12345...10...


Nootropic – Wikipedia

Nootropics ( noh–TROP-iks) (colloquial: smart drugs and cognitive enhancers) are drugs, supplements, and other substances that may improve cognitive function, particularly executive functions, memory, creativity, or motivation, in healthy individuals.[1] While many substances are purported to improve cognition, research is at a preliminary stage as of 2018, and the effects of the majority of these agents are not fully determined.

The use of cognition-enhancing drugs by healthy individuals in the absence of a medical indication spans numerous controversial issues, including the ethics and fairness of their use, concerns over adverse effects, and the diversion of prescription drugs for nonmedical uses, among others.[1][2] Nonetheless, the international sales of cognition-enhancing supplements exceeded US$1 billion in 2015 when global demand for these compounds grew.[3]

The word nootropic was coined in 1972 by a Romanian psychologist and chemist, Corneliu E. Giurgea,[4][5] from the Greek words (nous), or “mind”, and (trepein), meaning to bend or turn.[6]

In 2008, the most commonly used class of drug was stimulants, such as caffeine.[7] Manufacturer’s marketing claims for dietary supplements are usually not formally tested and verified by independent entities.[8]

The use of prescription stimulants is especially prevalent among students.[9] Surveys suggest that 0.74.5% of German students have used cognitive enhancers in their lifetime.[10][11][12] Stimulants such as dimethylamylamine and methylphenidate are used on college campuses and by younger groups.[13] Based upon studies of self-reported illicit stimulant use, 535% of college students use diverted ADHD stimulants, which are primarily intended for performance enhancement rather than as recreational drugs.[14][15][16] Several factors positively and negatively influence an individual’s willingness to use a drug for the purpose of enhancing cognitive performance. Among them are personal characteristics, drug characteristics, and characteristics of the social context.[10][11][17][18]

The main concern with pharmaceutical drugs is adverse effects, which also apply to nootropics with undefined effects. Long-term safety evidence is typically unavailable for nootropics.[13] Racetams piracetam and other compounds that are structurally related to piracetam have few serious adverse effects and low toxicity, but there is little evidence that they enhance cognition in people having no cognitive impairments.[19]

In the United States, dietary supplements may be marketed if the manufacturer can show that the supplement is generally recognized as safe, and if the manufacturer does not make any claims about using the supplement to treat or prevent any disease or condition; supplements that contain drugs or advertise health claims are illegal under US law.[20]

Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of clinical human research using low doses of certain central nervous system stimulants found enhanced cognition in healthy people.[21][22][23] In particular, the classes of stimulants that demonstrate cognition-enhancing effects in humans act as direct agonists or indirect agonists of dopamine receptor D1, adrenoceptor A2, or both types of receptor in the prefrontal cortex.[21][22][24][25] Relatively high doses of stimulants cause cognitive deficits.[24][25]

Racetams, such as piracetam, oxiracetam, and aniracetam, which are often marketed as cognitive enhancers and sold over-the-counter. Racetams are often referred to as nootropics, but this property is not well established.[31] The racetams have poorly understood mechanisms, although piracetam and aniracetam are known to act as positive allosteric modulators of AMPA receptors and appear to modulate cholinergic systems.[32]

According to the US Food and Drug Administration, “Piracetam is not a vitamin, mineral, amino acid, herb or other botanical, or dietary substance for use by man to supplement the diet by increasing the total dietary intake. Further, piracetam is not a concentrate, metabolite, constituent, extract or combination of any such dietary ingredient. […] Accordingly, these products are drugs, under section 201(g)(1)(C) of the Act, 21 U.S.C. 321(g)(1)(C), because they are not foods and they are intended to affect the structure or any function of the body. Moreover, these products are new drugs as defined by section 201(p) of the Act, 21 U.S.C. 321(p), because they are not generally recognized as safe and effective for use under the conditions prescribed, recommended, or suggested in their labeling.”[33]

Read more here:

Nootropic – Wikipedia

Nootropics.com | The Best Nootropics For Beginners & Experts

Premium nootropics, cognitive enhancers and smart supplements.

New or a connoisseur, dont settle for less than the best for your nootropics journey.

Value your brain.

Nootropics are synthetic compounds that help you to accomplish your goals through improved cognition, better recall and crystal-clear focus.

Safe and secure.

Discover what works for you safely.We provide only the best supported compounds, alongside third-party testing and complete transparency.

Order with confidence.

Free delivery on all U.S. orders over $50 and on international orders over $200.

Link:

Nootropics.com | The Best Nootropics For Beginners & Experts

Nootropics | definition of Nootropics by Medical dictionary

(redirected from Nootropics)Also found in: Dictionary.nootropic (n–trop’ik),

Denotes an agent having an effect on memory.

[ntropik]

a chemical designed to increase brain metabolism.

There is little clinical evidence that most agents advertised as nootropics actually work as advertised.

Capable of improving or preserving memory, of potentiating learning, or of preventing cognitive decline or dementia.

Want to thank TFD for its existence? Tell a friend about us, add a link to this page, or visit the webmaster’s page for free fun content.

Link to this page: nootropic

Read more from the original source:

Nootropics | definition of Nootropics by Medical dictionary

Pure Nootropics | Smart Drugs to Enhance Your Life

Welcome to pure nootropics

Popular items from our store

Rated 4.50 out of 5

Rated 5.00 out of 5

Rated 4.73 out of 5

Rated 5.00 out of 5

Rated 4.58 out of 5

Rated 5.00 out of 5

Rated 4.90 out of 5

Rated 4.65 out of 5

New to Nootropics? Start Here:

Here are some selected posts from our knowledgebase/blog. These posts are a good starting point for those new to cognitive enhancement or those that simply dont know where to start.

A brief introduction to cognitive enhancement supplements, also known as Nootropics

New Items

Rated 4.25 out of 5

LATEST UPDATES FROM OUR BLOG

Here is the original post:

Pure Nootropics | Smart Drugs to Enhance Your Life

Best Nootropics 2018 (Updated) Nootropics Expert

Ask a group of neurohackers which are the best nootropics and youll get a symphony of opinions. But when you drill down to what people are taking every day you start to see a pattern.

Experienced biohackers working on cognitive enhancement find its easier to focus their brain hacking goals into a few well-defined categories. Then look for the best nootropic to address each one. It looks something like this

I have my favorite nootropics after 10-years of trial and error. And chances are that what works for me may work well for you too. The nootropics Im talking about here are part of the stack I use every day.

Youll notice in the categories above that some nootropics work in multiple areas of cognitive enhancement. The obvious benefit is fewer nootropics in a well-rounded stack.

And once you dive into the neuroscience behind each nootropic, youll find synergy on how many of these compounds work together. This extends to smaller doses of each for a bigger benefit.

Brain optimization comes with a lot of experimenting to find what works best. Trying different compounds, keeping a log of what works and how well, and a considerable investment.

Naturally, Im on the lookout for how to save money without cutting corners. So once Ive narrowed my stack choices, the search begins for a quality pre-made nootropic stack that will save me buying individual packs, tubs of powder or capsules.

Fortunately, I found the best pre-made nootropic stack in late 2015 which covered the bulk of the nootropics Id selected for my stack. Its called Mind Lab Pro.

Ill talk more about Mind Lab Pro in a few minutes and how it ties into my brain hacking goals.The company that makes MLP just recently introduced a new line of supplements called Performance Lab. Offering even more options for brain optimization. More on that later as well.

Before I get into detail on how my stack works, here are what many neurohackers consider the best nootropics available today.

For a more detailed dive into how to build the best nootropic stack, check my other posts:

Beginners Guide to Nootropic Stacks

How to Create the Best Nootropic Stack

Here well do a quick review on building a great nootropic stack.

The more we learn about some of nootropics that have been used for thousands of years for cognitive enhancement. The more we realize these natural compounds are often as good as or better than modern prescription medications.

As you gain experience, youll also come to realize that some pre-made nootropic stacks simply dont make sense. Amounts are well below therapeutic doses to expect any reasonable kind of benefit.

And understand that no one is a master at the science and art of nootropics. Dont believe anything I have to say. Find out for yourself if something is true. And change course when you need to if you want to achieve your neurohacking goals.

Next, well take a closer look at each of the nootropics I recommend and use every day.

Each of the nootropics covered below contain links through to a complete and thorough report. When you click through to each individual nootropic supplement review youll find more detail on what it is, why we use it as a nootropic, how it feels, mechanism of action in the brain, side effects, forms available and recommended doses.

Youll also notice in the table above and each nootropic listed below some are marked with an asterisk (*). This means its part of the Mind Lab Pro formula of two capsules per day.

Each of these nootropics are generally regarded as safe and non-toxic at recommended doses. Your mileage may vary. How you respond to each of these compounds depends on a host of variables including:

So please click through to each nootropic and read the side effects, drug interactions and any other notes or warnings. But in general, these are among the safest cognitive enhancers we know of.

Read more about Nootropics Safety and Side Effects

ALCAR helps transport of fatty acids into mitochondria where theyre needed for energy metabolism.[i] Fueling your cells power plants can boost physical and mental energy.

ALCAR is a necessary ingredient for acetylcholine formation.[ii] Which boosts memory, mental alertness, and fluid thought.

The antioxidant properties of Acetyl-L-Carnitine provide neuroprotective qualities, boosts Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF), and promotes cerebral blood circulation.

Aniracetam is one of the best nootropics available today. Its well-known among experienced nootropics users for reducing anxiety, depression, fear and improving sociability.[iii] But it does so much more.

Aniracetam enhances your brains ability to repair damaged cell membranes. It desensitizes glutamate (AMPA) receptors in your brain.[iv] Which boosts neural signaling by increasing the effectiveness of glutamate. Resulting in better focus and concentration.

Aniracetam also improves memory and recall by releasing 200 300% more acetylcholine in the brain.[v] Which increases focus, and clarity of thought.

Bacopa Monnieri is one of the best nootropics for studying. Researchers at Banaras Hindu University in India showed Bacopa as effective for anxiety as the benzodiazepine drug lorazepam. Unlike benzodiazepines, Bacopa did not cause memory loss. But in fact, it boosted cognition.[vi]

Another study done in Portland Oregon demonstrated that 300 mg of Bacopa per day for 12 weeks:

A valuable addition to any great nootropic stack, CDP-Choline is a multitasker which improves cognition and brain function, improves focus and motivation, and reduces fatigue.

CDP-Choline aids in the synthesis of acetylcholine, and the release of dopamine.[viii] Both neurotransmitters involved in learning and memory.

CDP-Choline also helps in the repair of brain cell membranes. The cytidine in CDP-Choline converts to uridine in your body. And works as a bridge between choline and neuron membrane synthesis. Uridine is needed to synthesize phosphatidylcholine (PC) which is needed to repair damaged neuron membranes.[ix]

Choline is so vital to cognition and nerve function that, without it, we couldnt move, think, sleep or remember anything. And one the best ways to provide your brain and body with the choline it needs is with CDP-Choline.

DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) is an omega-3 fatty acid. DHA is crucial for the healthy structure and function of your brain. Your brain is made up of 60% fat. And much of that fat is DHA.

DHA has the ability to turn on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Improving neuroplasticity leading to better learning and memory. And DHA acts as an anti-inflammatory by reducing the enzyme COX-2.

If you suffer from chronic depression, within a few weeks of adding DHA to your nootropic stack, you should feel the depression lift. Your cognition will be better. Youll think clearer and quicker. Your memory and ability to learn will improve. And youll likely have more energy and motivation.

But it is very likely you wont think to attribute these improvements to adding DHA to your stack. Something else will get the credit.

Lions Mane Mushroom is an ancient Chinese remedy for improving cognitive performance, and overall health.

In our modern world, Lions Mane makes it into some of the top nootropic stacks. Why?

Because Lions Mane stimulates enzyme production that releases Nerve Growth Factor (NGF).[x] It stimulates the repair and creation of neurons (neurogenesis). Boosting neurotransmitters and signaling that effects memory, learning, recall, and mood. And Lions Mane helps eliminate brain fog. Restoring memory and mental alertness. And lowers anxiety and depression symptoms.[xi]

Lions Mane is a great compliment to any nootropic stack including Aniracetam, CDP-Choline and DHA (Omega-3s) for an immediate cognitive boost.

N-Acetyl L-Tyrosine produces the catecholamine-triad of neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine. As your dopamine levels increase, youre better able to concentrate, organize your thoughts, and stay productive.

NALT can be an effective treatment for ADHD symptoms. NALT works in synergy with pharmaceutical drugs like Ritalin and Adderall by boosting extracellular levels of dopamine. Helping these drugs be more effective. And mitigating side effects like crashes when the drug wears off.

N-Acetyl L-Tyrosine also improves memory and cognition under acute stress.[xii] It helps improve decision making, flow state and creativity, cognitive flexibility, and working memory.

NALT is a great addition to any nootropic stack, especially if youre dealing with ADHD.

For more tips on how to deal with ADHD and ADD symptoms, see my post:Best Nootropics for ADHD/ADD

Phosphatidylserine is a favoritenootropicbecause:

Phosphatidylserine (PS) is arguably one of the most effective and important nootropics we have available today. It has a reputation for improving alertness, attention, cognition, memory, recall and mood.[xiii]

Pine Bark Extract is one of the best nootropics around but relatively unknown to the nootropic community. Its a naturally derived standardized extract of French maritime pine bark.

Pine Bark Extract helps prevent decreases in dopamine, norepinephrine, and the glutathione (GSH) and GSH-disulphide reductase (GSSG-R) ratio. Neurotransmitter problems which contribute to hyperactivity in ADHD.[xiv]

Pine Bark Extract helps boost blood flow to and within your brain.[xv] By increasing nitric oxide which helps dilate blood vessels. And helping repair and maintain the health of the lining of blood vessels. Crucial to overall brain health, maintaining signaling pathways and leading to improved learning and memory.

And Pine Bark Extract prevents accumulation of oxidatively damaged proteins. And may reduce the risk of diseases like Parkinsons, Alzheimers, and Huntingtons.

Recommended dosage of Pine Bark Extract containing 95% proanthocyanidins is up to 100 mg 3-times per day.

In Russia, Rhodiola Rosea is widely used as a remedy for fatigue, poor concentration, and decreased memory. Its also believed to make workers more productive.

This adaptogen helps reduce stress and fatigue, increase energy, alertness and stamina, while boosting mental performance under periods of chronic stress. Research shows Rhodiola Rosea can increase attention to detail-oriented tasks by improving concentration over a prolonged period. Making it one of the topnootropics for studying.

Rhodiola Rosea boosts mood by influencing serotonin and norepinephrine levels in your brain, and the feel-good opioids like beta-endorphins. It also helps in neurogenesis by repairing and growing new neurons. As well as activating the synthesis and re-synthesis of ATP, your body and brain cells main energy source.

One more reason to add Rhodiola to your nootropic stack it helps reduce the inflammatory C-reactive protein. And salidroside, one of many components of this incredible herb, protects neurons from oxidative stress-induced cell death.

Sulbutiamine is one favoritenootropics in my stack. Its a synthetic derivative of Vitamin B1 (thiamine). Two Vitamin B1 molecules joined together help thiamine more easily cross the blood-brain barrier.

Sulbutiamine is directly involved in the citric acid cycle that provides adenosine triphosphate (ATP) energy for your mitochondria. It has been shown to improve glutamatergic, cholinergic, and dopaminergic neurological transmissions. It may also increase the density of D1 dopamine receptors.[xvii]

Sulbutiamine also contributes to the production of the enzyme PDH which is essential in making the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.

I love this nootropic because it boosts cognition, memory, decision-making, improves athletic performance, reduces chronic fatigue[xviii] and erectile dysfunction,[xix] and is one of the best antidepressants Ive ever used.[xx]

L-Theanine is an amino acid which naturally occurs in green and oolong tea. Many consider it their favorite nootropic stack when combined with caffeine for the synergistic effect of lowering blood pressure, rejuvenate and relax, boost thinking ability, improve focus and change your mood.

This amazing amino acid:

Most neurohackers report a calming effect within 30 45 minutes of taking L-Theanine. Cognition gets a boost, and energy levels rise without the jitteriness caused by stimulants like caffeine. Some report L-Theanine has stopped their anxiety and panic attacks. (Just dont combine it with anti-anxiety meds like Xanax).

Vinpocetine is often found in some of the premiumnootropic stacks. This semi-synthetic derivative of the lesser periwinkle plant is known for increasing cerebral circulation, taming inflammation and oxidative stress, and boosting alertness, cognition, concentration, memory and mood.

Vinpocetine inhibits the enzyme PDE1 which boosts cerebral blood flow. It blocks the accumulation of sodium in neurons, reduces the toxic effects of oxidative stress, scavenges free radicals, and protects neurons from glutamate and NMDA toxicity.

And by inhibiting PDE1, Vinpocetine increases cAMP and cGMP.[xxiii] Boosting neuroplasticity which enhances cognition and memory.

The B-Vitamins that should be part of every nootropic stack include:

You may not realize the full benefit of a nootropic stack containing CDP-Choline, Acetyl-L-Carnitine, any of the racetams, or any nootropic for that matter without adding a good quality B-Vitamin Complex. Possibly the most important and least expensive addition to your stack.

Some nootropic supplement labels recommend taking it with a meal. The implication behind this recommendation is that the nootropic is fat-soluble. And requires some fat for proper absorption and to increase bioavailability.

Each of the nootropics listed above have links through to a full review which includes information about solubility fat or water soluble.

To be on the safe side, I take one tablespoon of organicunrefined coconut oil with my nootropic stack. This healthy oil provides the fat I need for better bioavailability. And I dont have to worry about taking it with a meal.

Using coconut oil with my stack does not interfere with the water-soluble supplements either. Its a win-win.

Ive tried a lot of different nootropic stacks in the last 10 years. But in late 2015, I finally found one high quality pre-made stack that covered all the bases. That stack is Mind Lab Pro.

I used MLP as the base for my personal nootropic stack throughout 2016 and 2017. And continue to use the same stack in 2018. Its that good.

In fact, in 2017 Opti Nutra, the company that makes Mind Lab Pro upgraded their formula. Their B-Vitamins are now their own proprietary BioGenesis vitamins. Nature-identical nutrients that your body recognize as food.

Then in 2018, Opti Nutra introduced an entire new supplement brand called Performance Lab. The company recognized the demand for more choices when it comes to brain optimization. And the need to support the rest of your body.

Performance Lab offers the pre-formulated nootropic stacks Performance Lab Mind and Performance Lab Energy.

Their nootropic stacks are supported by the Performance Lab Whole-Food Multi containing nature-identical BioGenesis vitamins and minerals for whole-body performance. This multivitamin supplement works very well with Mind Lab Pro as well.

Performance Lab also offers supplement stacks for Vision, Sleep, a Prebiotic, Sports formulas, and a T-Booster for men.

So if youre feeling frustrated in finding the ideal stack, my hope is this page provides the pointers you need to create your optimalnootropic stack.

My attitude on brain optimization is that good enough isnt nearly good enough until Im performing my best. In all areas of life.

The right combination of nootropics in the right amounts have helped me get to the point where I feel Im performing better than ever.

Near the beginning of this page we identified the main points that lead to cognitive improvement; cognition, decision-making, focus, thinking, memory, anxiety, depression, energy, motivation, brain repair and maintenance.

What I love about the nootropicsoutlined on this page is that it covers each of those categories.

But to help you fine-tune your nootropic stack further. You may want to take a look at each of the following posts I wrote on individual areas of brain optimization.

Best Nootropics for Learning & Memory

Best Nootropics for Social Anxiety

Best Nootropic for ADHD

Best Nootropics for Depression

Best Nootropics for Motivation

Best Nootropics for Hacking a Flow State

13 Nootropics to Boost BDNF

Psychobiotics: The Gut-Brain Connection

[i] Berg J.M., Tymoczko J.L., Stryer L.Biochemistry. 5th edition. New York: W H Freeman; 2002. (source)

[ii] White H.L., Scates P.W. Acetyl-L-carnitine as a precursor of acetylcholine.Neurochemical Research1990 Jun;15(6):597-601. (source)

Read the original post:

Best Nootropics 2018 (Updated) Nootropics Expert

What are Nootropics? – Neurohacker Collective

Nootropics. You might have heard of them. The limitless pill that keeps Billionaires rich. The smart drugs that students are taking to help boost their hyperfocus. The cognitive enhancers that give corporate executives an advantage. All very exciting. But as always, the media are way behind the curve. Yes, for the past few decades, cognitive enhancers were largely sketchy substances that people used to grasp at a short term edge at the expense of their health and wellbeing. But the days of taking prescription pills to pull an all-nighter are so 2010. The better, safer path isnt with these stimulants but with nootropics. Nootropics consist of supplements and substances which enhance your cognition, in particular when it comes to motivation, creativity, memory, and other executive functions.

These days, nootropics are beginning to take their rightful place as a particularly powerful tool in the Neurohackers toolbox. After all, biochemistry is deeply foundational to neural function. Whether you are trying to fix the damage that is done to your nervous system by a stressful and toxic environment or support and enhance your neural functioning, getting the chemistry right is table-stakes. And we are starting to get good at getting it right. Whats changed?

A big part is that we are finally starting to apply complex systems science to psycho-neuro-pharmacology and a nootropic approach. The neural system is awesomely complex and old-fashioned reductionist science has a really hard time with complexity. Big companies spends hundreds of millions of dollars trying to separate the effects of just a single molecule from placebo and nootropics invariably show up as stacks of many different ingredients (ours,Qualia, currently has 42 separate synergistic nootropics ingredients from alpha GPC to bacopa monnieri and L-theanine). That kind of complex, multi pathway input requires a different methodology to understand well that goes beyond simply whats put in capsules.

But, thanks to the efforts of a number of remarkable scientists, researchers and plain-old neurohackers, we are beginning to put together a whole systems model of how all the different parts of the human brain work together and how they mesh with the complex regulatory structures of the body. Its going to take a lot more data and collaboration to dial this model in, but already we are empowered to design stacks that can meaningfully deliver on the promise of nootropics to enhance the quality of subjective experience and promote cognitive health, while having extremely low toxicity and possessing very few side effects. Its a type of brain hacking that is intended to produce noticeable cognitive benefits.

Before taking any supplement or chemical, people want to know if there will be long term effects or consequences, When Dr. Corneliu Giurgea first authored the term nootropics in 1972, he also outlined the characteristics that define nootropics. Besides the ability to benefit memory and support the cognitive processes, Dr. Giurgea believed that nootropics should be safe and non-toxic.

While some people focus on finding a short-term boost, nootropics emphasize long-term effects with noticeable cognitive support over a more extended period. Even though nootropics are intended to be safe, there are a few issues users want addressed before taking these supplements.

The first concern users have is with developing a tolerance to the nootropic. Developing a tolerance means the more you have of a substance, the less effective it gets over time.

Second, users are concerned with the possibility of withdrawal if they stop taking the nootropics. They worry that if they stop taking nootropics they wont be as smart as when they were taking nootropics, and will need to continue taking them to function. Some users report feeling a slight brain fog when discontinuing nootropics, but that isnt a sign of regression.

One of the most common strategies to beat this is cycling. Users who cycle their nootropics take them for a predetermined period, (usually around five days) before taking a two-day break from using them. Once the two days are up, they resume the cycle. By taking a break, nootropic users reduce the tolerance for nootropics and lessen the risk of regression and tolerance symptoms.

With so many different ones to choose from, choosing the best nootropics for you can be overwhelming at times. As usual, a decision this important will require research. Study up on the top nootropics which catch your eye the most. The nootropics you take will depend on what you want the enhancement for. The ingredients within each nootropic determine its specific function. For example, some nootropics contain ginkgo biloba, which can help memory, thinking speed, and increase attention span. Check the nootropic ingredients as you determine what end results you want to see.

Another factor to consider is whether the nootropic is natural or synthetic. Natural nootropics generally have effects which are a bit more subtle, while synthetic nootropics can have more pronounced effects. Its also important to note that there are natural and synthetic nootropics. Some natural nootropics include Ginkgo biloba and ginseng. One benefit to using natural nootropics is they boost brain function and support brain health. They do this by increasing blood flow and oxygen delivery to the arteries and veins in the brain.

Some nootropics are more commonly used than others. These include nutrients likeAlpha GPC,huperzine A,L-Theanine,bacopa monnieri,andvinpocetine.Other types of nootropics are still gaining traction. With all that in mind, to claim there is a best nootropic for everyone would be the wrong approach since every person is unique and looking for different benefits.

Even the best of todays nootropics only just barely scratch the surface. You might say that we are in the Nokia 1100 phase of taking nootropics, and as better tools and more data come along, the leading thinkers in the space see a powerful future. For example, they are already beginning to look past biochemistry to the epigenome. Not only is the epigenome the code that runs much of your native biochemistry, we now know that experiences in life can be recorded in your epigenome and then passed onto future generations. There is every reason to believe that you are currently running epigenetic code that you inherited from your great-grandmothers life experiences. And there is every reason to believe that the epigenome can be hacked that the nootropics of the future can not only support and enhance our biochemistry, but can permanently change the epigenetic code that drives that biochemistry and that we pass onto our children.

Well dive into the cognition enhancing possibilities in future posts, but for now, here are just a few resources to get you started in exploring this domain of neurohacking:

Steven Fowkes- quora facebook google+ youtube linkedin* Organic chemist who co-wrote the foundational book onSmart Drugs* Founded theCognitive Enhancement Research Institute* FoundedProject Wellbeing* Related interests: Nutrition, Neurohacking/ Biohacking, Human Performance, Nano-tech

David Pearce– @webmasterdave — facebook* Wrote the online bible of nootropics atnootropics.com* Founder ofThe Hedonistic Imperative, a project outlining how bioengineering and nanotechnology will abolish suffering in all sentient life*The Hedonistic ImperativeFacebook public group*The Abolitionist Project* Related Interests: Philosophy of mind, Ethics, Transhumanism, AI

Joe Cohen–@Selfhacked* Authors the blogSelfHacked* Embodies much of the neurohacker ethos; taking responsibility for his health & wellbeing and upgrading his experience through research and self-experimentation

Longecity: Brain Health@imminstfacebook* Forum for discussing nootropic stacks and mental healthReddit Forum Groups Forum for discussing nootropics and cognitive enhancers*r/Nootropics/@CognitvEnhancer ,@Smart_Drugs,@Nootropix* r/CognitiveEnhancement/* r/DrugNerds@DrugNerdsBluelight* Forum for discussing brain nootropics and psychedelics

Examine.com* An independent encyclopedia on supplementation and nutrition.PubMed* Citations for biomedical literatureConsumerLab.com* Independent testing of health and nutrition products

Educational Blogs & WebsitesNootriment* Research-backed content & reviews of effectiveness of supplementsSmarter Nootropics

Self Tracking Apps & Brain Training ProgramsCambridge Brain SciencesTrackMyStackStackDB.netNootDBDual N-BackQuantified Mind

Vendors / SuppliersCeretropic

Read the original here:

What are Nootropics? – Neurohacker Collective

The Big List of Nootropics | Braintropic

The list of nootropics below is grouped into various benefits that they can offer. Please note that this list is updated periodically.

Most people are initially drawn to nootropics for their memory boosting effects. Nootropics have been studied extensively over the years with some of them demonstrating cognitive enhancing properties in cognitively impaired individuals and often in healthy adults as well.

Recommended Nootropics for Memory Enhancement:

Recommended Stacks:

Nootropics can also be great at increasing ones level of attention and focus. Generally, someone with a low attention span can be incredibly smart, however, if their level of attention and focus is low, they will not be able to reach their maximum potential.

Recommended Nootropics for Attention and Focus:

Stack Recommendations:

Being in a poor mood or depressed state can have an extremely adverse effect on ones cognition. Maintaining a good mood is important, and often is not simply a matter of mindset or willpower. While those with clinical depression must turn to medical attention, if you have a lack of happy moods or somewhat slight depression, these nootropics may help.

Recommended Nootropics for Mood and Depression:

Recommended Stacks:

These are nootropics that may increase your general level of health and well-being. They promote maximum levels of efficiency in your body. These nootropics are even thought by some to extend ones lifespan and delay age-related cognitive decline.

Recommended Nootropics for Longevity and Anti-Aging:

Anxiety can be an extremely disruptive part of ones cognition. Despite how intelligent an individual might be, anxiety can interfere with mental performance.

Recommended Nootropics for Anxiety:

Stack Recommendation: I designed the Best Nootropic Stack around the above ideas of how to push myself to the limit of my cognition and enabled myself to be the most productive I could be academically, and business-wise. Indeed, this is one of my favorite stacks.

Sleep is another crucial part of enhancing your cognition. Many nootropic supplements can be taken at night to improve your sleep quality. Sleep is vital for your brain to perform at its best.

Recommended Nootropics forSleep:

Recommended Stack:

Planning to start a new supplementation regimen? See our medical disclaimer.

See original here:

The Big List of Nootropics | Braintropic

Nootropics Expert | The Authority on Nootropic Supplements

Hi David,So Im relatively new to Nootropics. I have done extensive reading on your website, but had a specific help question. Below is a brief summary of my medicated world of mental health:

Last year, a psychiatrist diagnosed me with Anxiety induced ADHD. (Which explained a lot of my academic struggles, feelings of self-worth, etc.)

She started out by prescribing me a Sustained Release (generic version of) Wellbutrin. (150mg) This helped considerably with my feelings of fatigue and lethargy, but didnt do very much in terms of motivation/focus/desire to study or get work done. (I am both a teacher and a student) She had also prescribed some sort of non-addictive anti-anxiety medication which made me feel ill (so I discontinued use within just a few days.)

I like to think Im very aware of both my body and my mind Ive practiced yoga for close to ten years now. I try to eat healthfully, and I try to practice self-care as much as possible.

About 7 months ago, though my doctor added Adderall (combination dosage 20mg XR & 20 mg IR) to my regimen p/day. That, and a new hormonal birth control, has really thrown my life off kilter.

At first, Adderall helped with getting all my work done! Staying focused, on-task, memory, etc. But more recently, I have experienced increased irritability and strong fits of anger(paired with a seemingly greater tolerance to Adderall? It seems to last for a shorter time.)

I have been trying to track how these emotional reactions relate to the time of the month, but is increasingly difficult to track the timing of my mood swings. (My partner has also noticed a change in my behavior.)

I try to take breaks from Adderall, but I find it quite difficult with an increased workload as of late. The days I do take breaks, I get by with combination Caffeine/L-Theanine.

Research into Nootropics, though, gives me hope that there is a better solution for my struggles.

What would you recommend? Ive looked at your suggestions for ADHD and Anxiety (separately), I was just wondering if there was something youd suggest based on my current RX. (I would like to taper off of prescription drugs, ideally. Perhaps come summer time, when I experience a true break, I will be able to relax more with a decreased work schedule

My current idea for a stack includes: Vitamin B-complex, L-theanine, L-tyrosine, Magnesium. Perhaps a cycled 5HTP? (for when PMS is nearly debilitating)

Anyways, if youve read this far, I sincerely appreciate it! Thank you in advance for your consideration.

All the best,M.

Original post:

Nootropics Expert | The Authority on Nootropic Supplements

Nootropic – Wikipedia

Nootropics ( noh–TROP-iks) (colloquial: smart drugs and cognitive enhancers) are drugs, supplements, and other substances that may improve cognitive function, particularly executive functions, memory, creativity, or motivation, in healthy individuals.[1] While many substances are purported to improve cognition, research is at a preliminary stage as of 2018, and the effects of the majority of these agents are not fully determined.

The use of cognition-enhancing drugs by healthy individuals in the absence of a medical indication spans numerous controversial issues, including the ethics and fairness of their use, concerns over adverse effects, and the diversion of prescription drugs for nonmedical uses, among others.[1][2] Nonetheless, the international sales of cognition-enhancing supplements exceeded US$1 billion in 2015 when global demand for these compounds grew.[3]

The word nootropic was coined in 1972 by a Romanian psychologist and chemist, Corneliu E. Giurgea,[4][5] from the Greek words (nous), or “mind”, and (trepein), meaning to bend or turn.[6]

In 2008, the most commonly used class of drug was stimulants, such as caffeine.[7] Manufacturer’s marketing claims for dietary supplements are usually not formally tested and verified by independent entities.[8]

The use of prescription stimulants is especially prevalent among students.[9] Surveys suggest that 0.74.5% of German students have used cognitive enhancers in their lifetime.[10][11][12] Stimulants such as dimethylamylamine and methylphenidate are used on college campuses and by younger groups.[13] Based upon studies of self-reported illicit stimulant use, 535% of college students use diverted ADHD stimulants, which are primarily intended for performance enhancement rather than as recreational drugs.[14][15][16] Several factors positively and negatively influence an individual’s willingness to use a drug for the purpose of enhancing cognitive performance. Among them are personal characteristics, drug characteristics, and characteristics of the social context.[10][11][17][18]

The main concern with pharmaceutical drugs is adverse effects, which also apply to nootropics with undefined effects. Long-term safety evidence is typically unavailable for nootropics.[13] Racetams piracetam and other compounds that are structurally related to piracetam have few serious adverse effects and low toxicity, but there is little evidence that they enhance cognition in people having no cognitive impairments.[19]

In the United States, dietary supplements may be marketed if the manufacturer can show that the supplement is generally recognized as safe, and if the manufacturer does not make any claims about using the supplement to treat or prevent any disease or condition; supplements that contain drugs or advertise health claims are illegal under US law.[20]

Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of clinical human research using low doses of certain central nervous system stimulants found enhanced cognition in healthy people.[21][22][23] In particular, the classes of stimulants that demonstrate cognition-enhancing effects in humans act as direct agonists or indirect agonists of dopamine receptor D1, adrenoceptor A2, or both types of receptor in the prefrontal cortex.[21][22][24][25] Relatively high doses of stimulants cause cognitive deficits.[24][25]

Racetams, such as piracetam, oxiracetam, and aniracetam, which are often marketed as cognitive enhancers and sold over-the-counter. Racetams are often referred to as nootropics, but this property is not well established.[31] The racetams have poorly understood mechanisms, although piracetam and aniracetam are known to act as positive allosteric modulators of AMPA receptors and appear to modulate cholinergic systems.[32]

According to the US Food and Drug Administration, “Piracetam is not a vitamin, mineral, amino acid, herb or other botanical, or dietary substance for use by man to supplement the diet by increasing the total dietary intake. Further, piracetam is not a concentrate, metabolite, constituent, extract or combination of any such dietary ingredient. […] Accordingly, these products are drugs, under section 201(g)(1)(C) of the Act, 21 U.S.C. 321(g)(1)(C), because they are not foods and they are intended to affect the structure or any function of the body. Moreover, these products are new drugs as defined by section 201(p) of the Act, 21 U.S.C. 321(p), because they are not generally recognized as safe and effective for use under the conditions prescribed, recommended, or suggested in their labeling.”[33]

Read the original here:

Nootropic – Wikipedia

Nootropics.com | The Best Nootropics For Beginners & Experts

Premium nootropics, cognitive enhancers and smart supplements.

New or a connoisseur, dont settle for less than the best for your nootropics journey.

Value your brain.

Nootropics are synthetic compounds that help you to accomplish your goals through improved cognition, better recall and crystal-clear focus.

Safe and secure.

Discover what works for you safely.We provide only the best supported compounds, alongside third-party testing and complete transparency.

Order with confidence.

Free delivery on all U.S. orders over $50 and on international orders over $200.

Read the original post:

Nootropics.com | The Best Nootropics For Beginners & Experts

Pure Nootropics – Official Site

Welcome to pure nootropics

Popular items from our store

Rated 4.50 out of 5

Rated 5.00 out of 5

Rated 4.71 out of 5

Rated 5.00 out of 5

Rated 4.58 out of 5

Rated 5.00 out of 5

Rated 4.90 out of 5

Rated 4.65 out of 5

New to Nootropics? Start Here:

Here are some selected posts from our knowledgebase/blog. These posts are a good starting point for those new to cognitive enhancement or those that simply dont know where to start.

A brief introduction to cognitive enhancement supplements, also known as Nootropics

New Items

Rated 4.25 out of 5

LATEST UPDATES FROM OUR BLOG

More:

Pure Nootropics – Official Site

Buy The Best Nootropics Online Today at Nootropics Depot

Nootropics Depot features an extensive range of dietary supplements and nootropic compounds. Nootropics Depot offers the best nootropics and natural extracts from industry leading manufacturers including Nammex, Verdure Sciences, Embria Health Science, and Ixoreal Biomed.

We provide a variety of dietary supplements and nootropic compounds in both capsule and powder forms, allowing you to develop the best nootropic stack.

From common cholinergics to whole fruiting body medicinal mushroom extracts and fish oil supplements, Nootropics Depot provides a wide range of dietary supplements and nootropic compounds. Sort our product selection by use such as nootropics, amino acid supplements, mushroom extract supplements, or increasingly popular ayurvedic supplements.

When you buy from Nootropics Depot, you can trust that you are getting a quality product that has undergone extensive testing for both purity and identity. Nootropics Depot routinely conducts in-house and third-party lab testing to ensure product authenticity and efficacy.

.

See the latest updates to our nootropics blog below to begin exploring the vast world of nootropics and dietary supplements.

What Is Melatonin and How Was It Discovered?Melatonin is a

Why Use Immune Boosting Supplements?With winter fast approaching, and

Nootropics Depot’s Guide to the Top 10 Natural Nootropics of 2018

COGNIZIN CITICOLINE: A CHOLINE SUPPLEMENT THAT SUPPORTS HEALTHY BRAIN FUNCTIONWhat sets Cognizin Citicoline apart from other choline sources is its unique composition…

7,8 DIHYDROXYFLAVONE: A BRAIN HEALTH SUPPLEMENT THAT MAY SUPPORT NEUROPLASTICITY7,8-Dihydroxyflavone, also known as 7,8-DHF, is a naturally occurring flavone…

CREATINE: A NOOTROPIC FOR BODYBUILDERS, ATHLETES, VEGANS, AND VEGETARIANSCreatine is an important molecule that is produced by our bodies and consumed through our diet…

HOW TO FIND THE BEST CURCUMIN SUPPLEMENT AND WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW BEFORE YOU BUYCurcumin is a diarylheptanoid which is found in turmeric rhizomes…

COMPARING RHODIOLA ROSEA EXTRACTS: ROSAVINS VS. SALIDROSIDERhodiola rosea, more commonly known as golden root or rose root…

BERBERINE: A LOOK AT THE POTENTIAL BENEFITS OF THIS VERSATILE SUPPLEMENTBerberine is a bright yellow alkaloid that is found in a variety of plants…

HERICIUM ERINACEUS: WHICH IS THE BEST LION’S MANE MUSHROOM FOR YOU?Hericium erinaceus, also known as lions mane mushroom…

NITRIC OXIDE SUPPLEMENTS REVIEWED: L-CITRULLINE, AGMATINE AND AAKGNitric oxide is a very interesting neurotransmitter within the body…

GANODERMA LUCIDUM: WHICH IS THE BEST RED REISHI MUSHROOM FOR YOU?We are often asked which Red Reishi extract is best…

COMPREHENSIVE GUIDE TO THE BEST ANTI-AGING SUPPLEMENTSLet’s facilitate a healthy aging process, rather than trying to completely halt it…

WHICH IS THE BEST CORDYCEPS MUSHROOM FOR YOU?Did you know not all Cordyceps mushroom extracts are made the same way?

BACOPA MONNIERI: BACOGNIZE VS. SYNAPSA – WHICH AYURVEDIC HERB IS RIGHT FOR YOU?Commonly known as the waterhyssop or brahmi…

THE NOOTROPIC SYNERGY OF CAFFEINE AND L-THEANINEOne of the most popular natural nootropic stacks is a simple combination of L-theanine and caffeine…

L-CITRULLINE VS. L-CITRULLINE DL-MALATE: WHICH IS BEST?L-citrulline is one of three dietary amino acids involved in the urea cycle…

SHILAJIT: A LOOK AT THIS AMAZING AYURVEDIC SUPPLEMENTShilajit is a sticky, tar-like substance often appearing dark brown in color…

ULTIMATE GUIDE TO CHOLINE SUPPLEMENTSCholine is an essential nutrient that is found in a variety of foods…

ULTIMATE GUIDE TO KRILL AND FISH OIL SUPPLEMENTSFish oil supplements are going to provide a very solid base to build a nootropics stack upon…

WHAT YOU MIGHT NOT KNOW ABOUT PANAX GINSENG SUPPLEMENTSGinseng is one of the most well known herbs in the world…

Visit link:

Buy The Best Nootropics Online Today at Nootropics Depot

Buy The Best Nootropics Online Today at Nootropics Depot

Nootropics Depot features an extensive range of dietary supplements and nootropic compounds. Nootropics Depot offers the best nootropics and natural extracts from industry leading manufacturers including Nammex, Verdure Sciences, Embria Health Science, and Ixoreal Biomed.

We provide a variety of dietary supplements and nootropic compounds in both capsule and powder forms, allowing you to develop the best nootropic stack.

From common cholinergics to whole fruiting body medicinal mushroom extracts and fish oil supplements, Nootropics Depot provides a wide range of dietary supplements and nootropic compounds. Sort our product selection by use such as nootropics, amino acid supplements, mushroom extract supplements, or increasingly popular ayurvedic supplements.

When you buy from Nootropics Depot, you can trust that you are getting a quality product that has undergone extensive testing for both purity and identity. Nootropics Depot routinely conducts in-house and third-party lab testing to ensure product authenticity and efficacy.

.

See the latest updates to our nootropics blog below to begin exploring the vast world of nootropics and dietary supplements.

Why Use Immune Boosting Supplements?With winter fast approaching, and

Nootropics Depot’s Guide to the Top 10 Natural Nootropics of 2018

What is EpiCor?EpiCor is a groundbreaking immune supplement with published

COGNIZIN CITICOLINE: A CHOLINE SUPPLEMENT THAT SUPPORTS HEALTHY BRAIN FUNCTIONWhat sets Cognizin Citicoline apart from other choline sources is its unique composition…

7,8 DIHYDROXYFLAVONE: A BRAIN HEALTH SUPPLEMENT THAT MAY SUPPORT NEUROPLASTICITY7,8-Dihydroxyflavone, also known as 7,8-DHF, is a naturally occurring flavone…

CREATINE: A NOOTROPIC FOR BODYBUILDERS, ATHLETES, VEGANS, AND VEGETARIANSCreatine is an important molecule that is produced by our bodies and consumed through our diet…

HOW TO FIND THE BEST CURCUMIN SUPPLEMENT AND WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW BEFORE YOU BUYCurcumin is a diarylheptanoid which is found in turmeric rhizomes…

COMPARING RHODIOLA ROSEA EXTRACTS: ROSAVINS VS. SALIDROSIDERhodiola rosea, more commonly known as golden root or rose root…

BERBERINE: A LOOK AT THE POTENTIAL BENEFITS OF THIS VERSATILE SUPPLEMENTBerberine is a bright yellow alkaloid that is found in a variety of plants…

HERICIUM ERINACEUS: WHICH IS THE BEST LION’S MANE MUSHROOM FOR YOU?Hericium erinaceus, also known as lions mane mushroom…

NITRIC OXIDE SUPPLEMENTS REVIEWED: L-CITRULLINE, AGMATINE AND AAKGNitric oxide is a very interesting neurotransmitter within the body…

GANODERMA LUCIDUM: WHICH IS THE BEST RED REISHI MUSHROOM FOR YOU?We are often asked which Red Reishi extract is best…

COMPREHENSIVE GUIDE TO THE BEST ANTI-AGING SUPPLEMENTSLet’s facilitate a healthy aging process, rather than trying to completely halt it…

WHICH IS THE BEST CORDYCEPS MUSHROOM FOR YOU?Did you know not all Cordyceps mushroom extracts are made the same way?

BACOPA MONNIERI: BACOGNIZE VS. SYNAPSA – WHICH AYURVEDIC HERB IS RIGHT FOR YOU?Commonly known as the waterhyssop or brahmi…

THE NOOTROPIC SYNERGY OF CAFFEINE AND L-THEANINEOne of the most popular natural nootropic stacks is a simple combination of L-theanine and caffeine…

L-CITRULLINE VS. L-CITRULLINE DL-MALATE: WHICH IS BEST?L-citrulline is one of three dietary amino acids involved in the urea cycle…

SHILAJIT: A LOOK AT THIS AMAZING AYURVEDIC SUPPLEMENTShilajit is a sticky, tar-like substance often appearing dark brown in color…

ULTIMATE GUIDE TO CHOLINE SUPPLEMENTSCholine is an essential nutrient that is found in a variety of foods…

ULTIMATE GUIDE TO KRILL AND FISH OIL SUPPLEMENTSFish oil supplements are going to provide a very solid base to build a nootropics stack upon…

WHAT YOU MIGHT NOT KNOW ABOUT PANAX GINSENG SUPPLEMENTSGinseng is one of the most well known herbs in the world…

Read the original post:

Buy The Best Nootropics Online Today at Nootropics Depot

Nootropics r/Nootropics – reddit

Low bioavailability of polyphenols can protect against their toxicity

Many polyphenols, while showing significant healthspan-improving effects in animal models, are notorious for their poor bioavailability. This has led to the thought that when consumed orally, they won’t be effective in humans, and thus many supplement companies are seeking methods to enhance the bioavailability of polyphenols.

Their poor bioavailability, however, might be a blessing rather than a curse. Polyphenols work because they are slightly toxic (through Hormesis): polyphenols are (or metabolized into) pro-oxidants; they react with cellular molecules and can cause damage. They are also electrophilic, binding to electrons in the atoms of molecules, disrupting normal enzymatic activity. In low doses, these minor stresses they induce is quickly over-compensated for, resulting in long-term cellular adaptation (upregulation of protective pathways such as Nrf2, SOD, AMPK). In other words, the tiny stress they induce is not enough to cause damage, but rather, to make the cells more resilient to future stress[1] .

However, in high doses, polyphenols can be very toxic to cells; the protection mechanisms that compensate for the damage are overwhelmed, and so a high enough intracellular concentration of some polyphenols will cause oxidative damage, as opposed to adaptation from low doses. This is the main reason why certain polyphenols can be mutagenic/genotoxic in high concentrations[2] .

This is not an issue with oral consumption of most polyphenols, since the liver is able to metabolize most polyphenols into harmless compounds – this is why most polyphenols have poor bioavailability. In other words, if the bioavailability was higher, they could have caused damage.

Some polyphenols, however, are not metabolized so well by the liver, which makes them absorb well into the bloodstream. One example is EGCG, from green tea, which has a relatively high oral bioavailability in humans[3] . Whereas oral consumption of most polyphenols is safe even in high doses, very high doses of EGCG are able to cause liver damage[4] . This liver damage seems to be inhibited by NAC[5] (in vitro), suggesting that the type of damage EGCG induces is oxidative in nature. Interestingly, NAC is also used to protect against Acetaminophen/Paracetamol liver damage in emergency rooms.

Polyphenols may have systemic (whole-body) effects without being absorbed at all

High bioavailability is usually seen as a requirement for drug efficacy, but this is not necessarily true with polyphenols. As said above, most polyphenols are pro-oxidants, which in low doses activates protection and repair mechanisms (so the net effect is less oxidative stress, despite them being pro-oxidant). One of these protection mechanisms is the AMPK enzyme, which when activated, can protect cells against various kinds of stress/damage. It was shown that AMPK activation in the duodenum by Metformin is sufficient for its glucose-lowering effect, meaning its absorption into the bloodstream is not necessary for its primary therapeutic effect. This is further supported by the finding that Berberine has significant hypoglycemic effects in humans, like Metformin, despite extremely low bioavailability of the former[6][7] . Since many polyphenols activate AMPK as one of their primary mechanisms of action, their health effects might be independent of their bioavailability.

Originally posted here:

Nootropics r/Nootropics – reddit

Pure Nootropics – Official Site

Welcome to pure nootropics

Popular items from our store

Rated 4.50 out of 5

Rated 5.00 out of 5

Rated 4.71 out of 5

Rated 5.00 out of 5

Rated 4.58 out of 5

Rated 5.00 out of 5

Rated 4.90 out of 5

Rated 4.65 out of 5

New to Nootropics? Start Here:

Here are some selected posts from our knowledgebase/blog. These posts are a good starting point for those new to cognitive enhancement or those that simply dont know where to start.

A brief introduction to cognitive enhancement supplements, also known as Nootropics

New Items

Rated 4.25 out of 5

LATEST UPDATES FROM OUR BLOG

See the original post here:

Pure Nootropics – Official Site

Nootropic – Wikipedia

Nootropics ( noh–TROP-iks) (colloquial: smart drugs and cognitive enhancers) are drugs, supplements, and other substances that may improve cognitive function, particularly executive functions, memory, creativity, or motivation, in healthy individuals.[1] While many substances are purported to improve cognition, research is at a preliminary stage as of 2018, and the effects of the majority of these agents are not fully determined.

The use of cognition-enhancing drugs by healthy individuals in the absence of a medical indication spans numerous controversial issues, including the ethics and fairness of their use, concerns over adverse effects, and the diversion of prescription drugs for nonmedical uses, among others.[1][2] Nonetheless, the international sales of cognition-enhancing supplements exceeded US$1 billion in 2015 when global demand for these compounds grew.[3]

The word nootropic was coined in 1972 by a Romanian psychologist and chemist, Corneliu E. Giurgea,[4][5] from the Greek words (nous), or “mind”, and (trepein), meaning to bend or turn.[6]

In 2008, the most commonly used class of drug was stimulants, such as caffeine.[7] Manufacturer’s marketing claims for dietary supplements are usually not formally tested and verified by independent entities.[8]

The use of prescription stimulants is especially prevalent among students.[9] Surveys suggest that 0.74.5% of German students have used cognitive enhancers in their lifetime.[10][11][12] Stimulants such as dimethylamylamine and methylphenidate are used on college campuses and by younger groups.[13] Based upon studies of self-reported illicit stimulant use, 535% of college students use diverted ADHD stimulants, which are primarily intended for performance enhancement rather than as recreational drugs.[14][15][16] Several factors positively and negatively influence an individual’s willingness to use a drug for the purpose of enhancing cognitive performance. Among them are personal characteristics, drug characteristics, and characteristics of the social context.[10][11][17][18]

The main concern with pharmaceutical drugs is adverse effects, which also apply to nootropics with undefined effects. Long-term safety evidence is typically unavailable for nootropics.[13] Racetams piracetam and other compounds that are structurally related to piracetam have few serious adverse effects and low toxicity, but there is little evidence that they enhance cognition in people having no cognitive impairments.[19]

In the United States, dietary supplements may be marketed if the manufacturer can show that the supplement is generally recognized as safe, and if the manufacturer does not make any claims about using the supplement to treat or prevent any disease or condition; supplements that contain drugs or advertise health claims are illegal under US law.[20]

Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of clinical human research using low doses of certain central nervous system stimulants found enhanced cognition in healthy people.[21][22][23] In particular, the classes of stimulants that demonstrate cognition-enhancing effects in humans act as direct agonists or indirect agonists of dopamine receptor D1, adrenoceptor A2, or both types of receptor in the prefrontal cortex.[21][22][24][25] Relatively high doses of stimulants cause cognitive deficits.[24][25]

Racetams, such as piracetam, oxiracetam, and aniracetam, which are often marketed as cognitive enhancers and sold over-the-counter. Racetams are often referred to as nootropics, but this property is not well established.[31] The racetams have poorly understood mechanisms, although piracetam and aniracetam are known to act as positive allosteric modulators of AMPA receptors and appear to modulate cholinergic systems.[32]

According to the US Food and Drug Administration, “Piracetam is not a vitamin, mineral, amino acid, herb or other botanical, or dietary substance for use by man to supplement the diet by increasing the total dietary intake. Further, piracetam is not a concentrate, metabolite, constituent, extract or combination of any such dietary ingredient. […] Accordingly, these products are drugs, under section 201(g)(1)(C) of the Act, 21 U.S.C. 321(g)(1)(C), because they are not foods and they are intended to affect the structure or any function of the body. Moreover, these products are new drugs as defined by section 201(p) of the Act, 21 U.S.C. 321(p), because they are not generally recognized as safe and effective for use under the conditions prescribed, recommended, or suggested in their labeling.”[33]

Go here to read the rest:

Nootropic – Wikipedia

The Complete Introduction To Nootropics, From Beginner To …

Everything you need to know about nootropics: what they are, what they do, all the jargon explained, and how to find the best nootropics for you.

Nootropics are synthetic compounds that improve the cognitive abilities of healthy individuals. In their basic state theyre powders, but we sell them in capsule form. Nootropics are not medicines: medicines bring you back to health when youre sick, whilst nootropics help you improve when youre healthy.

Given the unique effect profile of each nootropic compound, and given the variation in peoples brain chemistry, individuals can use different nootropics for different purposes and outcomes. The most commonly sought-after effects are enhanced cognition, motivation and concentration.

The term nootropics is relatively recent, the name having been coined in 1972 by Romanian chemist Corneliu Giurgea to describe compounds that could turn the mind (from Greek, nous trepein). There is no universally accepted set of formal criteria for what qualifies as a nootropic, but Dr. Giurgeas original definition still holds sway. He considered that for any substance to be called a nootropic, it must:

In common online usage, the term nootropic is applied to any substance that can provide safe cognitive benefits to users, where benefits has a very broad range of meaning.

For example, Phenibut is often used as a socialising and extroversion booster, whilst Tianeptine is often used for its mood-brightening and anti-stress effects.

In general, a substance can be called a nootropic if it grants the user more control over their neurochemistry and the resulting behavioural and experiential outcomes.

In general, a substance can be called a nootropic if it grants the user more control over their neurochemistry and the resulting behavioural and experiential outcomes. On this view Melatonin also qualifies, given its ability to allow a user to intelligently regulate theirsleep cycle.

Ideologically, nootropics are celebrated for their ability to allow individuals to gain some mastery over their brain chemistry and the resulting mental states. For the history of the human species, brain chemistry has been largely inaccessible to targeted improvement, leaving us the prisoners of our biology. Nootropics are humanitys first tentative forays into taking control of our mood and intellect at the chemical level.

Nootropics allow users greater control over their states, moods, and cognitive abilities. In the same way as the caffeine in a morning coffee can wake you up and ready you for the day, nootropics can be used for a range of functional benefits.

Useful for their productivity and motivational effects, nootropics provide a boost for getting essential tasks done. Ideal for high-pressure cognitive work such as studying, essays and exams.

Additionally, some users take nootropics for a boost in social ability, including benefits to confidence, extroversion and verbal fluidity. Ideal for public speaking, presentations and parties.

More recently, nootropics have begun to be included in pre-workout mixes to ensure that exercise can be carried out with an iron will. When your motivation needs an extra edge, nootropics can help.

Some nootropics also provide neuroprotective effects, supporting brain health and stimulating the generation of new neurons. Maintain and support the engine of your productivity and creativity.

Nootropics can allow improvements to mental wellbeing, acting as anxiety aids, anti-depressants and mood brighteners. When you need a healthy lift to your mood, nootropics can help.

More on each of these, including specific useful nootropics, below.

Motivation and concentration can often be fleeting and fickle, and whilst nootropics can never replace a disciplined workflow, they can give you a substantial boost towards getting your critical tasks done, and getting them done well.

For long periods of concentrated cognitive effort, such as study, revision, essays, writing introductions to nootropics, and other time-consuming and mentally demanding tasks, longer lasting nootropics such as Adrafinil, Piracetam and Phenylpiracetam are ideal.

the potency of these nootropics is such that one journalist pondered whether they are a form of cheating that should be banned

These show evidence of improving learning ability, recall, problem solving, concentration, motivation and general cognition. And these are effects that you can really notice: distractions seem to fade away, intrusive thoughts seem quietened, the work seems more rewarding and less of a chore. In fact, the potency of these nootropics is such that one journalist pondered whether they are a form of cheating that should be banned.

For short periods of intensive cognitive load under high pressure, such as exams or public speaking, nootropics can also provide a controlled peak of sustained mental performance.

Short-duration, high power nootropics such as Aniracetam and Noopept can provide exactly the edge you need. These zone out distractions and fuel your cognitive processes, enhancing and ensuring mental performance for the most critical of tasks.

For some people socialising can feel like an energy-depleting activity, even when its enjoyable. And thats okay: some are naturally less extroverted. But the paradox of wanting to do an exhausting activity can be frustrating.

For others, the problem isnt exhaustion, but rather they are plagued by anxiety. For them, self-doubt and low confidence can make meeting new people, and even old friends, feel like a mammoth task. For others, communicating effectively and precisely can be a struggle, especially when articulating thoughts feels like a chore.

For each of these cases, the good news is that nootropics can help. When used correctly, they are a powerful tool for assisting and enhancing your social abilities, best treated as part of a rounded strategy of self-improvement.

[Nootropics] are a powerful tool for assisting and enhancing your social abilities, best treated as part of a rounded strategy of self-improvement.

For extroversion, and greater energy for socially draining situations, Phenibut is often celebrated for its social-enhancement properties, which create a calm and collected affect. The effects are subtle: theres none of the buzz of alcohol or other traditional aids to socialising. Instead, social interactions simply feel less taxing, and it can often be that only at the end of an evening do you realise you enjoyed yourself more than usual.

For helping with anxiety and anxiousness, in the broadest sense taking care of your mental health will always be the best strategy see Wellbeing below. When used in conjunction with good mental health practices, nootropics can be a useful aid in overcoming low self-confidence and anxiety. Naturally occurring in tea, L-Theanine is well supported as a potent supplement for anti-stress, anti-anxiety, and comfortable relaxation. In its concentrated form and separated from caffeine, it provides a mellow calm that smooths away the rough edges of anxiety.

For clearer and more precise speaking, Aniracetam and Phenylpiracetam show evidence of improving verbal fluidity as part of their thought-enhancing effects. Communication becomes easier and more exact, with the words flowing more smoothly and capturing more of what needs to be conveyed. These can give you the linguistic boost you need for all forms of public communication, whether at parties, at the podium or slaving over papers.

Whilst nootropics are not medicines, they can can provide a range of benefits for the health-conscious. Boosts to motivation are not only advantageous for cognitive tasks, as physical exertion and exercise are also fuelled by your willpower. When you need to run that extra mile, or complete that last set, nootropics can grant you a vital boost to your endurance.

Boosts to motivation are not only advantageous for cognitive tasks, as physical exertion and exercise are also fuelled by your willpower.

Additionally, nootropics show evidence of supporting brain health: many nootropics were originally synthesized for treating Alzheimers, dementia, and other cognitive-degenerative disorders. As a whole, they offer neuroprotective and neurogenerative effects, protecting your brain and keeping your neurons healthy.

For exercise, and the focus needed to maintain peak performance, Phenylpiracetam is an ideal pre-workout addition. This potent racetam shows evidence of enhancing stamina and physical endurance so much so that professional athletes are prohibited from taking these substances when competing in official events.

Recently, Noopept has also gained popularity as a pre-workout booster for maximised willpower and resilience, allowing you that extra burst of motivation for breaking down those mental barriers.

For brain health, whilst all nootropic compounds show some neuroprotective effects, a range of celebrated benefits have been attributed to Citicoline (Choline CDP). This refined form of Choline shows solid evidence of benefits to brain resilience, neuroplasticity, and neurogenesis. Additionally, it works as a supreme accompaniment to cognitive enhancing nootropics for more information see Combinations/Stacks.

Whilst taking care of yourself and your mental health is paramount, sometimes greater control over your brain chemistry is exactly whats needed. Nootropics are not anti-depressants, and are no replacement for thoughtful mental care, but when used well they can provide a range of tools for boosting your happiness and improving your life.

Regular sleep patterns are crucial for maintaining a healthy work balance, and here nootropics can help. Whilst greater concentration and focus are helpful, boosts to your day-to-day mood can be exactly what you need. And for others, stress and anxiety get in the way of productivity, and direct interventions can be hard to find. For each of these, nootropic compounds can allow you to take control of your brain (and consequently your life!).

Nootropics are no replacement for thoughtful mental care, but when used well they can provide a range of tools for boosting your happiness and improving your life.

For sleep, Melatonin is perfect, especially given that getting enough sleep is one of the most reliable predictors of wellbeing. A synthetic version of a naturally occurring neurotransmitter, Melatonin creates familiar feelings of drowsiness that result in a relaxing and revitalising sleep. Though not usually considered a nootropic, its ability to allow a user to decide precisely when they wish to sleep earns it its place in this guide. Ideal for resetting and regulating sleep cycles, whether from jet lag or broken routines.

For affecting mood more directly, Tianeptine has been shown to be surprisingly effective. It creates a subtle short-duration mood brightening effect that serves as a very mild lift, useful for motivation and mental fuel. Additionally, when taken at standard dosages over a long period, it has shown long-term wellbeing improving effects with comparable effectiveness to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), though with a different method of action. For times when low mood has you feeling paralysed, it can be exactly what you need to break out and get things done.

For stress and anxiety, L-Theanines renowned calming effects can put you back in control. When your head feels cluttered by intrusive thoughts or rogue worries, it can clear your mind to create a medium-duration relaxed mental space. In conjunction with good mental practices, it can help you to banish the stresses of overwork and competing demands on your attention.

The goal of taking nootropics is simply to obtain specific desirable cognitive effects. Its important to know that how (and how often) you take nootropics will affect your outcomes.

One of the biggest mistakes new nootropics users make is thinking that taking more of a substance is always better The key is to find an optimal dose that works for you.

Your brain chemistry and certain chemical compounds interact in complex ways, and so the same substance taken at different doses or at different times can lead to different effects.

To get a good overview of some of the important considerations, familiarize yourself with these commonly used terms:

One of the biggest mistakes new nootropics users make is thinking that taking more of a substance is always better. The reality is that at high doses the costs of side effects often outweigh the benefits. However, everyone is affected differently, and at too low a dose, the main effect might not be noticeable. The key is to find an optimal dose that works for you.

Nootropics are only active for a limited amount of time in your body, so you might want to take a nootropic multiple times per day in order to maintain an effect. Caution is essential for how often a nootropic is taken, as overdosing can lead to two specific and undesirable side effects:

Tolerance, in which our bodies build resistance towards a nootropic compound, limiting its efficacy. Just as alcohol or caffeine has more effect on a first-time drinker than a veteran of many years, the same is true of nootropics. So nootropic users try to thoughtfully regulate their intake so that tolerance doesnt develop (also, see Cycling below).

It is also worth knowing about what is commonly called the honeymoon period: the experience of when a nootropic works especially well the first few times you take it, then drops in efficacy as your body becomes used to it. After the honeymoon period is over, some will increase their dose until they experience the full effect again, though this carries risks. It is important to be careful if this happens to you, as you may be tempted to exceed recommended doses. If tolerance builds faster than expected, we always recommend that you take time off nootropics to allow your brain time to regulate.

Dependency, where similar to caffeine and alcohol, some nootropics have habit-forming properties. If a nootropic has been taken continually at above-recommended doses, suddenly quitting it may cause nasty withdrawal-like symptoms. If ever you feel that dependency is forming, we strongly recommend slowly reducing your intake over a period of many days. Special care should be taken particularly with Phenibut, which is open to abuse potential at high doses.

As a response to the development of tolerance and dependency, nootropics users sometimes use the technique of cycling. This refers to alternating, or cycling through a number of nootropics periodically. This allows for a nootropics user to benefit from the effect of each compound while not taking any one of them frequently enough to develop tolerance or dependency. For example, you might take X for two weeks, then switch to Y for two weeks, and repeat. This way your neurochemistry never becomes too accustomed to either substance.

Stacking refers to taking two or more nootropics at the same time to enhance their effects. It has become popular to combine nootropics for two reasons:

Some nootropics are compounding, which means their effects are stronger combined than when taken separately. Examples include:

Other nootropics are combined in order to reduce the side effects of another. For example:

The internet is full of differing voices on how best to approach and use nootropics. Online advice by its nature can only be very broad, and nootropic usage for you in particular may vary from the norm. Preamble aside, some nootropics best practices remain useful no matter what:

Do your own research. No overview including this one can contain all of the information you may be interested in. Google is your friend.

Pay attention to your behaviour. Many nootropic effects are subtle, and may be inaccessible to experience and introspection.

Never exceed recommended or standard doses. If you wish to be experimental, always consult a qualified and knowledgeable medical professional.

Take nootropics separately before combining any. This will help you understand how each nootropic affects you, and which nootropics to take less of (or to avoid if they produce unwanted side effects!).

Be wary of interactions with any drugs, medicines or compounds you may be taking. If in doubt, ask your doctor.

Be aware of tolerance. If nootropics lose their effect, dont increase your dosage, but instead take time off and allow your brain to regulate.

Be aware of dependency. Though nootropics have no chemically addictive properties, habit forming is real, and can carry risks. If you think you are becoming dependent, carefully and slowly reduce your dosage.

Remember: nootropics are no replacement for a healthy and balanced lifestyle. Exercise, regular sleep and healthy eating habits are still the most reliable and effective methods for optimising cognition and wellbeing.

While nootropics are certainly effective cognitive enhancers, they will (unfortunately) not make you superhuman. Healthy expectations should be set otherwise you might be unnecessarily disappointed and might miss out on their real benefits.

Even though the effects of nootropics are significant and reliable, they can be quite subtle. For some substances, you might not feel anything at all at least not in the way you feel alcohol or caffeine. Rather you might just notice significant behavioural changes: You will be able to work longer hours, be in a consistently good mood, or get tired less quickly. This is why its good advice to put yourself and your nootropics to the test. Make to-do lists, time your work hours, monitor your sleep, track your mood, and see the difference yourself.

Its also important to understand that nootropics will not change who you are. You wouldnt say that a cup of coffee changes your personality, just because it gives you a mental boost. The same goes for nootropics. Think of it this way: imagine yourself on your best days, where youre in a good mood, feeling productive and really getting things done. Nootropics might not revolutionise your life, but they can certainly help you have those days a lot more often.

So now that you understand the basics, how does one get into nootropics? We recommend three options:

A. Use our Effects Filter: Rather than wading through endless online resources and trying to figure out what each nootropic does, we have built a simple search filter that does the hard work for you. All you need to do is click on the effects that interest you, and the engine will automatically show you which products provide those benefits. Add multiple effects to find the ideal nootropics for you.

B. Use this Introduction: Review Section 2: Why People Use Nootropics, and try figure out how you would like to enhance your brain. Are you looking to improve your productivity and study? How about socialising skills, wellbeing, exercise or health? For each of these we have recommended the safest and most reliable nootropics.

C. Try the Basics: Still not sure? Why not go for the tried and tested?:

L-Theanine the perfect starter nootropic.

L-Theanine is the natural amino-acid responsible for that feeling of calm you get from green tea. Interestingly, it works exceptionally well when combined with coffee. Due to its anxiolytic and stress-reducing properties it takes away some of the jitteriness caused by caffeine, and provides you with a clean, lucid energy boost. It has even been shown to amplify caffeines cognitive effects.

Piracetam The original nootropic.

Piracetam was first created in 1964 and has over 40 years of peer reviewed studies attesting to its effectiveness. It is predominantly recognized for its ability to improve focus, memory, and verbal fluidity. It does, however, draw on your choline reserves, which may lead to headaches in some users, so supplementing Piracetam with Citicoline ensures that your brain has the fuel to keep you going.

Adrafinil The Modafinil metabolite.

This nootropic is celebrated for good reason. When Adrafinil becomes Modafinil in your liver, it produces a state of heightened cognitive ability, characterised by concentration, wakefulness, and focus. In case you were wondering why we dont advise taking Modafinil directly, its because (unlike Adrafinil) Modafinil is not legal in most countries and/or requires a prescription.

If you have any more questions, or think we missed some crucial information in this guide, please check our FAQ or feel free to email us at hello@nootropics.com.

Read this article:

The Complete Introduction To Nootropics, From Beginner To …

Buy The Best Nootropics Online Today at Nootropics Depot

Nootropics Depot features an extensive range of dietary supplements and nootropic compounds. Nootropics Depot offers the best nootropics and natural extracts from industry leading manufacturers including Nammex, Verdure Sciences, Embria Health Science, and Ixoreal Biomed.

We provide a variety of dietary supplements and nootropic compounds in both capsule and powder forms, allowing you to develop the best nootropic stack.

From common cholinergics to whole fruiting body medicinal mushroom extracts and fish oil supplements, Nootropics Depot provides a wide range of dietary supplements and nootropic compounds. Sort our product selection by use such as nootropics, amino acid supplements, mushroom extract supplements, or increasingly popular ayurvedic supplements.

When you buy from Nootropics Depot, you can trust that you are getting a quality product that has undergone extensive testing for both purity and identity. Nootropics Depot routinely conducts in-house and third-party lab testing to ensure product authenticity and efficacy.

.

See the latest updates to our nootropics blog below to begin exploring the vast world of nootropics and dietary supplements.

Why Use Immune Boosting Supplements?With winter fast approaching, and

Nootropics Depot’s Guide to the Top 10 Natural Nootropics of 2018

What is EpiCor?EpiCor is a groundbreaking immune supplement with published

COGNIZIN CITICOLINE: A CHOLINE SUPPLEMENT THAT SUPPORTS HEALTHY BRAIN FUNCTIONWhat sets Cognizin Citicoline apart from other choline sources is its unique composition…

7,8 DIHYDROXYFLAVONE: A BRAIN HEALTH SUPPLEMENT THAT MAY SUPPORT NEUROPLASTICITY7,8-Dihydroxyflavone, also known as 7,8-DHF, is a naturally occurring flavone…

CREATINE: A NOOTROPIC FOR BODYBUILDERS, ATHLETES, VEGANS, AND VEGETARIANSCreatine is an important molecule that is produced by our bodies and consumed through our diet…

HOW TO FIND THE BEST CURCUMIN SUPPLEMENT AND WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW BEFORE YOU BUYCurcumin is a diarylheptanoid which is found in turmeric rhizomes…

COMPARING RHODIOLA ROSEA EXTRACTS: ROSAVINS VS. SALIDROSIDERhodiola rosea, more commonly known as golden root or rose root…

BERBERINE: A LOOK AT THE POTENTIAL BENEFITS OF THIS VERSATILE SUPPLEMENTBerberine is a bright yellow alkaloid that is found in a variety of plants…

HERICIUM ERINACEUS: WHICH IS THE BEST LION’S MANE MUSHROOM FOR YOU?Hericium erinaceus, also known as lions mane mushroom…

NITRIC OXIDE SUPPLEMENTS REVIEWED: L-CITRULLINE, AGMATINE AND AAKGNitric oxide is a very interesting neurotransmitter within the body…

GANODERMA LUCIDUM: WHICH IS THE BEST RED REISHI MUSHROOM FOR YOU?We are often asked which Red Reishi extract is best…

COMPREHENSIVE GUIDE TO THE BEST ANTI-AGING SUPPLEMENTSLet’s facilitate a healthy aging process, rather than trying to completely halt it…

WHICH IS THE BEST CORDYCEPS MUSHROOM FOR YOU?Did you know not all Cordyceps mushroom extracts are made the same way?

BACOPA MONNIERI: BACOGNIZE VS. SYNAPSA – WHICH AYURVEDIC HERB IS RIGHT FOR YOU?Commonly known as the waterhyssop or brahmi…

THE NOOTROPIC SYNERGY OF CAFFEINE AND L-THEANINEOne of the most popular natural nootropic stacks is a simple combination of L-theanine and caffeine…

L-CITRULLINE VS. L-CITRULLINE DL-MALATE: WHICH IS BEST?L-citrulline is one of three dietary amino acids involved in the urea cycle…

SHILAJIT: A LOOK AT THIS AMAZING AYURVEDIC SUPPLEMENTShilajit is a sticky, tar-like substance often appearing dark brown in color…

ULTIMATE GUIDE TO CHOLINE SUPPLEMENTSCholine is an essential nutrient that is found in a variety of foods…

ULTIMATE GUIDE TO KRILL AND FISH OIL SUPPLEMENTSFish oil supplements are going to provide a very solid base to build a nootropics stack upon…

WHAT YOU MIGHT NOT KNOW ABOUT PANAX GINSENG SUPPLEMENTSGinseng is one of the most well known herbs in the world…

Originally posted here:

Buy The Best Nootropics Online Today at Nootropics Depot


12345...10...