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Nootropic – Wikipedia

Nootropics ( noh–TROP-iks), also known as smart drugs and cognitive enhancers, are drugs, supplements, and other substances that purport to improve cognitive function, particularly executive functions, memory, creativity, or motivation, in healthy individuals.[1][2]

The use of cognition-enhancing drugs by healthy individuals in the absence of a medical indication is one of the most debated topics spanning numerous issues, including the ethics and fairness of their use, concerns over adverse effects, and the diversion of prescription drugs for nonmedical uses, among others.[1][3][4] Nonetheless, the international sales of cognition-enhancing supplements exceeded US$1 billion in 2015 when global demand for these compounds grew.[5]

The word nootropic was coined in 1972 by a Romanian psychologist and chemist, Corneliu E. Giurgea,[6][7] from the Greek words (nous), or “mind”, and (trepein), meaning to bend or turn.[8]

In 2008, the most commonly used class of drug was stimulants, such as caffeine.[9] Manufacturer’s marketing claims for nootropic dietary supplements are usually not formally tested and verified by independent entities.[10]

The use of prescription stimulants is especially prevalent among students.[11] Surveys suggest that 0.74.5% of German students have used cognitive enhancers in their lifetime.[12][13][14] Stimulants such as dimethylamylamine and methylphenidate are used on college campuses and by younger groups. Based upon studies of self-reported illicit stimulant use, 535% of college students use diverted ADHD stimulants, which are primarily used for performance enhancement rather than as recreational drugs.[15][16][17]

Several factors positively and negatively influence the use of drugs to increase cognitive performance. Among them are personal characteristics, drug characteristics, and characteristics of the social context.[12][13][18][19]

The main concern with pharmaceutical drugs is adverse effects, and these concerns apply to cognitive-enhancing drugs as well. Long-term safety data are typically unavailable for nootropics. Racetams piracetam and other compounds that are structurally related to piracetam have few serious adverse effects and low toxicity, but there is little evidence that they enhance cognition in individuals who do not have cognitive impairments.[20][21]

In the United States, dietary supplements may be marketed if the manufacturer can show that the supplement is generally recognized as safe, and if the manufacturer does not make any claims about the supplement’s use to treat or prevent any disease or condition; supplements that contain drugs or for which treatment or prevention claims are made are illegal under US law.[22]

In 2015, systematic medical reviews and meta-analyses of clinical research in humans indicated that certain central nervous system stimulants, only when used at low (therapeutic) concentrations, may enhance cognition in the general population.[23][24]Relatively high doses of stimulants cause cognitive deficits.[25]

Racetams, such as piracetam, oxiracetam, and aniracetam, are structurally similar compounds, which are often marketed as cognitive enhancers and sold over-the-counter. Racetams are often referred to as nootropics, but this property of the drug class is not confirmed.[34] The racetams have poorly understood mechanisms of action.[35]

According to the US Food and Drug Administration, “Piracetam is not a vitamin, mineral, amino acid, herb or other botanical, or dietary substance for use by man to supplement the diet by increasing the total dietary intake. Further, piracetam is not a concentrate, metabolite, constituent, extract or combination of any such dietary ingredient. […] Accordingly, these products are drugs, under section 201(g)(1)(C) of the Act, 21 U.S.C. 321(g)(1)(C), because they are not foods and they are intended to affect the structure or any function of the body. Moreover, these products are new drugs as defined by section 201(p) of the Act, 21 U.S.C. 321(p), because they are not generally recognized as safe and effective for use under the conditions prescribed, recommended, or suggested in their labeling.”[36]

Originally posted here:

Nootropic – Wikipedia

Noopept | Smarter Nootropics

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USA and Worldwide:Absorb Health (Powder & Capsules) | Pure Nootropics (Powder & Capsules) | Nootropics Depot (Powder| Capsules)

European Union and United Kingdom: Intellimeds ( Powder|Capsules|10mg Tablets|20mg Tablets)

GVS-111, N-phenylacetyl-L-prolylglycine ethyl ester, , (CAS Number) 157115-85-0, (PubChem) CID 180496, C17H22N2O4

Among the studies cited, the effective doses ranged from .01mg/kg to 10 mg/kg (in rats and mice); when subjected to allometric scaling, this range would be equivalent to .002mg/kg to 2.445 mg/kg in humans [7,10,13]. In a 70kg (154lbs) adult human, the dosing range would be 171mcg to 171mg.

Typically, the most cited dosing range (anecdotally) is 10-30mg, up to 3 times per day, usually dosed sublingually or orally.

Patented in 1995, Noopept is a Nootropic substance that is a dipeptide similar in effect to Piracetam [3]; it is often cited as being 1000 times more potent (by weight) than Piracetam. Noopept has high oral bioavailability, and appears to potentiate its own effects with chronic administration. Noopept has shown promise in treating many different aspects of cognitive decline that warrants more research, especially in human models.

Noopept has been noted to have four main mechanisms of action; the first noted mechanism of action is antioxidation: in vitro studies of Noopept have shown signs that it operates on an antioxidative mechanism of action which protects neurons from apoptosis [4]. The second noted mechanism of action of Noopept is inhibition of glutamate neurotoxicity [1]; glutamate neurotoxicity leads to quick cell death, and is linked to a variety of neurological disorders such as autism and Alzheimers disease. The third mechanism of action of Noopept is increased neuronal plasticity [7], which can lead to greater adaptability in learning and memory. The fourth mechanism of action that has been noted in Noopept is increases expression of phenylacetic acid, prolyglycine, and cyclo-prolyglycine in the brain [12], which are endogenous Nootropics.

What makes Noopept an intriguing nootropic is its myriad of positive effects, lack of noted negative side effects, and its effectiveness in both chronic and acute usage. In both in vivo and in vitro models, Noopept was shown to have positive effects on all stages of memory, from learning to recall, as well as anxiolytic effects [1]. An in vitro study showed Noopept to be neuroprotective against the use of H2O2 in neuronal degradation, in both healthy brains as well as those with Downs Syndrome in a dose-dependent manner [4]. In rat models of memory impairment, Noopept was shown to improve memory retention and retrieval, and improve learning which was shown through the use of passive avoidance response testing [6]. Rats with ischemic lesions were treated with Noopept for nine days and then tested with the passive avoidance test; those rats that had been treated performed significantly better than the control group; Noopept was also shown to be neuroprotective through antioxidation in the rats who received treatment for nine days [7]. Studies also showed that rats given a single oral administration of Noopept showed improved scores on the passive avoidance test [10]. Another study showed that rats who had gone through olfactory bulbectomies showed Alzheimers like symptoms, but after 21 days of dosing Noopept, spatial memory improved greatly which was evidenced through the use of the Morris Water Maze test [13].

Two other interesting benefits of Noopept were noted; one dealing with BDNF and NGF, and the other dealing with the immune system. One study showed rats treated with Noopept, both chronically and acutely, were found to have a higher expression of mRNA BDNF and NGF; even more interestingly, after 28 days of treatment no tolerance towards Noopept was detected and there was some evidence the effects of Noopept potentiate the longer it is administered [8]. Another study looked at the effect of Noopept on immune deficient mice; the researchers found Noopept to have immuno-corrective properties [5].

Among the studies cited, doses up to 10mg/kg in rats have shown no toxicity, which when subjected to allometric scaling yields a dose of 2.445mg/kg in humans (or 171 mg for a 70kg person); in fact, Noopept has been shown to be neuroprotective at said dosage [7,10,13].

Support SmarterNootropics by purchasing from this product from one of our recommended suppliers:

USA and Worldwide: Absorb Health (Powder & Capsules) | Pure Nootropics (Powder & Capsules) | Nootropics Depot (Powder| Capsules)

European Union and United Kingdom: Intellimeds ( Powder|Capsules|10mg Tablets|20mg Tablets)

Ostrovskaia RU, Gudasheva TA, Voronina TA, Seredenin SB. The original novel nootropic and neuroprotective agent noopept. Eksp Klin Farmakol. 2002 Sep-Oct;65(5):66-72. [1]

Neznamov GG, Teleshova ES. Comparative studies of Noopept and piracetam in the treatment of patients with mild cognitive disorders in organic brain diseases of vascular and traumatic origin. Neuroscience and Behavioral Physiology Volume 39, Issue 3 , pp 311-321. [2]

SEREDENIN SERGEI B, VORONINA TATIANA A, GUDASHEVA TATIANA A, OSTROVSKAYA RITA U,

ROZANTSEV GRIGORI G, SKOLDINOV ALEXANDER P, TROPHIMOV SERGEI S, HALIKAS JAMES A, GARIBOVA TAISIJA L. Biologically active n-acylprolydipeptides having antiamnestic, antihypoxic and anorexigenic effects. US5439930 (A) 1995-08-08. [3]

Alejandra P, Hoyo-Vadillo C, Gudasheva T, Serednin S, Ostrovskaya R, Busciglio J. GVS-111 prevents oxidative damage and apoptosis in normal and Downs Syndrome human cortical neurons. International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience, Vol 21 Issue 3 May 2003 Pages 117-124. [4]

Kovalenko, Shipaeva, Alekseeva, Pronin, Durnev, Gudasheva, Ostrovskaja, Seredenin. Immunopharmacological properties of noopept. Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine Volume 144, Issue 1 , pp 49-52. [5]

G. A. Romanova, F. M. Shakova, T. A. Gudasheva, R. U. Ostrovskaya. Impairment of Learning and Memory after Photothrombosis of the Prefrontal Cortex in Rat Brain: Effects of Noopept. Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine Volume 134, Issue 6 , pp 528-530. [6]

Ostrovskaya R, Romanova G, Barskov I, Shanina E, Gudasheva T, Victorov I, Voronina T, Seredenin S. Memory restoring and neuroprotective effects of the proline-containing dipeptide, GVS-111, in a photochemical stroke model. Behavioural Pharmacology: September 1999. [7]

R. U. Ostrovskaya, T. A. Gudasheva, A. P. Zaplina, Ju. V. Vahitova, M. H. Salimgareeva, R. S. Jamidanov, S. B. Seredenin. Noopept stimulates the expression of NGF and BDNF in rat hippocampus. Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine Volume 146, Issue 3 , pp 334-337. [8]

S. S. Boiko, R. U. Ostrovskaya, V. P. Zherdev, S. A. Korotkov, T. A. Gudasheva, T. A. Voronina, S. B. Seredenin. Pharmacokinetics of new nootropic acylprolyldipeptide and its penetration across the blood-brain barrier after oral administration. Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine Volume 129, Issue 4 , pp 359-361. [9]

R. U. Ostrovskaya, T. Kh. Mirsoev, G. A. Romanova, T. A. Gudasheva, E. V. Kravchenko, C. C. Trofimov, T. A. Voronina, S. B. Seredenin. Proline-Containing Dipeptide GVS-111 Retains Nootropic Activity after Oral Administration. Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine Volume 132, Issue 4 , pp 959-962. [10]

Solntseva E, Bukanova J, Ostrovskaya R, Gudasheva T, Voronina T, Skrebitsky V. The effects of piracetam and its novel dipeptide analogue GVS-111 on neuronal voltage-gated calcium and potassium channels. General Pharmacology: The Vascular System, Volume 29 Issue 1, July 1997. [11]

T. A. Gudasheva, S. S. Boyko, R. U. Ostrovskaya, T. A. Voronina, V. K. Akparov, S. S. Trofimov, G. G. Rozantsev, A. P. Skoldinov, V. P. Zherdev, S. B. Seredenin. The major metabolite of dipeptide piracetam analogue GVS-111 in rat brain and its similarity to endogenous neuropeptide cyclol-prolylglycine. European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics Volume 22, Issue 3 , pp 245-252. [12]

Ostrovskaya RU, Gruden MA, Bobkova NA, Sewell RD, Gudasheva TA, Samokhin AN, Seredinin SB, Noppe W, Sherstnev VV, Morozova-Roche LA. The nootropic and neuroprotective prolinecontaining dipeptide noopept restores spatial memory and increases immunoreactivity to amyloid in an Alzheimers disease model. J Psychopharmacol August 2007 vol. 21 no. 6 611-61

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Noopept | Smarter Nootropics

Nootropic – Wikipedia

Nootropics ( noh–TROP-iks), also known as smart drugs and cognitive enhancers, are drugs, supplements, and other substances that improve cognitive function, particularly executive functions, memory, creativity, or motivation, in healthy individuals.[1][2]

The use of cognition-enhancing drugs by healthy individuals in the absence of a medical indication is one of the most debated topics among neuroscientists, psychiatrists, and physicians which spans a number of issues, including the ethics and fairness of their use, concerns over adverse effects, and the diversion of prescription drugs for nonmedical uses, among others.[1][3][4] Nonetheless, the international sales of cognition-enhancing supplements exceeded US$1 billion in 2015 and the global demand for these compounds is still growing rapidly.[5]

The word nootropic was coined in 1972 by a Romanian psychologist and chemist, Corneliu E. Giurgea,[6][7] from the Greek words (nous), or “mind”, and (trepein), meaning to bend or turn.[8]

There are only a few drugs that are known to improve some aspect of cognition. Many more are in different stages of development.[9] The most commonly used class of drug is stimulants, such as caffeine.[10]

These drugs are purportedly used primarily to treat cognitive or motor function difficulties attributable to disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, and ADHD.[citation needed] Some researchers, however, report more widespread use despite concern for further research.[11] Nevertheless, intense marketing may not correlate with efficacy. While scientific studies support the beneficial effects of some compounds, manufacturer’s marketing claims for dietary supplements are usually not formally tested and verified by independent entities.[12]

The use of prescription stimulants is especially prevalent among students attending academically competitive colleges.[13] Surveys suggest that 0.74.5% of German students have used cognitive enhancers in their lifetime.[14][15][16] Stimulants such as dimethylamylamine and methylphenidate are used on college campuses and by younger groups.[9] Based upon studies of self-reported illicit stimulant use, 535% of college students use diverted ADHD stimulants, which are primarily used for performance enhancement rather than as recreational drugs.[17][18][19]

The nootropics industry was valued at $1.4 billion in 2015, and is expected to reach $6.1 billion by 2024, expanding at a CAGR of 17.9% from 2016 to 2024.[citation needed]

Several factors positively and negatively influence the use of drugs to increase cognitive performance. Among them are personal characteristics, drug characteristics, and characteristics of the social context.[14][15][20][21]

The main concern with pharmaceutical drugs is adverse effects, and these concerns apply to cognitive-enhancing drugs as well. Long-term safety data is typically unavailable for some types of nootropics[9] (e.g., many non-pharmaceutical cognitive enhancers, newly developed pharmaceuticals and pharmaceuticals with short-term therapeutic use). Racetamspiracetam and other compounds that are structurally related to piracetamhave few serious adverse effects and low toxicity, but there is little evidence that they enhance cognition in individuals who do not have cognitive impairments.[22][23]

While addiction to stimulants is sometimes identified as a cause for concern,[24] a very large body of research on the therapeutic use of the “more addictive” psychostimulants indicate that addiction is fairly rare in therapeutic doses.[25][26][27] On their safety profile, a systematic review from June 2015 asserted, “evidence indicates that at low, clinically relevant doses, psychostimulants are devoid of the behavioral and neurochemical actions that define this class of drugs and instead act largely as cognitive enhancers.”[28]

In the United States dietary supplements may be marketed if the manufacturer can show that it can manufacture the supplement safely, that the supplement is indeed generally recognized as safe, and if the manufacturer does not make any claims about the supplement’s use to treat or prevent any disease or condition; supplements that contain drugs or for which treatment or prevention claims are made are illegal under US law.[29]

In 2015, systematic medical reviews and meta-analyses of clinical research in humans established consensus that certain central nervous system stimulants, only when used at low (therapeutic) concentrations, unambiguously enhance cognition in the general population;[28][30][31][32] in particular, the classes of stimulants that demonstrate cognition-enhancing effects in humans act as direct agonists or indirect agonists of dopamine receptor D1, adrenoceptor A2, or both receptors in the prefrontal cortex.[28][30][32][33] Relatively high doses of stimulants cause cognitive deficits.[32][33]

Racetams, such as piracetam, oxiracetam, and aniracetam, are structurally similar compounds, which are often marketed as cognitive enhancers and sold over-the-counter. Racetams are often referred to as nootropics, but this property of the drug class is not well established.[43] The racetams have poorly understood mechanisms of action; however, piracetam and aniracetam are known to act as positive allosteric modulators of AMPA receptors and appear to modulate cholinergic systems.[44]

According to the US Food and Drug Administration, “Piracetam is not a vitamin, mineral, amino acid, herb or other botanical, or dietary substance for use by man to supplement the diet by increasing the total dietary intake. Further, piracetam is not a concentrate, metabolite, constituent, extract or combination of any such dietary ingredient. […] Accordingly, these products are drugs, under section 201(g)(1)(C) of the Act, 21 U.S.C. 321(g)(1)(C), because they are not foods and they are intended to affect the structure or any function of the body. Moreover, these products are new drugs as defined by section 201(p) of the Act, 21 U.S.C. 321(p), because they are not generally recognized as safe and effective for use under the conditions prescribed, recommended, or suggested in their labeling.”[45]

The results of this meta-analysis cannot address the important issues of individual differences in stimulant effects or the role of motivational enhancement in helping perform academic or occupational tasks. However, they do confirm the reality of cognitive enhancing effects for normal healthy adults in general, while also indicating that these effects are modest in size.

See more here:

Nootropic – Wikipedia

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Here are some selected posts from our knowledgebase/blog. These posts are a good starting point for those new to cognitive enhancement or those that simply dont know where to start.

A brief introduction to cognitive enhancement supplements, also known as Nootropics

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Nootropic – Wikipedia

Nootropics ( noh–TROP-iks), also known as smart drugs and cognitive enhancers, are drugs, supplements, and other substances that improve cognitive function, particularly executive functions, memory, creativity, or motivation, in healthy individuals.[1][2]

The use of cognition-enhancing drugs by healthy individuals in the absence of a medical indication is one of the most debated topics among neuroscientists, psychiatrists, and physicians which spans a number of issues, including the ethics and fairness of their use, concerns over adverse effects, and the diversion of prescription drugs for nonmedical uses, among others.[1][3][4] Nonetheless, the international sales of cognition-enhancing supplements exceeded US$1 billion in 2015 and the global demand for these compounds is still growing rapidly.[5]

The word nootropic was coined in 1972 by a Romanian psychologist and chemist, Corneliu E. Giurgea,[6][7] from the Greek words (nous), or “mind”, and (trepein), meaning to bend or turn.[8]

There are only a few drugs that are known to improve some aspect of cognition. Many more are in different stages of development.[9] The most commonly used class of drug is stimulants, such as caffeine.[10]

These drugs are purportedly used primarily to treat cognitive or motor function difficulties attributable to disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, and ADHD.[citation needed] Some researchers, however, report more widespread use despite concern for further research.[11] Nevertheless, intense marketing may not correlate with efficacy. While scientific studies support the beneficial effects of some compounds, manufacturer’s marketing claims for dietary supplements are usually not formally tested and verified by independent entities.[12]

The use of prescription stimulants is especially prevalent among students attending academically competitive colleges.[13] Surveys suggest that 0.74.5% of German students have used cognitive enhancers in their lifetime.[14][15][16] Stimulants such as dimethylamylamine and methylphenidate are used on college campuses and by younger groups.[9] Based upon studies of self-reported illicit stimulant use, 535% of college students use diverted ADHD stimulants, which are primarily used for performance enhancement rather than as recreational drugs.[17][18][19]

The nootropics industry was valued at $1.4 billion in 2015, and is expected to reach $6.1 billion by 2024, expanding at a CAGR of 17.9% from 2016 to 2024.[citation needed]

Several factors positively and negatively influence the use of drugs to increase cognitive performance. Among them are personal characteristics, drug characteristics, and characteristics of the social context.[14][15][20][21]

The main concern with pharmaceutical drugs is adverse effects, and these concerns apply to cognitive-enhancing drugs as well. Long-term safety data is typically unavailable for some types of nootropics[9] (e.g., many non-pharmaceutical cognitive enhancers, newly developed pharmaceuticals and pharmaceuticals with short-term therapeutic use). Racetamspiracetam and other compounds that are structurally related to piracetamhave few serious adverse effects and low toxicity, but there is little evidence that they enhance cognition in individuals who do not have cognitive impairments.[22][23]

While addiction to stimulants is sometimes identified as a cause for concern,[24] a very large body of research on the therapeutic use of the “more addictive” psychostimulants indicate that addiction is fairly rare in therapeutic doses.[25][26][27] On their safety profile, a systematic review from June 2015 asserted, “evidence indicates that at low, clinically relevant doses, psychostimulants are devoid of the behavioral and neurochemical actions that define this class of drugs and instead act largely as cognitive enhancers.”[28]

In the United States dietary supplements may be marketed if the manufacturer can show that it can manufacture the supplement safely, that the supplement is indeed generally recognized as safe, and if the manufacturer does not make any claims about the supplement’s use to treat or prevent any disease or condition; supplements that contain drugs or for which treatment or prevention claims are made are illegal under US law.[29]

In 2015, systematic medical reviews and meta-analyses of clinical research in humans established consensus that certain central nervous system stimulants, only when used at low (therapeutic) concentrations, unambiguously enhance cognition in the general population;[28][30][31][32] in particular, the classes of stimulants that demonstrate cognition-enhancing effects in humans act as direct agonists or indirect agonists of dopamine receptor D1, adrenoceptor A2, or both receptors in the prefrontal cortex.[28][30][32][33] Relatively high doses of stimulants cause cognitive deficits.[32][33]

Racetams, such as piracetam, oxiracetam, and aniracetam, are structurally similar compounds, which are often marketed as cognitive enhancers and sold over-the-counter. Racetams are often referred to as nootropics, but this property of the drug class is not well established.[43] The racetams have poorly understood mechanisms of action; however, piracetam and aniracetam are known to act as positive allosteric modulators of AMPA receptors and appear to modulate cholinergic systems.[44]

According to the US Food and Drug Administration, “Piracetam is not a vitamin, mineral, amino acid, herb or other botanical, or dietary substance for use by man to supplement the diet by increasing the total dietary intake. Further, piracetam is not a concentrate, metabolite, constituent, extract or combination of any such dietary ingredient. […] Accordingly, these products are drugs, under section 201(g)(1)(C) of the Act, 21 U.S.C. 321(g)(1)(C), because they are not foods and they are intended to affect the structure or any function of the body. Moreover, these products are new drugs as defined by section 201(p) of the Act, 21 U.S.C. 321(p), because they are not generally recognized as safe and effective for use under the conditions prescribed, recommended, or suggested in their labeling.”[45]

The results of this meta-analysis cannot address the important issues of individual differences in stimulant effects or the role of motivational enhancement in helping perform academic or occupational tasks. However, they do confirm the reality of cognitive enhancing effects for normal healthy adults in general, while also indicating that these effects are modest in size.

Go here to see the original:

Nootropic – Wikipedia

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Now though, weve changed our tune. We believe in experience driving authority content so weve listened with two ears and now were speaking with one mouth and that the ratio quality information should originated from.

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Nootropics.com | The Best Nootropics For Beginners & Experts

Nootropic – Wikipedia

Nootropics (English pronunciation: noh–TROP-iks), also known as smart drugs and cognitive enhancers, are drugs, supplements, and other substances that improve cognitive function, particularly executive functions, memory, creativity, or motivation, in healthy individuals.[1][2]

The use of cognition-enhancing drugs by healthy individuals in the absence of a medical indication is one of the most debated topics among neuroscientists, psychiatrists, and physicians which spans a number of issues, including the ethics and fairness of their use, concerns over adverse effects, and the diversion of prescription drugs for nonmedical uses, among others.[1][3][4] Nonetheless, the international sales of cognition-enhancing supplements exceeded US$1 billion in 2015 and the global demand for these compounds is still growing rapidly.[5]

The word nootropic was coined in 1972 by a Romanian psychologist and chemist, Corneliu E. Giurgea,[6][7] from the Greek words (nous), or “mind”, and (trepein), meaning to bend or turn.[8]

There are only a few drugs that are known to improve some aspect of cognition. Many more are in different stages of development.[9] The most commonly used class of drug is stimulants, such as caffeine.[10]

These drugs are purportedly used primarily to treat cognitive or motor function difficulties attributable to disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, and ADHD.[citation needed] Some researchers, however, report more widespread use despite concern for further research.[11] Nevertheless, intense marketing may not correlate with efficacy. While scientific studies support the beneficial effects of some compounds, manufacturer’s marketing claims for dietary supplements are usually not formally tested and verified by independent entities.[12]

The use of prescription stimulants is especially prevalent among students attending academically competitive colleges.[13] Surveys suggest that 0.74.5% of German students have used cognitive enhancers in their lifetime.[14][15][16] Stimulants such as dimethylamylamine and methylphenidate are used on college campuses and by younger groups.[9] Based upon studies of self-reported illicit stimulant use, 535% of college students use diverted ADHD stimulants, which are primarily used for performance enhancement rather than as recreational drugs.[17][18][19]

The nootropics industry was valued at $1.4 billion in 2015, and is expected to reach $6.1 billion by 2024, expanding at a CAGR of 17.9% from 2016 to 2024.[citation needed]

Several factors positively and negatively influence the use of drugs to increase cognitive performance. Among them are personal characteristics, drug characteristics, and characteristics of the social context.[14][15][20][21]

The main concern with pharmaceutical drugs is adverse effects, and these concerns apply to cognitive-enhancing drugs as well. Long-term safety data is typically unavailable for some types of nootropics[9] (e.g., many non-pharmaceutical cognitive enhancers, newly developed pharmaceuticals and pharmaceuticals with short-term therapeutic use). Racetamspiracetam and other compounds that are structurally related to piracetamhave few serious adverse effects and low toxicity, but there is little evidence that they enhance cognition in individuals who do not have cognitive impairments.[22][23]

While addiction to stimulants is sometimes identified as a cause for concern,[24] a very large body of research on the therapeutic use of the “more addictive” psychostimulants indicate that addiction is fairly rare in therapeutic doses.[25][26][27] On their safety profile, a systematic review from June 2015 asserted, “evidence indicates that at low, clinically relevant doses, psychostimulants are devoid of the behavioral and neurochemical actions that define this class of drugs and instead act largely as cognitive enhancers.”[28]

In the United States dietary supplements may be marketed if the manufacturer can show that it can manufacture the supplement safely, that the supplement is indeed generally recognized as safe, and if the manufacturer does not make any claims about the supplement’s use to treat or prevent any disease or condition; supplements that contain drugs or for which treatment or prevention claims are made are illegal under US law.[29]

In 2015, systematic medical reviews and meta-analyses of clinical research in humans established consensus that certain central nervous system stimulants, only when used at low (therapeutic) concentrations, unambiguously enhance cognition in the general population;[28][30][31][32] in particular, the classes of stimulants that demonstrate cognition-enhancing effects in humans act as direct agonists or indirect agonists of dopamine receptor D1, adrenoceptor A2, or both receptors in the prefrontal cortex.[28][30][32][33] Relatively high doses of stimulants cause cognitive deficits.[32][33]

Racetams, such as piracetam, oxiracetam, and aniracetam, are structurally similar compounds, which are often marketed as cognitive enhancers and sold over-the-counter. Racetams are often referred to as nootropics, but this property of the drug class is not well established.[43] The racetams have poorly understood mechanisms of action; however, piracetam and aniracetam are known to act as positive allosteric modulators of AMPA receptors and appear to modulate cholinergic systems.[44]

According to the US Food and Drug Administration, “Piracetam is not a vitamin, mineral, amino acid, herb or other botanical, or dietary substance for use by man to supplement the diet by increasing the total dietary intake. Further, piracetam is not a concentrate, metabolite, constituent, extract or combination of any such dietary ingredient. […] Accordingly, these products are drugs, under section 201(g)(1)(C) of the Act, 21 U.S.C. 321(g)(1)(C), because they are not foods and they are intended to affect the structure or any function of the body. Moreover, these products are new drugs as defined by section 201(p) of the Act, 21 U.S.C. 321(p), because they are not generally recognized as safe and effective for use under the conditions prescribed, recommended, or suggested in their labeling.”[45]

The results of this meta-analysis cannot address the important issues of individual differences in stimulant effects or the role of motivational enhancement in helping perform academic or occupational tasks. However, they do confirm the reality of cognitive enhancing effects for normal healthy adults in general, while also indicating that these effects are modest in size.

Go here to read the rest:

Nootropic – Wikipedia

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Here are some selected posts from our knowledgebase/blog. These posts are a good starting point for those new to cognitive enhancement or those that simply dont know where to start.

A brief introduction to cognitive enhancement supplements, also known as Nootropics

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Pure Nootropics | Smart Drugs to Enhance Your Life

Nootroo – The Gold Standard In Nootropics

In 1963, scientists at UCB Pharma in Belgium were modifying the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA in pursuit of creating a sleep-aid. Instead they accidentally discovered a molecule with properties so profound and unique that in order to classify it, the creation of an entirely new class of compounds was required.

That molecule, which would later be known as Piracetam, was able to prevent the disruption of memory formation in rats when they experienced a loss of oxygen (hypoxia) or were electroconvulsively shocked (ECS). It was also shown to bring back higher-level brain function to oxygen-deprived rats, nearly double as quickly as the control.

What piqued their attention was not only that it was able to do all of that and more, but that it did so while being extremely safe and while showing no activity on over 30 psychopharmacological tests, including behavioral tests demonstrating that it was neither a stimulant nor a sedative.

Piracetam appeared to act directly on higher brain, integrative activity, increasing efficacy, and decreasing deficits. After studying these properties for 9 years, in 1972 Corneliu Giurgea coined the term nootropics, meaning towards the mind.

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Nootroo – The Gold Standard In Nootropics

Nootropic – Wikipedia

Nootropics (English pronunciation: noh–TROP-iks), also known as smart drugs and cognitive enhancers, are drugs, supplements, and other substances that improve cognitive function, particularly executive functions, memory, creativity, or motivation, in healthy individuals.[1][2]

The use of cognition-enhancing drugs by healthy individuals in the absence of a medical indication is one of the most debated topics among neuroscientists, psychiatrists, and physicians which spans a number of issues, including the ethics and fairness of their use, concerns over adverse effects, and the diversion of prescription drugs for nonmedical uses, among others.[1][3][4] Nonetheless, the international sales of cognition-enhancing supplements exceeded US$1 billion in 2015 and the global demand for these compounds is still growing rapidly.[5]

The word nootropic was coined in 1972 by a Romanian psychologist and chemist, Corneliu E. Giurgea,[6][7] from the Greek words (nous), or “mind”, and (trepein), meaning to bend or turn.[8]

There are only a few drugs that are known to improve some aspect of cognition. Many more are in different stages of development.[9] The most commonly used class of drug is stimulants, such as caffeine.[10]

These drugs are purportedly used primarily to treat cognitive or motor function difficulties attributable to disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, and ADHD.[citation needed] Some researchers, however, report more widespread use despite concern for further research.[11] Nevertheless, intense marketing may not correlate with efficacy. While scientific studies support the beneficial effects of some compounds, manufacturer’s marketing claims for dietary supplements are usually not formally tested and verified by independent entities.[12]

The use of prescription stimulants is especially prevalent among students attending academically competitive colleges.[13] Surveys suggest that 0.74.5% of German students have used cognitive enhancers in their lifetime.[14][15][16] Stimulants such as dimethylamylamine and methylphenidate are used on college campuses and by younger groups.[9] Based upon studies of self-reported illicit stimulant use, 535% of college students use diverted ADHD stimulants, which are primarily used for performance enhancement rather than as recreational drugs.[17][18][19]

The nootropics industry was valued at $1.4 billion in 2015, and is expected to reach $6.1 billion by 2024, expanding at a CAGR of 17.9% from 2016 to 2024.[citation needed]

Several factors positively and negatively influence the use of drugs to increase cognitive performance. Among them are personal characteristics, drug characteristics, and characteristics of the social context.[14][15][20][21]

The main concern with pharmaceutical drugs is adverse effects, and these concerns apply to cognitive-enhancing drugs as well. Long-term safety data is typically unavailable for some types of nootropics[9] (e.g., many non-pharmaceutical cognitive enhancers, newly developed pharmaceuticals and pharmaceuticals with short-term therapeutic use). Racetamspiracetam and other compounds that are structurally related to piracetamhave few serious adverse effects and low toxicity, but there is little evidence that they enhance cognition in individuals who do not have cognitive impairments.[22][23]

While addiction to stimulants is sometimes identified as a cause for concern,[24] a very large body of research on the therapeutic use of the “more addictive” psychostimulants indicate that addiction is fairly rare in therapeutic doses.[25][26][27] On their safety profile, a systematic review from June 2015 asserted, “evidence indicates that at low, clinically relevant doses, psychostimulants are devoid of the behavioral and neurochemical actions that define this class of drugs and instead act largely as cognitive enhancers.”[28]

In the United States dietary supplements may be marketed if the manufacturer can show that it can manufacture the supplement safely, that the supplement is indeed generally recognized as safe, and if the manufacturer does not make any claims about the supplement’s use to treat or prevent any disease or condition; supplements that contain drugs or for which treatment or prevention claims are made are illegal under US law.[29]

In 2015, systematic medical reviews and meta-analyses of clinical research in humans established consensus that certain central nervous system stimulants, only when used at low (therapeutic) concentrations, unambiguously enhance cognition in the general population;[28][30][31][32] in particular, the classes of stimulants that demonstrate cognition-enhancing effects in humans act as direct agonists or indirect agonists of dopamine receptor D1, adrenoceptor A2, or both receptors in the prefrontal cortex.[28][30][32][33] Relatively high doses of stimulants cause cognitive deficits.[32][33]

Racetams, such as piracetam, oxiracetam, and aniracetam, are structurally similar compounds, which are often marketed as cognitive enhancers and sold over-the-counter. Racetams are often referred to as nootropics, but this property of the drug class is not well established.[43] The racetams have poorly understood mechanisms of action; however, piracetam and aniracetam are known to act as positive allosteric modulators of AMPA receptors and appear to modulate cholinergic systems.[44]

According to the US Food and Drug Administration, “Piracetam is not a vitamin, mineral, amino acid, herb or other botanical, or dietary substance for use by man to supplement the diet by increasing the total dietary intake. Further, piracetam is not a concentrate, metabolite, constituent, extract or combination of any such dietary ingredient. […] Accordingly, these products are drugs, under section 201(g)(1)(C) of the Act, 21 U.S.C. 321(g)(1)(C), because they are not foods and they are intended to affect the structure or any function of the body. Moreover, these products are new drugs as defined by section 201(p) of the Act, 21 U.S.C. 321(p), because they are not generally recognized as safe and effective for use under the conditions prescribed, recommended, or suggested in their labeling.”[45]

The results of this meta-analysis cannot address the important issues of individual differences in stimulant effects or the role of motivational enhancement in helping perform academic or occupational tasks. However, they do confirm the reality of cognitive enhancing effects for normal healthy adults in general, while also indicating that these effects are modest in size.

More:

Nootropic – Wikipedia

Nootropic – Wikipedia

Nootropics (English pronunciation: noh–TROP-iks), also known as smart drugs and cognitive enhancers, are drugs, supplements, and other substances that improve cognitive function, particularly executive functions, memory, creativity, or motivation, in healthy individuals.[1][2]

The use of cognition-enhancing drugs by healthy individuals in the absence of a medical indication is one of the most debated topics among neuroscientists, psychiatrists, and physicians which spans a number of issues, including the ethics and fairness of their use, concerns over adverse effects, and the diversion of prescription drugs for nonmedical uses, among others.[1][3][4] Nonetheless, the international sales of cognition-enhancing supplements exceeded US$1 billion in 2015 and the global demand for these compounds is still growing rapidly.[5]

The word nootropic was coined in 1972 by a Romanian psychologist and chemist, Corneliu E. Giurgea,[6][7] from the Greek words (nous), or “mind”, and (trepein), meaning to bend or turn.[8]

There are only a few drugs that are known to improve some aspect of cognition. Many more are in different stages of development.[9] The most commonly used class of drug is stimulants, such as caffeine.[10]

These drugs are purportedly used primarily to treat cognitive or motor function difficulties attributable to disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, and ADHD.[citation needed] Some researchers, however, report more widespread use despite concern for further research.[11] Nevertheless, intense marketing may not correlate with efficacy. While scientific studies support the beneficial effects of some compounds, manufacturer’s marketing claims for dietary supplements are usually not formally tested and verified by independent entities.[12]

The use of prescription stimulants is especially prevalent among students attending academically competitive colleges.[13] Surveys suggest that 0.74.5% of German students have used cognitive enhancers in their lifetime.[14][15][16] Stimulants such as dimethylamylamine and methylphenidate are used on college campuses and by younger groups.[9] Based upon studies of self-reported illicit stimulant use, 535% of college students use diverted ADHD stimulants, which are primarily used for performance enhancement rather than as recreational drugs.[17][18][19]

The nootropics industry was valued at $1.4 billion in 2015, and is expected to reach $6.1 billion by 2024, expanding at a CAGR of 17.9% from 2016 to 2024.[citation needed]

Several factors positively and negatively influence the use of drugs to increase cognitive performance. Among them are personal characteristics, drug characteristics, and characteristics of the social context.[14][15][20][21]

The main concern with pharmaceutical drugs is adverse effects, and these concerns apply to cognitive-enhancing drugs as well. Long-term safety data is typically unavailable for some types of nootropics[9] (e.g., many non-pharmaceutical cognitive enhancers, newly developed pharmaceuticals and pharmaceuticals with short-term therapeutic use). Racetamspiracetam and other compounds that are structurally related to piracetamhave few serious adverse effects and low toxicity, but there is little evidence that they enhance cognition in individuals who do not have cognitive impairments.[22][23]

While addiction to stimulants is sometimes identified as a cause for concern,[24] a very large body of research on the therapeutic use of the “more addictive” psychostimulants indicate that addiction is fairly rare in therapeutic doses.[25][26][27] On their safety profile, a systematic review from June 2015 asserted, “evidence indicates that at low, clinically relevant doses, psychostimulants are devoid of the behavioral and neurochemical actions that define this class of drugs and instead act largely as cognitive enhancers.”[28]

In the United States dietary supplements may be marketed if the manufacturer can show that it can manufacture the supplement safely, that the supplement is indeed generally recognized as safe, and if the manufacturer does not make any claims about the supplement’s use to treat or prevent any disease or condition; supplements that contain drugs or for which treatment or prevention claims are made are illegal under US law.[29]

In 2015, systematic medical reviews and meta-analyses of clinical research in humans established consensus that certain central nervous system stimulants, only when used at low (therapeutic) concentrations, unambiguously enhance cognition in the general population;[28][30][31][32] in particular, the classes of stimulants that demonstrate cognition-enhancing effects in humans act as direct agonists or indirect agonists of dopamine receptor D1, adrenoceptor A2, or both receptors in the prefrontal cortex.[28][30][32][33] Relatively high doses of stimulants cause cognitive deficits.[32][33]

Racetams, such as piracetam, oxiracetam, and aniracetam, are structurally similar compounds, which are often marketed as cognitive enhancers and sold over-the-counter. Racetams are often referred to as nootropics, but this property of the drug class is not well established.[43] The racetams have poorly understood mechanisms of action; however, piracetam and aniracetam are known to act as positive allosteric modulators of AMPA receptors and appear to modulate cholinergic systems.[44]

According to the US Food and Drug Administration, “Piracetam is not a vitamin, mineral, amino acid, herb or other botanical, or dietary substance for use by man to supplement the diet by increasing the total dietary intake. Further, piracetam is not a concentrate, metabolite, constituent, extract or combination of any such dietary ingredient. […] Accordingly, these products are drugs, under section 201(g)(1)(C) of the Act, 21 U.S.C. 321(g)(1)(C), because they are not foods and they are intended to affect the structure or any function of the body. Moreover, these products are new drugs as defined by section 201(p) of the Act, 21 U.S.C. 321(p), because they are not generally recognized as safe and effective for use under the conditions prescribed, recommended, or suggested in their labeling.”[45]

The results of this meta-analysis cannot address the important issues of individual differences in stimulant effects or the role of motivational enhancement in helping perform academic or occupational tasks. However, they do confirm the reality of cognitive enhancing effects for normal healthy adults in general, while also indicating that these effects are modest in size.

More here:

Nootropic – Wikipedia

Modafy Brain Stack | Accelerated Nootropics Formula

Procrastination and lack of productivity are some of the biggest issues of the modern individuals. In some cases, they can even make or break ones success. It is quite common for very intelligent persons to feel like failures due to these issues.

Have you ever felt that you just cant do anything right and in a timely manner? You are not alone in this. Many people struggle to be productive and they usually make little progress. But it is essential to know that there are ways to hack your brain and to stimulate yourself to be more productive than you imagined.

HERE ARE 50 WAYS TO TRAINYOUR BRAIN FOR UNLIMITED PRODUCTIVITY:

1. STOP SABOTAGING YOURSELF.

Instead of wasting time complaining, just start working and get things moving. Whining about the chores of the day will never solve anything and it will only delay you more.

2. STOP STRESSING OUT.

Stress can trigger lots of health-related issues. Not to mention that it will give you inconvenient body reactions such as headaches, nausea and all of these will make you less efficient.

3. DRESS NICE.

Clothing has more to do with productivity than you think. Get comfortable clothes that fit you nicely and look flattering. The right clothes will make you feel more confident.

4. CLEAN YOUR ROOM AND YOUR DESK.

You cant be productive when there is clutter all over the place and you waste time anytime you need something as you have no idea where it could be.

5. AVOID DISTRACTIONS.

Dont try to pamper yourself with Facebook, Twitter, Instagram or your favourite sites. You will end up forgetting how fast time goes by.

6. SET RULES FOR THE ONES AROUND YOU AS WELL.

Be very clear when you cant be disturbed unless it is something extremely important going on.

7. CREATE TO DO LISTS.

It only takes a few minutes to create To Do lists for a day, a week or for a whole month. In this way, you wont forget about the key matters that you have to solve in the future.

8. SET TIMETABLES.

Allot a certain amount of time for the tasks of the day and stick to the plan as much as possible. Make sure you include reasonably-timed necessary breaks too.

9. IDENTIFY THE TIME WASTERS.

Everyone has a few time wasting activities. Whether thats social media, taking way too much time for meals or gossiping, this has to stop.

10. BREATHE IN, BREATHE OUT.

When you feel overwhelmed, take a few minutes to focus on your breathing. Breathe in and out deeply several times until you feel less pressure.

11. PLACE PAPER POST-ITS.

Dont rely on apps as the information might remain there way after your deadlines. Use the good old paper post-its as reminders.

12. USE YOUR IMAGINATION.

If you get bored easily, get creative to make things more interesting.

13. ORGANISE YOUR BIG TASKS INTO SMALL ONES EASIER TO ACHIEVE.

When you accomplish small tasks, you will feel fulfilled and more motivated.

14. CLOSE YOUR EYES AND GET YOURSELF TOGETHER.

To regain your focus, forget about other tasks.

15. USE NOOTROPICS.

Special compounds can boost your brain health and cognitive abilities better than you think. Just make sure you choose top notch ones such as Modafy.

16. IDENTIFY WHETHER YOU ARE GOOD AT MULTITASKING.

Some do a great job as they feel stimulated, while others just cant manage several tasks in the same time. Find out whether multitasking works for you or not.

17. MAKE USE OF WISE QUOTES.

There are tons of motivational and inspiring quotes out there. Browse a bit and find those that appeal to you. Then apply that wisdom in your daily life.

18. FIND A GOOD STIMULANT.

Coffee might make you shaky and energy drinks might give you gastrointestinal distress. Dont try to hack your brain by consuming beverages that make you feel uncomfortable or downright sick. Its better to stick to nootropics as stimulants.

19. INVEST SOME EFFORT.

Force yourself to move faster and to be productive. When you have much time, you might tend to get a bit lazy.

Renowned author Cyril Northcote Parkinson formulated Parkinsons law, which states that work expands so as to fill the time available for its completion. It is known to be applicable in each and every life domain.

20. DONT OVERLOAD YOUR TO DO LIST.

If its not very important at the moment, dont let it waste your time. You can create separate To Do lists: mandatory and optional that you will complete when time allows you to.

21. EAT BREAKFAST.

It is the first opportunity to feed your body the nutrients it needs to function properly throughout the day. Dont skip it as you will tend to make poor nutrition choices that will only slow down your brain.

22. TAKE BREAKS WHEN YOU FEEL DRAINED OF ENERGY AND UNPRODUCTIVE.

Every now and then you really need a break. Stretch a bit, look out the window or get yourself a snack and a glass of water. But dont abuse breaks by turning them into hour-long gaps in your schedule.

23. EXERCISE.

Whether that is running, swimming, going to the gym or just having a walk, you need to wake up your body too. Physical exercise has positive effects over your whole body, so forget about getting lazy in front of the TV every time you have some time off.

24. LISTEN TO YOUR FAVOURITE SONGS BEFORE ENGAGING IN A TASK.

Go for highly energetic songs with a positive message that make you feel alive. Dont even think about songs that might trigger any kind of negative emotions.

25. HAVE REALISTIC EXPECTATIONS.

There might be a big difference between what you can do and what you want to do in a certain time frame. Remember that you are not a robot and stick to a realistic plan that will allow you to get proper rest too.

26. DONT GO OVERBOARD.

Exhausting yourself will only make you completely unproductive. Dont try to compensate inactivity with periods of time of highly intense long hours of work.

27. LEARN TIME MANAGEMENT.

The day has 24 hours for each and every person on this planet. Irrespective of your lifestyle, you can make time for nearly anything as long as you manage your time wisely.

28. TRY NAPPING.

A nap has the power to restart your system. But careful, some people might feel groggy after a nap. If u are one of them

29. DONT TAKE ON MORE RESPONSIBILITIES THAN YOU CAN HANDLE.

Saying yes to everyone every time might make your heart feel good but it will exhaust your brain.

30. FORGET ABOUT PERFECTION.

It is time to accept the fact that no matter how hard you will try, it is quite impossible to achieve perfection. Do your best to get the best result possible and dont freak out over tiny details that are irrelevant to the main purpose anyway.

31. KNOW YOUR BODYS TIMETABLE.

You might be a night owl or an early bird. Organise your day around these patterns. It is pointless to force yourself to be productive when your body simply isnt able to. Discover your bodys timetable and use it to your advantage.

32. PRIORITIZE.

Dont just make a mess out of everything by trying to accomplish as much as you can as humanly possible. Get the urgent things done soon then the ones that can wait.

33. SCHEDULE SIMILAR TASKS BACK-TO-BACK.

In this way the task will seem pretty repetitive and it feel easier as you will go into automate mode. It is best to take small breaks after accomplishing a set of tasks and not in the middle of it.

34. DO SOMETHING EVEN WHEN YOU ARE NOT IN THE MOOD.

So you just dont feel like doing anything. Get something easier done meanwhile or a task that you slightly enjoy doing. But that doesnt involve looking at cat videos or aimlessly browsing the Internet.

35. PLAN YOUR DAY AND EVEN YOUR WEEK.

Just make a rough draft and try to keep it. You can do this before you go to sleep or early in the morning before you start.

36. DONT OVERANALYSE THINGS.

Overanalysing could delay you a lot. You dont do yourself any favour by thinking for ages how to get something done without taking any real action. Take your time with essential matters but speed things up for the less important ones.

37. TURN OFF THE VOICES IN YOUR HEAD.

Everyone has an inner critic that thrashes down all the accomplishments. Just ignore that and focus on the tasks at hand.

38. GIVE YOUR BODY THE NUTRIENTS IT NEEDS.

This cant be emphasized enough. Say goodbye to highly processed foods that are full of additives. Add in your diet only healthy ones that ensure proper body functions.

39. LET THE SUN SHINE.

It is important to be exposed to natural light, otherwise you might feel groggy. The run rays will also stimulate your bodys natural rhythm

40. LEARN TO BE STRAIGHTFORWARD.

Dont spend time telling stories as you will only waste time and bore people. Keep things simple and go straight to the point.

41. USE MINDLESS ACTIVITIES TO LEARN.

Whenever you clean the house or do the laundry, you can listen to educational or motivational audios.

42. EDUCATE YOURSELF.

Never stop learning. There are tons of books that arent only good lecture, but contain different interesting points of view.

43. LET GO OF NEGATIVE EMOTIONS.

They can thrash your day and ruin your mood. Just banish them from your thoughts as much as possible.

44. ANALYSE THE TASKS AND TRIAGE THEM.

Some of them might be irrelevant. Spend your time with the ones that do matter as they are either highly important for work or for your personal life.

45. IDENTIFY THE ACTIVITIES THAT DONT BRING ANYTHING TO THE TABLE.

For example, commenting on YouTube videos or blogs and expressing an opinion that will either go unnoticed or start a fight is clearly pointless.

46. ACCEPT WHAT YOU CANT CHANGE.

Dont worry for other peoples problems if you cant do anything to help. This will only distract you from solving your own.

47. USE THE POMODORO TECHNIQUE.

It involves working for 25 minutes than having a 5-minute break. Stick to it to regain your discipline.

48. STOP COMPARING YOURSELF TO OTHERS.

Social media makes people always compare themselves to one another. Instead of whining because you are less successful than others, use that time to go to the next level yourself.

View original post here:

Modafy Brain Stack | Accelerated Nootropics Formula

Nootropic – Wikipedia

Nootropics (English pronunciation: noh–TROP-iks), also known as smart drugs and cognitive enhancers, are drugs, supplements, and other substances that improve cognitive function, particularly executive functions, memory, creativity, or motivation, in healthy individuals.[1][2]

The use of cognition-enhancing drugs by healthy individuals in the absence of a medical indication is one of the most debated topics among neuroscientists, psychiatrists, and physicians which spans a number of issues, including the ethics and fairness of their use, concerns over adverse effects, and the diversion of prescription drugs for nonmedical uses, among others.[1][3][4] Nonetheless, the international sales of cognition-enhancing supplements exceeded US$1 billion in 2015 and the global demand for these compounds is still growing rapidly.[5]

The word nootropic was coined in 1972 by a Romanian psychologist and chemist, Corneliu E. Giurgea,[6][7] from the Greek words (nous), or “mind”, and (trepein), meaning to bend or turn.[8]

There are only a few drugs that are known to improve some aspect of cognition. Many more are in different stages of development.[9] The most commonly used class of drug is stimulants, such as caffeine.[10]

These drugs are purportedly used primarily to treat cognitive or motor function difficulties attributable to disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, and ADHD.[citation needed] Some researchers, however, report more widespread use despite concern for further research.[11] Nevertheless, intense marketing may not correlate with efficacy. While scientific studies support the beneficial effects of some compounds, manufacturer’s marketing claims for dietary supplements are usually not formally tested and verified by independent entities.[12]

The use of prescription stimulants is especially prevalent among students attending academically competitive colleges.[13] Surveys suggest that 0.74.5% of German students have used cognitive enhancers in their lifetime.[14][15][16] Stimulants such as dimethylamylamine and methylphenidate are used on college campuses and by younger groups.[9] Based upon studies of self-reported illicit stimulant use, 535% of college students use diverted ADHD stimulants, which are primarily used for performance enhancement rather than as recreational drugs.[17][18][19]

The nootropics industry was valued at $1.4 billion in 2015, and is expected to reach $6.1 billion by 2024, expanding at a CAGR of 17.9% from 2016 to 2024.[citation needed]

Several factors positively and negatively influence the use of drugs to increase cognitive performance. Among them are personal characteristics, drug characteristics, and characteristics of the social context.[14][15][20][21]

The main concern with pharmaceutical drugs is adverse effects, and these concerns apply to cognitive-enhancing drugs as well. Long-term safety data is typically unavailable for some types of nootropics[9] (e.g., many non-pharmaceutical cognitive enhancers, newly developed pharmaceuticals and pharmaceuticals with short-term therapeutic use). Racetamspiracetam and other compounds that are structurally related to piracetamhave few serious adverse effects and low toxicity, but there is little evidence that they enhance cognition in individuals without cognitive impairments.[22][23]

While addiction to stimulants is sometimes identified as a cause for concern,[24] a very large body of research on the therapeutic use of the “more addictive” psychostimulants indicate that addiction is fairly rare in therapeutic doses.[25][26][27] On their safety profile, a systematic review from June 2015 asserted, “evidence indicates that at low, clinically relevant doses, psychostimulants are devoid of the behavioral and neurochemical actions that define this class of drugs and instead act largely as cognitive enhancers.”[28]

In the United States dietary supplements may be marketed if the manufacturer can show that it can manufacture the supplement safely, that the supplement is indeed generally recognized as safe, and if the manufacturer does not make any claims about the supplement’s use to treat or prevent any disease or condition; supplements that contain drugs or for which treatment or prevention claims are made are illegal under US law.[29]

In 2015, systematic medical reviews and meta-analyses of clinical research in humans established consensus that certain central nervous system stimulants, only when used at low (therapeutic) concentrations, unambiguously enhance cognition in the general population;[28][30][31][32] in particular, the classes of stimulants that demonstrate cognition-enhancing effects in humans act as direct agonists or indirect agonists of dopamine receptor D1, adrenoceptor A2, or both receptors in the prefrontal cortex.[28][30][32][33] Relatively high doses of stimulants cause cognitive deficits.[32][33]

Racetams, such as piracetam, oxiracetam, and aniracetam, are structurally similar compounds, which are often marketed as cognitive enhancers and sold over-the-counter. Racetams are often referred to as nootropics, but this property of the drug class is not well established.[43] The racetams have poorly understood mechanisms of action; however, piracetam and aniracetam are known to act as positive allosteric modulators of AMPA receptors and appear to modulate cholinergic systems.[44]

According to the US Food and Drug Administration, “Piracetam is not a vitamin, mineral, amino acid, herb or other botanical, or dietary substance for use by man to supplement the diet by increasing the total dietary intake. Further, piracetam is not a concentrate, metabolite, constituent, extract or combination of any such dietary ingredient. […] Accordingly, these products are drugs, under section 201(g)(1)(C) of the Act, 21 U.S.C. 321(g)(1)(C), because they are not foods and they are intended to affect the structure or any function of the body. Moreover, these products are new drugs as defined by section 201(p) of the Act, 21 U.S.C. 321(p), because they are not generally recognized as safe and effective for use under the conditions prescribed, recommended, or suggested in their labeling.”[45]

The results of this meta-analysis cannot address the important issues of individual differences in stimulant effects or the role of motivational enhancement in helping perform academic or occupational tasks. However, they do confirm the reality of cognitive enhancing effects for normal healthy adults in general, while also indicating that these effects are modest in size.

Go here to see the original:

Nootropic – Wikipedia

Nootropics Formula to Unleash Your Mind – OptiMind

Nootropics arent a joke. Thats why we took special care in making ourstack. Its made ofthe best ingredientsfor focus and energy. OptiMind is designed for benefits within hours and over time. You can expect to feel a boost in your energy, alertness, and focus shortly after taking it. Over time,youll notice improvements in cognitive function and retention of newly learned information.Get ready for enhanced mental performance.

We analyzed over 50 years of neuroscience research to design a trulysafe and effective Nootropic formula. OptiMind is manufactured in a state-of-the-art, GMP-certified laboratory using the highest industry standards. Each batch is purity tested to ensure that only the finest nootropic is delivered to your doorstep.

Discover what this nootropics stack can do for you.

Visit link:

Nootropics Formula to Unleash Your Mind – OptiMind

Nootropic – Wikipedia

Nootropics (English pronunciation: noh–TROP-iks), also known as smart drugs and cognitive enhancers, are drugs, supplements, and other substances that improve cognitive function, particularly executive functions, memory, creativity, or motivation, in healthy individuals.[1][2]

The use of cognition-enhancing drugs by healthy individuals in the absence of a medical indication is one of the most debated topics among neuroscientists, psychiatrists, and physicians which spans a number of issues, including the ethics and fairness of their use, concerns over adverse effects, and the diversion of prescription drugs for nonmedical uses, among others.[1][3][4] Nonetheless, the international sales of cognition-enhancing supplements exceeded US$1 billion in 2015 and the global demand for these compounds is still growing rapidly.[5]

The word nootropic was coined in 1972 by a Romanian psychologist and chemist, Corneliu E. Giurgea,[6][7] from the Greek words (nous), or “mind”, and (trepein), meaning to bend or turn.[8]

There are only a few drugs that are known to improve some aspect of cognition. Many more are in different stages of development.[9] The most commonly used class of drug is stimulants, such as caffeine.[10]

These drugs are purportedly used primarily to treat cognitive or motor function difficulties attributable to disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, and ADHD.[citation needed] Some researchers, however, report more widespread use despite concern for further research.[11] Nevertheless, intense marketing may not correlate with efficacy. While scientific studies support the beneficial effects of some compounds, manufacturer’s marketing claims for dietary supplements are usually not formally tested and verified by independent entities.[12]

The use of prescription stimulants is especially prevalent among students attending academically competitive colleges.[13] Surveys suggest that 0.74.5% of German students have used cognitive enhancers in their lifetime.[14][15][16] Stimulants such as dimethylamylamine and methylphenidate are used on college campuses and by younger groups.[9] Based upon studies of self-reported illicit stimulant use, 535% of college students use diverted ADHD stimulants, which are primarily used for performance enhancement rather than as recreational drugs.[17][18][19]

The nootropics industry was valued at $1.4 billion in 2015, and is expected to reach $6.1 billion by 2024, expanding at a CAGR of 17.9% from 2016 to 2024.[citation needed]

Several factors positively and negatively influence the use of drugs to increase cognitive performance. Among them are personal characteristics, drug characteristics, and characteristics of the social context.[14][15][20][21]

The main concern with pharmaceutical drugs is adverse effects, and these concerns apply to cognitive-enhancing drugs as well. Long-term safety data is typically unavailable for some types of nootropics[9] (e.g., many non-pharmaceutical cognitive enhancers, newly developed pharmaceuticals and pharmaceuticals with short-term therapeutic use). Racetamspiracetam and other compounds that are structurally related to piracetamhave few serious adverse effects and low toxicity, but there is little evidence that they enhance cognition in individuals without cognitive impairments.[22][23]

While addiction to stimulants is sometimes identified as a cause for concern,[24] a very large body of research on the therapeutic use of the “more addictive” psychostimulants indicate that addiction is fairly rare in therapeutic doses.[25][26][27] On their safety profile, a systematic review from June 2015 asserted, “evidence indicates that at low, clinically relevant doses, psychostimulants are devoid of the behavioral and neurochemical actions that define this class of drugs and instead act largely as cognitive enhancers.”[28]

In the United States dietary supplements may be marketed if the manufacturer can show that it can manufacture the supplement safely, that the supplement is indeed generally recognized as safe, and if the manufacturer does not make any claims about the supplement’s use to treat or prevent any disease or condition; supplements that contain drugs or for which treatment or prevention claims are made are illegal under US law.[29]

In 2015, systematic medical reviews and meta-analyses of clinical research in humans established consensus that certain central nervous system stimulants, only when used at low (therapeutic) concentrations, unambiguously enhance cognition in the general population;[28][30][31][32] in particular, the classes of stimulants that demonstrate cognition-enhancing effects in humans act as direct agonists or indirect agonists of dopamine receptor D1, adrenoceptor A2, or both receptors in the prefrontal cortex.[28][30][32][33] Relatively high doses of stimulants cause cognitive deficits.[32][33]

Racetams, such as piracetam, oxiracetam, and aniracetam, are structurally similar compounds, which are often marketed as cognitive enhancers and sold over-the-counter. Racetams are often referred to as nootropics, but this property of the drug class is not well established.[43] The racetams have poorly understood mechanisms of action; however, piracetam and aniracetam are known to act as positive allosteric modulators of AMPA receptors and appear to modulate cholinergic systems.[44]

According to the US Food and Drug Administration, “Piracetam is not a vitamin, mineral, amino acid, herb or other botanical, or dietary substance for use by man to supplement the diet by increasing the total dietary intake. Further, piracetam is not a concentrate, metabolite, constituent, extract or combination of any such dietary ingredient. […] Accordingly, these products are drugs, under section 201(g)(1)(C) of the Act, 21 U.S.C. 321(g)(1)(C), because they are not foods and they are intended to affect the structure or any function of the body. Moreover, these products are new drugs as defined by section 201(p) of the Act, 21 U.S.C. 321(p), because they are not generally recognized as safe and effective for use under the conditions prescribed, recommended, or suggested in their labeling.”[45]

The results of this meta-analysis cannot address the important issues of individual differences in stimulant effects or the role of motivational enhancement in helping perform academic or occupational tasks. However, they do confirm the reality of cognitive enhancing effects for normal healthy adults in general, while also indicating that these effects are modest in size.

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Nootropic – Wikipedia

Nootropic – Wikipedia

Nootropics (English pronunciation: noh–TROP-iks), also known as smart drugs and cognitive enhancers, are drugs, supplements, and other substances that improve cognitive function, particularly executive functions, memory, creativity, or motivation, in healthy individuals.[1][2]

The use of cognition-enhancing drugs by healthy individuals in the absence of a medical indication is one of the most debated topics among neuroscientists, psychiatrists, and physicians which spans a number of issues, including the ethics and fairness of their use, concerns over adverse effects, and the diversion of prescription drugs for nonmedical uses, among others.[1][3][4] Nonetheless, the international sales of cognition-enhancing supplements exceeded US$1 billion in 2015 and the global demand for these compounds is still growing rapidly.[5]

The word nootropic was coined in 1972 by a Romanian psychologist and chemist, Corneliu E. Giurgea,[6][7] from the Greek words (nous), or “mind”, and (trepein), meaning to bend or turn.[8]

There are only a few drugs that are known to improve some aspect of cognition. Many more are in different stages of development.[9] The most commonly used class of drug is stimulants, such as caffeine.[10]

These drugs are purportedly used primarily to treat cognitive or motor function difficulties attributable to disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, and ADHD.[citation needed] Some researchers, however, report more widespread use despite concern for further research.[11] Nevertheless, intense marketing may not correlate with efficacy. While scientific studies support the beneficial effects of some compounds, manufacturer’s marketing claims for dietary supplements are usually not formally tested and verified by independent entities.[12]

The use of prescription stimulants is especially prevalent among students attending academically competitive colleges.[13] Surveys suggest that 0.74.5% of German students have used cognitive enhancers in their lifetime.[14][15][16] Stimulants such as dimethylamylamine and methylphenidate are used on college campuses and by younger groups.[9] Based upon studies of self-reported illicit stimulant use, 535% of college students use diverted ADHD stimulants, which are primarily used for performance enhancement rather than as recreational drugs.[17][18][19]

nootropics industry was valued at USD 1,346.5 Mn in 2015, and is expected to reach USD 6,059.4 Mn by 2024, expanding at a CAGR of 17.9% from 2016 to 2024

Several factors positively and negatively influence the use of drugs to increase cognitive performance. Among them are personal characteristics, drug characteristics, and characteristics of the social context.[14][15][20][21]

The main concern with pharmaceutical drugs is adverse effects, and these concerns apply to cognitive-enhancing drugs as well. Long-term safety data is typically unavailable for some types of nootropics[9] (e.g., many non-pharmaceutical cognitive enhancers, newly developed pharmaceuticals and pharmaceuticals with short-term therapeutic use). Racetamspiracetam and other compounds that are structurally related to piracetamhave few serious adverse effects and low toxicity, but there is little evidence that they enhance cognition in individuals without cognitive impairments.[22][23]

While addiction to stimulants is sometimes identified as a cause for concern,[24] a very large body of research on the therapeutic use of the “more addictive” psychostimulants indicate that addiction is fairly rare in therapeutic doses.[25][26][27] On their safety profile, a systematic review from June 2015 asserted, “evidence indicates that at low, clinically relevant doses, psychostimulants are devoid of the behavioral and neurochemical actions that define this class of drugs and instead act largely as cognitive enhancers.”[28]

In the United States dietary supplements may be marketed if the manufacturer can show that it can manufacture the supplement safely, that the supplement is indeed generally recognized as safe, and if the manufacturer does not make any claims about the supplement’s use to treat or prevent any disease or condition; supplements that contain drugs or for which treatment or prevention claims are made are illegal under US law.[29]

In 2015, systematic medical reviews and meta-analyses of clinical research in humans established consensus that certain central nervous system stimulants, only when used at low (therapeutic) concentrations, unambiguously enhance cognition in the general population;[28][30][31][32] in particular, the classes of stimulants that demonstrate cognition-enhancing effects in humans act as direct agonists or indirect agonists of dopamine receptor D1, adrenoceptor A2, or both receptors in the prefrontal cortex.[28][30][32][33] Relatively high doses of stimulants cause cognitive deficits.[32][33]

Racetams, such as piracetam, oxiracetam, and aniracetam, are structurally similar compounds, which are often marketed as cognitive enhancers and sold over-the-counter. Racetams are often referred to as nootropics, but this property of the drug class is not well established.[43] The racetams have poorly understood mechanisms of action; however, piracetam and aniracetam are known to act as positive allosteric modulators of AMPA receptors and appear to modulate cholinergic systems.[44]

According to the US Food and Drug Administration, “Piracetam is not a vitamin, mineral, amino acid, herb or other botanical, or dietary substance for use by man to supplement the diet by increasing the total dietary intake. Further, piracetam is not a concentrate, metabolite, constituent, extract or combination of any such dietary ingredient. […] Accordingly, these products are drugs, under section 201(g)(1)(C) of the Act, 21 U.S.C. 321(g)(1)(C), because they are not foods and they are intended to affect the structure or any function of the body. Moreover, these products are new drugs as defined by section 201(p) of the Act, 21 U.S.C. 321(p), because they are not generally recognized as safe and effective for use under the conditions prescribed, recommended, or suggested in their labeling.”[45]

The results of this meta-analysis cannot address the important issues of individual differences in stimulant effects or the role of motivational enhancement in helping perform academic or occupational tasks. However, they do confirm the reality of cognitive enhancing effects for normal healthy adults in general, while also indicating that these effects are modest in size.

More here:

Nootropic – Wikipedia

Nootropics.com | The Best Nootropics For Beginners & Experts

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Nootropics.com | The Best Nootropics For Beginners & Experts

Pure Nootropics | Smart Drugs to Enhance Your Life

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Here are some selected posts from our knowledgebase/blog. These posts are a good starting point for those new to cognitive enhancement or those that simply dont know where to start.

A brief introduction to cognitive enhancement supplements, also known as Nootropics

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