Seth MacFarlanes Micronations & Adaptation Of Wondery Podcast Imagined Life Lead UCP Unscripted Development Slate – Deadline

UCP is ramping up its development on unscripted programming and is moving into the family space.

The company is working on family-friendly projects with Seth MacFarlane, Jim Henson Company and Wondery.

This comes after the division of Universal Studio Group has produced a slew of true-crime series and investigative doc series such as Netflixs Business of Drugs, FXs A Wilderness of Error and Oxygens DNA of Murder with Paul Holes and Unspeakable Crime: The Killing of Jessica Chambers.

Micronations, which is exec produced by MacFarlane and and Erica Huggins for Fuzzy Door, looks at what it takes to build a country, what it means to be a citizen and takes a host on an adventure around the world to the countries that dont exist. Jason Clark and Sarah Ullman will also exec produce.

Imagined Life is based on the eponymous Wondery podcast, which takes people on an immersive journey through the surprising moments and challenges that shaped the lives of celebrities and historical figures. It is part mystery and part immersive story. Don Argott, director of music doc As The Palaces Burn, will direct and exec produce with Sheena Joyce (Believer). Hernan Lopez, Marshall Lewy and Aaron Hart will produce for Wondery.

It is the latest project between Wondery and UCP, which have partnered on Dirty John, Dr. Death and Joe Exotic.

Coming Attractions sees UCP team up with The Jim Henson Company. The show will find real communities in need of hope, and help their towns develop and build themed, roadside tourist attractions as part of a feel-good competition series. Brian Henson and Vince Raisa will executive produce for The Jim Henson Company, which previously teamed with UCP on Netflixs The Curious Creations of Christine McConnell.

Finally, Courting Love is a dating format with a period twist. The dating experiment format will take single and transport them to a bygone era where they will shed their modern lives and follow real courtship rituals of the past in hopes that they can find love and get married. At the end of the fantasy experiment theyll emerge back in 2021 and face the present day with their new love. Amanda McPhilips is developing alongside UCP.

While we have had great success in the realm of true-crime, we also have a softer side that we want to show off.I cant think of a better time for some fun, smart, light-hearted yet timely fare for ourunscripted slate, said Dawn Olmstead, President, UCP.

We are excited to partner once again with Fuzzy Door, Wondery, and The Jim Henson Company on these fresh and original shows, added Jessica Grimshaw, SVP, Head of Unscripted Programming, UCP. From world-wide travels and roadside tourist attractions to inspirational celebrities and blast-to-the past dating, we have some really entertaining, escapist programming in the pipeline.

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Seth MacFarlanes Micronations & Adaptation Of Wondery Podcast Imagined Life Lead UCP Unscripted Development Slate - Deadline

UCP Teams With Fuzzy Door, Jim Henson Firm, Wondery on Unscripted Slate – TheNewsTrace

Common Studio Groups UCP has unveiled its unscripted improvement slate, which incorporates initiatives from Seth MacFarlanes Fuzzy Door, the Jim Henson Firm and Wondery.

Whereas now we have had nice success within the realm of true-crime, we even have a softer facet that we wish to exhibit. I cant consider a greater time for some enjoyable, sensible, light-hearted but well timed fare for our unscripted slate, stated Daybreak Olmstead, president of UCP.

Micronations is one such mission, govt produced by MacFarlane and Erica Huggins for Fuzzy Door alongside Jason Clark and Sarah Ullman, as a part of MacFarlanes total take care of UCP. The documentary tackles the query of what it means to belong, to be a citizen, and to construct a rustic. The presents host will go on an journey world wide to the nations that dont exist.

UCP and the Jim Henson Firm are teaming up on Coming Sights, a bid to discover actual communities in want of hope, and assist their cities develop and construct extraordinary themed, roadside vacationer sights. Brian Henson and Vince Raisa will govt produce for The Jim Henson Firm.

Imagined Life, primarily based on the Wondery podcast, will characteristic hourlong episodes shot from the views of the topics and narrated within the third particular person, highlighting the stunning moments and challenges that formed the lives of your favourite celebrities and historic figures. The tales will likely be instructed by reenactments and narrator-driven interviews. Don Argott and Sheena Joyce are slated to direct and govt produce; producing for Wondery are Hernan Lopez, Marshall Lewy and Aaron Hart.

Courting Love is a so-called relationship experiment that places single individuals in a period-era setting that follows the courtship guidelines circa Sense & Sensibility and Emma. On the finish of the experiment, they then return to the trendy world and navigate their newfound relationships within the current day. Amanda McPhilips is creating alongside UCP.

Were excited to companion as soon as once more with Fuzzy Door, Wondery, and The Jim Henson Firm on these contemporary and unique reveals, stated Jessica Grimshaw, senior VP and head of unscripted programming at UCP. From worldwide travels and roadside vacationer sights to inspirational celebrities and blast-to-the previous relationship, now we have some actually entertaining, escapist programming within the pipeline.


UCP Teams With Fuzzy Door, Jim Henson Firm, Wondery on Unscripted Slate - TheNewsTrace

Micronation – MicroWiki

A micronation is a political entity that claims to be a sovereign state but is not recognised as such by the wider international community. Micronations are treated as distinct from conventional unrecognised states, although there is no widespread consensus within micropatriology over what exactly constitutes a micronation or distinguishes it from other unrecognised states. Broadly speaking, micronations are created and developed as a hobby, with their claims to sovereignty considered trivial enough to be ignored by the conventional sovereign states whose territory they claim; micronations whose ultimate goal is to receive international recognition as sovereign states are termed secessionist, and micronations without this goal are termed simulationist.

Micronations have existed since the 19th century, with the practice of micronationalism growing immensely in the early 21st century as the creation and maintenance of micronations became a relatively mainstream hobby and the Internet facilitated the emergence of an online micronational community. Some well-known micronations, including Sealand and Liberland, exist outside this online community; others, including Austenasia, and Molossia, regularly attend micronational events and have a developed online presence. The majority of English-speaking micronations are part of the MicroWiki sector, which has existed since 2005, and have not achieved widespread notoriety.

Most soruces define micronations as, broadly, self-declared countries not recognised by other states or international organisations like the United Nations. Wikipedia and WorldAtlas.com both define a micronation as an "entity that claims to be an independent nation or state but is not recognized by world governments or major international organizations". On its main page, MicroWiki defines micronations as "small and often rather eccentric nations that are unrecognised by the wider international community" and in its article Micronation defines a micronation as a "political entity that claims to be a sovereign state but is not recognised as such by the wider international community".

Interactive geofiction is a hobby centred around the creation of model countries claiming territory on fictional planets. Most interactive geofictionalists consider their activities to be a form of micronationalism, although the present consensus among mainstream micronationalists is that geofiction is not micronationalism. Many interactive geofictionalists part of the Micras Sector have at various points been on the periphery of the MicroWiki community from its foundation in 2005, with the Organisation of Active Micronations spearheading increased links between the communities in 2011; since the second rise of the Grand Unified Micronational in 2012, however, the distinction between micronationalism and geofiction has been more sharply drawn within MicroWiki.

MicrasWiki (the Micras Sector's equivalent to MicroWiki), for example, claims on its main page to be "home to micronationalism". The homepage goes on to define "micronationalism" as a synonym for interactive geofiction. The word 'micronational' is frequently used in the name of organisations in the Micras Sector, with examples including the Micronational Cartography Society (the main governing body of Micras), the First Micronational Bank, and the Royal Institute of Micronational Antiquities. Almost all of the 'nations' claiming territory on Micras self-identify as micronations, and many older nations have articles on MicroWiki dating from the pre-2012 era of closeness between the communities.

In attempting to resolve this contention over whether or not interactive geofiction is micronationalism, some individuals in the Micras Sector have written micropatriological works that classify Micras-based nations as simulationist micronations, whilst arguing that definitions of micronations that exclude geofictional micronations are profoundly secessionist in nature. James Richter, secretary of the Micronational Cartography Society from 200507, expressed an early form of this argument in Micronational Theory (September 2006). This essay explains that micronationalism originated out of 'secessionist micronations', who claimed real territory, but that it evolved as 'simulationist micronations' arrived.

After explaining how online micronations are a logical evolution in human communication, Richter then calls Babkha "the first simulationist nation", saying "It created its entire history, and created an entire world for itself. the Seccesionists who were rapidly becomming old and were beggining to vanish from the Micronational scene were outraged by this turn of events. since at that time it was socially unacceptable to make up your own history and exist within the confines of the internet alone". He concludes that "after several years simulationism became larger then seccesionism", and claims that the latter no longer represents the mainstream of micronationalism.

Parallel plane theory is a micropatriological position which holds that micronational sovereignty over a people or territory does not preclude macronational sovereignty from extending there simultaneously, and that micronations should not try to become macronations. The theory was first put forward by Jordan Brizendine in August 2017, who successfully proposed motions in Delvera and at the Congress of Colo (a conference of delegates from Delvera, the North American Confederation and Karnia-Ruthenia) which stated that "micronations and macronations exist on separate, parallel planes whereby their duties and responsibilities do not overlap." The theory was developed further in early 2018 by Ives Blackwood and Glastieven T in the context of New Secessionism, with the two arguing that groups of friends held a position on the micronational plane which corresponded to that held by proto-nations on the macronational plane, though Blackwood later repudiated parallel plane theory.

There has been a small but growing amount of attention paid to the micronation phenomenon in recent years. Most interest in academic circles has been concerned with studying the apparently anomalous legal situations affecting such entities as Sealand and the Hutt River Province, in exploring how some micronations represent grassroots political ideas, and in the creation of role-playing entities for instructional purposes.

In 2000, Professor Fabrice O'Driscoll, of the Aix-Marseille University, published a book about micronations: Ils ne sigent pas l'ONU ("They are not in the United Nations"), with more than 300 pages dedicated to the subject.

Several recent publications have dealt with the subject of particular historic micronations, including Republic of Indian Stream (University Press), by Dartmouth College geographer Daniel Doan, The Land that Never Was, about Gregor MacGregor, and the Principality of Poyais, by David Sinclair (ISBN 0-7553-1080-2).

In May 2000, an article in the New York Times entitled "Utopian Rulers, and Spoofs, Stake Out Territory Online" brought the phenomenon to a wider audience for the first time. Similar articles were published by newspapers such as the French Liberation, the Italian La Repubblica, the Greek "Ta Nea", by O Estado de So Paulo in Brazil, and Portugal's Viso at around the same time.

The Democratic Empire of Sunda, which claims to be the Government of the Kingdom of Sunda (an ancient kingdom, in present-day Indonesia) in exile in Switzerland, made media headlines when two so-called princesses, Lamia Roro Wiranatadikusumah Siliwangi Al Misri, 21, and Fathia Reza Wiranatadikusumah Siliwangi Al Misiri, 23, were detained by Malaysian authorities at the border with Brunei, on 13 July 2007, and are charged for entering the country without a valid pass.

In August 2003 a Summit of Micronations took place in Helsinki at Finlandia Hall, the site of the Conference for Security and Co-operation in Europe (CSCE). The summit was attended by delegations such as the Principality of Sealand, Neue Slowenische Kunst|NSK, Ladonia, the Transnational Republic, and by scholars from various academic institutions.

From 7 November through 17 December 2004, the Reg Vardy Gallery at the University of Sunderland hosted an exhibition on the subject of micronational group identity and symbolism. The exhibition focused on numismatic, philatelic and vexillological artefacts, as well as other symbols and instruments created and used by a number of micronations from the 1950s through to the present day. A summit of micronations conducted as part of this exhibition was attended by representatives of Sealand, Elgaland-Vargaland, New Utopia, Atlantium, Frestonia and Fusa. The exhibition was reprised at the Andrew Kreps Gallery in New York City from 24 June29 July of the following year. Another exhibition about micronations opened at Paris' Palais de Tokyo in early 2007.

The Sunderland summit was later featured in a 5-part BBC light entertainment television series called "How to Start Your Own Country" presented by Danny Wallace. The series told the story of Wallace's experience of founding a micronation, Lovely, located in his London flat. It screened in the UK in August 2005. Similar programs have also aired on television networks in other parts of Europe.

On 9 September 2006, The Guardian newspaper reported that the travel guide company Lonely Planet had published the world's first travel guide devoted to micronations, the Lonely Planet Guide to Home-Made Nations (ISBN 1741047307).

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Micronation - MicroWiki

micronation | Law, Recognition, History, & Definition …

Micronation, entity that claims to be an independent state but whose sovereignty is not recognized by the international community. Micronations are distinct from microstates, such as Liechtenstein or Vatican City, whose sovereignty over extremely small territories and populations is internationally recognized.

Micronations vary significantly in form, motivation, purpose, and seriousness. The loosely defined concept of a micronation appeared in the late 20th century to describe a growing phenomenon of small-scale pretention of sovereignty. Some micronations claim a territory, usually a piece of personal property or an uninhabitable tract of land. For instance, some micronations claim as their territory Bir awl, a section of desert between Egypt and Sudan that remains unclaimed by any country. Others exist solely in concept and may possess little more than a Web site. A great number of micronations are tongue-in-cheek, such as the Conch Republic in Key West, which staged a mock secession from the United States in 1982 after the imposition of a roadblock slowed road access to the rest of the country. The roadblock was later removed, but the city continues to use the Conch Republic gimmick to bolster tourism and souvenir sales. Still others exist as a performative expression of libertarianism. Regardless of their purpose, many micronations issue citizenship along with currency, passports, or other official documentsthough these documents bear no legal or diplomatic recognition.

The term micronation is sometimes applied retroactively to certain entities that claimed sovereignty before the concept of micronation came about. The Hospitallers (self-styled also as the Sovereign Order of Malta), a chivalric order founded in the decades prior to the First Crusade in the 11th century, possesses no territory but maintains a government whose sovereignty today is recognized by the Holy See and many other Roman Catholic countries and enjoys diplomatic relations with more than 100 countries. The Caribbean island of Redonda, uninhabitable and hardly accessible, was claimed by the early 20th-century novelist Matthew Phipps Shiell (M.P. Shiel) and serves as an early example of a completely fictitious claim to sovereignty. Among the most well-known examples of micronations formed prior to the terms coinage is the Principality of Sealand, a fort in the North Sea off the coast of England. Abandoned in the 1950s by the British Royal Navy, a British man commandeered the fort in 1967, and his family has occupied it ever since.


micronation | Law, Recognition, History, & Definition ...

What Is A Micronation? – WorldAtlas

The flag of the micronation of Sealand. What is a Micronation?

Micronation is an entity that claims to be a sovereign nation but is not recognized by any other government or major international organization. A micronation formally and persistently agitates for sovereignty over a given territory and is thus differentiated from other social groups.

In modern day, more than 400 existing micronations have been recorded. The world has seen its fair share of presidents and royalty presiding over invented empires. The self-declared entity that is a micronation can either be real, virtual, or imaginary and it is often physically small. The governments of countries in which micronations operate often dismiss the entities as trivial and harmless. Some micronations issue items such as passports, stamps, coins, medals, postage, and flags.

Micronations became gathered further popularity with the invention of the internet. The internet enabled people from all over the world to connect, interact, and trade ideas. These virtual micronations are often referred to as nomadic countries. The term micronation was first used in the 1970s. Legally, the difference between state and non-states is based on the Montevideo Convention of 1933. Some of the entities, however, reject the notion of micronations.

Micronations are formed for many reasons. Some of them are established as hobbies and for personal entertainment, and they do not seek recognition. Other micronations exist to simulate political, economic, and social processes and they boast significant numbers of individuals. These types of entities also do not seek recognition. Some begin as protests. Some self-made entities start as artistic projects, and they balloon into tourist attractions. New country projects seek formal recognition, and they are interested in creating new countries. More often than not, these projects endeavor to create human-made islands and claim them as independent countries. Another type of micronation, the alternative government, recognizes the presence of other authorities. Some micronations are created for fraudulent purposes, especially to exempt themselves out of taxation. Other micronations exploit historical and legal anomalies to declare aspirant states.

The Republic of Molossia was declared in the state of Nevada, in 1999 by self-proclaimed President Kevin Baugh. It occupies an area of 6.3 square acres, and it has created its own currency and postal service. The Principality of Seborga was formed in 1963 in the Italian Province of Imperia. Its citizens claim that the land they occupy was not mentioned in the documents drawn during the unification attempts of Italy in the 1880s. In 1971, a micronation named Freetown Christiania was formed on an abandoned military base in the City of Copenhagen, Denmark. The entity operates as an anarchist community, and it is populated by many squatters, hippies, and anarchists. The community adheres to its set of rules, and the neighborhood is known for its brightly colored buildings and the absence of cars.

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What Is A Micronation? - WorldAtlas

Australia has one of the largest number of micronations in the world – ABC News

George II (or George Cruickshank, if you insist on "mundane" titles) was a bright and articulate young child qualities his parents had hoped would put him on the path to a promising career in politics.

"What they got instead was me deciding to create my own country in their backyard and raising the flag of Atlantium, and being acclaimed as its first and so far only head of state," Cruickshank quips.

"Unlike many people who have similar childhood experiences, I've managed to maintain that experience throughout my adult life."

Founded in 1981 when Cruickshank was just a teenager, the Empire of Atlantium, as it is known, is a "parallel sovereign state" based in NSW, boasting its own constitution, judicial system, flag and currency.

Far from its genesis in the backyards of suburban Sydney, its "global capital" Concordia now sits on a private pastoral holding in the Lachlan Valley, and is home to a self-declared seat of government, commemorative monuments, a post office and more.

With more than 3,000 global "citizens" to its name, Atlantium's claim of sovereignty would be impressive, were it not for one minor detail.

It doesn't actually exist at least, not in the legal sense.

Born out of a desire to shrug off the shackles of the country's constitutional democracy, Australia has been home to more than a dozen different micronations, among the most in the world, including the Sovereign State of Aeterna Lucina and the Province of Bumbunga.

Ranging from well-meaning to absurd, they are not legally recognised by the Federal Government and seldom register in the national consciousness, beyond the occasional headline.

But while most go unacknowledged and thus, unperturbed by the powers that be, others are more familiar with the long arm of the law.

After a 50-year standoff, the Principality of Hutt River the country's oldest micronation announced on Monday it would be ceded back to the Commonwealth of Australia.

Hutt River, which claimed to be an independent sovereign state (though the Australian Government never legally recognised it), had long been pursued by the Australian Taxation Office.

"Anyone can declare themselves a king or queen in their own home, or declare their own nation, but doing so sits entirely outside of the law," says UNSW Scientia Professor and constitutional law expert, George Williams.

"No-one can decide to leave Australia unilaterally or stop paying tax and expect Australian law will recognise that."

On this point, Cruickshank concurs.

Declaring sovereignty doesn't entitle you to anything (at least in the legal sense), he says, and if you were planning on "dodging your taxes", expect to become well acquainted with the ATO.

So why do it at all?

For the self-appointed sovereign head of state, the goal is simple: to unite people across the globe to advocate for unrestricted international freedom of movement.

With "citizens" from Tanzania to the United States, Atlantium isn't a political party. Rather, Cruickshank likens it to "some type of sustained performance art project".

"Our message is quite serious, but we found it's easier to communicate with people if you do it tongue-in-cheek and smile on face," he muses.

"[Unrestricted movement] is the only practical way we see for addressing the vast disparity of wealth and privilege between poorer nations and those fortunate enough to be born in a country like Australia.

"There's a basic misunderstanding of what Atlantium represents, based on what most other micro-nations end up doing, which is trying to avoid paying their taxes."

Pseudo states, though often tongue-in-cheek, are seldom created in a vacuum.

Lorraine Finlay, a constitutional and international law expert at Murdoch University, believes the fruition of the internet has "opened up worldwide the possibility for nomadic micronations", like the Empire of Atlantium, to establish a larger presence than was once possible.

"They actually have moved from being more about [territorial claims] to movements that are more based on technology and getting people involved that way," she says.

Australia is the "home of micronations", adds Williams the consequence of a "really large number of personal motivations".

"I think in Australia these micronations come back perhaps to the larrikin spirit [and] the idea of thumbing your nose to authority," he says.

"What way of doing that could be better than setting up your own country in complete contravention to the idea of Australia controlling your life?

The Principality of Hutt River, for example, was born out of a stoush with the West Australian Government over wheat production quotas, while the Gay and Lesbian Kingdom of the Coral Sea Islands was established as a symbolic political protest over the perceived lack of action around same-sex marriage.

Other times, these tiny fiefdoms exist simply to prove a point as is the case of John Rudge, the "Grand Duke of Avram".

After writing a PhD thesis in the 1980s about setting up a central bank, Rudge decided to put theory into practice, issuing his own notes and coins from the self-styled Royal Bank of Avram in Tasmania.

As Rudge tells it, it was a move that earned the ire of the Government, who disputed his use of the word "bank" on the notes and took him to court (though he claims the case was ultimately dismissed).

"All I was doing was making a point... It was about proving my thesis," he says. "They [the government] run by the power of a gun."

While a picture may tell a thousand words, in the case of Paul Delprat, the message is far more succinct: monarch.

Draped in a regal robes with a crown to boot, the self-appointed Prince of the Principality of Wy certainly knows how to talk the talk and walk the walk.

Frustrated by a long-standing council dispute over the construction of a driveway, Delprat seceded in 2004 not from the Commonwealth, but rather, his affluent harbourside suburb of Mosman, in Sydney.

"I believe it's important for people to feel they can have some degree of independence, even if it's imaginary," Delprat laughs.

"Like Ned Kelly, I hate the idea of injustice and unfairness... there are many ways of fighting it, and one of those ways is by laughing at it."

Affable and quick-witted, Delprat likens his pseudo state to the theatre ("Even Hamlet was a prince," he muses).

His "kingdom", plastered with royal paraphernalia, is more art installation than micro-nation an eccentric form of protest over a seemingly innocuous council squabble.

The Mosman Council, to their credit, met Delprat's tongue-in-cheek fight with their own brand of humour in a "formal ceremony" at council chambers, they "graciously accepted" the secession of the Principality of Wy (his own home).

And while he is yet to reach a resolution on the driveway debacle and continues to pay council rates (or "tributes", as he calls them), he believes there is a clear role for micronations in Australia.

"I think the very essence of democracy is plurality, lots of points of view, people arguing, disputation, reasoning to each other," he says

"When everyone is thinking the same, and following the same rules, it makes for a very boring society.

"What a wonderful society we live in that we put up with people like me."

While it would be easy to relegate micronations to the realms of satire, embedded in its very fabric is a strong history of Indigenous nationhood.

Murrawarri Republic, an Aboriginal micronation, declared independence in 2013, with its founders demanding a treaty between the Murrawarri nation and the Crown of Great Britain.

Likewise, the Yidindji Tribal Nation in Far North Queensland, which renounced its legal ties in 2014, hopes to enter into a memorandum of understanding with Australia (Murrumu Walubara Yidindji, its founder, has relinquished his passport, bank accounts and Australian citizenship).

But while they may follow a similar formula to other micronations across the country, Williams cautions against drawing too many parallels.

"Indigenous peoples have a claim to sovereignty, a claim to nationhood, that predates the colonisation of Australia," Williams says.

"So those groups are saying, 'We're continuing to assert our rights'. And in their case, they've taken it to court [and] they have legal arguments they can mount.

"And even though they're rejected by the state, they're in a different category to people who, essentially for a hobby and without any foundation whatsoever, seek to declare themselves as rulers of their own land."

Love them or loathe them, if there's one thing both the legal fraternity and self-appointed monarchs can all agree on, it's that the very presence of micronations in Australia underscores the country's commitment to democratic freedoms.

In Australia, there is a sense of "let bygones be bygones", says Williams, and provided those who seek to declare sovereignty continue to "fulfil their normal responsibilities", authorities are more inclined to view the phenomenon as an "eccentric hobby".

"We do live in such a peaceful, democratic, tolerant nation," adds Finlay.

"There are a lot of places in the world where if you tried to declare yourself as a separate nation, the government simply wouldn't allow it and you'd find yourself in quite a lot of trouble."

It is a sentiment echoed by Cruickshank, who believes there are lessons to be learned from the demise of Hutt River.

"If you're thinking of starting a micro-nation in response to legal issues or a dispute with their municipality or the Australian Taxation Office, those sorts of responses are inevitably doomed to failure," he says.

"What they will do is simply delay the inevitable, and that's the lesson we can take from Hutt River."

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Australia has one of the largest number of micronations in the world - ABC News

Hutt River micronation to rejoin Australia due to coronavirus pandemic – The Guardian

All countries are virtual countries, according to Vt Jedlika, the president of Liberland (an uninhabited island in the Danube river between Serbia and Croatia) and his fellow leaders of the worlds micronations.

But that number is now one fewer, after Australias oldest micronation, founded in 1970 over a dispute over wheat, is no more.

The Principality of Hutt River, a popular tourist attraction founded by the self-styled Prince Leonard Casley, and never legally recognised by Australia or any other country, announced on Monday that it was rejoining the Commonwealth of Australia as a result of harsh times during the coronavirus pandemic.

At 75 sq km (18,500 acres) in area, the former self-styled principality in rural Western Australia, 517km north of Perth, is the size of Hong Kong and has a population of 26.

Hutt River seceded from Australia in April 1970 after a dispute with the state government over wheat production quotas, and later became a tourist attraction that printed its own currency, the Hutt River dollar, and stamped the passports of visitors.

But on Monday, the supporters and followers of the tiny nation received an email from Royal Hutt River Legion Major Richard Ananda Barton announcing that its current leader, Prince Graeme Casley, had decided to dissolve the Principality.

It is with much sorrow that I inform you that this will be the last Significant Days list I circulate, he wrote.

Casley confirmed the news to Guardian Australia but noted that the initial email was unauthorised.

PHR will not be continuing in such harsh times (as many others are also facing), he said.

Jedlika, a Eurosceptic politician who founded Liberland in 2015, once said its nothing but the imagination of people that creates countries. Hutt River required more imagination than most.

For 50 years, the principality existed in the strange netherworld of the unrecognised state, one of dozens around the world, never really leaving Australia but claiming to be distinct from it.

In 1977, Hutt River briefly declared war on Australia over what Casley described as then prime minister Malcolm Frasers hostilities.

It had landmarks such as Mount Secession and Lake Beginning, a memorabilia department and historical society. Described on its own website as undulating farmland well covered in places with a wealth of shrubs and glorious wildflowers in season, it was a popular tourist destination in WA.

But the micronation was forced to shut its borders to tourists in January due to the Covid-19 pandemic.

Founder Leonard Casley abdicated the throne to his son Graeme in 2017, and died last year, aged 93.

Graeme Casley confirmed to the Australian Broadcasting Corporation that the property would be sold to pay a mounting debt to the previously-foreign Australian Tax Office.

Hutt River is survived by other self-proclaimed micronations within Australia, including the Empire of Atlantium and the Principality of Snake Hill and the Murrawarri Republic.

Read more:

Hutt River micronation to rejoin Australia due to coronavirus pandemic - The Guardian

Micronation rejoins Australia after 50 years of independence – Daily Express

Leonard Casley, also known as Prince Leonard, declared his farm located north of the state capital Perth was an independent nation in 1970. Mr Casley made the unusual move after clashing with the Australian government over wheat production quotas. He even issued passports, stamps, citizenships, and a new currency, known as the Hutt River Dollar.

Prince Leonard died on February 13, 2019, and his youngest son known as Prince Graeme took over leadership of the micronation.

Micronations are rarely legally recognised by world governments or major international organisations

The Australian Taxation Office demanded Mr Casley paid tax and so the Prince declared war on Australia in 1977.

This is despite the fact that the little nation had no army.

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In 2017 the micronation lost a Supreme Court case and was ordered to pay around 1.64million in tax.

At the time, Western Australian supreme court judge Rene Le Miere said: Anyone can declare themselves a sovereign in their own home but they cannot ignore the laws of Australia or not pay tax.

The micronation has its own national anthem, composed by the late Jon English.

Even the Queen is said to have learned about the strange state in the midst of the outback.

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In April 2016 the Queen conveyed her congratulations to Prince Leonard on the 46th anniversary of his declaration of independence.

She said she wished him a most enjoyable and successful celebration.

Her Majesty also contacted Prince Leonard when he had suffered a fall to send her best wishes for a speedy recovery.

On Monday the micronation issued a statement that it would be dissolved and the land sold as farmland to pay most of the bill.

Prince Leonard's son, Prince Graeme, spoke to Australia's ABC saying he did not believe the sale of the property would repay the whole tax bill.

He said: We are meeting with the ATO to try and come up with a more favourable figure."

Falling revenue from tourism and the coronavirus pandemic crisis has had its effects on the micronation's finances.

Prince Graeme said he hoped that the strange story of this "principality" would be remembered.

He wants the world to see the stand made by his father as one against unjust bureaucracy.

He said: That's the history, and you can't unwrite it.

"You just have to keep the archives and hope the story continues for the family.

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Micronation rejoins Australia after 50 years of independence - Daily Express

Hutt River micronation to rejoin Australia due to debt caused by Covid-19 – The Indian Express

By: Express Web Desk | New Delhi | Published: August 6, 2020 6:25:54 pm PHR (The principality of Hutt River) will not be continuing in such harsh times (as many others are also facing), Prince Casley told the Guardian on Monday. (Photo courtesy: Guardian)

Around 500 km north of Western Australias capital city of Perth lies one of the worlds smallest sovereign states the Principality of Hutt River. With a population of 23, the tiny province is roughly the same size as Hong Kong. For decades, it was considered a popular destination for travellers seeking a stamp in their passports from one of the oldest micronations in the world.

This was until the coronavirus pandemic hit. The province was forced to close its borders to tourists in January, this year. Burdened with a flailing tourism sector and seemingly insurmountable debt, the Principality of Hutt River has announced that it will be reintegrating with Australia, more than 50 years after it first seceded from the country following a dispute over wheat production quotas.

The property will be sold as farmland to pay off the debt owed to Australias Taxation Office, the principalities leader Prince Graeme Casley has confirmed. The ATO has long been pursuing the tiny principality over unpaid debts. After losing a Supreme Court battle in 2017, the royal family of Hutt River was ordered to pay $3 million to the Australian taxation authorities.

PHR (The principality of Hutt River) will not be continuing in such harsh times (as many others are also facing), Prince Casley told the Guardian on Monday.

The principality has had a strained relationship with Australia long before the pandemic set in. Australia has refused to accept its independent status since its inception. In 1977, Hutt River briefly declared war on Australia after repeated demands for payments by the ATO.

Remembering the micronations history, spanning over five decades, Prince Casley told Australian news network ABC, You just have to keep the archives and hope the story continues for the family.

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Hutt River micronation to rejoin Australia due to debt caused by Covid-19 - The Indian Express

MicroNations Fandom | Fandom

Welcome to MicroNations Fandom What is MicroNations Fandom?

MicroNations Fandom is a sister-site to MicroWiki, which uses the MediaWiki software in order to function. Unlike MicroWiki, we use Fandom Wikia to host our plethora of micronational articles.

Before editing on MicroNations Fandom, ask yourself this question: "Am I a micronationalist or a simulationist?". A micronationalist is someone who claims a small land mass that is (in most cases) easily accessible to them, such as their backyard, a local park, their bedroom, or their house. For example, the Republic of Molossia claims their property in Dayton, Nevada.

Micronationalists do not make any false claims about their nation. They do not make ridiculous claims such as having an army of six thousand soldiers and/or several war machines such as battleships or tanks. If those claims were true, it wouldn't be a micronation. If you want to make these claims you know are not true, find a political simulation Wikia. Micronationalism is not a political simulation! Micronationalists might have small military forces, but they are almost always for ceremonial purposes only. Take Molossia's M.S. Wombat as an example, it is an inflatable boat, not a battleship. Micronational war is an extremely rare event. A true armed conflict would have to result in actual injury and utilize actual weapons, whether that be primitive sharpened sticks or a pistol. One of the only (actual) armed micronational conflicts in history is that of the Sealand hostage crisis, where actual weapons were used, an and actual hostage was taken. If you wish to have fictional micronational wars, such as civil wars, video game wars, or wars with nations across the globe from you, consider going to a simulationist Wikia instead.

If you have any questions about micronationalism, simulationism, or the MicroNations Fandom in general, please ask any of our administrators.

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MicroNations Fandom | Fandom

Micronation – Encyclopedia Westarctica

A micronation, sometimes referred to as a model country or new country project, is an entity that claims to be an independent nation or state but is not generally recognized by world governments or major international organizations.

Micronations are distinguished from imaginary countries and from other kinds of social groups (such as eco-villages, campuses, tribes, clans, and sects) by expressing a formal and persistent, even if unrecognized, claim of sovereignty over some physical territory. Micronations are also distinct from true secessionist movements; micronations' activities are almost always peaceful enough to be ignored rather than challenged by the established nations whose territory they claim.

Several micronations have issued coins, flags, postage stamps, passports, and other items. These items are rarely accepted outside their own community, but may be sold as novelties to help raise money or collected by enthusiasts.

The earliest known micronations date from the beginning of the 19th century. The advent of the Internet provided the means for people to create many new micronations, whose members are scattered all over the world and interact mostly by electronic means, often calling their nations "nomadic countries". The differences between such Internet micronations, other kinds of social networking groups, and role-playing games are sometimes difficult to define.

The term "micronation" to describe those entities dates at least to the 1970s. The term micropatriology is sometimes used to describe the study of both micronations and microstates by micronationalists, some of whom refer to sovereign nation-states as "macronations."

The term 'micronation' literally means "small nation." It is a neologism originating in the mid-1970s to describe the many thousands of small unrecognised state-like entities that have mostly arisen since that time.

The term has since also come to be used retrospectively to refer to earlier unrecognized entities, some of which date to as far back as the 19th century. Amongst supporters of micronations ("micronationalists") the term "macronation" is in common use to refer to any internationally recognised sovereign nation-state.

Not all micronations are small; some can be rather large, like Westarctica, or those with claims on other planets.

Micronations generally have a number of common features, although these may vary widely. They may have a structure similar to established sovereign states, including territorial claims, government institutions, official symbols and citizens, albeit on a much smaller scale. Micronations are often quite small, in both their claimed territory and claimed populations although there are some exceptions to this rule, with different micronations having different methods of citizenship. Micronations may also issue formal instruments such as postage stamps, coins, banknotes and passports, and bestow honors and titles of nobility.

The Montevideo Convention on the Right and Duties of States was one attempt to create a legal definition distinguishing between states and non-states. Some micronations like Sealand or Hutt River reject the term "micronation" and consider themselves fully sovereign states (feigning ignorance of the political reality of their condition); other micronations like Flandrensis or Molossia have no desire to be recognized as sovereign to the same degree as UN member states.

A small number of micronations are founded based on historical anomalies or on legal anomalies (deriving from disputed interpretations of law). These types of micronations are usually located on small (usually disputed) territorial enclaves, generate limited economic activity founded on[tourism and philatelic and numismatic sales, and are tolerated or ignored by the nations from which they claim to have seceded. This category includes:

The 1960s and 1970s witnessed the foundation of a number of territorial micronations. The first of these, Sealand, was established in 1967 on an abandoned World War II gun platform in the North Sea just off the coast of England, and has survived into the present day. Others were founded on libertarian principles and involved schemes to construct artificial islands, but only a few are known to have had even limited success in realizing that goal.

Micronationalism shed much of its traditionally eccentric anti-establishment mantle and took on a distinctly hobbyist perspective in the mid-1990s, when the emerging popularity of the Internet made it possible to create and promote statelike entities in an entirely electronic medium with relative ease. An early example is the Kingdom of Talossa, a micronation created in 1979 by then-14-year-old Robert Ben Madison, which went online in November 1995, and was reported in the New York Times and other print media in 2000.

The activities of these types of micronations are almost exclusively limited to simulations of diplomatic activity (including the signing of treaties" and participation in inter-micronational organizations such as the League of Micronations) and contribution to wikis. With the introduction of the Internet, many articles on how to create micronations were made available on such wikis, which serve as a hub of online activity for micronations. The most notable wiki for the forum, MicroWiki, was created in 2005.

A number of traditional territorial micronations, including the Hutt River Province, Seborga, and Sealand, maintain websites that serve largely to promote their claims and sell merchandise. In 1999, the MicroFreedom Index, an academic listing of micronations created by Mr. Steven Scharff, went online and has served as a resource for the micronational community for nearly twenty years.

In international law, the Montevideo Convention on the Right and Duties of States sets down the criteria for statehood in article 1.

The state as a person of international law should possess the following qualifications:

The first sentence of article 3 of the Montevideo Convention explicitly states that "The political existence of the state is independent of recognition by the other states."

Under these guidelines, any entity which meets all of the criteria set forth in article 1 can be regarded as sovereign under international law, whether or not other states have recognized it.

The Sovereign Military Order of Malta, as an independent subject of international law does not meet all the criteria for recognition as a State (however it does not claim itself a State either), but is and has been recognized as a sovereign nation for centuries.

The doctrine of territorial integrity does not effectively prohibit unilateral secession from established states in international law, per the relevant section from the text of the Final Act of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, also known as the Helsinki Final Act, Helsinki Accords or Helsinki Declaration:

IV. Territorial integrity of StatesThe participating States will respect the territorial integrity of each of the participating States.Accordingly, they will refrain from any action inconsistent with the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations against the territorial integrity, political independence or the unity of any participating State, and in particular from any such action constituting a threat or use of force.The participating States will likewise refrain from making each other's territory the object of military occupation or other direct or indirect measures of force in contravention of international law, or the object of acquisition by means of such measures or the threat of them. No such occupation or acquisition will be recognized as legal.

In effect, this states that other states (i.e., third parties), may not encourage secession in a state. This does not make any statement as regards persons within a state electing to secede of their own accord.

There has been a small but growing amount of attention paid to the micronation phenomenon in recent years. Most interest in academic circles has been concerned with studying the apparently anomalous legal situations affecting such entities as Sealand and Hutt River, in exploring how some micronations represent grassroots political ideas, and in the creation of role-playing entities for instructional purposes.

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Micronation - Encyclopedia Westarctica

The Most Ridiculous Countries to Have Ever Existed – Gentside UK

Creating your own country is not as difficult as you might think. Based on the 5 micronations in our list, it seems like just about anybody can create their own (with whatever outrageous laws they want)!

The territory of the Republic of Minerva remained independent for only a short time during 1972. It consists of a group of atolls in the Pacific Ocean. The captain of the HMS Herald discovered these islands and named them after a whaler that was shipwrecked there in 1829. The Republic of Minerva proclaimed its independence in 1972, and Morris C. Davis was provisionally elected president. However, he was removed very quickly because Tonga claimed possession of the island. The captain tried again to recover his islands by occupying them in 1982, but he was then once again expelled very quickly.

This micronation claims the territory of the municipality of Seborga in Italy. Originally, the fiefdom of Seborga was ceded by the Count of Ventimiglia to the abbots Lrins in 954. It was in 1963 that the place obtained the status of principality when the town's florist, Giorgio Carbone, proclaimed himself 'Prince Giorgio I of Seborga.' The population of the village later approved this decision almost unanimously in a plebiscite.

This district in Copenhagen, Denmark was the self-proclaimed 'Free City of Christiania' in 1971. This 'country' was created by a group of squatters, those who were unemployed, and hippies. This city is particularly known because of its decriminalisation of drugs. At the beginning of the 2000s, the state had 1000 inhabitants spread over 34 hectares. Not bad.

This micronation, founded by Kevin Baugh, is located in the middle of the state of Nevada, USA. The nation defines itself as a 'dictatorial banana republic,' which seems to comes straight out of his imagination. To make his country official, Kevin Baugh, who became president in 1999, launched a petition on the whitehouse.gov website. At the last census, the 1.9 square mile state had a population of 27.

The Principality of Sealand settled on a former military platform called Fort Roughs in the middle of the North Sea. Roy Bates, a former British military man, after consulting lawyers and maritime law specialists, realised that there was nothing to prevent the island from being taken over in international waters. In 1966, he decided to approach the island and proclaimed himself sovereign in 1967. Sealand has its own currency, the 'Sealand dollar,' and an average of five inhabitants live on the 5,920 square feet of land in the middle of the sea.

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The Most Ridiculous Countries to Have Ever Existed - Gentside UK


Micronations.wiki costs 160 per year to keep online. Since we are unable to run advertisements, we ask that any users who are able to do so make a contribution so that Microwiki may continue to survive and thrive. Thank you!

From MicroWiki, the micronational encyclopdia

MicroWiki is the largest online encyclopdia about micronations, small and often rather eccentric nations that are unrecognised by the wider international community. The wiki is being continually improved and updated by 12,516 editors, with content being moderated by a small group of staff. Since its creation on 27 May 2005, the site has grown to become the largest micronation-related website on the Internet, with a total of 103,140 pages and 21,044 articles, of which 61 have achieved good article status. Before you start editing, it is recommended that you take a look at our content disclaimer, basic rules of editing, and the nation page guide. If you need help, visit our meeting points, the MicroWiki forums and MicroWiki@Discord.

Montescano, officially the Principality of Montescano (Latin: Principatus Montescano; Dutch: Soeverein Vorstendom Montescano), was a landlocked state which claimed to be a sovereign state but was more commonly referred to as a micronation by external observers, with claims within the Netherlands and Slovakia. The Principality formally declared independence on 29 May 2019. Montescano was comprised of five counties, and had a population of 27. Most of the political culture was based on the Medieval Low Countries as such much of its culture and many government positions revealed a Dutch influence on the nation. Unlike the Medieval Netherlands, Montescano upheld "Chalcedonian Christianity" as the official religion, which de facto meant that both the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox denominations had an official status. (more...)

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European Championships Group C Now its getting trs Interessant as they say get voting! – OnEurope

Group C represents a bit of a Francophone throwback as Luxembourg and Monaco both stake claims for their inclusion in the Last 16 of the Eurovision championships. Both nations have had fair amounts of success at the contest despite their size and will be keen to throw their heritage into the mix in order to assert their dominance (especially top seeds Luxembourg). They will need to be wary though, Denmark have won the contest as recently as 2013 and were the top-ranked seed in the second pot. Serbia may not have had decades of Eurovision history like their competitors but they have achieved a lot in a short space of time and will be keen to make use of their status as the only Balkan nation to not require qualifying for the tournament. Your votes will decide our two qualifiers. Will you go for Eurovision classicism and heritage or will you go for the more recent bops that you know and love?

Luxembourg (1965 & 1983)

We start in 1965 in Naples with a woman named France Gall and her Poupe de cire, poupe de son (Wax doll, Rag doll). This wasnt the first time that Luxembourg managed to triumph at the Eurovision Song Contest but it is definitely the most famous and the victory would be massive for the careers of both France Gall and writer Serge Gainsbourg. To zoom out for a moment on Luxembourg at the contest, they have competed 38 times, have won it 5 times but have done so with foreign artists. Of the 38 competing acts, only 9 were Luxembourgish. Whilst this may seem like a strange set of numbers, I can deduce two things, one what an amazing proportion of entries to victories and two what a fantastic blueprint for micronations to have more success at Eurovision moving forward. Its not just the old years that theyre having success with either. In 1983 Corinne Herms won the contest in Munich singing Si la vie est cadeau beating out Eurovision classics from Israel and Sweden. Luxembourg were not just a fixture at Eurovision, they punched above their weight consistently to challenge the summit of the scoreboard. Sure, their identity at Eurovision may be France 2.0 but doesnt it say a lot that with half the total number of participations, Luxembourg still have the same number of victories as their French neighbours. The data alone surely defines them as being worthy of a vote.

Denmark (2000 & 2013)

Despite their glittering history at the contest, I actually think that Denmark are very underrated in the context of how they are seen at the contest. Sure, they are unlucky to exist in the shadow of their Swedish neighbours but even in comparison to fellow Scandinavians Norway, they arent appreciated as much for their contribution to the contest. Step forward two stories of Danes who crossed the resund Bridge and brought the contest back to Copenhagen the following year. Very little was expected of the Olsen Brothers in 2000 when they stepped onto the stage at the Globen to perform Fly on the Wings of Love but they led the voting in Stockholm from start to finish and the song has gone on to become a true Eurovision classic. 13 years later and Emmelie De Forest only had to travel as far as Malm to romp home to a very expected victory with Only Teardrops. Whats the Danish identity? To be honest, its shifted around quite a bit since their first victory with Dansevise in 1963 and the Hot Eyes era of the 80s. Since the language rule changed however, its clear to me that a Danish entry is packed full of heart, has sweet lyrics and remains confidently itself without feeling arrogant or aggressive. Its Sweden without the pressure of consistency, Norway with more passion and Germany with more quality and Eurovision knowhow. If thats exactly what speaks to you, then its time to get out the vote.

Monaco (1971 & 1978)

Whilst it might seem silly to call Monacos attitude to Eurovision as being that of a poor mans France, the decisions made around Monacos Eurovision entries suggest it may be a more accurate statement than first thought. Sure, Monaco is a powerful principality with many extremely wealthy and powerful residents but has that really translated down into the music? After all, they did send a 12 year old boy to Madrid in 1969. Yes, Sverine did win the contest for Monaco with her song Un banc, un arbre, une rue in Dublin in 1971 and Caline & Olivier Toussaint placed in a very respectable 4thin Paris in 1978 with the aptly titled Les jardins de Monaco but has Monacos contribution to Eurovision ever felt particularly special? Personally, I think they gave up on modern Eurovision too soon and that there was some real potential in songs like Lise Darlys 2005 entry Tout de moi but I suppose we will never know for sure with no hope present that Monaco will attempt to return to the contest. But if the Monagesque attitude to Eurovision hits the money for you then make sure that you vote!

Serbia (2007 & 2012)

Serbia represent the classic Balkan nation. Their entries are not only of a high standard but represent a sound and aesthetic that transports you directly to that part of the world. That was what Marija erifovi managed to do so successfully in 2007 in Helsinki when her song Molitva sung in beautiful Serbian transcended the language barrier to touch people across Europe. Five years later, eljko Joksimovi travelled to Baku and successfully placed 3rd with the classic Balkan ballad Nije ljubav stvar. The Balkan nations have not had the most success at Eurovision and none of them have been able to concoct a consistent formula for performing well at the contest but what is certain is that Serbia have come closest. On the three occasions that Serbia have missed out on a Grand Final, they have done so by the narrowest of margins. When they have qualified for the Grand Final, not only have they given the contest many great moments but they have proudly represented the musical culture of a part of Europe that is certainly underrepresented but is nonetheless very special and deserves to be celebrated. Would the last 16 of the Eurovision Championships feel complete without the only Balkan winner to date present? If the answer is no, make sure that they get your vote!

Group C - Usual Form - One vote and two through

Please vote no later than 23.59 BST July 13th and look out for July 14th when we will release the vote for Group D, a Northern European affair to be fought out between France ( On Bastille day too!), Belgium, Finland & Iceland.

This article was written by Fin Ross Russell (Internationalist Eurovision Blog)

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European Championships Group C Now its getting trs Interessant as they say get voting! - OnEurope

Micronation – Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Micronations are countries started by one or a group of people which is not noticed by the United Nations. These countries are mostly used in people's heads, or on the internet.

People make micronations for lots of reasons. Some are to show they do not like their main country (for example the United Kingdom), or if they want to make money, or to use it as a place for themselves.

Here is a list of some Micronations;

Republic of Dolmatovka (2014).

Some micronations play in competitions.

The biggest football organisation for micronations is known as the MFA (Micronational Football Association), founded by Joe Foxon in 2009. It has 13 micronations from 7 countries as members. It makes a competition every 4 years called the MFA World Cup for all the micronations in the world to play in. The first World Cup will be in Southern England in 2013.

Every year there is a chess competition for micronations to play in. It is played on the computer and in the first year, 3 micronations took part.

Every year there is a singing competition called the MicroVision Song Contest. Micronations make a song and put it on the internet, and then other micronations vote for the best song. The winner then makes the next one.

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Micronation - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Cryptocurrencies, The New Reality: Digital Summit 2020 – Benzinga

The record-breaking five-day online conference in the field of blockchain technologies and business,Digital Summit 2020, with more than 30 international speakers will unite at least 25, 000 participants from Europe, Asia, the USand other regions on July 6-10 in an immersive discussion of new anti-crisis solutions in the current economic environment.

TheDigital Summit 2020 will unite the global industry leaders and novices of the digital world and create a unique synergy between blockchain and traditional business. The market giants will share their business ideas and anti-crisis solutions in the economic environment in 2020. The eventwill allow traditional business entrepreneurs to find a new direction for growth and discover new business problem-solving techniques.

The Digital Summit 2020 participants will experience a fivedays full of immersion into the field of new blockchain technologies and business crisis management solutions with more than 30 international speakers, including:

Sergey Sevantsyan, mastermind of Think Tank Community, and Catherine Ross, senior editor of Benzinga will be the hosts of the conference.

The Digital Summit 2020 will cover eightgrowth areas Mining, DAO, Exchanges, Market-making, Projects 2020, Venture investments, Sales and Marketing for crypto projects and such key topics as the anti-crisis cases from the top companies, the pandemic effects on the market, trading in 2020, business tactics in the face of uncertainty, the anti-crisis strategies of the new blockchain economy, blockchain governance and micronations.

The general partner of the conference is the blockchain media resource ForkLog. The blockchain consulting company Colibri Group, cryptocurrency calendar 1 in the world Coindar.org, the worlds first privacy-preserving computation network based on Multi-party Computation ARPA, the global leader in blockchain and Internet of Things WaltonChain, Amir Capital investment company, and the cryptocurrency exchanges Bingbon, HotBit, BiKi and ByBit.

Visit the webpage to join the conference and take a chance to win the prizes from our exclusive sponsor Forsage and other conference partners. Among prizes, there will be KIA Sportage Comfort from the conferences general sponsor CBS ONE.

Visitors are welcome to choose between free and paid participation with the chance to win the prizes and the business lunch with the conference speakers. Corporate clients will receive a discount for purchasing over 20 tickets. The current price is $19 for Business ticket and $89 for Executive ticket.

About conference hosts: Digital Summit 2020 is the fourth major online-conference of the Goooup team and the founder of UM Sergey Petrik. The previous major conferences of the team include Blockchain Day Online and New Economy Conference. For inquiries and collaboration: https://t.me/NKlimovskaya

2020 Benzinga.com. Benzinga does not provide investment advice. All rights reserved.

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Cryptocurrencies, The New Reality: Digital Summit 2020 - Benzinga

Micronations in the United States Prepare for Coronavirus, Send Messages of Goodwill to the American People – Newsweek

The coronavirus has spread to 184 countries, according to Johns Hopkins University, but while the COVID-19 virus is something nearly every country in the world shares, national responses to the pandemic have had wildly disparate outcomes. Comparing these responses suggest best-path approaches for suppressing the spread of the virus, while simultaneously highlighting systemic weaknesses on both the national and international level. But while nation-states are composed of overlapping economies, social institutions and bureaucracies, they also embody a national identity, made of its collective people and their thoughts.

Without recognition in the international ordersometimes without even geographical territorythe world's micronations are made almost entirely of this intangible spirit. Their response to the coronavirus pandemic can't be waged with medical resources, PPE supply lines and police-enforced social distancing. Instead, they have each other, and the identity they've built collectively. Through diplomatic channels (email), we reached out to micronations founded in the United States, to see how they're weathering the ongoing coronavirus pandemic, and to hear what good tidings they bring to the people of the country that surrounds them.

Each had their own purpose behind founding their own country, and they weren't always what you might expect. While often the creations of eccentrics who have built for themselves a fantastic excuse for colorful costumes and elaborate titles, micronations aren't just for individualists and property-rights political gadflies, demonstrating instead a thoughtful and international inclination.

With territorial holdings within the states of California and Nevada, the 11-acre Republic of Molossia has its own currency (the Valora, which is valued against the price of chocolate chip cookie dough), postal service, national parks, volcanological institute, connection to Arthurian legend, national musical instrument (the kazoo-like molossaphone), rockets program and railroad.

President Kevin Baugh has been the leader of Molossia since 1999, except for a few days in 2010 when the country was overthrown and renamed Kickassia (Baugh subverted the short-lived dictatorship in his disguise as advisor Baron Fritz von Baugh). While embodying a light spirit and a certain brand of political satire, Molossia nurtures a surprisingly robust civic life and emulatesin miniaturemany of the functions of the modern state, with outreach via an online radio show, newsletter and state visits with fellow micronations.

Molossia does, however, rely on the larger surrounding nation for health care and other resources, paid back in "foreign aid," i.e. taxes"They need it - have you seen their roads?" a Molossian government website says. As in the surrounding United States, Molossians are adhering to standard practices in response to the coronavirus pandemic.

"Currently most resident Molossians are on a form of lockdown, with only a couple traveling to their place of employment outside our nation to work. Thus far we have not had any Molossians fall victim to the virus, which is excellent news and shows that our basic plan of lockdown and social distancing is working." President Kevin Baugh of the Republic of Molossia told Newsweek. "Hopefully it stays that way, not just for us here in Molossia, but over the border in the U.S. and all over the world."

Azul from Talossa!

The Greater Talossan Area roughly overlaps with the East Side of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, but the Kingdom itselffounded in 1979, when 14-year-old Robert Ben Madison, first in a line of elected kings and queens, declared his bedroom a sovereign stateis one of the earliest and most successful examples of a primarily online micronation, with more than a hundred active citizens around the world. Since 1995, Talossa has developed an elaborate government and culture, with a two-chamber legislature, cabinet ministers, political parties and its idiosyncratic invented language.

"We are like any other micronation out there in that what we do is very tongue-in-cheek and gives our participants a chance to make a difference in a unique societal framework," Talossian Jeffrey Ragsdale told Newsweek.

According to Talossan Prime Minister Daphne Lawless, Talossans haven't had an in-person meet up for several months, ensuring that "community transmission of COVID-19 in Talossa is zero."

"Talossans are pioneers at social distancing," Prime Minister Daphne Lawless told Newsweek, citing the exclusively online nature of their government and civic life. "For our Big Neighbour, the United States of America, I wish nothing but the best of health and welfare."

The Prime Minister ended our email correspondence with a Talossan proverb: "Voastra soleu ispu da srvivon, c' despasar acest malignh crisomileu din la Cas Bianc."

Using their online lexicon, their proverb translates loosely to, "Your only hope for survival is to get rid of that orange goblin in the White House."

"I come before you in a time of great uncertainty. The COVID-19 pandemic, now upon us, has touched every continent in the world, except for Antarctica," Grand Duke Travis McHenry said in a video address to the citizens of Westarctica, the micronation he founded in 2001. "However, this does not mean we are not affected, for Westarctica is a global community, with citizens in every corner of the Earth."

Westarctica claims as its sovereign territory a 620,000 square mile slice of West Antarctica called Marie Byrd Land (named for the wife of Antarctic explorer Richard Byrd), which is still considered by most nations to be the largest unclaimed territory on the planet.

Its leader sporting a uniform somewhere in the nebulous zone between Napoleonic and tinpot dictator, Westarctica emphasizes martial valor, heraldry and pomp, but aims it all at service-driven ends, particularly combating climate change. Citing its self-interest as an Antarctic country (if so far uninhabited), Westarctica pursues environmental causes via a scholarship grant, initiatives encouraging reduced meat consumption and the Westarctican Civilian Corps, which structures on-the-ground ecological work with military-style honors and awards. By creating their nation in Antarctica and a flag to rally around, Westarctica sees itself as providing a voice for a fragile ecosystem and bringing attention to the state of the Western Antarctic ice sheet.

As for their response to coronavirus, Grand Duke Travis suggested his citizens follow the recommendations of local health services, while emphasizing Westarctica's service-oriented national character.

"Our Foreign Minister, based in Germany, has been activated by the German military to assist with medical operations," Grand Duke Travis told Newsweek. "Aside from a bit of fatigue from the long hours, he's in good spirits."

Westarctica has also appointed the head of their national orchestra, Jon Langer, to the position of Kapellmeister, who will now have the duty of creating Westarctican music for the enjoyment of those sheltering in place.

While COVID-19 has yet to spread to Antarctica and no Westarctican yet lives on the southernmost continent, Grand Duke Travis expressed hope that "scientists at research stations across the continent are taking proper precautions."

The unusual nature of The Ambulatory Free States of Obsidia have made coronavirus precautions a cinch for the microstate. The nation's founder, Grand Marshal Caro Yagjian, took concrete steps against the pandemic, closing "the national briefcase" days before U.S. states began instituting shelter in place ordersthe landmass comprising The Ambulatory Free States of Obsidia consists of a medium-sized volcanic rock, broken into two chunks. Weighing about the size of a large pineapple, the transportable nation is sometimes displayed alongside a sign that reads, "Please feel free to touch country."

"Obsidia sees the U.S. federal response as a complete disaster," Grand Marshal Yagjian told Newsweek. "It is truly a failure of the American system in every way."

Her nation is calling for the United States to provide healthcare, hazard pay, PTO and sick leave for all frontline workers, including agricultural workers and those working at grocery stores and other ongoing food services.

"In times like this micronation activities can feel frivolous," Grand Marshal Yagjian said. "Many of our members are affected by job losses or having to put themselves at risk because they work the low-paying jobs that were not deemed essential until a few weeks ago."

While bordered on all sides by Oakland, California, the Ambulatory Free States were formed as a matriarchal "anti-state," Obsidia models LGBTQ and feminist-led alternatives to capitalism by promoting self-expression in pursuit of new concepts for ideal governance. An artistic collective in spirit, Obsidia citizens have made their own responses to coronavirus, including this guide to sewing your own face mask"

"My only hope is that we will come out of this with an energy that says working people will not tolerate abuse any longer," Grand Marshal Yagjian said. "Our embassy is closed, but our spirit of mutual aid and strength remain the same."

"The whole Zaqistan thing is not necessarily to talk to you here and pretend it's a 100 percent functioning country," New York artist and Republic of Zaqistan founder Zaq Landsberg told Newsweek. "It's a tool to make people question what is a 'real' country."

The Republic of Zaqistan is one of Landsberg's many large-scale creations, which often present as playfully interactive while subtly (or not-so-subtly, as with the NYPD mobile surveillance tower Landsberg transformed into a menacing spider) highlighting internationalist struggles or critiquing American militarism. Zaqistan is populated by robot sentinels, who stand guard over the Victory Arch, a monument to an unspecified victory ("When it happens, we'll have it ready," Landsberg said).

Landsberg created Zaqistan to explore how national sovereignty, and particularly diplomatic recognition, can be used as a tool to delegitimize people and populations. While initially inspired by how the sovereign status of Taiwan has been systematically delegitimizedincluding by the United Nationsthe creation of Zaqistan raised questions about his own relationship with the United States. Landsberg recalled a sense of shame hanging over his first visit to the land that would become a new micronation, which coincided with the George W. Bush administration's failure to adequately respond to Hurricane Katrina.

"Who decides what American is? If American stuff is happening and we don't agree with it, can we go someplace else? Can we disavow that?" Landsberg said. "Can I create my own country and my own identity?

In some ways, an uninhabitable micronation out in the desert, surrounded by the United States, highlights the absurdity of believing it's possible to fully separate our identities from our national origins"If you and I are born in America, everything we write and do is going to be American," Landsberg said.

But Landsberg came to believe it was possible to consciously transform a national identity, with Zaqistan as a model in miniature of how this process of self-conceiving operates. As he issued Zaqistan passports to a widening circle of friends and traveling companions, Landsberg found surprising power in the assertion of a joint sovereignty independent from modern nation-states. While in India, Landsberg extended Zaqistani citizenship to stateless Tibetan exile friends, who found their new citizenship in the micronation darkly hilarious.

"They travel on Indian residency cards. Literally to this day, Zaqistanwhich is kind of a joke countryis the only country they hold citizenship too," Landsberg said. "That change did it for me, because at first it was a tongue-in-cheek thing, but that made it turn. There was an actual thing that affected their lives, that was a little hard to describe or even for Americans to think about, because there aren't many stateless people in the United States."

Together, they were creating Zaqistani art, "joke or not," and collectively building a Zaqistani worldview. This same worldview informed Landsberg's response to the coronavirus pandemic, who largely dismissed the status of his micronation and instead explored how concepts of nationalism, both micro- and macro- could either become a great strength or a great impediment to how humanity weathers the COVID-19 virus.

"Zaqistan is in the middle of the Utah desert and there's a couple of robot sentinels out there," Landsberg told Newsweek. "In that sense the virus doesn't affect the land, but there are hundreds of Zaqistani citizens throughout the world and I worry about how they are."

Landsberg pointed out how national identity can play a surprising role in how effectively we as a country can combat the virus. For example, undocumented immigrants are more at risk for having less access to healthcare and employment opportunities, but the decision to keep them in this relegated status endangers everyonea problem created by our conception of national identity.

"The virus doesn't discriminate, it just attacks human hosts," Landsberg said. "When it's 'my country or yours' it can make both countries sicker in the long run."

Just as advocates for policies like Medicare for All have held up the ongoing coronavirus pandemic as evidence of the need for universal healthcare that won't endanger or bankrupt the millions of American workers freshly unemployed and without insurance, Landsberg sees in COVID-19 the failures of nationalism and the potential benefits in constructing more fruitful and open identities.

"These are problems of nationality and countries working together," Landsberg said. "Not even in a kumbaya sense, but how as humans we need to figure this problem out. The more we work together, the better it's going to be for everybody. Sectioning and dividing ourselves off could potentially make things worse."

Rather than the abolition of nationalist affiliations, Landsberg sees in micronations the potential for people to self-select identities that can bring them together. While nations in their composition, micronations lack a monopoly on force, making them voluntary associations capable of embodying a collective will. Rather than throwing out national identity, in the micronation model we can see the possibility of improving and better coordinating separate collectives, an activity which has become surprisingly literal in our atomized, shelter-in-place isolation.

"What if everybody starts coming up with a flag and ruling from their quarantine zone and their little identities?" Landsberg asked.

Read more:

Micronations in the United States Prepare for Coronavirus, Send Messages of Goodwill to the American People - Newsweek

The Joy of Collecting Stamps From Countries That Don’t Really Exist – Atlas Obscura

The postage stamp looks like a postage stamp is supposed to look: white, perforated edges, and part of a circular cancellation mark in the corner. It also has the country and postage clearly printed, though its depiction of the pirate Blackbeard during an attack might be more dramatic than most philatelic subjects. But its not a postage stamp, not really, because its country of origin is Sealanda metal platform about the size of a tennis court, off the English coast. Sealand is one of the quirky, strangely numerous states known as micronations, or self-proclaimed polities with no legal recognition. Some of them, to simulate legitimacy or at least make a little money, have issued their own flags, passports, coins, and yes, postage stamps.

Laura Steward, curator of public art at the University of Chicago, who organized an exhibition at the 2020 Outsider Art Fair in New York of stamps from micronations and other dubiously defined places, believes that these tiny squares are more than a toss-off: Theyre art, proof of imagination, and rather sophisticated bids for public recognition. A postage stamp is a small but mighty symbolic emissary from one particular nation to the rest of the world, Steward writes in text accompanying the exhibit. A functioning postal service, made visible in stamps, is an unmistakable expression of national legitimacy. As a result, the postage stamp is an excellent vehicle for spurious, tenuous, or completely fictitious states to declare their existence.

Steward, whos a stamp collector herself, refers to these types of stamps as Bogus Cinderellas. They are bogus because they dont represent officially recognized entities, and Cinderellas because they are stepchildren to genuine postage. Most serious stamp collectors consider them illegitimate despite their extraordinary ability to conjure an entire nation on a tiny piece of paper, Steward wrote. Some collectors are fascinated by them nonetheless, and so micronations (and other not-quite-places) keep putting them out. The Republic of Molossia issued some as recently as 2019.

Atlas Obscura spoke with Steward about the wonders of discovering and collecting stamps from these rather curious, suspect places.

I was working on an exhibition of unusual forms of currencies in support of a scientific conference, and came across Sealands currency, and then Sealand itself.

Stamps are routinely used to reify state power. If your states existence is rather tenuous, making a stamp is a gesture of legitimacy and seriousness. It is an opportunity to visualize your states identity and share that with others.

My favorite stamps are from Heliotown, which is more like an art project than a micronation. It is easiest to think of Heliotown as a parallel reality, and there are two portals to it in Santa Fe, New Mexicoone downtown, one at the Santa Fe Institute, the independent research institute that created it.

Im drawn to Celestia, the Nation of Celestial Space. James Thomas Mangan, founder of Celestia, registered the acquisition of outer space with the Recorder of Deeds and Titles in Cook County, Illinois, on January 1, 1949. Magnan laid claim to outer space to prevent any one country from establishing hegemony there. Later in 1949, he banned all atmospheric nuclear tests, and notified the United Nations of his decision.

For me, the appeal of the stamps is their ability to stand for the political culture of an entire nation in just one square inch. And I love to think about micronationsthe boldness of the project, the many decisions that must be made to invent an entire nation and culture out of nothing. And to then express such a vast project in such a tiny form is something I find enchanting to think about it. I love the handmade qualities of many stamps, which show us the character of their makers.

Continued here:

The Joy of Collecting Stamps From Countries That Don't Really Exist - Atlas Obscura

Lilliputians in Gulliver’s World – The odd world of the mini-state – Geographical

In the third of his series on geopolitical oddities, Vitali Vitaliev looks at our planets smallest independent nations

It is common knowledge that throughout its 300 years of history, Liechtenstein a tiny, 25km-long, sovereign principality, squeezed between Austria and Switzerland was spared foreign invasions. Like many other commonly accepted stereotypes about the worlds smallest sovereign countries, however, this is not entirely true.

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The principality has no army, and its last military engagement was in 1866, when Prussia declared war on Austria. All 80 Liechtenstein soldiers were deployed on the frontier between Tyrol and Italy for one week, during which time they witnessed a blizzard (in August), but never once set eyes on the enemy. They returned to Liechtenstein safe and sound (even making a new recruit on the way back making them one of the few military forces to return from the front lines of a war with more soldiers than when they left), were welcomed by a band, given refreshments at Vaduz castle and then sent home.

And yet, two episodes in the principalitys 20th century history could indeed qualify as invasions, of sorts. The latest happened in October 1992, when a group of Swiss recruits tried by mistake to set up an observation post in the Liechtenstein village of Triesenberg on the Swiss border. A local country woman, who had never seen a soldier before and was obviously unnerved by their rifles and gas-masks, simply shooed them away across the frontier back into Switzerland, which had to apologise officially for the incident.

The first episode, however, warrants a much more detailed description. On the night of 2 May 1945, 500 fully armed Russian soldiers, under the command of Major General Holmston-Smyslovsky, crossed the Austrian frontier into Liechtenstein near the village of Schellenberg. The Russians, remnants of the First Russian Army of the German Wehrmacht, had entered Liechtenstein in search of political asylum. Unlike two and a half million other Russian soldiers and Cossacks, who fought on the German side and were captured by the Allies only to be handed over to Stalin under the Yalta agreement, these 500 were not extradited and were allowed to stay.

The tiny Ruritanian principality was firmly committed to its status of neutrality during WWII. Near the village of Malbun, there is a church, built in 1950 to thank God for sparing Liechtenstein the terrors of the Second World War. In actual fact, it was thanks not to God but to the political prowess of Prince Franz Joseph II (ironically, the nephew of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, whose assassination in Sarajevo precipitated the 1914-1918 war), who bravely paid a surprise visit to Berlin in May 1939. As the Prince himself later recalled, Hitler was visibly ill at ease and didnt make any impression at all during their 90 minute meeting in the Reich Chancellery, but since his visit flattered Hitlers ego, the Nazis decided to leave Liechtenstein alone.

A tourist train running through Liechtenstein


The mini (also called micro) state is a rather confusing and ill-defined concept. Unlike the so-called micronations, mini-states are all fully sovereign and self-governing small entities, recognised as such by the UN and other international organisations. According to the succinct definition by Websters College Dictionary, a mini-state is just a small independent nation. The Free Internet Dictionary defines it as: a very small nation that is an internationally-recognised sovereign state. The obvious question here is: how small is small?

Small is a relative concept when applied to countries. The UK is small compared to, say, China or Russia, but Malta is very small in relation to the UK. Or take Iceland relatively small in population (350,000), yet vast in its area (40,000 square miles). What should we take into account: area, population, both? My favourite definition, quoted by geographer Zbigniew Dumienski in his paper Microstates as Modern Protected States, describes a mini-state as being of a size so small as to invite comment.

If we narrow the bracket even further to a maximum of 100,000 population it leaves us with ten amazingly diverse sovereign countries: Nauru, Tuvalu, Palau and Marshall Islands in Oceania, St Kitts and Nevis, Antigua and Barbuda in the Caribbean and San Marino, Monaco, Liechtenstein and Andorra in Europe. Finally there is also Niue (population 1,600) an island nation in the South Pacific, considered an associated state (ie. minor partner) of New Zealand.

(How about the Vatican, by far the worlds smallest state, with the population of under 900 and the area of just 44 hectares? Well, I consciously chose to leave the Papal State out of the above list, for, to me, it did not quite meet the traditional criteria of a state. And not just to me, it appears: writer Thomas Eccardt in his recent book Secrets of the Seven Smallest States of Europereferred to the Vatican as being more similar to the headquarters of international organisations than to a state in its own right. Hopefully, His Holiness will forgive us both!)

Modern Liechtenstein (area 160 square km, population 39,000), with its per capita GDP of over $140,000 is by some estimates the worlds richest country. And not only due to its tax haven status and its countless letterbox companies (their number is higher than that of the principalitys population), but also because of its proportionally extensive infrastructure, with over 1,800 industrial enterprises specialising in electronics, precision engineering, metal finishing, textile and ceramic industries. It explains why it is often called a mini-industrial giant.

Monaco is the tiny home to more than 37,000 people

We find a very different picture in the all-urban, tax-free Monaco (a principality of 37,000 people, with the worlds highest population density of 25,105 people per square km), effectively owned by the Grimaldi family, whose economy apart from banking heavily relies on the services sector and more recently on Prince Alberts determination to develop environmentally friendly small industries. Meanwhile, San Marino (pop. 34,000), the worlds oldest republic, thrives on exporting its wines, souvenirs and highly collectable postage stamps.

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The very existence of the prospering small states is a not-so-small miracle in our immensely globalised world. Researchers Iver Neumann and Sieglinde Gstoni certainly had a point when characterising all surviving mini-states as Lilliputians in Gullivers World in their eponymous paper, published by the University of Iceland in May 2004.

Yet, the mini-states most remarkable feature is their frantic, yet entirely peaceful, clinging to their own sovereignty. Despite their minuscule size, modern mini-states are ruled in a plethora of different ways from parliamentary and constitutional monarchies (Monaco and Liechtestein) to unitary parliamentary republics (Palau, Marshall Islands) to San Marinos peculiar diarchy whereby it is governed jointly by two Captains Regent, nominated by the Grand and General Council.

Andorra, a tiny Catalan-speaking co-principality in the Pyrenees that enjoys the worlds highest life expectancy, and has been independent since 1298, retains a parliamentary democracy run by the Council General (Andorras parliament since 1419), but also preserves an element of diarchy by maintaining its two co-Princes, one of whom is traditionally the incumbent President of France, the other the Bishop of Urgel. Unlike in San Marino, however, their role is largely ceremonial.

In St Kitts and Nevis a unique mini-federation of two island states the same minister can hold several different portfolios both in the local island government and at the federal level. The Rt. Hon. Mark Brantley, Neviss Deputy Premier, holds ten!

San Marino is just one of five diarchies countries jointly ruled by two leaders


Liechtensteins head of state, Prince Hans Adam II, is Europes last remaining full-power monarch. He can single-handedly veto laws, call referenda and dissolve the Diet (parliament), as he did in September 1993. Hans Adam II went on to declare general elections and to reject the no-confidence vote against his then prime minister, Markus Buchel, an event normally associated with the 17th century, not the late 20th.

In 2003, he called a referendum on the expansion of his own powers and threatened to leave the country if the people voted against it. They didnt and refused to curtail them once again in 2012 when an anti-monarchists proposal to do so was resolutely voted down.

Not too democratic, you may say. Yet, as the story with the asylum-seeking Russian soldiers goes on to demonstrate, at times it takes a bit of dictatorial toughness to keep the aggressor at bay.

The First Russian Army of the Wehrmacht was made of Russian migrs and freedom-fighters, most of whom were not even Soviet citizens. Its main objective was not to contribute to Russias occupation, but rather to help it to get rid of Bolshevism, which was seen as the greater of two evils. Hitler never fully trusted the Army, and even had Holmston-Smyslovsky, a former Russian count, imprisoned and his unit disbanded for a couple of years. The army didnt commit any atrocities and its involvement in combat action was minimal.

As soon as the news reached Vaduz of the 500 Russians in German uniforms, with all their arms and equipment, crossing the border, the Prince sent his representatives to Schellenberg. Baron Eduard von Falz-Fein, a long-time Liechtenstein resident of Russian/Ukrainian extraction (who passed away at the venerable age of 106 in November 2018), was asked to act as a translator. The negotiations with Holmston-Smyslovsky took place in the Zum Lowen Inn on the border. It was a curious sight for our peaceful Liechtenstein, the Baron once told me many years later during a meeting. Hundreds of heavily armed men, with their horses and vehicles, camping on the lawn behind the inn. Later we built barracks for them in the town of Ruggel.

Franz Josef II as depicted on the countrys official stamps

Asylum was duly granted to all the Russians, but shortly afterwards Prince Franz Josef II found himself under considerable pressure from the Soviets. Unlike his counterparts in Britain, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Finland, Switzerland, Sweden and Norway, all of which had agreed to repatriate the Russian POWs, the ruler of the tiny Liechtenstein firmly resisted all attempts to have the asylum-seekers extradited. Despite strong pressure, and in contrast to the bad example set by other countries, these unfortunate refugees were not handed over to the executioners, the valiant prince wrote in 1980.

The only thing he had to agree to was to allow a Soviet delegation to come to Liechtenstein and interview the asylum-seekers. By stick and carrot, Stalins emissaries managed to dupe 300 into returning to the USSR. Notwithstanding generous guarantees of safety, many of them were executed on arrival and the rest ended up in Gulag.

Most of the remaining 200, including General Holmston-Smyslovsky himself, stayed for two years before moving on, most of them to the safety of Argentina. Thus two hundred human lives were saved by the tiny principalitys faithfulness to its historical and humanitarian principles.

Liechtenstein, Europes only nation, which did not succumb to the Soviets pressure, might be small indeed, but, like many other mini-states, it can teach the modern world an important lesson of true sovereignty and pride. Where some of the worlds greatest democracies effectively capitulated in the face of a gun-brandishing bully, tiny Liechtenstein stayed strong.

The latest edition of Vitali Vitalievs book, Little is the Light: Nostalgic Travels in the Mini-States of Europe, Is published by Thrust Books and is available from: amzn.to/2KZ8wNd

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Lilliputians in Gulliver's World - The odd world of the mini-state - Geographical

Asteroid warning: When impact hits, nothing but cockroaches will survive, claims expert – Express.co.uk

An asteroid hit 66 million years ago wiped out 75 percent of all life on Earth and plunged the planet into the grips of a nuclear winter. The cataclysm brought about the end of the dinosaurs reign, leaving behind only small mammals, reptiles, birds and amphibians. Should another dinosaur killer strike the Earth today, the dominant species of animal humans would likely disappear from the face of the planet. Because of these risks, space expert Lembit pik believes it is critical to invest in early warning and defence systems.

The dinosaur killer is believed to have been a six-mile-wide (10km) rock that struck near what is todays Chicxulub on the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico.

Mr pik, who is the Chairman of Parliament for the space-based micronation of Asgardia, believes another Chicxulub asteroid would spell the end of humanity.

He told Express.co.uk: If its a 10km object, the odds are it will miss things in space but if it hits Earth its academic.

The Earth will be covered with a dust cloud made of material thrown into the atmosphere directly and the dust and soot from the fires that would occur for a couple of years.

READ MORE: How often do asteroids hit Earth? What is the danger

It would be long enough to kill photosynthesis and, in other words, those who werent incinerated would starve.

Today, Earths defence measures are coordinated by the likes of NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA).

ESA has in the past stressed there are no rocks currently headed directly at our planet but the list of known asteroid threats is incomplete.

Mr pik said: We have a good register of Earth-crossing objects they are the one that could hit us, they are the objects that cross our orbital lane.

But its not a complete list and therefore we need to be sure we can see them coming.

WATCH HERE: Major asteroid DESTROYS Earth in fiery crash simulation

Oftentimes something will come into the Earths atmosphere like the one over Siberia recently, which injured about 1,000 people, that nobody saw coming.

Now that one was problematic because if it had been a little bit bigger, it would have killed tens of thousands of people.

The ones we are really worried about are maybe ones that are 100m to 200m across.

A one-kilometre object is a continent killer, a 10km object is an Earth killer.

Asteroid defence and protection from space-based dangers is one of the topics Asgardia will address in October at the micronations first Space Science and Investment Conference.

The conference between October 14 and October 16 will address all aspects of moving humanity from Earth and into space.

Asgardia aims to conceive the first child in space in the next 25 years, followed by elevating humanity towards becoming a spacefaring civilisation.

Mr pik has campaigned for more asteroid defence measures since his day as a Member of Parliament for Montgomeryshire in Wales between 1998 and 2010.

Originally posted here:

Asteroid warning: When impact hits, nothing but cockroaches will survive, claims expert - Express.co.uk