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Nootropic – Wikipedia

Nootropics ( noh–TROP-iks) (colloquial: smart drugs and cognitive enhancers) are drugs, supplements, and other substances that may improve cognitive function, particularly executive functions, memory, creativity, or motivation, in healthy individuals.[1] While many substances are purported to improve cognition, research is at a preliminary stage as of 2018, and the effects of the majority of these agents are not fully determined.

The use of cognition-enhancing drugs by healthy individuals in the absence of a medical indication spans numerous controversial issues, including the ethics and fairness of their use, concerns over adverse effects, and the diversion of prescription drugs for nonmedical uses, among others.[1][2] Nonetheless, the international sales of cognition-enhancing supplements exceeded US$1 billion in 2015 when global demand for these compounds grew.[3]

The word nootropic was coined in 1972 by a Romanian psychologist and chemist, Corneliu E. Giurgea,[4][5] from the Greek words (nous), or “mind”, and (trepein), meaning to bend or turn.[6]

In 2008, the most commonly used class of drug was stimulants, such as caffeine.[7] Manufacturers’ marketing claims for dietary supplements are usually not formally tested and verified by independent entities.[8]

The use of prescription stimulants is especially prevalent among students.[9] Surveys suggest that 0.74.5% of German students have used cognitive enhancers in their lifetimes.[10][11][12] Stimulants such as dimethylamylamine and methylphenidate are used on college campuses and by younger groups.[13] Based upon studies of self-reported illicit stimulant use, 535% of college students use diverted ADHD stimulants, which are primarily used for enhancement of academic performance rather than as recreational drugs.[14][15][16] Several factors positively and negatively influence an individual’s willingness to use a drug for the purpose of enhancing cognitive performance. Among them are personal characteristics, drug characteristics, and characteristics of the social context.[10][11][17][18]

The main concern with pharmaceutical drugs is adverse effects, which also apply to nootropics with undefined effects. Long-term safety evidence is typically unavailable for nootropics.[13] Racetams piracetam and other compounds that are structurally related to piracetam have few serious adverse effects and low toxicity, but there is little evidence that they enhance cognition in people having no cognitive impairments.[19]

In the United States, dietary supplements may be marketed if the manufacturer can show that the supplement is generally recognized as safe, and if the manufacturer does not make any claims about using the supplement to treat or prevent any disease or condition; supplements that contain drugs or advertise health claims are illegal under US law.[20]

Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of clinical human research using low doses of certain central nervous system stimulants found enhanced cognition in healthy people.[21][22][23] In particular, the classes of stimulants that demonstrate cognition-enhancing effects in humans act as direct agonists or indirect agonists of dopamine receptor D1, adrenoceptor A2, or both types of receptor in the prefrontal cortex.[21][22][24][25] Relatively high doses of stimulants cause cognitive deficits.[24][25]

Racetams, such as piracetam, oxiracetam, and aniracetam, which are often marketed as cognitive enhancers and sold over-the-counter. Racetams are often referred to as nootropics, but this property is not well established.[31] The racetams have poorly understood mechanisms, although piracetam and aniracetam are known to act as positive allosteric modulators of AMPA receptors and appear to modulate cholinergic systems.[32]

According to the US Food and Drug Administration,

“Piracetam is not a vitamin, mineral, amino acid, herb or other botanical, or dietary substance for use by man to supplement the diet by increasing the total dietary intake. Further, piracetam is not a concentrate, metabolite, constituent, extract or combination of any such dietary ingredient. […] Accordingly, these products are drugs, under section 201(g)(1)(C) of the Act, 21 U.S.C. 321(g)(1)(C), because they are not foods and they are intended to affect the structure or any function of the body. Moreover, these products are new drugs as defined by section 201(p) of the Act, 21 U.S.C. 321(p), because they are not generally recognized as safe and effective for use under the conditions prescribed, recommended, or suggested in their labeling.”[33]

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Nootropic – Wikipedia

Best Nootropics 2019 (Updated from 2018) Nootropics Expert

Ask a group of neurohackers which are the best nootropics and youll get a symphony of opinions. But when you drill down to what people are taking every day you start to see a pattern.

Experienced biohackers working on cognitive enhancement find its easier to focus their brain hacking goals into a few well-defined categories. Then look for the best nootropic to address each one.

One thing we learn quickly in the biohacking community is that there is no one-pill solution to cognitive optimization. We soon find that it takes a stack of several supplements to get to where we want to go.

And our list looks something like this

Best Nootropics for

Recommended nootropics

Cognition, Decision-Making, Focus, Flow, & Thinking

Acetyl-L-Carnitine, Aniracetam, CDP-Choline, Lions Mane, NALT, Noopept, B-Complex

Learning & Memory

Aniracetam, Bacopa Monnieri, CDP-Choline, DHA, L-Theanine, Noopept, Phosphatidylserine, Pine Bark Extract

Anxiety & Depression

Aniracetam, CDP-Choline, Bacopa Monnieri, Rhodiola Rosea, Sulbutiamine, B-Complex, Lithium Orotate

Energy & Motivation

Acetyl-L-Carnitine, Alpha Lipoic Acid, CDP-Choline, Rhodiola, CoQ10, PQQ

Brain Repair & Maintenance

Acetyl-L-Carnitine, Aniracetam, CDP-Choline, DHA, Phosphatidylserine, Noopept, Vinpocetine, Rhodiola Rosea, Pine Bark Extract, Lithium Orotate

I have my favorite nootropics after 12-years of trial and error. And chances are that what works for me may work well for you too. The nootropics Im talking about here are part of the stack I use every day.

Youll notice in the categories above that some nootropics work in multiple areas of cognitive enhancement. The obvious benefit is fewer nootropics in a well-rounded stack.

And once you dive into the neuroscience behind each nootropic, youll find synergy on how many of these compounds work together. This extends to smaller doses of each for a bigger benefit.

Brain optimization comes with a lot of experimenting to find what works best. Trying different compounds, keeping a log of what works and how well, and a considerable investment.

Naturally, Im on the lookout for how to save money without cutting corners. So once Ive narrowed my stack choices, the search begins for a quality pre-made nootropic stack that will save me buying individual packs, tubs of powder or capsules.

Fortunately, I found the best pre-made nootropic stack in late 2015 which covered the bulk of the nootropics Id selected for my stack. Its called Mind Lab Pro.

Ill talk more about Mind Lab Pro in a few minutes and how it ties into my brain hacking goals.

The company that makes MLP just recently introduced a new line of supplements called Performance Lab. Offering even more options for brain optimization. More on that later as well.

Before I get into detail on how my stack works, here are what many neurohackers consider the best nootropics available today.

For a more detailed dive into how to build the best nootropic stack, check my other posts:

Beginners Guide to Nootropic Stacks

How to Create the Best Nootropic Stack

Here well do a quick review on building a great nootropic stack.

The more we learn about some of nootropics that have been used for thousands of years for cognitive enhancement. The more we realize these natural compounds are often as good as or better than modern prescription medications.

As you gain experience, youll also come to realize that some pre-made nootropic stacks simply dont make sense. Amounts are well below therapeutic doses to expect any reasonable kind of benefit.

And understand that no one is a master of the science and art of nootropics. Dont believe anything I have to say. Find out for yourself if something is true. And change course when you need to if you want to achieve your neurohacking goals.

Next, well take a closer look at each of the nootropics I recommend and use every day.

Each of the nootropics covered below contain links through to a complete and thorough report. When you click through to each individual nootropic supplement review youll find more detail on what it is, why we use it as a nootropic, how it feels, mechanism of action in the brain, side effects, forms available and recommended doses.

Youll also notice in the table above and each nootropic listed below some are marked with an asterisk (*). This means it is part of the Mind Lab Pro formula of two capsules per day.

Each of these nootropics are generally regarded as safe and non-toxic at recommended doses. Your mileage may vary. How you respond to each of these compounds depends on a host of variables including:

So please click through to each nootropic and read the side effects, prescription drug interactions and any other notes or warnings. But in general, these are among the safest cognitive enhancers we know of.

Read more about Nootropics Safety and Side Effects

ALCAR helps transport of fatty acids into mitochondria where theyre needed for energy metabolism.[i] Fueling your cells power plants can boost physical and mental energy.

ALCAR is a necessary ingredient for acetylcholine formation.[ii] Which boosts memory, mental alertness, and fluid thought.

The antioxidant properties of Acetyl-L-Carnitine provide neuroprotective qualities, boosts Brain-Derived Nerve Growth Factor (BDNF) and promotes cerebral blood circulation.

Aniracetam is one of the best nootropics available today. Its well-known among experienced nootropics users for reducing anxiety, depression, fear and improving sociability.[iii] But it does so much more.

Aniracetam enhances your brains ability to repair damaged cell membranes. It desensitizes glutamate (AMPA) receptors in your brain.[iv] Which boosts neural signaling by increasing the effectiveness of glutamate. Resulting in better focus and concentration.

Aniracetam also improves memory and recall by releasing 200 300% more acetylcholine in the brain.[v] Which increases focus, and clarity of thought.

Bacopa Monnieri is one of the best nootropics for studying. Researchers at Banaras Hindu University in India showed Bacopa as effective for anxiety as the benzodiazepine drug lorazepam. Unlike benzodiazepines, Bacopa did not cause memory loss. But in fact, it boosted cognition.[vi]

Another study done in Portland Oregon demonstrated that 300 mg of Bacopa per day for 12 weeks:

A valuable addition to any great nootropic stack, CDP-Choline is a multitasker which improves cognition and brain function, improves focus and motivation, and reduces fatigue.

CDP-Choline aids in the synthesis of acetylcholine, and the release of dopamine.[viii] Both neurotransmitters involved in learning and memory.

CDP-Choline also helps in the repair of brain cell membranes. The cytidine in CDP-Choline converts to uridine in your body. And works as a bridge between choline and neuron membrane synthesis. Uridine is needed to synthesize phosphatidylcholine (PC) which is needed to repair damaged neuron membranes.[ix]

Choline is so vital to cognition and nerve function that without it, we couldnt move, think, sleep or remember anything. And one the best ways to provide your brain and body with the choline it needs is supplementing with CDP-Choline.

DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) is an omega-3 fatty acid. DHA is crucial for the healthy structure and function of your brain. Your brain is made up of 60% fat. And much of that fat is DHA.

DHA can turn on brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF). Improving neuroplasticity leading to better learning and memory. And DHA acts as an anti-inflammatory by reducing the enzyme COX-2.

If you suffer from chronic depression, within a few weeks of adding DHA to your nootropic stack, you should feel the depression lift. Your cognition will be better. Youll think clearer and quicker. Your memory and ability to learn will improve. And youll likely have more energy and motivation.

But it is very likely you wont think to attribute these improvements to adding DHA to your stack. Something else will get the credit.

Lions Mane Mushroom is an ancient Chinese remedy for improving cognitive performance, and overall health.

In our modern world, Lions Mane makes it into some of the best nootropic stacks. Why?

Because Lions Mane stimulates enzyme production that releases Nerve Growth Factor (NGF).[x] It stimulates the repair and creation of neurons (neurogenesis). Boosting neurotransmitters and signaling that effects memory, learning, recall, and mood. And Lions Mane helps eliminate brain fog. Restoring memory and mental alertness. And lowers anxiety and depression symptoms.[xi]

Lions Mane is a great compliment to any nootropic stack including Aniracetam, CDP-Choline and DHA (Omega-3s) for an immediate cognitive boost.

Lithium is an alkali mineral considered essential for human reproductive health, and general health and wellness. Microdosing lithium using Lithium Orotate has become one of the best additions Ive made to my nootropic stack in years.

Lithium calms you by decreasing sensitivity of post-synaptic norepinephrine receptors.[xii] Preventing the release of this neurotransmitter for fast stabilization of mood and reducing aggression.

Lithium upregulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), neurotrophin-3 (NT3) and their receptors. And lithium stimulates the proliferation of stem cells in the brain. All boosting neurogenesis and assisting in repair from all types of brain injury.[xiii]

Lithium increases brain gray matter, increases DNA replication for neurogenesis, prevents apoptosis, increases N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), inhibits beta-amyloid secretion and protects against damage once its formed, chelates aluminum, and protects against glutamate toxicity.

Lithium provides a calming effect in healthy people as well as those dealing with depression, bipolar disorder and mania.

Adequate levels of lithium have been shown to reduce suicide risk in multiple studies worldwide.

Some say Lithium Orotate works better than any prescription that theyve ever tried to treat severe depression.

Lithium Orotate could be one of the most effective and least expensive additions to your nootropic stack this year. Highly recommended.

N-Acetyl L-Tyrosine produces the catecholamine-triad of neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine. As your dopamine levels increase, youre better able to concentrate, organize your thoughts, and stay productive.

NALT can be an effective treatment for ADHD symptoms. NALT works in synergy with pharmaceutical drugs like Ritalin and Adderall by boosting extracellular levels of dopamine. Helping these drugs be more effective. And mitigating side effects like crashes when the stimulant wears off.

N-Acetyl L-Tyrosine also improves memory and cognition under acute stress.[xiv] It helps improve decision making, flow state and creativity, cognitive flexibility, and working memory.

NALT is a great addition to any nootropic stack, especially if youre dealing with ADHD or ADD.

For more tips on how to deal with ADHD and ADD symptoms, see my post:Best Nootropics for ADHD/ADD

Noopept is a peptide-derived nootropic related to the racetam-family of nootropics. Much more potent than piracetam (up to 1,000X), its mechanism of action in your brain is similar to other racetams.

Noopept seems to stimulate dopamine, nicotinic, and serotonin receptors. It boosts cognition, memory, retention, logical thinking, improves reflexes, and improves mood.

Noopept has also been shown to increase Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and Nerve Growth Factor (NGF). Both critically important for memory formation and brain repair.[xv]

And we have clinical evidence that Noopept boosts Alpha and Beta brain wave activity.[xvi] You become calmer and more creative. Its easier to go into flow. And you are more prone to making innovative and resourceful decisions.

For more tips on supporting flow, see my post:

How to Hack Your Flow State with Nootropics

Phosphatidylserine is one of the best nootropics because:

Phosphatidylserine (PS) is arguably one of the most effective and important nootropics we have available today. It has a reputation for improving alertness, attention, cognition, memory, recall and mood.[xvii]

Pine Bark Extract is one of the best nootropics around but relatively unknown to the nootropic community. Its a naturally derived standardized extract of French maritime pine bark.

Pine Bark Extract helps prevent decreases in dopamine, norepinephrine, and the glutathione (GSH) and GSH-disulphide reductase (GSSG-R) ratio. Neurotransmitter problems which contribute to hyperactivity in ADHD.[xviii]

Pine Bark Extract helps boost blood flow to and within your brain.[xix] By increasing nitric oxide (NO) which helps dilate blood vessels. And helping repair and maintain the health of the lining of blood vessels. Crucial to overall brain health, maintaining signaling pathways and leading to improved learning and memory.

And Pine Bark Extract prevents accumulation of oxidatively damaged proteins. And may reduce the risk of diseases like Parkinsons, Alzheimers, and Huntingtons.

In Russia, Rhodiola Rosea is widely used as a remedy for fatigue, poor concentration, and decreased memory. Its also believed to make workers more productive.

As one of the best nootropics around, this adaptogen helps reduce stress and fatigue, increase energy, alertness and stamina, while boosting mental performance under periods of chronic stress.

Research shows Rhodiola Rosea can increase attention to detail-oriented tasks by improving concentration over a prolonged period. Making it one of the best nootropics for studying.

Rhodiola Rosea boosts mood by influencing serotonin and norepinephrine levels in your brain, and the feel-good opioids like beta-endorphins. It also helps in neurogenesis by repairing and growing new neurons. As well as activating the synthesis and re-synthesis of ATP, your body and brain cells main energy source.

One more reason to add Rhodiola Rosea to your nootropic stack it helps reduce the inflammatory C-reactive protein. And salidroside, one of many components of this incredible herb, protects neurons from oxidative stress-induced cell death.

Sulbutiamine is one of the best nootropics in my stack. Its a synthetic derivative of Vitamin B1 (thiamine). Two Vitamin B1 molecules joined together helps thiamine more easily cross the blood-brain barrier.

Sulbutiamine is directly involved in the citric acid cycle that provides adenosine triphosphate (ATP) energy for your mitochondria. It has been shown to improve glutamatergic, cholinergic, and dopaminergic neurological transmissions. It may also increase the density of D1 dopamine receptors.[xx]

Sulbutiamine also contributes to the production of the enzyme PDH which is essential in making the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.

I love this nootropic because it boosts cognition, memory, decision-making, improves athletic performance, reduces chronic fatigue[xxi] and erectile dysfunction,[xxii] and is one of the best antidepressants Ive ever used.[xxiii]

L-Theanine is an amino acid which naturally occurs in green and oolong tea. Many consider it the best nootropic when combined with caffeine for the synergistic effect of lowering blood pressure, rejuvenate and relax, boost thinking ability, improve focus and change your mood.

This amazing amino acid:

Most neurohackers report a calming effect within 30 45 minutes of taking L-Theanine. Cognition gets a boost, and energy levels rise without the jitteriness caused by stimulants like caffeine.

Some report L-Theanine has stopped their anxiety and panic attacks. (Just dont combine it with anti-anxiety meds like Xanax).

See the rest here:

Best Nootropics 2019 (Updated from 2018) Nootropics Expert

Nootropics Expert | The Authority on Nootropic Supplements

Hi David,So Im relatively new to Nootropics. I have done extensive reading on your website, but had a specific help question. Below is a brief summary of my medicated world of mental health:

Last year, a psychiatrist diagnosed me with Anxiety induced ADHD. (Which explained a lot of my academic struggles, feelings of self-worth, etc.)

She started out by prescribing me a Sustained Release (generic version of) Wellbutrin. (150mg) This helped considerably with my feelings of fatigue and lethargy, but didnt do very much in terms of motivation/focus/desire to study or get work done. (I am both a teacher and a student) She had also prescribed some sort of non-addictive anti-anxiety medication which made me feel ill (so I discontinued use within just a few days.)

I like to think Im very aware of both my body and my mind Ive practiced yoga for close to ten years now. I try to eat healthfully, and I try to practice self-care as much as possible.

About 7 months ago, though my doctor added Adderall (combination dosage 20mg XR & 20 mg IR) to my regimen p/day. That, and a new hormonal birth control, has really thrown my life off kilter.

At first, Adderall helped with getting all my work done! Staying focused, on-task, memory, etc. But more recently, I have experienced increased irritability and strong fits of anger(paired with a seemingly greater tolerance to Adderall? It seems to last for a shorter time.)

I have been trying to track how these emotional reactions relate to the time of the month, but is increasingly difficult to track the timing of my mood swings. (My partner has also noticed a change in my behavior.)

I try to take breaks from Adderall, but I find it quite difficult with an increased workload as of late. The days I do take breaks, I get by with combination Caffeine/L-Theanine.

Research into Nootropics, though, gives me hope that there is a better solution for my struggles.

What would you recommend? Ive looked at your suggestions for ADHD and Anxiety (separately), I was just wondering if there was something youd suggest based on my current RX. (I would like to taper off of prescription drugs, ideally. Perhaps come summer time, when I experience a true break, I will be able to relax more with a decreased work schedule

My current idea for a stack includes: Vitamin B-complex, L-theanine, L-tyrosine, Magnesium. Perhaps a cycled 5HTP? (for when PMS is nearly debilitating)

Anyways, if youve read this far, I sincerely appreciate it! Thank you in advance for your consideration.

All the best,M.

Go here to see the original:

Nootropics Expert | The Authority on Nootropic Supplements

Buy The Best Nootropics Online Today at Nootropics Depot

Nootropics Depot features an extensive range of dietary supplements and nootropic compounds. Nootropics Depot offers the best nootropics and natural extracts from industry leading manufacturers including Nammex, Verdure Sciences, Embria Health Science, and Ixoreal Biomed.

We provide a variety of dietary supplements and nootropic compounds in both capsule and powder forms, allowing you to develop the best nootropic stack.

From common cholinergics to whole fruiting body medicinal mushroom extracts and fish oil supplements, Nootropics Depot provides a wide range of dietary supplements and nootropic compounds. Sort our product selection by use such as nootropics, amino acid supplements, mushroom extract supplements, or increasingly popular ayurvedic supplements.

When you buy from Nootropics Depot, you can trust that you are getting a quality product that has undergone extensive testing for both purity and identity. Nootropics Depot routinely conducts in-house and third-party lab testing to ensure product authenticity and efficacy.

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See the latest updates to our nootropics blog below to begin exploring the vast world of nootropics and dietary supplements.

Whatis CoQ10?Coenzyme Q10 (also known as CoQ10) is, asthe name

What is Milk Thistle?Milk thistle, orSilybum marianum,is a

What Is Taurine?Let us dispelthe popular Taurine myth: no, Taurine is

COGNIZIN CITICOLINE: A CHOLINE SUPPLEMENT THAT SUPPORTS HEALTHY BRAIN FUNCTIONWhat sets Cognizin Citicoline apart from other choline sources is its unique composition…

7,8 DIHYDROXYFLAVONE: A BRAIN HEALTH SUPPLEMENT THAT MAY SUPPORT NEUROPLASTICITY7,8-Dihydroxyflavone, also known as 7,8-DHF, is a naturally occurring flavone…

CREATINE: A NOOTROPIC FOR BODYBUILDERS, ATHLETES, VEGANS, AND VEGETARIANSCreatine is an important molecule that is produced by our bodies and consumed through our diet…

HOW TO FIND THE BEST CURCUMIN SUPPLEMENT AND WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW BEFORE YOU BUYCurcumin is a diarylheptanoid which is found in turmeric rhizomes…

COMPARING RHODIOLA ROSEA EXTRACTS: ROSAVINS VS. SALIDROSIDERhodiola rosea, more commonly known as golden root or rose root…

BERBERINE: A LOOK AT THE POTENTIAL BENEFITS OF THIS VERSATILE SUPPLEMENTBerberine is a bright yellow alkaloid that is found in a variety of plants…

HERICIUM ERINACEUS: WHICH IS THE BEST LION’S MANE MUSHROOM FOR YOU?Hericium erinaceus, also known as lions mane mushroom…

NITRIC OXIDE SUPPLEMENTS REVIEWED: L-CITRULLINE, AGMATINE AND AAKGNitric oxide is a very interesting neurotransmitter within the body…

GANODERMA LUCIDUM: WHICH IS THE BEST RED REISHI MUSHROOM FOR YOU?We are often asked which Red Reishi extract is best…

COMPREHENSIVE GUIDE TO THE BEST ANTI-AGING SUPPLEMENTSLet’s facilitate a healthy aging process, rather than trying to completely halt it…

WHICH IS THE BEST CORDYCEPS MUSHROOM FOR YOU?Did you know not all Cordyceps mushroom extracts are made the same way?

BACOPA MONNIERI: BACOGNIZE VS. SYNAPSA – WHICH AYURVEDIC HERB IS RIGHT FOR YOU?Commonly known as the waterhyssop or brahmi…

THE NOOTROPIC SYNERGY OF CAFFEINE AND L-THEANINEOne of the most popular natural nootropic stacks is a simple combination of L-theanine and caffeine…

L-CITRULLINE VS. L-CITRULLINE DL-MALATE: WHICH IS BEST?L-citrulline is one of three dietary amino acids involved in the urea cycle…

SHILAJIT: A LOOK AT THIS AMAZING AYURVEDIC SUPPLEMENTShilajit is a sticky, tar-like substance often appearing dark brown in color…

ULTIMATE GUIDE TO CHOLINE SUPPLEMENTSCholine is an essential nutrient that is found in a variety of foods…

ULTIMATE GUIDE TO KRILL AND FISH OIL SUPPLEMENTSFish oil supplements are going to provide a very solid base to build a nootropics stack upon…

WHAT YOU MIGHT NOT KNOW ABOUT PANAX GINSENG SUPPLEMENTSGinseng is one of the most well known herbs in the world…

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Buy The Best Nootropics Online Today at Nootropics Depot

What are "Nootropics"? – Smart Drug Smarts

Nootropics is an umbrella term for a class of chemicals some naturally-occurring, some manmade that give cognitive benefits to the human brain.

To get really technical, in order to be a nootropic, a substance must meet five criteria set by Dr. Corneliu E. Giurgea, the man who coined the term nootropic. The substance must

This is a pretty hefty list of requirements for any chemical. In fact, anything that meets this full definition, could equally well be called a miracle drug, not just a nootropic.

However, normally when you hear the term nootropickicked around, people really mean a cognitive enhancer something thatdoesbenefit thinking in some way (improved memory, faster speed-of-processing, increased concentration, or a combination of these, etc.), but might not meet the more rigorous definition above. Smart drugs is another largely-interchangeable term.

With this looser definition, discussions about nootropics can range from innocuous everyday substances like caffeine and Omega-3 fatty acids to regulated (and deservedly so) substances like Adderall.

For a more visual definition of nootropics, check out our infographic What Are Nootropics?

Category: General

Link:

What are "Nootropics"? – Smart Drug Smarts

Nootropics Expert | The Authority on Nootropic Supplements

Hi David,So Im relatively new to Nootropics. I have done extensive reading on your website, but had a specific help question. Below is a brief summary of my medicated world of mental health:

Last year, a psychiatrist diagnosed me with Anxiety induced ADHD. (Which explained a lot of my academic struggles, feelings of self-worth, etc.)

She started out by prescribing me a Sustained Release (generic version of) Wellbutrin. (150mg) This helped considerably with my feelings of fatigue and lethargy, but didnt do very much in terms of motivation/focus/desire to study or get work done. (I am both a teacher and a student) She had also prescribed some sort of non-addictive anti-anxiety medication which made me feel ill (so I discontinued use within just a few days.)

I like to think Im very aware of both my body and my mind Ive practiced yoga for close to ten years now. I try to eat healthfully, and I try to practice self-care as much as possible.

About 7 months ago, though my doctor added Adderall (combination dosage 20mg XR & 20 mg IR) to my regimen p/day. That, and a new hormonal birth control, has really thrown my life off kilter.

At first, Adderall helped with getting all my work done! Staying focused, on-task, memory, etc. But more recently, I have experienced increased irritability and strong fits of anger(paired with a seemingly greater tolerance to Adderall? It seems to last for a shorter time.)

I have been trying to track how these emotional reactions relate to the time of the month, but is increasingly difficult to track the timing of my mood swings. (My partner has also noticed a change in my behavior.)

I try to take breaks from Adderall, but I find it quite difficult with an increased workload as of late. The days I do take breaks, I get by with combination Caffeine/L-Theanine.

Research into Nootropics, though, gives me hope that there is a better solution for my struggles.

What would you recommend? Ive looked at your suggestions for ADHD and Anxiety (separately), I was just wondering if there was something youd suggest based on my current RX. (I would like to taper off of prescription drugs, ideally. Perhaps come summer time, when I experience a true break, I will be able to relax more with a decreased work schedule

My current idea for a stack includes: Vitamin B-complex, L-theanine, L-tyrosine, Magnesium. Perhaps a cycled 5HTP? (for when PMS is nearly debilitating)

Anyways, if youve read this far, I sincerely appreciate it! Thank you in advance for your consideration.

All the best,M.

Read more here:

Nootropics Expert | The Authority on Nootropic Supplements

Best Nootropics 2019 (Updated from 2018) Nootropics Expert

Ask a group of neurohackers which are the best nootropics and youll get a symphony of opinions. But when you drill down to what people are taking every day you start to see a pattern.

Experienced biohackers working on cognitive enhancement find its easier to focus their brain hacking goals into a few well-defined categories. Then look for the best nootropic to address each one.

One thing we learn quickly in the biohacking community is that there is no one-pill solution to cognitive optimization. We soon find that it takes a stack of several supplements to get to where we want to go.

And our list looks something like this

Best Nootropics for

Recommended nootropics

Cognition, Decision-Making, Focus, Flow, & Thinking

Acetyl-L-Carnitine, Aniracetam, CDP-Choline, Lions Mane, NALT, Noopept, B-Complex

Learning & Memory

Aniracetam, Bacopa Monnieri, CDP-Choline, DHA, L-Theanine, Noopept, Phosphatidylserine, Pine Bark Extract

Anxiety & Depression

Aniracetam, CDP-Choline, Bacopa Monnieri, Rhodiola Rosea, Sulbutiamine, B-Complex, Lithium Orotate

Energy & Motivation

Acetyl-L-Carnitine, Alpha Lipoic Acid, CDP-Choline, Rhodiola, CoQ10, PQQ

Brain Repair & Maintenance

Acetyl-L-Carnitine, Aniracetam, CDP-Choline, DHA, Phosphatidylserine, Noopept, Vinpocetine, Rhodiola Rosea, Pine Bark Extract, Lithium Orotate

I have my favorite nootropics after 12-years of trial and error. And chances are that what works for me may work well for you too. The nootropics Im talking about here are part of the stack I use every day.

Youll notice in the categories above that some nootropics work in multiple areas of cognitive enhancement. The obvious benefit is fewer nootropics in a well-rounded stack.

And once you dive into the neuroscience behind each nootropic, youll find synergy on how many of these compounds work together. This extends to smaller doses of each for a bigger benefit.

Brain optimization comes with a lot of experimenting to find what works best. Trying different compounds, keeping a log of what works and how well, and a considerable investment.

Naturally, Im on the lookout for how to save money without cutting corners. So once Ive narrowed my stack choices, the search begins for a quality pre-made nootropic stack that will save me buying individual packs, tubs of powder or capsules.

Fortunately, I found the best pre-made nootropic stack in late 2015 which covered the bulk of the nootropics Id selected for my stack. Its called Mind Lab Pro.

Ill talk more about Mind Lab Pro in a few minutes and how it ties into my brain hacking goals.

The company that makes MLP just recently introduced a new line of supplements called Performance Lab. Offering even more options for brain optimization. More on that later as well.

Before I get into detail on how my stack works, here are what many neurohackers consider the best nootropics available today.

For a more detailed dive into how to build the best nootropic stack, check my other posts:

Beginners Guide to Nootropic Stacks

How to Create the Best Nootropic Stack

Here well do a quick review on building a great nootropic stack.

The more we learn about some of nootropics that have been used for thousands of years for cognitive enhancement. The more we realize these natural compounds are often as good as or better than modern prescription medications.

As you gain experience, youll also come to realize that some pre-made nootropic stacks simply dont make sense. Amounts are well below therapeutic doses to expect any reasonable kind of benefit.

And understand that no one is a master of the science and art of nootropics. Dont believe anything I have to say. Find out for yourself if something is true. And change course when you need to if you want to achieve your neurohacking goals.

Next, well take a closer look at each of the nootropics I recommend and use every day.

Each of the nootropics covered below contain links through to a complete and thorough report. When you click through to each individual nootropic supplement review youll find more detail on what it is, why we use it as a nootropic, how it feels, mechanism of action in the brain, side effects, forms available and recommended doses.

Youll also notice in the table above and each nootropic listed below some are marked with an asterisk (*). This means it is part of the Mind Lab Pro formula of two capsules per day.

Each of these nootropics are generally regarded as safe and non-toxic at recommended doses. Your mileage may vary. How you respond to each of these compounds depends on a host of variables including:

So please click through to each nootropic and read the side effects, prescription drug interactions and any other notes or warnings. But in general, these are among the safest cognitive enhancers we know of.

Read more about Nootropics Safety and Side Effects

ALCAR helps transport of fatty acids into mitochondria where theyre needed for energy metabolism.[i] Fueling your cells power plants can boost physical and mental energy.

ALCAR is a necessary ingredient for acetylcholine formation.[ii] Which boosts memory, mental alertness, and fluid thought.

The antioxidant properties of Acetyl-L-Carnitine provide neuroprotective qualities, boosts Brain-Derived Nerve Growth Factor (BDNF) and promotes cerebral blood circulation.

Aniracetam is one of the best nootropics available today. Its well-known among experienced nootropics users for reducing anxiety, depression, fear and improving sociability.[iii] But it does so much more.

Aniracetam enhances your brains ability to repair damaged cell membranes. It desensitizes glutamate (AMPA) receptors in your brain.[iv] Which boosts neural signaling by increasing the effectiveness of glutamate. Resulting in better focus and concentration.

Aniracetam also improves memory and recall by releasing 200 300% more acetylcholine in the brain.[v] Which increases focus, and clarity of thought.

Bacopa Monnieri is one of the best nootropics for studying. Researchers at Banaras Hindu University in India showed Bacopa as effective for anxiety as the benzodiazepine drug lorazepam. Unlike benzodiazepines, Bacopa did not cause memory loss. But in fact, it boosted cognition.[vi]

Another study done in Portland Oregon demonstrated that 300 mg of Bacopa per day for 12 weeks:

A valuable addition to any great nootropic stack, CDP-Choline is a multitasker which improves cognition and brain function, improves focus and motivation, and reduces fatigue.

CDP-Choline aids in the synthesis of acetylcholine, and the release of dopamine.[viii] Both neurotransmitters involved in learning and memory.

CDP-Choline also helps in the repair of brain cell membranes. The cytidine in CDP-Choline converts to uridine in your body. And works as a bridge between choline and neuron membrane synthesis. Uridine is needed to synthesize phosphatidylcholine (PC) which is needed to repair damaged neuron membranes.[ix]

Choline is so vital to cognition and nerve function that without it, we couldnt move, think, sleep or remember anything. And one the best ways to provide your brain and body with the choline it needs is supplementing with CDP-Choline.

DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) is an omega-3 fatty acid. DHA is crucial for the healthy structure and function of your brain. Your brain is made up of 60% fat. And much of that fat is DHA.

DHA can turn on brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF). Improving neuroplasticity leading to better learning and memory. And DHA acts as an anti-inflammatory by reducing the enzyme COX-2.

If you suffer from chronic depression, within a few weeks of adding DHA to your nootropic stack, you should feel the depression lift. Your cognition will be better. Youll think clearer and quicker. Your memory and ability to learn will improve. And youll likely have more energy and motivation.

But it is very likely you wont think to attribute these improvements to adding DHA to your stack. Something else will get the credit.

Lions Mane Mushroom is an ancient Chinese remedy for improving cognitive performance, and overall health.

In our modern world, Lions Mane makes it into some of the best nootropic stacks. Why?

Because Lions Mane stimulates enzyme production that releases Nerve Growth Factor (NGF).[x] It stimulates the repair and creation of neurons (neurogenesis). Boosting neurotransmitters and signaling that effects memory, learning, recall, and mood. And Lions Mane helps eliminate brain fog. Restoring memory and mental alertness. And lowers anxiety and depression symptoms.[xi]

Lions Mane is a great compliment to any nootropic stack including Aniracetam, CDP-Choline and DHA (Omega-3s) for an immediate cognitive boost.

Lithium is an alkali mineral considered essential for human reproductive health, and general health and wellness. Microdosing lithium using Lithium Orotate has become one of the best additions Ive made to my nootropic stack in years.

Lithium calms you by decreasing sensitivity of post-synaptic norepinephrine receptors.[xii] Preventing the release of this neurotransmitter for fast stabilization of mood and reducing aggression.

Lithium upregulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), neurotrophin-3 (NT3) and their receptors. And lithium stimulates the proliferation of stem cells in the brain. All boosting neurogenesis and assisting in repair from all types of brain injury.[xiii]

Lithium increases brain gray matter, increases DNA replication for neurogenesis, prevents apoptosis, increases N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), inhibits beta-amyloid secretion and protects against damage once its formed, chelates aluminum, and protects against glutamate toxicity.

Lithium provides a calming effect in healthy people as well as those dealing with depression, bipolar disorder and mania.

Adequate levels of lithium have been shown to reduce suicide risk in multiple studies worldwide.

Some say Lithium Orotate works better than any prescription that theyve ever tried to treat severe depression.

Lithium Orotate could be one of the most effective and least expensive additions to your nootropic stack this year. Highly recommended.

N-Acetyl L-Tyrosine produces the catecholamine-triad of neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine. As your dopamine levels increase, youre better able to concentrate, organize your thoughts, and stay productive.

NALT can be an effective treatment for ADHD symptoms. NALT works in synergy with pharmaceutical drugs like Ritalin and Adderall by boosting extracellular levels of dopamine. Helping these drugs be more effective. And mitigating side effects like crashes when the stimulant wears off.

N-Acetyl L-Tyrosine also improves memory and cognition under acute stress.[xiv] It helps improve decision making, flow state and creativity, cognitive flexibility, and working memory.

NALT is a great addition to any nootropic stack, especially if youre dealing with ADHD or ADD.

For more tips on how to deal with ADHD and ADD symptoms, see my post:Best Nootropics for ADHD/ADD

Noopept is a peptide-derived nootropic related to the racetam-family of nootropics. Much more potent than piracetam (up to 1,000X), its mechanism of action in your brain is similar to other racetams.

Noopept seems to stimulate dopamine, nicotinic, and serotonin receptors. It boosts cognition, memory, retention, logical thinking, improves reflexes, and improves mood.

Noopept has also been shown to increase Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and Nerve Growth Factor (NGF). Both critically important for memory formation and brain repair.[xv]

And we have clinical evidence that Noopept boosts Alpha and Beta brain wave activity.[xvi] You become calmer and more creative. Its easier to go into flow. And you are more prone to making innovative and resourceful decisions.

For more tips on supporting flow, see my post:

How to Hack Your Flow State with Nootropics

Phosphatidylserine is one of the best nootropics because:

Phosphatidylserine (PS) is arguably one of the most effective and important nootropics we have available today. It has a reputation for improving alertness, attention, cognition, memory, recall and mood.[xvii]

Pine Bark Extract is one of the best nootropics around but relatively unknown to the nootropic community. Its a naturally derived standardized extract of French maritime pine bark.

Pine Bark Extract helps prevent decreases in dopamine, norepinephrine, and the glutathione (GSH) and GSH-disulphide reductase (GSSG-R) ratio. Neurotransmitter problems which contribute to hyperactivity in ADHD.[xviii]

Pine Bark Extract helps boost blood flow to and within your brain.[xix] By increasing nitric oxide (NO) which helps dilate blood vessels. And helping repair and maintain the health of the lining of blood vessels. Crucial to overall brain health, maintaining signaling pathways and leading to improved learning and memory.

And Pine Bark Extract prevents accumulation of oxidatively damaged proteins. And may reduce the risk of diseases like Parkinsons, Alzheimers, and Huntingtons.

In Russia, Rhodiola Rosea is widely used as a remedy for fatigue, poor concentration, and decreased memory. Its also believed to make workers more productive.

As one of the best nootropics around, this adaptogen helps reduce stress and fatigue, increase energy, alertness and stamina, while boosting mental performance under periods of chronic stress.

Research shows Rhodiola Rosea can increase attention to detail-oriented tasks by improving concentration over a prolonged period. Making it one of the best nootropics for studying.

Rhodiola Rosea boosts mood by influencing serotonin and norepinephrine levels in your brain, and the feel-good opioids like beta-endorphins. It also helps in neurogenesis by repairing and growing new neurons. As well as activating the synthesis and re-synthesis of ATP, your body and brain cells main energy source.

One more reason to add Rhodiola Rosea to your nootropic stack it helps reduce the inflammatory C-reactive protein. And salidroside, one of many components of this incredible herb, protects neurons from oxidative stress-induced cell death.

Sulbutiamine is one of the best nootropics in my stack. Its a synthetic derivative of Vitamin B1 (thiamine). Two Vitamin B1 molecules joined together helps thiamine more easily cross the blood-brain barrier.

Sulbutiamine is directly involved in the citric acid cycle that provides adenosine triphosphate (ATP) energy for your mitochondria. It has been shown to improve glutamatergic, cholinergic, and dopaminergic neurological transmissions. It may also increase the density of D1 dopamine receptors.[xx]

Sulbutiamine also contributes to the production of the enzyme PDH which is essential in making the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.

I love this nootropic because it boosts cognition, memory, decision-making, improves athletic performance, reduces chronic fatigue[xxi] and erectile dysfunction,[xxii] and is one of the best antidepressants Ive ever used.[xxiii]

L-Theanine is an amino acid which naturally occurs in green and oolong tea. Many consider it the best nootropic when combined with caffeine for the synergistic effect of lowering blood pressure, rejuvenate and relax, boost thinking ability, improve focus and change your mood.

This amazing amino acid:

Most neurohackers report a calming effect within 30 45 minutes of taking L-Theanine. Cognition gets a boost, and energy levels rise without the jitteriness caused by stimulants like caffeine.

Some report L-Theanine has stopped their anxiety and panic attacks. (Just dont combine it with anti-anxiety meds like Xanax).

Read more:

Best Nootropics 2019 (Updated from 2018) Nootropics Expert

Nootropic | Definition of Nootropic by Merriam-Webster

Recent Examples on the Web. Try Uplift Coffee, the first bottled coffee made with the revolutionary Warm Brewing process and infused with a patented melange of brain-enhancing nootropics! Christopher Mims, WSJ, “Why Youre Buying Products From Companies Youve Never Heard Of,” 4 Oct. 2018 Will nootropics combat it one day, or will some of these experiments end badly?

Read this article:

Nootropic | Definition of Nootropic by Merriam-Webster

What are Nootropics? – Neurohacker Collective

Nootropics. You might have heard of them. The limitless pill that keeps Billionaires rich. The smart drugs that students are taking to help boost their hyperfocus. The cognitive enhancers that give corporate executives an advantage. All very exciting. But as always, the media are way behind the curve. Yes, for the past few decades, cognitive enhancers were largely sketchy substances that people used to grasp at a short term edge at the expense of their health and well being. But the days of taking prescription pills to pull an all-nighter are so 2010. The better, safer path isnt with these stimulants but with nootropics. Nootropics consist of dietary supplements and substances which enhance your cognition, in particular when it comes to motivation, creativity, memory, and other executive functions. They play an important role in supporting memory and promoting optimal brain function.

These days, nootropics are beginning to take their rightful place as a particularly powerful tool in the Neurohackers toolbox. After all, biochemistry is deeply foundational to neural function. Whether you are trying to fix the damage that is done to your nervous system by a stressful and toxic environment or support and enhance your neural functioning, getting the chemistry right is table-stakes. And we are starting to get good at getting it right. Whats changed?

A big part is that we are finally starting to apply complex systems science to psycho-neuro-pharmacology and a nootropic approach. The neural system is awesomely complex and old-fashioned reductionist science has a really hard time with complexity. Big companies spends hundreds of millions of dollars trying to separate the effects of just a single molecule from placebo and nootropics invariably show up as stacks of many different ingredients (ours, Qualia , currently has 42 separate synergistic nootropics ingredients from alpha GPC to bacopa monnieri and L-theanine). That kind of complex, multi pathway input requires a different methodology to understand well that goes beyond simply whats put in capsules.

But, thanks to the efforts of a number of remarkable scientists, researchers and plain-old neurohackers, we are beginning to put together a whole systems model of how all the different parts of the human brain work together and how they mesh with the complex regulatory structures of the body. Its going to take a lot more data and collaboration to dial this model in, but already we are empowered to design stacks that can meaningfully deliver on the promise of nootropics to enhance the quality of subjective experience and promote cognitive health, while having extremely low toxicity and possessing very few side effects. Its a type of brain hacking that is intended to produce noticeable cognitive benefits.

Before taking any supplement or chemical, people want to know if there will be long term effects or consequences, When Dr. Corneliu Giurgea first authored the term nootropics in 1972, he also outlined the characteristics that define nootropics. Besides the ability to benefit memory and support the cognitive processes, Dr. Giurgea believed that nootropics should be safe and non-toxic.

While some people focus on finding a short-term boost, nootropics emphasize long-term effects with noticeable cognitive support over a more extended period. Even though nootropics are intended to be safe, there are a few issues users want addressed before taking these supplements.

Many nootropics promote cognitive functioning as well as cognitive performance. Dr. Giurega also saw improved memory and reduced stress in many patients as well.

The first concern users have is with developing a tolerance to the nootropic. Developing a tolerance means the more you have of a substance, the less effective it gets over time.

Second, users are concerned with the possibility of withdrawal if they stop taking the nootropics. They worry that if they stop taking nootropics they wont be as smart as when they were taking nootropics, and will need to continue taking them to function. Some users report feeling a slight brain fog when discontinuing nootropics, but that isnt a sign of regression.

One of the most common strategies to beat this is cycling. Users who cycle their nootropics take them for a predetermined period, (usually around five days) before taking a two-day break from using them. Once the two days are up, they resume the cycle. By taking a break, nootropic users reduce the tolerance for nootropics and lessen the risk of regression and tolerance symptoms.

With so many different ones to choose from, choosing the best nootropics for you can be overwhelming at times. As usual, a decision this important will require research. Study up on the top nootropics which catch your eye the most. The nootropics you take will depend on what you want the enhancement for. The ingredients within each nootropic determine its specific function. For example, some nootropics contain ginkgo biloba, which can help memory, thinking speed, and increase attention span. Check the nootropic ingredients as you determine what end results you want to see. Some nootropics supplements can increase brain chemicals such as dopamine and serotonin. An increase in dopamine levels can be very useful for memory, alertness, reward and more. Many healthy adults, as well as college students take nootropics. This really supports the central nervous system and the brain.

Another factor to consider is whether the nootropic is natural or synthetic. Natural nootropics generally have effects which are a bit more subtle, while synthetic nootropics can have more pronounced effects. Its also important to note that there are natural and synthetic nootropics. Some natural nootropics include Ginkgo biloba and ginseng. One benefit to using natural nootropics is they boost brain function and support brain health. They do this by increasing blood flow and oxygen delivery to the arteries and veins in the brain. Moreover, some nootropics contain Rhodiola rosea, panxax ginseng, and more.

Some nootropics are more commonly used than others. These include nutrients like Alpha GPC, huperzine A, L-Theanine, bacopa monnieri, and vinpocetine. Other types of nootropics ware still gaining traction. With all that in mind, to claim there is a best nootropic for everyone would be the wrong approach since every person is unique and looking for different benefits.

Even the best of todays nootropics only just barely scratch the surface. You might say that we are in the Nokia 1100 phase of taking nootropics, and as better tools and more data come along, the leading thinkers in the space see a powerful future. For example, they are already beginning to look past biochemistry to the epigenome. Not only is the epigenome the code that runs much of your native biochemistry, we now know that experiences in life can be recorded in your epigenome and then passed onto future generations. There is every reason to believe that you are currently running epigenetic code that you inherited from your great-grandmothers life experiences. And there is every reason to believe that the epigenome can be hacked that the nootropics of the future can not only support and enhance our biochemistry, but can permanently change the epigenetic code that drives that biochemistry and that we pass onto our children. This is why many healthy individuals use nootropics. They have great benefits and can promote brain function and reduce oxidative stress. They can also improve sleep quality.

Well dive into the cognition – enhancing possibilities in future posts such as brain plasticity and more, but for now, here are just a few resources to get you started in exploring this domain of neurohacking:

Steven Fowkes – quora – facebook – google+ – youtube – linkedin

* Organic chemist who co-wrote the foundational book on Smart Drugs

* Founded the Cognitive Enhancement Research Institute

* Founded Project Wellbeing

* Related interests: Nutrition, Neurohacking/ Biohacking, Human Performance, Nano-tech

David Pearce – @webmasterdave – facebook* Wrote the online bible of nootropics at nootropics.com* Founder of The Hedonistic Imperative, a project outlining how bioengineering and nanotechnology will abolish suffering in all sentient life* The Hedonistic Imperative Facebook public group* The Abolitionist Project* Related Interests: Philosophy of mind, Ethics, Transhumanism, AI

Joe Cohen – @Selfhacked* Authors the blog SelfHacked* Embodies much of the neurohacker ethos; taking responsibility for his health & wellbeing and upgrading his experience through research and self-experimentation

Longecity: Brain Health – @imminst – facebook

* Forum for discussing nootropic stacks and mental health

Reddit Forum Groups – Forum for discussing nootropics and cognitive enhancers

* r/Nootropics/ – @CognitvEnhancer , @Smart_Drugs, @Nootropix

* r/CognitiveEnhancement/

* r/DrugNerds – @DrugNerds

Bluelight

* Forum for discussing brain nootropics and psychedelics

Examine.com

* An independent encyclopedia on supplementation and nutrition.

PubMed

* Citations for biomedical literature

ConsumerLab.com

* Independent testing of health and nutrition products

Educational Blogs & WebsitesNootriment* Research-backed content & reviews of effectiveness of supplementsSmarter Nootropics

Self Tracking Apps & Brain Training ProgramsCambridge Brain SciencesTrackMyStackStackDB.netNootDBDual N-BackQuantified Mind

Vendors / SuppliersCeretropic

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Read more:

What are Nootropics? – Neurohacker Collective

What are Nootropics? | Braintropic

Nootropics are supplements, drugs, or functional foods, that enhance cognitive functions such as intelligence, memory, creativity, and attention.

Nootropics have seen an influx of interest over the last several years as people search for ways to maximize their brains potential.

The word itself, coined by the Romanian psychologist and chemist Dr. Corneliu E. Giurgea who synthesized the first nootropic piracetam over 50 years ago, is a combination of the Greek words nous (mind) and trepein (to bend or turn).

According to Dr. Giurgeas definition, nootropics:

Piracetam, the first nootropic created, is still widely regarded as one of the best nootropics available, particularly a good choice for first-time users.

However, since piracetam was first synthesized, several more nootropics have been created meaning that today we now have a whole array of options to choose from.

While nootropics are not a miracle drugs that will turn an ordinary person into a genius overnight, research suggests that some nootropics are able to augment the power of the human brain, especially its capacity for memory and ability to learn, essentially making people smarter.

Nootropics are not a substitute for a healthy lifestyle. You still need to work hard when learning. However, nootropics may provide an edge that allows your brain to function at its best.

Nootropics are also regarded for their ability to contribute to the brains overall long-term well-being. Billions of neurotransmitters and receptors control the brain and all of its functions and modulating their behavior can result in improved brain function.

In addition to providing enhanced learning ability, the improved responses of neurotransmitters mean greater resistance to the normal cognitive decline that comes with aging as well as to cognitive disorders such as amnesia and dementia.

Some nootropics work by increasing the supply of oxygen-rich blood to the brain or by increasing the brains acetylcholine levels, the neurotransmitter that is largely responsible for the brains memory, learning, and mood functions.

Other nootropics, such as Lions Mane can even stimulate the production of Nerve Growth Factor wherein protein synthesis results in the growth of brain cells, particularly in the cells dendrites that make the communication of impulses possible throughout the central nervous system. Dendritic growth means faster communication, which in turn translates into improved learning and memory. It must be noted that some nootropics must be taken for days or weeks for its beneficial effects to kick in.

There are others, such as Noopept or phenylpiracetam, that have immediate effects.

With so many options out there, its important to do your research and find the right nootropic for your needs.

Nootropics are generally categorized into three main groups: racetams, stimulants, and nutraceuticals. Each nootropic group has a specific set of functions that contribute to preserving and improving the brains capability and health.

It is possible also possible to combine different nootropics, known as stacking, resulting in a powerful synergistic effect where the individual components of the stack produce an effect greater than the sum of their individual effects.

If youre a student facing difficulty in exams, a working professional looking for that extra edge, and an older person that wants to continue enjoying the mental agility of a young mind, nootropics may be the answer youre looking for.

Planning to start a new supplementation regimen? See our medical disclaimer.

Read more:

What are Nootropics? | Braintropic

Nootroo 5.0 The Gold Standard in Nootropics

Nootroo 5.0 – The Gold Standard in Nootropics – Nootroo

Nootropics have been shown to enhance the learning ability of healthy adults.

The brain is more able to process and recall verbalized words if nootropics were administered prior.

Increase Memory Formation

Memory formation is facilitated by the presence of nootropics in the brain.

Greater Interconnectivity

The amount of information passing between hemispheres of the brain is significantly increased by nootropics

Enhance Learning & Memory

Improve learning acquistion and enhance resistance to learning impairments from casues such as lack of oxygen (hypoxia), electroconvulsive shock (ECS), and chemicals that tend to prevent memory formation (scopolamine).

Facilitate Interhemispheric Transfer & Synchronization

Facilitate the transfer of information from one hemisphere to the other, across the corpus callosum which increases synchronization between the hemispheres.

Non-Stimulant & Non-Sedative

Work by increasing the integration of higher-level (telencephalic) activity. On over 30 classical pharmacological tests, the original nootropic shows no activity, including as neither a central nervous stimulant nor a sedative.

Enhance Cerebral Resistance

Increase the brain’s ability to resist aggressions and increase recovery time after loss of oxygen, physical trauma, and many chemical intoxications.

StrengthenControl of SubcorticalProcesses

While not acting on directly the central nervous system, nootropics are still able to modulate cortical tonic control, as seen in central nystagmus and spinal fixiation.

Non-Toxic & Low-to-No Side Effects

Must work in harmony with the brain, being virtually free of side-effects and non-toxic even in high doses. Nootropics must not be habit-forming or cause withdrawal.

The nootropic concept had to be developed because a molecule was discovered that had properties unilke anything before it. This molecule, now known as Piracetam, was able to enhance learning and memory while being protective of the brain, and had little to no side effects.

Piracetam was the prototype for the nootropic concept and forms the greatest body of evidence on the efficacy of nootropics. The Nootroo Gold and Silver Formulas are based off of this research and include next-generation, more advanced versions of piracetam each stacked synergystically with citicoline (Cognizin).

The term nootropics is derived from the Greek words for mind and towards and means towards the mind. Nootropics are molecules that have a selective activity upon the higher-integrative mechanisms of the brain. They act directly on the parts of the brain where information is brought together on the highest level and as such are able to positively enhance the processes related to learning, speech, and memory acquisition, consolidation, and recall. To be considered a nootropic, these properties of enhanced activity must occur while also being protective of the brain and while having little to no side-effects.

In 1964, scientists in Belgium were working to develop a sleep-aid. The scientists modified the naturally occurring neurotransmitter GABA, but what resulted instead of a sleep-aid, was something much more profound, a molecule that would come to be known as piracetam. As they probed the properties of the molecule, it became increasingly clear that it was so unqiue, that an entirely new category would be required to describe it, and so in 1972, Cornlieu Giurgea proposed the nootropic concept.

Nootroo Gold & Silver is our premium nootropic stack based on the continued research into nootropics over the last 50 years. The Gold and Silver Formulas each have a different main, next-generation nootropic paired with the precursor for the memory neurotransmitter. The Gold Formula contains Noopept and Citicoline (Cognizin) and the Silver Formula contains Phenylpiracetam and Citicoline (Cognizin). Each bottle contains 30 total pills, with 15 of the Gold Formula and 15 of the Silver Formula and can be distinguished by their non-artifically colored capsules. We are now shipping our 5.0 version of Nootroo Gold & Silver Formulas.

The combination of the ingredients in both the Gold & Silver Formulas are considered to besynergistic stacks. Research shows that the underlying mechanism of the combination has a profound effect on memory enhancement. Citicoline administration alone in healthy adults alone increases the levels of the main neurotransmitter responsible for memory formation, acetylcholine in the outside areas of the brain. When combined with piracetam-like nootropics, the increased acetylcholine is brought into the hippocampus where it is more fully utilized by the brain. The combined effects of nootropics+choline are greater than either alone.

Founded in 2014, Nootroo is dedicated to creating the highest quality nootropic stacks available. Our tagline is The Gold Standard in Nootropics because of our commitment to using only the highest possible quality ingredients. In fact, that tagline (and our gold branding) comes from the fact that we used to use actual 23.5k gold flakes in our Gold Formula and 100% pure silver flakes in our Silver Formula to distinguish betwen them, before we manufactured our custom, non-artifically colored capsules. Our commitment to quality goes beyond aesthethics though, as we are commited to making sure everything else in the capsules is pure as possible. We carry out 3rd-party lab testing on all of our ingredients with a spec of 99% purity and A+ ratings, and we license the purest form of citicoline, a patented bioidentical form from Japan called Cognizin. Our capsules also contain no binding agents, fillers, excipients or anything besides the high-purity ingredients listed. With Nootroo you can be confident knowing that we never cut corners and that you always have the best nootropics available.

Understanding the Original Nootropic: Piracetam

Piracetam was shown to significantly increase the memory of healthy college students in less than 14 days of daily use on a word recall test. Nootropic effects generally increase over time and this study concluded that nootropics are “capable of extending the intellectual functions of man.”

Healthy adults had a 15% increase in the number of words recalled on a test of verbal recall. Words heard by the left ear had to cross the corpus callosum in order to reach the verbal processing region on the other side of the brain in order to be verbalized.

Piracetam is not a stimulant and does not work by directly affecting the central nervous system as caffeine or an amphetamine does. Piracetam shows no activity on over 30 different tests and has demonstrated little to no side-effects, including no toxicity, even in extremely high doses.

Next-Generation Nootropics

While piracetam is an amazing molecule, its accidental discovery meant that it wasn’t invented with a directed focus on cognitive enhancement or neuroprotection. Fortunately, in the intervening decades since piracetam’s discovery, research labs around the world set out to make improved versions with additional benefits and they succeeded beyond their expectations. Two of the best versions created were noopept and phenylpiracetam.

Noopept is a di-peptide version of piracetam that has very high bioavailability and demonstrated anxiolytic properties. Phenylpiracetam was created by adding a “phenyl” group to piracetam which gives it increased bioavailability and some psychomotor activity.

The circles below show where the piracetam structure is within these new molecules. Taking these advanced forms of piracetam and adding a bio-identical form of the body’s preferred choline source is how you get the Nootroo Gold & Silver Formulas.

Discounted For Subscription15 Gold Formula & 15 Silver FormulaUnlimited Protocol AccessNever Run Out of Supply1-Click Unsubscribe

per month

Noopept is a di-peptide version of piracetam specifically developed to be more powerful and absorbable from oral administration. The researchers from the lab that created it, specialized in creating peptide versions of other molecules, and created hundreds of modified versions of piracetam before selecting Noopept because it is was highly absorbed and “demonstrated a wide spectrum of cognition improving effects.” This molecule has been demonstrated to have both positive short-term and long-term effects at enhancing memory and mental processing, especially in older populations.

In adults with (a) cognitive decline and (b) post-concussional syndrome, Noopept was shown to have an even more powerful and consistent effect compared to piracetam.

Noopept significantly increased the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the brain. BDNF levels control the quantity of new neurons created by the brain.

Noopept has been shown to increase the firing rate of pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus. These neurons are implicated in memory formation and recall.

CDP-Choline, as will be discussed more in depth down below, is the bodys preferred precursor for the memory neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Supplementation of acetylcholine alone will increase acetylcholine production in the brain. Nootropics alone will increase the bodys use of acetylcholinein the process of forming memory. So when combined, the power of this increased supply to meet the brains increased neurochemical demands, has been shown to have profound effects compared to either alone.

Phenylpiracetam is a version of piracetam with an added phenyl group designed to increase processing speed and provide mental endurance. This added group increases piracetam’s affinity for the receptors that control psychomotor activity (where movement and thinking are combined), while not not being a central nervous stimulant. Phenylpiraceatam has been shown to significantly speed up processing and endurance, even in single doses. It was utilized by the Russian space program for use by cosmonauts on extended missions.

Phenylpiracetam was shown to increase the amount of distance covered in exploratory trials. This correlates to an increase in mental activation and endurance.

Phenylpiracetam was shown in this study to regulate the brain waves against aggression in an epilepsy model. Autonomic normalization is a property that helps ensure consistent brain activity against things that would tend to disrupt it.

Phenylpiracetam has also been shown to prevent a memory blocking agent, scopolamine, from blocking memory formation. This is a powerful indicator of the effect of phenylpiracetam on memory formation.

One way phenylpiracetam works,is by activating and enhancing the activity of the cholinergicsystem in the brain. The cholinergic system modulates memory and learning and in order for it to operate optimally, it needs the molecule acetylcholine to be at certain levels in synapses. CDP-Choline is the precursor for acetylcholine, and by adding it to the body, the brain will increase its choline levels. By increasing the amount of choline available, the brain will then utilize more of it and in doing so, will enhance the firing mechanisms of this system. This allows phenylpiracetam to have an optimized cholinergic system to interact with.

CiticolineIn Gold & Silver Formulas:

CDP-Choline, also known as citicoline, is a precursor for the memory neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Supplementation has been shown to increase acetylcholine production in the brain. Citicoline administration has also been shown to increase brain bioenergetics by increasing energy reserves and utilization of energy.. Studies in healthy adult women show that taking Cognizin citicoline significantly improved their verbal memory after just 28 days. Studies suggest that citicoline also can help increase dopamine receptor densities , which is the neurotransmitter associated with motivation. We license Cognizin, a patented form of Citicoline, that is the only pure, free-base form of citicoline that is bioidentical to the form found in nature.

Healthy adult women taking CDP-Choline have been shown to have an improvement in memory and focus after 28 days.

The levels of the energy carrier molecule (ATP) were increased by 13.6% by CDP Choline and cell membrane turnover was increased by more than 25%.

CDP-Choline alone in adolescent males for 28 days was shown to significantly increase psychomotor speed and improve attention compared to placebo.

CDP-Choline is an essential nutrient that is crucial in the brains processes of memory formation, attention and learning, yet most people are deficient in it. CDP-Choline is typically obtained by the body from food and supplies choline for the brain to make the neurotransmitter acetylcholine as well as neuronal cell membranes. That is why simply adding it to the body results in a >25% increase in cell membrane formation as well as >10% increase in cellular energy (ATP) levels. The recommendations for adults is between 450-550 mg per day, both Nootroo Gold & Silver have approximately 500 mg of the purest form of CDP-Choline available, Cognizin branded CDP-Choline. It is made in an enzymatic process in a bioreactor that takes 6 months and is imported from Japan. This patented-form of CDP-Choline is the only form that is bioidentical to the form found in nature, in a free-base and not a salt.

Meditation is a key element to enhancing your brains ability to focus and stay on task. Mindfulness meditation can change your brain in as little at 8 weeks. We will provide resources to help you learn and sustain a meditation practice.

Exercise is crucial for optimizing brain health, metabolism and neuroplasticity. The Nootroo Protocol will teach you the most effective and efficient exercises for the brain from both the physical and mental realms.

Nootroo Gold & Silver have you covered in this category, but we will also share with you additional tips, tricks, nutrients, and supplements that can help you get the most out of your nootropics (and brain).

Sleep is crucial to memory formation, consolidation, and general brain health. We will teach you techniques to help you sleep better, increase neurotransmitter synthesis, wake up feeling more refreshed and even how to fall asleep more easily.

Diet is a key regulator of energy and how you feel. We will teach you dietary tricks to optimize your bodys metabolism so that your brain can receive more energy and utilize that energy more effectively.

The Nootroo Protocol has been designed to bring together all of the most important aspects for optimal performance and health. As a subscriber, you will receive continued access to our knowledge-base as well as a step-by-step tips and information to aid you in achieving optimal performance.

Its not like every tech worker in Silicon Valley is taking nootropics to get ahead, Burke acknowledges. Its the few who are getting ahead who are using supplements to do that… These days, he buys his stack from Nootroo, a San Francisco company.

“Tweaking brains with smart drugs to get ahead in Silicon Valley”

Nootropics are a broad category of cognitive-enhancing supplements that include a range of compounds to improve memory, focus and mood…Matzner said he wants to get these things out to as many smart people as possible so people could get smarter and make the world better.

‘Nootropics gain momentum as ‘smart pills

Were talking about…a new type of biology where were taking these things into our own hands but also to try and proactively go from baseline to above, said Matzner.

A real-life ‘Limitless’ pill? Silicon Valley entrepreneurs pursue brain hacking with nootropics, or ‘smart drugs’

Nootropics are trending right now in Silicon Valley. A crop of new companies are selling these so-called productivity pills to “biohackers” looking to get an edge in work and life…A company based in San Francisco called Nootroo sells two pills — one gold, one silver…

Nootropics, Biohacking and Silicon Valley’s Pursuit of Productivity

“Eric takes nootropics…a mix of compounds…that claim to improve cognitive function, increase alertness and strengthen memory and recall.”

Billion Dollar Deals and How They Changed Your World | Health

[Nootroos] pills come in gold and silver formulas, which are to be taken on alternating days. Over time, theyre intended to enhance focus, memory, and cognitive function.

Nightline News dropped by to see what all the hype over nootropics is about. They interviewed a Nootroo customer to find the secret to her work hard play hard lifestyle.

The BBC came to check out what is going on in Silicon Valley with those choosing to enhance their biology and push forward science, to see if they just might end up pushing forward the world.

NPR wanted some tips on how biohacker and Nootroo founder, Eric Matzner, starts his day, so he showed them a basic adaption of the Nootroo Protocol.

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Humanity will not wait millions of years until Mother Nature will hand it a functionally better brain…[Humankind] will directly, openly and consciously take part in evolution.

In the early 1960s, scientists were working to develop a form of the neurotransmitter GABA, that would be able to cross the blood-brain barrier and potentially work as a sleep aid..

While they succeeded in developing a molecule with the ability to enter the brain, they failed at creating a sleep aid. What they discovered instead, however, was a molecule that would later prove to be much more profound.

Like a sculptor removing parts of the stone to reveal the beauty within, Corneliu Giurgea, the lead scientist at the lab, and his team would work diligently to chip away at the unknowns of piracetam, to reveal the properties within it.

After 9 years of research, Giurgea had determined that this molecule (piracetam) acted in such a unique way on the higher-level, integrative activities of the brain, that in order to classify it, the creation of an entirely new classification was required: ” the nootropic approach to integrative activity of the mind.”

On over 30 pharmacological tests, Piracetam was found to have no activity, including being neither a sedative nor a stimulant. It also had no toxicity and few side effects, even when given in extremely high doses, such as grams per kilogram of body weight, to mice, rats, cats, dogs, and monkeys with single or multiple doses, even over long-term administration.

In fact, because of those properties, piracetam seemed to be inactive. Had it not been for a test on nystagmus (involuntary eye movements), where they found it immediately active, piracetam likely would have been passed over. This discovery was especially intriguing to the researchers because all of the then-known agents active against nystagmus were either antihistamines or anticholinergics.

It was clear that piracetam did not fit into either of those classes, so the researchers set out to understand which class it did fit into. As they would eventually discover, no existing class embodied the properties of this “unusual” molecule.

The first human trials began in 1965 and showed that piracetam was able to significantly inhibit nystagmus. Because there was extremely low toxicity and seemingly few side-effects, they began to test piracetam in other populations. Further data reported internally then claimed “fairly good efficacy against motion sickness and vertigo” in humans. These findings lead them to search for a “more comprehensive picture of piracetam from the neurophysiological point of view.”

As they were carrying out these follow up studies over 1966-1967, a series of surprising results were reported. First, results came in from a study done at a hospital in Finland on post-concussion patients. The scientists running the study wrote to Giurgea to let him know that the “patients memory seemed somehow improved, that they declared to ‘think’ better.”.

Then came word from a trial in Brusseles on epileptic children administered piracetam. The parents of the children in the study “claimed a kind of improvement in the overall mental efficiency.” And then another researcher reported to him that his Parkinsonian patients under Piracetam were “somehow more aware of their sickness.”

Since Giurgea and his team had previously demonstrated piracetam selectively enhanced interhemispheric communication (see associated image), he had suspected that the compound might facilitate other cortically integrated mental functions, but at that time, he had no idea the extent.

This new information changed the course of their clinical work and they began to focus on “studies related to a potential beneficial effect of Piracetam on mental activity.”

Nootropic Properties Revealed

As experimental data on the neurochemical mechanisms of piracetam continued to expand, Giurgea and his team began to zero in on some overarching properties of the molecule that would come to define the nootropic class.

In normal subjects, piracetam appeared to “activate efficiency of higher nervous function” and in the case of injury, piracetam appeared to “protect and/or facilitate restoration of normal brain activity.”

From these observations and others, Giurgea surmised that piracetam, and potentially other molecules like it, “appeared to have a selective activity upon the higher-integrative mechanisms of the brain.”

Enhancement of Learning & Memory

Rats learned how to exit a water maze much more quickly when on piracetam.

Facilitation of Interhemispheric Transfer

Notice the change in the amplitude of the evoked potential of the corpus callosum, without a change in morphology. Demonstrating telencephalic selectivity.

Protection Against Loss of Oxygen

Memory is protected from disruption during a loss of oxygen (hypoxia) if the rats are given Piracetam prior.

Protection From Electroconvulsive Shock

After having their brains electroconvulsively shocked, after 24-hours, rats given piracetam prior remembered 100%, while rats on placebo remembered less than 20% of the time.

Increased Control of SubcorticalProcesses

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Nootroo 5.0 The Gold Standard in Nootropics

Nootropics | Cognitive Enhancers | Nootropics Supplements

Nootropics Also referred to as smart drugsandcognitive enhancers, are supplements, drugs, and nutraceuticals that can help (if used properly) to improve mental functions such as concentration, cognition, memory, and motivation. Here at Nootropics City, we believe that nootropics can help to accomplish this if used responsibly in a recorded and measured manner.

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Nootropics | Cognitive Enhancers | Nootropics Supplements

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Nootropic stacks can maximise your learning capacity, memory, focus, concentration and prevent high levels of stress. The best nootropic stack for beginners is caffeine and L-theanine. If you are an intermediate user you should try either Pramiracetam and Alpha GPC or Phenylpiracetam and Choline. Four popular nootropics: Aniracetam, Alpha GPC, Huperzina A and Vinpocetine are used by those who consider themselves as advanced users. Learning accelerator is the latest category of nootropics. iQuzil is the best cognitive enhancer for expert users. Although nootropic stacks are best known for their ability to enhance mental capacity, concentration, focus and memory, they can also be very effective at preventing the high levels of anxiety, including social anxiety. Students are likely to experience enough challenges and pressures without having to think about dealing with high levels of anxiety. The best nootropic stack to reduce anxiety and help with studying is Choline Bitatrate, Phenibut and Picamilon. The above nootropic stacks will help students to maximise their potential and reach goals by improving their brain power, working memory and focus.

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Nootropics | definition of Nootropics by Medical dictionary

(redirected from Nootropics)Also found in: Dictionary.nootropic (n–trop’ik),

Denotes an agent having an effect on memory.

[ntropik]

a chemical designed to increase brain metabolism.

There is little clinical evidence that most agents advertised as nootropics actually work as advertised.

Capable of improving or preserving memory, of potentiating learning, or of preventing cognitive decline or dementia.

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Nootropics | definition of Nootropics by Medical dictionary

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At Nootropics Depot, we carry a wide variety of nootropics capsules and powders. Browse our nootropics for sale below.

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Nootropics | HVMN Biohacker Guide

Nootropics are a broad classification of cognition-enhancing compounds that produce minimal side effects and are suitable for long-term use. These compounds include those occurring in nature or already produced by the human body (such as neurotransmitters), and their synthetic analogs. We already regularly consume some of these chemicals: B vitamins, caffeine, and L-theanine, in our daily diets.

A fundamental aspect of human evolution has been the drive to augment our capabilities. The neocortex is the neural seat of abstract and higher order cognitive processes. As it grew, so did our ability to create. The invention of tools and weapons, writing, the steam engine, and the computer have exponentially increased our capacity to influence and understand the world around us. These advances are being driven by improved higher-order cognitive processing.1Fascinatingly, the practice of modulating our biology through naturally occurring flora predated all of the above discoveries. Indeed, Sumerian clay slabs as old as 5000 BC detail medicinal recipes which include over 250 plants2. The enhancement of human cognition through natural compounds followed, as people discovered plants containing caffeine, theanine, and other cognition-enhancing, or nootropic, agents.

There is an ancient precedent to humans using natural compounds to elevate cognitive performance. Incan warriors in the 15th century would ingest coca leaves (the basis for cocaine) before battle. Ethiopian hunters in the 10th century developed coffee bean paste to improve hunting stamina. Modern athletes ubiquitously consume protein powders and hormones to enhance their training, recovery, and performance. The most widely consumed psychoactive compound today is caffeine. Millions of people use coffee and tea to be more alert and focused.

The term nootropic is simply a descriptor, and this descriptor spans across all legal classifications of compounds. Broadly speaking, there are four main classifications:

Nootrobox stacks are strictly derived from the first category – compounds that are GRAS and approved for human consumption as dietary supplements.

The mechanisms by which nootropic compounds influence our cognition and neurophysiology are as diverse as those of prescription drugs. We present below our in-progress work, detailing the mechanisms, effects, and history of various nootropic compounds. Check in for updates and additions.

See the article here:

Nootropics | HVMN Biohacker Guide

What is a Nootropic – What are nootropics?

The word nootropic is derived from the greek words noos, meaning mind, and trope, meaning turning. In essence, nootropic perform one function: they turn your mind to boost your cognitive abilities and make your mental state better in some way, shape, or form.

Different groups classify different drugs as nootropics, but for the most part, everyone agrees that nootropics have two defining characteristics:

Keep in mind that nootropics are not vitamins or minerals. Usually, theyre synthetic chemicals produced in laboratories. Theyre not essential to your bodys functions. Theyre add-ons in that you use them and you feel better, but if you dont, its not like your body is lacking anything otherwise required. We do advocate getting the proper amount of essential nutrients, and minerals as a starting point to improved cognitive health. Well talk about generally optimizing brain health (your cognitive baseline) through sleep, diet, and exercise a later post.

Were being relatively vague here because there is a wide spectrum of nootropics available today. And they all claim to do different things for you. Its up to you to pick the right nootropic for what you want to accomplish. Later posts will cover the different types of nootropics, as well as specific nootropics to use in certain scenarios for studying, for sharpness, for recovery after partying, etc.

After understanding what a nootropic is, the next question that begs to be asked is, How do they work?

Every nootropic affects your body in a different way. Its important to note the distinction between results and commonly referred to as working mechanisms. One thing that we also want to note is that nootropics are a very subjective experience, and although one person may have great results with a particular nootropic, another person may have no result when using that same nootropic.

If the working mechanism for a drug is known, we know exactly how it affects your body. As in, if you ingest drug A, it affects receptors X, Y, and Z. This modification to receptors X, Y, and Z produces effects B, C, and D.

If the working mechanism for a drug isnt known, then we only know A, B, C, and D in the above example. For most nootropics, there is speculation behind the working mechanisms, but there has not been any conclusive evidence of these claims. As such, the working mechanisms being discussed are theories, not fact.

Dont let this turn you off of nootropics as a safe way to improve your mental function. The human body is incredibly complex, and we havent even begun to understand how all the pieces of the puzzle fit together. We dont even know the working mechanisms for some of the most popular drugs sold worldwide.

Take acetaminophen (the active ingredient in Tylenol) as an example. There have been tens of thousands of studies conducted with this drug, and after studying human reactions to it over, and over, and over again, weve come to these three conclusions:

Youd think that after tens of thousands of studies, a working mechanism would have been found, right? Unfortunately not the working mechanism for acetaminophen isnt known, and it doesnt look like well know exactly how it works anytime soon.

Take this example and apply it to nootropics. The working mechanisms usually arent known, but after observing empirical evidence over, and over, and over again, we can come to some pretty consistent conclusions about them.

Now, we know what youre thinking; If these drugs claim to enhance your cognitive abilities but the working mechanisms arent 100% known, are they legal?

The answer is both yes and no.

Yes: most nootropics are perfectly legal to possess. This means that if a police officer were to see you taking one and stop you, hed likely be suspicious (nootropics often come in the form of white powder), but if he were to conduct a field test on it, you would not be arrested or issued a ticket. Your package wont be taken if inspected by customs, etc.

No: like dietary supplements, most nootropics arent approved by the FDA. All countries vary on the legality of nootropics. In Russia, most are legal, and many are prescription medicines. We suggest that you research the laws of your country regarding possession of a particular nootropic before you order. Those are just two examples. Always do your research on your specific countrys laws before purchasing any nootropic supplements.

The cool (and sometimes off-putting) thing about nootropics is that everyone reacts differently to each one. This is pretty standard with drugs in general if we take marijuana as an example, it relaxes some people, whereas it makes other anxious and paranoid. Its your personal reaction.

In general, the effects of nootropics are fairly mild. Theyre not meant to be stimulants like adderall, ritalin, vyvanse, or concerta. Instead, they aim to take your base level of cognitive performance and bring it up. Go from being able to give 100% when not taking nootropics, to being able to give 105% or 110% when you are. If you focus in on how the nootropic is affecting you, youll be able to tell, but with the vast majority of nootropics, you wont feel over-stimulated or anything of that nature, sometime the effects are rather subtle. One thing that we suggest is tracking the efficacy of the nootropics you take to really determine the value you are getting from nootropics; this is covered later.

Also, you should expect no comedown and no come up. Nootropics work in the background. When you dose, you wont feel a rush (although some do report a tingly feeling), and when the nootropic starts to wear off, you wont feel like youre crashing. Instead, youll slowly climb to where your cognitive abilities are enhanced, and then gradually ease off of that as the chemical is depleted until youre at your normal baseline mental state.

Every nootropic out there can be categorized into a certain subset of nootropics. Here are the main ones below all popular nootropics will fall into one of these categories. Well talk about some more specific nootropics later. If youd like to skip ahead to the best nootropics for beginners, click here

Racetams (One our of favorites)

All racetams (about 20 in total, depending on who you ask) are derived from the king: piracetam. After being synthesized in the early 1970s, piracetam quickly took its place at the vanguard of the nootropic movement if you ask someone to name a nootropic, piracetam will always be the first answer.

The formula for piracetam is C6H10N2O2, and most of its derivatives such a aniracetam, oxiracetam, and pramiracetam have certain elements added or removed from that base structure. Good ol piracetam provides a wide range of cognitive enhancements including improved memory, improved verbal articulation, improved long and short term memory, etc.

More often than not, a racetam is the base of any nootropic stack. Users often add other nootropics to enhance the effects of a racetam.

If youre diving into nootropics and want the surefire bet, choose piracetam. But if you have certain needs maybe you want more energy than piracetam, or you need a creative boost then its worth checking out its derivatives. Despite their formulaic similarities, users report substantially different effects when taking them.

Choline (usually paired with racetams)

Choline isnt usually used by itself in the nootropic landscape, but its a very common addition to any nootropic combination (stack). There are two reasons for this, choline itself gives you additional cognitive enhancements, and adding choline is theorized to boost the effects of any racetam that increases acetylcholine uptake. Choline was once classified as vitamin B4 and has since been reclassified as an essential nutrient and is metabolized by the body in acetylcholine.

Before going further I want to note that acetylcholine is an important neurotransmitter that is thought to be responsible for decision making and certain types of learning. Many nootropics have some effect on the way the body processes or interacts with acetylcholine and those effects generally have cognitive benefits when utilized responsibly.

To put it simply, adding in a choline source means that you have an increased amount of acetylcholine available in your body. Having plenty of acetylcholine is said to have cognitive enhancing benefits all by itself, but theyre usually amplified when you have another nootropic in the mix.

Also, there have been studies that suggest piracetam (and most other racetams) deplets the acetylcholine you havein your brain. If your body doesnot have enough acetylcholine, the end result is that youll often end up with headaches. The same works the other way, which is another reason why almost no one adds in a choline source without adding in a nootropic, as having too much acetylcholine (or anything else for that matter) is generally not a good thing. They balance each other out perfectly to give you cognitive enhancementand prevent you from getting headaches; its a symbiotic relationship that requires balancing.

Youll notice that there are two terms mentioned here acetylcholine and choline sources. Choline sources are the actual supplements you take, and once ingested, they increase your acetylcholine levels.Every choline source will produce a different amount of acetylcholine. Alpha GPC is considered to be the most potent with highest bioavailability. A rudimentary search will put you on the right track see what others users have paired with their particular nootropics to balance acetylcholine levels correctly. For more information on choline, check out our beginners guide to choline.

The Natural Ones

Natural nootropics are no different from what youd referred to as natural herbs or natural remedies; they are naturally-occurring elements (from plants) that when ingested, provide cognitive enhancing effects.

The effects of natural nootropics vary greatly, and by and large, users have vastly different experiences with each and every one. Some claim theyre straight placebo, whereas others think that they can be even more potent than their human-made counterparts. However, the general consensus is that theyre less potent than synthetic nootropics are.

This shouldnt turn you off to them as a whole. Although less potent, some natural nootropics provide benefits in some way, shape, or form that synthetic ones cant match. Generall speaking, because natural nootropics are (by definition) from nature, they are often available at a cheaper price than synthetic nootropics are. No laboratories, purity tests, etc. are needed.

Bacopi Monneri is one of the most prevalent natural nootropics. It acts as a memory and anxiety aid, but effects usually take 6-8 weeks to kick in this is a great example of natural nootropics being less potent than a synthetic memory or anxiety aid that might take effect within just a couple of days, or even immediately. Its also a great example of how one can work in a way that its synthetic counterpart cant while anti-anxiety nootropics are usually borderline sedative, users report that Bacopi Monneri works in the background so that you dont feel like youre under the influence.

Other popular natural nootropics are Huperzine-A, and Gingko Biloba. If youre interested in nootropics but arent a fan of the ones produced in laboratories, these three are great jumping-off points.

Smart Drugs

Smart drugs are where the border between nootropic and drug is tested; some consider smart drugs to be nootropics, whereas others think that they should be heavily regulated just as prescription medications are.

Modafinil is the best example of a smart drug. Its prescribed in some countries, banned in some, and completely legal in others. It promises a full-blown energy increase similar to adderall, but without the euphoria or other side effects.

Many people think that smart drugs like modafinil arent nootropics because of how they affect you. If you take a standard nootropic like piracetam for a month straight and then abruptly stop, you might notice the nootropic not being present, but you wont have any real side effects. On the other hand, dosing a smart drug like modafinil on a consistent basis and then suddenly stopping might lead to insomnia, lack of focus, etc.

Were not saying that smart drugs are bad, necessarily. Were just saying that you shouldnt expect a subtle effect like other nootropics give you. When you take one, youll easily notice the effects, and when you come off of it, youll easily notice that you arent on it.

Vitamin B & Vitamin B Derivatives

B vitamins are unique in how they affect us. One of the most popular energy drinks, 5 Hour Energy, has vitamin B6 as its main ingredient (albeit 10,000x the RDA) because of the energy boost that it gives to us.

Naturally, with such effects, B vitamins are being explored as nootropics. Its important to note that vitamin B derivatives arent the same thing as B vitamins;theyve been modified in some way to become something other than the naturally-occurring vitamin.As of 2015, vitamin B derivatives are relatively new. Sulbutiamine is a derivative of vitamin B1 that was originally developed by the Japanese to combat fatigue, and it has the largest user base out of all of them. Picamillion is also a B derived nootropic as it combines niacin (B3) with GABA . More research is needed to conclude anything about B vitamins, but if youve had success from taking a B-complex or an energy drink like 5 Hour Energy, theyre worth exploring.

Ampakides

Ampakides are generally seen as piracetam was in the 80s and 90s interesting, but not researched a whole lot. Actually, out of all of the different types of nootropics, ampakides have the least research done on them.

They appear to work by antagonizing the AMPA and NDMA receptors in your body; this in turn leads to an uptick in glutamate available for your brain to use. Glutamate is said to increase memory span and focus abilities. But again, there hasnt been a whole lot of research done on ampakides or how they will affect you in the long-term.Only use ampakides if youre an explorer and willing to ingest something that hasnt been fully studied.

Peptides

Peptides are interesting in that they operate similarly to racetams, but arent the same thing. There arent a whole lot on the market today aside from noopept.

Noopept has quickly earned a reputation for being 1,000x more potent than piracetam while having similar effects. This means that the dosage is a lot smaller whereas you need 1.6g to 4.8g of piracetam per day, you only need 10mg to 40mg of noopept per day.

Although not as popular as racetams, peptides are worth exploring. Many users report similar effects as racetams, but not identical. Some like peptides more, whereas others stick with racetams. If you dont like what you feel from a certain racetam, its worth exploring peptides.

Blends

Many companies have jumped on the nootropic bandwagon and created nootropic blends. These blends are just a bunch of nootropics combined into a single pill, which is similar to stacking nootropics all on your own just easier.

Its important to take a look at the ingredients of each blend that youre considering. Sometimes, there will be ingredients that arent nootropics, and other times, there will be a blend of ingredients that you could easily concoct yourself for a fraction of the price. Often times they dont contain proper dosages of the ingredients to make them worthwhile.

The most popular nootropic blend is Alpha Brain from Onnit; you can check out our Alpha Brain full review and analysis here. By and large, people see success with this blend, but a lot of marketing is put into it its hard to get unbiased information when you look online. Wed recommend starting with pure nootropics first, and if you find one that you like, possibly getting a blend that has your choice nootropic as the #1 ingredient. If theres something we missed, please let us know so that we can bring our customers the most relevant information possible.

In a follow up blog post we will introduce you to the best nootropics for beginners, and from there we will cover some popular combinations of the individual nootropics in our post on the best nootropic stacks.

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What is a Nootropic – What are nootropics?

Ranking the best nootropics of 2019 – BodyNutrition

Many deep thinkers, CEOs and people of mastery are taking nootropics, commonly known as smart drugs, for increased brain function.

(This is your ability to learn, focus, remember things, and solve complex problems)

From Joe Rogan to Tim Ferriss, smart drugs were being talked about years ago before recently hitting mainstream.

Nootropics work, but you got to be careful.

Since nootropics are such a hot topic right now, it can be hard to separate whats legit and whats whack.

Our research team looked at the scientific research in-depth to find the best nootropics on the market right now.

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OptiMind provides the best balance among proven nootropic ingredients. It balances a moderate dose of vitamin D with a heavy dose of vitamin B12, and several key nootropic supplements, including L-tyrosine, bacopa extract, caffeine, ALA, and vinpocetine, to name just a few. The dosages are on-point and there arent any extraneous ingredients, making OptiMind come out number one.

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The widely-known nootropic supplement from Onnit, made famous in part thanks to Joe Rogans ringing endorsement, fares well thanks to the strong results from a clinical trial conducted at the Boston Center for Memory and published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal in 2016 (1).

Alpha Brains blend of supplements seems particularly effective at boosting verbal skills, so its great if you need to read or write a lot.

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NeuroIgnite contains high doses of several powerful nootropic supplements, and moreover, the label actually tells you how much of each extract is in the supplement, unlike other companies who hide the specifics of their blend under the veil of a proprietary blend.

The heavy hitters in this blend are bacopa monnieri, DMAE, and ginkgo biloba, all heavily-researched supplements with evidence for nootropic effects.

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Zhou Nutritions Neuro-Peak is an immensely popular nootropic supplement that includes a massive dose of vitamin B12 and a slew of herbal extracts. Rhodiola rosea extract is one of the distinguishing factors in Neuro-Peak; this herbal extract appears to be effective at staving off mental fatigue.

Because of this, Neuro-Peak is a good choice if youre faced with a long stretch of continuous, mentally challenging work to do.

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We Are Fits Neuro Spark goes heavy on the St. Johns wort and ginkgo biloba, but includes some of the newer nootropic supplements like vinpocetine, bacopa monnieri, and huperzine-A as well.

Its a well-balanced, stimulant-free nootropic thats well-suited for boosting your performance at any cognitively challenging task.

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Ciltep by Natural Stacks is a little unusualit doesnt follow the lead of the more popular nootropic supplements. It chooses to include unconventional nootropic compounds like artichoke extract and forskolin extract (better known for its use as a weight loss supplement).

As you might guess, theres far less research on the cognitive enhancement properties of these supplements, but if normal nootropics arent doing it for you, Ciltep might be worth a shot.

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TruBrain focuses on delivering amino acids, plus the tried and true caffeine (only 100 mg per shot) and magnesium to achieve its nootropic effects. This approach is more about providing your brain with the natural building blocks it needs to function properly, versus trying to boost its function above its natural level. If you want more of a tune up than an upgrade, TruBrain is a good choice.

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Neovictas Clarity supplement is firmly in the kitchen sink camp, which is to say that it includes just about everything that might affect cognitive function. Its got vitamins, minerals, supplements, extracts, and synthetic compounds.

This betrays a lack of an overarching strategy when it comes to boosting cognitive function, but if you just want to cover your bases, its not a bad choice.

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Brain Boost is essentially a multivitamin along with several herbal extracts that affect biological processes related to cognitive function. Its purpose to to make sure your body is fueled up with the right micronutrients and biological precursors to function at its best.

Unfortunately, because its nootropic ingredients are part of a proprietary blend, its impossible to see how much of each ingredient is present in the supplement.

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NeuroFit is another nootropic that goes heavy on the vitamins and minerals, but is secretive about the amounts of the actual nootropic ingredients in its formulation. With so many ingredients, it seems unlikely that the active ingredients are present in high concentrations.

Nootropics are supplements that are designed to boost cognitive functionthat is, enhance your brains ability to learn, remember, and solve problems.

Though they are extremely popular among students, nootropics have a much broader appeal. Just about anybody in a complex job wants the ability to work faster and more effectively, and people who are getting older like the appeal of staving off brain fog and some of the cognitive decline that comes along with aging.

When a supplement claims to impact cognitive function, its a fairly easy claim to test.

Unlike other supplements that claim to boost well-being or promote a healthy immune system, testing cognitive function is straightforward: you get a group of subjects, give them the supplement in question or a placebo, then subject them to a battery of psychometric tests to assess their cognitive function.

There are a variety of types of these kinds of tests, and different supplements seem to affect different aspects of cognitive function. Some seem to boost memory, while others influence verbal abilities or help reduce mental fatigue (the diminishing of cognitive performance after long, challenging efforts).

A good case study in how testing nootropics work can be observed in the 2016 study that validated the effects of Alpha Brain (2).

Researchers split a group of volunteers into two groups, one of which was given Alpha Brain, and the other of which was given a placebo supplement. Both groups were tested for their cognitive abilities at the outset of the study, then took their assigned supplement for six weeks before being tested again.

The psychometric battery of tests used in the study included visual, spatial, logical, and verbal reasoning and memory. The results showed no improvement in most metrics, but a statistically significant increase in verbal memory.

Other supplements have been studied on an individual level to identify potential nootropic benefits. As you might guess, the most popular ingredients among the top-ranked nootropic supplements are also among the best-studied and most effective.

Bacopa monnieri, for example, is an herbal extract thats been demonstrated to have specific cognitive enhancing effects. A 2001 study in the scientific journal Psychopharmacology conducted a similar protocol to the Alpha Brain studya group of healthy adult subjects were given a 300 mg dose of bacopa monnieri extract or a placebo for twelve weeks, and were subjected to a battery of cognitive tests before and after the supplementation period (3).

In this case, the researchers found that the bacopa supplement increased the speed of visual information processing, learning rate, and memory consolidation.

Ginkgo biloba and vinpocetine looks to be an effective supplement when it comes to speeding up your short-term working memory.

A study published in the journal Human Psychopharmacology used a similar placebo-controlled experiment to study the effects of a combination of ginkgo biloba and vinpocetine on cognitive function, and found that the supplement combination increased the speed at which your working memory functions after being taken for two weeks (4).

When looking at nootropic supplements, youll have to think specifically about what kind of cognitive enhancement you are looking for.

When working on a major writing project, or attempting to work through a lot of reading material, taking something like Alpha Brain that increases verbal memory is could be very helpful.

On the other hand, something that improves visual information processing and learning rate, like bacopa monnieri extract, would likely speed your ability to learn math flash cards or process on-screen visual information.

If you were doing data entry, you might want something to improve short-term working memory, like ginkgo biloba and vinpocetine.

Its clear that taking the time to analyze the specific cognitive demands of the task in question will help immensely when you are deciding what the ideal nootropic supplement is for you.

Other nootropic supplements were studied initially to help with cognitive decline and dementia in the elderly, but have been hypothesized to be effective as well in healthy people.

One example of this is the herbal supplement huperzine-A. Early research found that it had a strong anti-dementia effect. A 1999 experiment described using a huperzine-A supplement to reverse natural dementia in elderly monkeys, as well as reversing chemically-induced cognitive decline in young monkeys (5).

Research into whether it can be used to actually boost cognitive performance in healthy humans is still lacking, but this hasnt stopped people from betting that it will.

An entirely different strategy in nootropics is simply providing your brain with extra building blocks to use in the process of synthesizing neurotransmitters, which are chemicals your brain uses to think. Many nootropics simply provide high doses of the amino acids that are associated with cognitive function.

These are less well-studied, perhaps because simply keeping your brains amino acid reserved topped off isnt as exciting as artificially enhancing its performance, but its nevertheless a strategically sound approach.

Since nootropic supplements are so new, their side effect profile is not well-studied. So far, there have been no major adverse side effects reported that are associated with the ingredients used in the best and most popular nootropic supplements.

In this regard they appear to have a safer safety profile than other categories of multi-ingredient supplements, like weight loss supplements.

The one caveat to this applies to nootropic supplements that contain caffeine. While caffeine is one of the best-studied and most effective cognitive enhancement supplements (as every coffee addict knows), it can cause side effects like jitters and nausea in people who are sensitive to it.

Further, taking it at night is a bad idea, thanks to caffeines ability to act as a stimulantunless, of course, you are trying to stay up all night. Theres nothing wrong with caffeine in a nootropic supplement, but make sure you know how many milligrams each serving contains.

Only a small number of nootropics have established effective doses, and these are mostly derived from the dosages chosen in scientific studies that examined the supplement in question.

Bacopa monnieri, for example, appears to be effective at doses of 300 mg, and ginkgo biloba extract can be effective at doses as low as 40 mg.

Vinpocetine seems to require doses of 30 to 60 mg, but this comes from scientific literature using it to study cognitive decline and dementia in the elderly, so its not clear if boosting brain function in healthy people can be accomplished with a lower dose.

DMAEs studied dosage range is typically about 100 mg, but this seems to come from studies looking at its use to induce lucid dreaming!

Clearly, more work is needed to establish optimal doses for nootropic supplements, but looking for dosages close to these guidelines is at least a good place to start.

Nootropics are a new field of supplementation, but there is fairly strong evidence emerging that a number of different supplements can positively affect your cognitive functioning.

Each seems to serve a slightly different purpose, so think about the cognitive demands in your life before you choose a nootropic supplement. Once you know the kinds of problems you want to solve, make sure your supplement of choice has dosages of the major nootropic compounds you want that are at least close to the range studied in the scientific literature.

When done with care, nootropics appear to be a safe and effective way to increase your brain power and help you work faster, smarter, and more effectively.

Excerpt from:

Ranking the best nootropics of 2019 – BodyNutrition


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