-induced liver injury account for a substantial number of failures of new drugs in development and market withdrawal, highlighting the need for screening assays such as stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells, that are capable of detecting toxicity early in the drug development process.[93]

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Stem cell – Wikipedia

Stem Cell Malaysia | Stem Cell Therapy & Anti Ageing

When stem cells are diminished in your body, the number of dying and old cells continues to increase. Due to this, stem cell therapy is used to increase the number of stem cells in your body. This is an excellent method to fight various effects and signs of aging.

If you wish to bring back the healthy and refreshing years of your life,Cell Malaysia recommends the age-reverse procedure practiced in one of worlds most advanced clinic.

Excerpt from:

Stem Cell Malaysia | Stem Cell Therapy & Anti Ageing

NSI Stem Cell | Stem Cell Therapy & Treatment Clinics In …

The stem cell therapy process begins with a physical exam and in-depth patient history at a stem cell therapy center. If additional information is needed, we will conduct the necessary imaging or laboratory tests.We will then discuss patient desires and expected outcomes.

The stem cell extraction procedure is minimally invasive as we gather a sample of tissue from the patient at a stem cell treatment center. These cells remain sterile, and after the adult stem cells are extracted, they will be re-administered back into the patient by Intravenous, Intrathecal, or Localized methods.

The stem cell treatment procedure is also very safe with no concern for cell rejection since the tissue extracted comes from your own body.In addition, all aspects of the procedure are performed in-house on an outpatient basis.

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NSI Stem Cell | Stem Cell Therapy & Treatment Clinics In …

Stem Cell Therapy in India, Low Cost Stem Cell Therapy in …

Plan your Stem Cell Therapy in India with Tour2India4Health Consultants

Stem cell therapy in India is performed by highly skilled and qualified doctors and surgeons in India. Our hospitals have state-of-art equipment that increase success rate of stem cell therapy in India. Tour2India4Health is a medical value provider that offers access to the stem cell therapy for patients from any corner of the world. We offer low cost stem cell therapy at the best hospitals in India.

Stem cells are cells that have the potential to develop into some or many different cell types in the body, depending on whether they are multipotent or pluripotent. Serving as a sort of repair system, they can theoretically divide without limit to replenish other cells for as long as the person or animal is still alive. When a stem cell divides, each “daughter” cell has the potential to either remain a stem cell or become another type of cell with a more specialized function, such as a muscle cell, a red blood cell, or a brain cell.

There are three classes of stem cells i.e totipotent, pluripotent and multipotent (also known as unipotent).

Many different terms are used to describe various types of stem cells, often based on where in the body or what stage in development they come from. You may have heard the following terms:

Adult Stem Cells or Tissue-specific Stem Cells: Adult stem cells are tissue-specific, meaning they are found in a given tissue in our bodies and generate the mature cell types within that particular tissue or organ. It is not clear whether all organs, such as the heart, contain stem cells. The term adult stem cells is often used very broadly and may include fetal and cord blood stem cells.

Fetal Stem Cells: As their name suggests, fetal stem cells are taken from the fetus. The developing baby is referred to as a fetus from approximately 10 weeks of gestation. Most tissues in a fetus contain stem cells that drive the rapid growth and development of the organs. Like adult stem cells, fetal stem cells are generally tissue-specific, and generate the mature cell types within the particular tissue or organ in which they are found.

Cord Blood Stem Cells: At birth the blood in the umbilical cord is rich in blood-forming stem cells. The applications of cord blood are similar to those of adult bone marrow and are currently used to treat diseases and conditions of the blood or to restore the blood system after treatment for specific cancers. Like the stem cells in adult bone marrow, cord blood stem cells are tissue-specific.

Embryonic Stem Cells: Embryonic stem cells are derived from very early embryos and can in theory give rise to all cell types in the body. While these cells are already helping us better understand diseases and hold enormous promise for future therapies, there are currently no treatments using embryonic stem cells accepted by the medical community.

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (IPS cells): In 2006, scientists discovered how to reprogram cells with a specialized function (for example, skin cells) in the laboratory, so that they behave like an embryonic stem cell. These cells, called induced pluripotent cells or IPS cells, are created by inducing the specialized cells to express genes that are normally made in embryonic stem cells and that control how the cell functions.

Embryonic stem cells are derived from the inner cell mass of a blastocyst: the fertilized egg, called the zygote, divides and forms two cells; each of these cells divides again, and so on. Soon there is a hollow ball of about 150 cells called the blastocyst that contains two types of cells, the trophoblast and the inner cell mass. Embryonic stem cells are obtained from the inner cell mass.

Stem cells can also be found in small numbers in various tissues in the fetal and adult body. For example, blood stem cells are found in the bone marrow that give rise to all specialized blood cell types. Such tissue-specific stem cells have not yet been identified in all vital organs, and in some tissues like the brain, although stem cells exist, they are not very active, and thus do not readily respond to cell injury or damage.

Stem cells can also be obtained from other sources, for example, the umbilical cord of a newborn baby is a source of blood stem cells. Recently, scientists have also discovered the existence of cells in baby teeth and in amniotic fluid that may also have the potential to form multiple cell types. Research on these cells is at a very early stage.

Stem cell therapy is the use of stem cells to treat certain diseases. Stem cells are obtained from the patients own blood bone marrow, fat and umbilical cord tissue or blood. They are progenitor cells that lead to creation of new cells and are thus called as generative cells as well.

The biological task of stem cells is to repair and regenerate damaged cells. Stem cell therapy exploits this function by administering these cells systematically and in high concentrations directly into the damaged tissue, where they advance its self-healing. The process that lies behind this mechanism is largely unknown, but it is assumed that stem cells discharge certain substances which activate the diseased tissue. It is also conceivable that single damaged somatic cells, e.g. single neurocytes in the spinal cord or endothelium cells in vessels, are replaced by stem cells. Most scientists agree that stem cell research has great life-saving potential and could revolutionize the study and treatment of diseases and injuries.

Stem cell therapy is useful in certain degenerative diseases like

If stem cell therapy is an option, a detailed treatment plan is prepared depending on the type of treatment necessary. Once the patient has consented to the treatment plan, an appointment is scheduled for bone marrow extraction. Please note that this is a minimally invasive surgical procedure, so it is important that patients do not take any blood-thinning medication in the ten days prior to the appointment. It is necessary for each patient to consult their own doctor before discontinuing this type of medication.

The treatment procedure include:

Bone Marrow Extraction: Bone marrow is extracted from the hip bone by the physicians. This procedure normally takes around 30 minutes. First, local anesthetic is administered to the area of skin where the puncture will be made. Then, a thin needle is used to extract around 150-200 ml of bone marrow. The injection of local anesthetic can be slightly painful, but the patient usually does not feel the extraction of bone marrow.

Isolation, Analysis and Concentration of the Stem Cells in the Laboratory: The quality and quantity of the stem cells contained in the collected bone marrow are tested at the laboratory. First, the stem cells are isolated. Then a chromatographical procedure is used to separate them from the red and white blood corpuscles and plasma. The sample is tested under sterile conditions so that the stem cells, which will be administered to the patient, are not contaminated with viruses, bacteria or fungi. Each sample is also tested for the presence of viral markers such as HIV, hepatitis B and C and cytomegalia. The cleaned stem cells are counted and viability checks are made. If there are enough viable stem cells, i.e. more than two million CD34+ cells with over 80 percent viability, the stem cell concentrate is approved for patient administration.

Stem Cell Implantation: The method of stem cell implantation depends on the patient’s condition. There are four different ways of administering stem cells:

Intravenous administration:

It is important to understand that while stem cell therapy can help alleviate symptoms in many patients and slow or even reverse degenerative processes, it does not work in all cases. Based on additional information, patient’s current health situation and/or unforeseen health risks, the medical staff can always, in the interest of the individual patient, propose another kind of stem cell transplantation or in exceptional situations cancel the treatment.

The side effects of stem cell therapy differ from person to person. Listed below are the side effects of stem cell therapy :

According to the Indian Council of Medical Research, all is considered to be experimental, with the exception of bone marrow transplants. However, the guidelines that were put into place in 2007 are largely non-enforceable. Regardless, stem cell therapy is legalized in India. Umbilical cord and adult stem cell treatment are considered permissible. Embryonic stem cell therapy and research is restricted.

There is about a 60% to 80% overall success rate in the use of stem cell therapy in both India and around the world. However, success rates vary depending on the disease being treated, the institute conducting the procedures, and the condition of the patient. In order to receive complete information you will have to contact the medical institutes and ask specific questions concerning the patient’s condition.

Mrs. Selina Naidoo with her Son from Malaysia

Tour2India4Health has proved to be a blessing in disguise for me. A medical tourism company with everything at par with our expectations has given me the most satisfactory and relieving experience of my life. I went to them for my sons surgery who was suffering from a serious illness and stem cell therapy was the only choice I had. Trust it was heart wrenching to leave my son under any hands on the operation table. Nevertheless, courageously I had to because thats what I was here for and thats what could get my son a new and healthy life. Sitting at a corner outside the operation theatre was taking my heartbeats away with every second. Finally, the surgery was over and I was there in front of the doctor with closed eyes. He declared that the surgery was successful and my son is fine but needs some extra care and some cautious post operative measures for recovery. All through our stay in the hospital, everything went on brilliantly and after my son recovered completely, I came back to my home country. Even after that for many months, I received regular calls to verify and virtually monitor the health of my child. Now, its been 5 years and when I see my child today it feels as if no surgery was ever done on him. Thanks to the doctor who treated him and to the entire team of nurses and travel professionals who displayed extra warmth and care. Thanks is just a small word to say as a mother of a child.

India is the most preferable destination for patients who are looking for low cost stem cell therapy. Indian doctors and healthcare professionals are renowned world over for their skills with many of them holding high positions in leading hospitals in US, UK and other countries around the world. There are significant numbers of highly skilled experts in India, including many who have relocated to India after having worked in the top hospitals across the world.

Stem Cell Therapy costs in India are generally about a tenth of the costs in US and are significantly cheaper compared with even other medical travel destinations like Thailand

*The price for the Stem Cell Therapy is an average collected from the 15 best corporate hospitals and 10 Top Stem Cell Experts of India.

*The final prices offered to the patients is based on their medical reports and is dependent on the current medical condition of the patient, type of room, type of therapy, hospital brand and the surgeon’s expertise.

We have worked out special packages of the Stem Cell Therapy for our Indian and International patients. You can send us your medical reports to avail the benefits of these special packages.

You would be provided with 3 TOP RECOMMENDED SURGEONS / HOSPITALS FOR YOUR STEM CELL THERAPY in India.

There are many reasons for India becoming a popular medical tourism spot is the low cost stem cell treatment in the area. When in contrast to the first world countries like, US and UK, medical care in India costs as much as 60-90% lesser, that makes it a great option for the citizens of those countries to opt for stem cell treatment in India because of availability of quality healthcare in India, affordable prices strategic connectivity, food, zero language barrier and many other reasons.

The maximum number of patients for stem cell therapy comes from Nigeria, Kenya, Ethiopia, USA, UK, Australia, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Uzbekistan, Bangladesh.

Cities where top and world renowned Stem Cell Therapy hospitals and clinics situated are :

We have PAN-India level tie ups with TOP Hospitals for Stem Cell Therapy across 15+ major cities in India. We can provide you with multiple top hospitals & best surgeons recommendations for Stem Cell Therapy in India.

India has now been recognized as one of the leaders in medical field of research and treatment. Tour2India4Health Group was established with an aim of providing best medical services to its patients and since then has been working hard in maintaining itself as one of the most professional healthcare tourism providers in India. With a number of world-renowned medical facilities affiliated, we have the resources to offer you the finest medical treatment in India, and help your speedy recovery. Tour2India4Health Group has always believed and practiced providing its patients best surgery and treatment procedure giving a second chance to live a more better and normal life. Our team serves the clientele most comfortable and convenient measures of healthcare services thus, making your medical tour to India very fruitful experience.

Our facilitation:

We has been operating patients from all major countries like USA, United Kingdom, Italy, Australia, Canada, Spain, New Zealand, and Kuwait etc. We have network of selected medical centers, surgeons and physicians around various cities in India, who qualify our assessment criteria to ensure that our core values of Safety, Excellence and Trust are maintained in all our services.

Below are the downloadable links that will help you to plan your medical trip to India in a more organized and better way. Attached word and pdf files gives information that will help you to know India more and make your trip to India easy and memorable one.

Stem Cell Therapy in India, Low Cost Stem Cell Therapy in India, Stem Cell Therapy Benefits India, stem cell therapy experience in india

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Stem Cell Therapy in India, Low Cost Stem Cell Therapy in …

Ripple Price Forecast: XRP vs SWIFT, SEC Updates, and More

Ripple vs SWIFT: The War Begins
While most criticisms of XRP do nothing to curb my bullish Ripple price forecast, there is one obstacle that nags at my conscience. Its name is SWIFT.

The Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication (SWIFT) is the king of international payments.

It coordinates wire transfers across 11,000 banks in more than 200 countries and territories, meaning that in order for XRP prices to ascend to $10.00, Ripple needs to launch a successful coup. That is, and always has been, an unwritten part of Ripple’s story.

We’ve seen a lot of progress on that score. In the last three years, Ripple wooed more than 100 financial firms onto its.

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Ripple Price Forecast: XRP vs SWIFT, SEC Updates, and More

Cryptocurrency Price Forecast: Trust Is Growing, But Prices Are Falling

Trust Is Growing…
Before we get to this week’s cryptocurrency news, analysis, and our cryptocurrency price forecast, I want to share an experience from this past week. I was at home watching the NBA playoffs, trying to ignore the commercials, when a strange advertisement caught my eye.

It followed a tomato from its birth on the vine to its end on the dinner table (where it was served as a bolognese sauce), and a diamond from its dusty beginnings to when it sparkled atop an engagement ring.

The voiceover said: “This is a shipment passed 200 times, transparently tracked from port to port. This is the IBM blockchain.”

Let that sink in—IBM.

The post Cryptocurrency Price Forecast: Trust Is Growing, But Prices Are Falling appeared first on Profit Confidential.

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Cryptocurrency Price Forecast: Trust Is Growing, But Prices Are Falling

Cryptocurrency News: What You Need to Know This Week

Cryptocurrency News
Cryptocurrencies traded sideways since our last report on cryptos. However, I noticed something interesting when playing around with Yahoo! Finance’s cryptocurrency screener: There are profitable pockets in this market.

Incidentally, Yahoo’s screener is far superior to the one on CoinMarketCap, so if you’re looking to compare digital assets, I highly recommend it.

But let’s get back to my epiphany.

In the last month, at one point or another, most crypto assets on our favorites list saw double-digit increases. It’s true that each upswing was followed by a hard crash, but investors who rode the trend would have made a.

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Cryptocurrency News: What You Need to Know This Week


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