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Golden Rule – Wikipedia

The Golden Rule (which can be considered a law of reciprocity in some religions) is the principle of treating others as one would wish to be treated. It is a maxim that is found in many religions and cultures.[1][2]The maxim may appear as either a positive or negative injunction governing conduct:

The concept occurs in some form in nearly every religion[3][4] and ethical tradition.[5] It can also be explained from the perspectives of psychology, philosophy, sociology, human evolution, and economics. Psychologically, it involves a person empathizing with others. Philosophically, it involves a person perceiving their neighbor also as “I” or “self”.[6] Sociologically, “love your neighbor as yourself” is applicable between individuals, between groups, and also between individuals and groups. In evolution, “reciprocal altruism” is seen as a distinctive advance in the capacity of human groups to survive and reproduce, as their exceptional brains demanded exceptionally long childhoods and ongoing provision and protection even beyond that of the immediate family.[7] In economics, Richard Swift, referring to ideas from David Graeber, suggests that “without some kind of reciprocity society would no longer be able to exist.”[8]

Some sources identify the Golden Ruleoften considered the central tenet of Christian ethics[9][10]as different from the maxim of reciprocity in Christianity. This is captured in do ut des”I give so that you will give in return”and is a unilateral moral commitment to the well-being of the other without the expectation of anything in return.[11]

The term “Golden Rule”, or “Golden law”, began to be used widely in the early 17th century in Britain by Anglican theologians and preachers;[12] the earliest known usage is that of Anglicans Charles Gibbon and Thomas Jackson in 1604.[1][13]

Possibly the earliest affirmation of the maxim of reciprocity, reflecting the ancient Egyptian goddess Ma’at, appears in the story of The Eloquent Peasant, which dates to the Middle Kingdom (c. 20401650 BC): “Now this is the command: Do to the doer to make him do.”[14][15] This proverb embodies the do ut des principle.[16] A Late Period (c. 664323 BC) papyrus contains an early negative affirmation of the Golden Rule: “That which you hate to be done to you, do not do to another.”[17]

In Mahbhrata, the ancient epic of India, there is a discourse in which the wise minister Vidura advises the King Yuddhihhira

Listening to wise scriptures, austerity, sacrifice, respectful faith, social welfare, forgiveness, purity of intent, compassion, truth and self-controlare the ten wealth of character (self). O king aim for these, may you be steadfast in these qualities. These are the basis of prosperity and rightful living. These are highest attainable things. All worlds are balanced on dharma, dharma encompasses ways to prosperity as well. O King, dharma is the best quality to have, wealth the medium and desire (kma) the lowest. Hence, (keeping these in mind), by self-control and by making dharma (right conduct) your main focus, treat others as you treat yourself.

Mahbhrata Shnti-Parva 167:9

In Chapter 32 in the Part on Virtue of the Tirukkua (c. 200 BC c. 500 AD), Tiruvalluvar says: “Do not do to others what you know has hurt yourself” (K. 316.); “Why does one hurt others knowing what it is to be hurt?” (K. 318). He furthermore opined that it is the determination of the spotless (virtuous) not to do evil, even in return, to those who have cherished enmity and done them evil. (K. 312) The (proper) punishment to those who have done evil (to you), is to put them to shame by showing them kindness, in return and to forget both the evil and the good done on both sides (K. 314)

The Golden Rule in its prohibitive (negative) form was a common principle in ancient Greek philosophy. Examples of the general concept include:

The Pahlavi Texts of Zoroastrianism (c. 300 BC1000 AD) were an early source for the Golden Rule: “That nature alone is good which refrains from doing to another whatsoever is not good for itself.” Dadisten-I-dinik, 94,5, and “Whatever is disagreeable to yourself do not do unto others.” Shayast-na-Shayast 13:29[22]

Seneca the Younger (c. 4 BC65 AD), a practitioner of Stoicism (c. 300 BC200 AD) expressed the Golden Rule in his essay regarding the treatment of slaves: “Treat your inferior as you would wish your superior to treat you.”[23]

According to Simon Blackburn, the Golden Rule “can be found in some form in almost every ethical tradition”.[24]

A rule of altruistic reciprocity was first stated positively in a well-known Torah verse (Hebrew: ):

You shall not take vengeance or bear a grudge against your kinsfolk. Love your neighbor as yourself: I am the LORD.

Hillel the Elder (c. 110 BC 10 AD),[25] used this verse as a most important message of the Torah for his teachings. Once, he was challenged by a gentile who asked to be converted under the condition that the Torah be explained to him while he stood on one foot. Hillel accepted him as a candidate for conversion to Judaism but, drawing on Leviticus 19:18, briefed the man:

What is hateful to you, do not do to your fellow: this is the whole Torah; the rest is the explanation; go and learn.

Hillel recognized brotherly love as the fundamental principle of Jewish ethics. Rabbi Akiva agreed and suggested that the principle of love must have its foundation in Genesis chapter 1, which teaches that all men are the offspring of Adam, who was made in the image of God (Sifra, edoshim, iv.; Yer. Ned. ix. 41c; Genesis Rabba 24).[26] According to Jewish rabbinic literature, the first man Adam represents the unity of mankind. This is echoed in the modern preamble of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.[27][28] And it is also taught, that Adam is last in order according to the evolutionary character of God’s creation:[26]

Why was only a single specimen of man created first? To teach us that he who destroys a single soul destroys a whole world and that he who saves a single soul saves a whole world; furthermore, so no race or class may claim a nobler ancestry, saying, ‘Our father was born first’; and, finally, to give testimony to the greatness of the Lord, who caused the wonderful diversity of mankind to emanate from one type. And why was Adam created last of all beings? To teach him humility; for if he be overbearing, let him remember that the little fly preceded him in the order of creation.[26]

The Jewish Publication Society’s edition of Leviticus states:

Thou shalt not hate thy brother. in thy heart; thou shalt surely rebuke thy neighbour, and not bear sin because of him. 18 Thou shalt not take vengeance, nor bear any grudge against the children of thy people, but thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself: I am the LORD.[29]

This Torah verse represents one of several versions of the Golden Rule, which itself appears in various forms, positive and negative. It is the earliest written version of that concept in a positive form.[30]

At the turn of the eras, the Jewish rabbis were discussing the scope of the meaning of Leviticus 19:18 and 19:34 extensively:

The stranger who resides with you shall be to you as one of your citizens; you shall love him as yourself, for you were strangers in the land of Egypt: I the LORD am your God.

Commentators summed up foreigners (= Samaritans), proselytes (= ‘strangers who resides with you’) (Rabbi Akiva, bQuid 75b) or Jews (Rabbi Gamaliel, yKet 3, 1; 27a) to the scope of the meaning.

On the verse, “Love your fellow as yourself,” the classic commentator Rashi quotes from Torat Kohanim, an early Midrashic text regarding the famous dictum of Rabbi Akiva: “Love your fellow as yourself Rabbi Akiva says this is a great principle of the Torah.”[31]

Israel’s postal service quoted from the previous Leviticus verse when it commemorated the Universal Declaration of Human Rights on a 1958 postage stamp.[32]

The “Golden Rule” was given by [[Jesus of Nazareth](Matthew 7:12 NCV, see also Luke 6:31). The common English phrasing is “Do unto others as you would have them do unto you”. A similar form of the phrase appeared in a Catholic catechism around 1567 (certainly in the reprint of 1583).[33]The Golden Rule is stated positively numerous times in the Hebrew Pentateuch as well as the Prophets and Writings. Leviticus 19:18 (“Forget about the wrong things people do to you, and do not try to get even. Love your neighbor as you love yourself.”; see also Great Commandment) and Leviticus 19:34 (“But treat them just as you treat your own citizens. Love foreigners as you love yourselves, because you were foreigners one time in Egypt. I am the Lord your God.”).

The Old Testament Deuterocanonical books of Tobit and Sirach, accepted as part of the Scriptural canon by Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodoxy, and the Non-Chalcedonian Churches, express a negative form of the golden rule:

“Do to no one what you yourself dislike.”

Tobit 4:15

“Recognize that your neighbor feels as you do, and keep in mind your own dislikes.”

Sirach 31:15

Two passages in the New Testament quote Jesus of Nazareth espousing the positive form of the Golden rule:

Matthew 7:12

Do to others what you want them to do to you. This is the meaning of the law of Moses and the teaching of the prophets.

Luke 6:31

Do to others what you would want them to do to you.

A similar passage, a parallel to the Great Commandment, is Luke 10:25-28

25And one day an authority on the law stood up to put Jesus to the test. “Teacher,” he asked, “what must I do to receive eternal life?”

26What is written in the Law?” Jesus replied. “How do you understand it?”27He answered, ” Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul. Love him with all your strength and with all your mind.(Deuteronomy 6:5) And, Love your neighbor as you love yourself. “28”You have answered correctly,” Jesus replied. “Do that, and you will live.”.

The passage in the book of Luke then continues with Jesus answering the question, “Who is my neighbor?”, by telling the parable of the Good Samaritan, indicating that “your neighbor” is anyone in need.[34] This extends to all, including those who are generally considered hostile.

Jesus’ teaching goes beyond the negative formulation of not doing what one would not like done to themselves, to the positive formulation of actively doing good to another that, if the situations were reversed, one would desire that the other would do for them. This formulation, as indicated in the parable of the Good Samaritan, emphasizes the needs for positive action that brings benefit to another, not simply restraining oneself from negative activities that hurt another. Taken as a rule of judgment, both formulations of the golden rule, the negative and positive, are equally applicable.[35]

In one passage of the New Testament, Paul the Apostle refers to the golden rule:

Galatians 5:14

14For all the law is fulfilled in one word, even in this; Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.

The Arabian peninsula was known to not practice the golden rule prior to the advent of Islam. “Pre-Islamic Arabs regarded the survival of the tribe, as most essential and to be ensured by the ancient rite of blood vengeance”[according to whom?][36]

However, this all changed when Muhammad came on the scene:

Fakir al-Din al-Razi and several other Qur’anic commentators have pointed out that Qur’an 83:1-6 is an implicit statement of the Golden Rule, which is explicitly stated in the tradition, “Pay, Oh Children of Adam, as you would love to be paid, and be just as you would love to have justice!” [37]

Similar examples of the golden rule are found in the hadith of the prophet Muhammad. The hadith recount what the prophet is believed to have said and done, and traditionally Muslims regard the hadith as second to only the Qur’an as a guide to correct belief and action.”[according to whom?][38]

From the hadith, the collected oral and written accounts of Muhammad and his teachings during his lifetime:

A Bedouin came to the prophet, grabbed the stirrup of his camel and said: O the messenger of God! Teach me something to go to heaven with it. Prophet said: “As you would have people do to you, do to them; and what you dislike to be done to you, don’t do to them. Now let the stirrup go!” [This maxim is enough for you; go and act in accordance with it!]”

None of you [truly] believes until he wishes for his brother what he wishes for himself.

Seek for mankind that of which you are desirous for yourself, that you may be a believer.

That which you want for yourself, seek for mankind.[40]

The most righteous person is the one who consents for other people what he consents for himself, and who dislikes for them what he dislikes for himself.[40]

Ali ibn Abi Talib (4th Caliph in Sunni Islam, and first Imam in Shia Islam) says:

O’ my child, make yourself the measure (for dealings) between you and others. Thus, you should desire for others what you desire for yourself and hate for others what you hate for yourself. Do not oppress as you do not like to be oppressed. Do good to others as you would like good to be done to you. Regard bad for yourself whatever you regard bad for others. Accept that (treatment) from others which you would like others to accept from you… Do not say to others what you do not like to be said to you.

One should never do that to another which one regards as injurious to ones own self. This, in brief, is the rule of dharma. Other behavior is due to selfish desires.

By making dharma your main focus, treat others as you treat yourself[43]

Also,

If the entire Dharma can be said in a few words, then it isthat which is unfavorable to us, do not do that to others.

Buddha (Siddhartha Gautama, c. 623543 BC)[44][45] made this principle one of the cornerstones of his ethics in the 6th century BC. It occurs in many places and in many forms throughout the Tripitaka.

Comparing oneself to others in such terms as “Just as I am so are they, just as they are so am I,” he should neither kill nor cause others to kill.

One who, while himself seeking happiness, oppresses with violence other beings who also desire happiness, will not attain happiness hereafter.

Hurt not others in ways that you yourself would find hurtful.

Putting oneself in the place of another, one should not kill nor cause another to kill.[46]

The Golden Rule is paramount in the Jainist philosophy and can be seen in the doctrines of Ahimsa and Karma. As part of the prohibition of causing any living beings to suffer, Jainism forbids inflicting upon others what is harmful to oneself.

The following quotation from the Acaranga Sutra sums up the philosophy of Jainism:

Nothing which breathes, which exists, which lives, or which has essence or potential of life, should be destroyed or ruled over, or subjugated, or harmed, or denied of its essence or potential.

In support of this Truth, I ask you a question “Is sorrow or pain desirable to you?” If you say “yes it is”, it would be a lie. If you say, “No, It is not” you will be expressing the truth. Just as sorrow or pain is not desirable to you, so it is to all which breathe, exist, live or have any essence of life. To you and all, it is undesirable, and painful, and repugnant.[47]

A man should wander about treating all creatures as he himself would be treated.

Sutrakritanga, 1.11.33

In happiness and suffering, in joy and grief, we should regard all creatures as we regard our own self.

Lord Mahavira, 24th Tirthankara

Saman Suttam of Jinendra Varni[48] gives further insight into this precept:-

Just as pain is not agreeable to you, it is so with others. Knowing this principle of equality treat other with respect and compassion.

Suman Suttam, verse 150

Killing a living being is killing one’s own self; showing compassion to a living being is showing compassion to oneself. He who desires his own good, should avoid causing any harm to a living being.

Suman Suttam, verse 151

Precious like jewels are the minds of all. To hurt them is not at all good. If thou desirest thy Beloved, then hurt thou not anyone’s heart.

Guru Arjan Dev Ji 259, Guru Granth Sahib

The same idea is also presented in V.12 and VI.30 of the Analects (c. 500 BC), which can be found in the online Chinese Text Project. The phraseology differs from the Christian version of the Golden Rule. It does not presume to do anything unto others, but merely to avoid doing what would be harmful. It does not preclude doing good deeds and taking moral positions, but there is slim possibility for a Confucian missionary outlook, such as one can justify with the Christian Golden Rule.

The sage has no interest of his own, but takes the interests of the people as his own. He is kind to the kind; he is also kind to the unkind: for Virtue is kind. He is faithful to the faithful; he is also faithful to the unfaithful: for Virtue is faithful.

Regard your neighbor’s gain as your own gain, and your neighbor’s loss as your own loss.

If people regarded other peoples states in the same way that they regard their own, who then would incite their own state to attack that of another? For one would do for others as one would do for oneself. If people regarded other peoples cities in the same way that they regard their own, who then would incite their own city to attack that of another? For one would do for others as one would do for oneself. If people regarded other peoples families in the same way that they regard their own, who then would incite their own family to attack that of another? For one would do for others as one would do for oneself. And so if states and cities do not attack one another and families do not wreak havoc upon and steal from one another, would this be a harm to the world or a benefit? Of course one must say it is a benefit to the world.

Mozi regarded the golden rule as a corollary to the cardinal virtue of impartiality, and encouraged egalitarianism and selflessness in relationships.

Do not do unto others whatever is injurious to yourself.– Shayast-na-Shayast 13.29

The writings of the Bah’ Faith encourages everyone to treat others as they would treat themselves and even prefer others over oneself:

O SON OF MAN! Deny not My servant should he ask anything from thee, for his face is My face; be then abashed before Me.

Blessed is he who preferreth his brother before himself.

And if thine eyes be turned towards justice, choose thou for thy neighbour that which thou choosest for thyself.

Ascribe not to any soul that which thou wouldst not have ascribed to thee, and say not that which thou doest not.

Here ye these words and heed them well, the words of Dea, thy Mother Goddess, “I command thee thus, O children of the Earth, that that which ye deem harmful unto thyself, the very same shall ye be forbidden from doing unto another, for violence and hatred give rise to the same. My command is thus, that ye shall return all violence and hatred with peacefulness and love, for my Law is love unto all things. Only through love shall ye have peace; yea and verily, only peace and love will cure the world, and subdue all evil.”

The Way to Happiness expresses the Golden Rule both in its negative/prohibitive form and in its positive form. The negative/prohibitive form is expressed in Precept 19 as:

19. Try not to do things to others that you would not like them to do to you.

The positive form is expressed in Precept 20 as:

20. Try to treat others as you would want them to treat you.

One who is going to take a pointed stick to pinch a baby bird should first try it on himself to feel how it hurts.

Excerpt from:

Golden Rule – Wikipedia

Versions of the Golden Rule in dozens of religions and …

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A photoshopped “Golden Rule Bus”

This bus image was altered to display “The Golden Rule” on its front.The side of the bus was photoshopped to contain the upper part of Scarboro Missions’ Golden Rule poster, which is shown below

Linking the Golden Rule to the “Sheep and Goats” passage, Matthew 25:32-46

A statement by Gautama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism, which is the fifth largest world religion after Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, and Chinese traditional religion:

“Resolve to be tender with the young,compassionate with the aged,sympatheitic with the striving.and tolerant with the weak and wrong.

Sometime in your life, you will have been all of these.” 2

The core beliefs of every religion

3

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The Ethic of Reciprocity — often called the Golden Rule — simply states that all of us are to treat other people as we would wish other people to treat us in return.

On April 5 each year, the International Golden Rule Day will be observed as a global virtual celebration. Before 2018’s celebration the web site https:www.goldenruleday.org announced:

“Join us on Thursday, April 5, for a 24-hour global virtual celebration of the Golden Rule; a universal principle shared by nearly all cultural, spiritual, religious, and secular traditions on Earth.

Over the course of 24 hours, people from many corners of the world will address Why the Golden Rule Matters Now as they share how people, organizations and governments can use this Common Principle to create a better world for everyone.

Join us and experience conversations, music, stories, and art inspired by the Golden Rule. Learn new ways to apply the Golden Rule in your life and community.”4

Almost all organized religions, philosophical systems, and secular systems of morality include such an ethic. It is normally intended to apply to the entire human race. Unfortunately, it is too often applied by some people only to believers in the same religion or even to others in the same denomination, of the same gender, the same sexual orientation, etc.

Read more here:

Versions of the Golden Rule in dozens of religions and …

Golden Rule | Definition of Golden Rule by Merriam-Webster

A common principle in all of the world’s great religions, the golden rule shows itself in every facet of the business world. It is the essence of what many call square dealing.

From a fiscal policy perspective, a government follows the golden rule when its tax revenues for the current year equal or exceed its day-to-day spending for the current year. Borrowing is allowed, but only for investments such as infrastructure projects, research projects, or other projects that benefit future generations.

Original post:

Golden Rule | Definition of Golden Rule by Merriam-Webster

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Relevant Conferences: Proteomics Conferences | Proteomics and Molecular Medicine Conferences | Proteomics Conferences 2018 | Proteomics Conferences USA

12th International Conference on Advancements in Bioinformatics and Drug Discovery November 26-27, 2018 Dublin, Ireland; Nordic Proteomics Conference April 18-20, 2018 Bergen, Norway; XII Eupa Congress – Translating genomes into biological functions June 16-20, 2018 Santiago de Compostela, Spain; 43rd FEBS 2018 Congress July 7-12, 2018 Prague, Czech Republic; Human Proteome Organization September 30 October 03 2018 Orlando, USA; Annual Swiss Proteomics Meeting 2018 April 19-20, 2018 Montreux, Switzerland; 22nd International Mass Spectrometry Conference August 26-31, 2018 Florence, Italy; 12th International Conference and Expo on Proteomics and Molecular Medicine November 26-28, 2018 Dublin, Ireland

Relevant Societies: Australian and New Zealand Mass Spectrometry Society, Indiana Proteomics Consortium, Proteome Society, European federation of biotechnology, Australasian Proteomics Society, Association for Molecular Pathology, Molecular and Cellular Cognition Society, Hong Kong Society For Molecular Diagnostic Sciences Limited, Biochemical Society, Society for Molecular Biology & Evolution, The French Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The German Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Molecular Biology Society of Japan, Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging

Track: 5Molecular Diagnostics and Devices

Molecular diagnosticsand devices are enabling precise diagnosis and treatment ofoncology, infectious disease and immunotherapy. Experts in the arena will highlight the latest tools, clinical advances, besides commercial applications of circulating and tissue-based biomarkers that are transformingmedicine.

Relevant Conferences: Proteomics Conferences | Proteomics and Molecular Medicine Conferences | Proteomics Conferences 2018 | Proteomics Conferences USA

12th International Conference on Advancements in Bioinformatics and Drug Discovery November 26-27, 2018 Dublin, Ireland; Nordic Proteomics Conference April 18-20, 2018 Bergen, Norway; XII Eupa Congress – Translating genomes into biological functions June 16-20, 2018 Santiago de Compostela, Spain; 43rd FEBS 2018 Congress July 7-12, 2018 Prague, Czech Republic; Human Proteome Organization September 30 October 03 2018 Orlando, USA; Annual Swiss Proteomics Meeting 2018 April 19-20, 2018 Montreux, Switzerland; 22nd International Mass Spectrometry Conference August 26-31, 2018 Florence, Italy; 12th International Conference and Expo on Proteomics and Molecular Medicine November 26-28, 2018 Dublin, Ireland

Relevant Societies: Human Proteome Organization, European Proteomics Association (Eupa), Spanish Proteomics Society (Seprot), Netherlands Proteomic Platform (Npp), Japan Human Proteome Organisation (Jhupo), Italian Proteomic Association (Itpa), Portugese Proteomic Association (Rede Procura), Iranian Proteomic Society, Taiwan Proteomic Society (Tps), Austrian Proteomics Society, European Proteomics Association, British Mass Spectrometry Society, Belgian Mass Spectrometry Society, Danish Mass Spectrometry Society

Track: 6Protein Expression and Analysis

Protein expressionrefers to the way in which proteins are synthesized, modified and regulated in living organisms. In protein research, the term can apply to either the object of study or the laboratory techniques required to manufacture proteins.Protein analysisis thebioinformaticsstudy of protein structure,protein interactionand function using database searches, sequence comparisons, structural and functional predictions.

Relevant Conferences: Proteomics Conferences | Proteomics and Molecular Medicine Conferences | Proteomics Conferences 2018 | Proteomics Conferences USA

12th International Conference on Advancements in Bioinformatics and Drug Discovery November 26-27, 2018 Dublin, Ireland; Nordic Proteomics Conference April 18-20, 2018 Bergen, Norway; XII Eupa Congress – Translating genomes into biological functions June 16-20, 2018 Santiago de Compostela, Spain; 43rd FEBS 2018 Congress July 7-12, 2018 Prague, Czech Republic; Human Proteome Organization September 30 October 03 2018 Orlando, USA; Annual Swiss Proteomics Meeting 2018 April 19-20, 2018 Montreux, Switzerland; 22nd International Mass Spectrometry Conference August 26-31, 2018 Florence, Italy; 12th International Conference and Expo on Proteomics and Molecular Medicine November 26-28, 2018 Dublin, Ireland

Relevant Societies: Australian and New Zealand Mass Spectrometry Society, Indiana Proteomics Consortium, Proteome Society, European federation of biotechnology, Australasian Proteomics Society, Association for Molecular Pathology, Molecular and Cellular Cognition Society, Hong Kong Society For Molecular Diagnostic Sciences Limited, Biochemical Society, Society for Molecular Biology & Evolution, The French Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The German Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Molecular Biology Society of Japan, Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging

Track: 7Proteomics and its Medicinal Research

Personalised medicineaims to tailor treatments to achieve the best outcome for individual patients, rather than treating patients with a one size fits all approach. Personalized medicine, also termedprecision medicine, is a medical procedure that separates patients into different groupswith medical decisions, practices, interventions and/or products being tailored to the individual patient based on their predicted response or risk of disease.

Relevant Conferences: Proteomics Conferences | Proteomics and Molecular Medicine Conferences | Proteomics Conferences 2018 | Proteomics Conferences USA

12th International Conference on Advancements in Bioinformatics and Drug Discovery November 26-27, 2018 Dublin, Ireland; Nordic Proteomics Conference April 18-20, 2018 Bergen, Norway; XII Eupa Congress – Translating genomes into biological functions June 16-20, 2018 Santiago de Compostela, Spain; 43rd FEBS 2018 Congress July 7-12, 2018 Prague, Czech Republic; Human Proteome Organization September 30 October 03 2018 Orlando, USA; Annual Swiss Proteomics Meeting 2018 April 19-20, 2018 Montreux, Switzerland; 22nd International Mass Spectrometry Conference August 26-31, 2018 Florence, Italy; 12th International Conference and Expo on Proteomics and Molecular Medicine November 26-28, 2018 Dublin, Ireland

Relevant Societies: Human Proteome Organization, European Proteomics Association (Eupa), Spanish Proteomics Society (Seprot), Netherlands Proteomic Platform (Npp), Japan Human Proteome Organisation (Jhupo), Italian Proteomic Association (Itpa), Portugese Proteomic Association (Rede Procura), Iranian Proteomic Society, Taiwan Proteomic Society (Tps), Austrian Proteomics Society, European Proteomics Association, British Mass Spectrometry Society, Belgian Mass Spectrometry Society, Danish Mass Spectrometry Society

Track: 8Proteomics in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

Biochemistryis the study of the structure and function of biological molecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates and lipids. Biochemistry is also used to describe techniques suited to understanding the interactions and functions ofbiological moleculesand it is a laboratory based science that brings together biology and chemistry. By using chemical knowledge and techniques, biochemists can understand and solve biological problems. Biochemistry focuses on processes happening at a molecular level and it focuses on whats happening inside our cells. It also looks at how cells communicate with each other, for example during growth or fighting illness. Medicine is a broad category but relates to biochemistry on many levels. Doctors and nurses give drugs to patients to help cure a disease or prevent it. This is since when thatdrugis added to the human system, it alters how other chemicals in the body function, resulting in disease prevention or recovery.

Relevant Conferences: Proteomics Conferences | Proteomics and Molecular Medicine Conferences | Proteomics Conferences 2018 | Proteomics Conferences USA

12th International Conference on Advancements in Bioinformatics and Drug Discovery November 26-27, 2018 Dublin, Ireland; Nordic Proteomics Conference April 18-20, 2018 Bergen, Norway; XII Eupa Congress – Translating genomes into biological functions June 16-20, 2018 Santiago de Compostela, Spain; 43rd FEBS 2018 Congress July 7-12, 2018 Prague, Czech Republic; Human Proteome Organization September 30 October 03 2018 Orlando, USA; Annual Swiss Proteomics Meeting 2018 April 19-20, 2018 Montreux, Switzerland; 22nd International Mass Spectrometry Conference August 26-31, 2018 Florence, Italy; 12th International Conference and Expo on Proteomics and Molecular Medicine November 26-28, 2018 Dublin, Ireland

Relevant Societies: Australian and New Zealand Mass Spectrometry Society, Indiana Proteomics Consortium, Proteome Society, European federation of biotechnology, Australasian Proteomics Society, Association for Molecular Pathology, Molecular and Cellular Cognition Society, Hong Kong Society For Molecular Diagnostic Sciences Limited, Biochemical Society, Society for Molecular Biology & Evolution, The French Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The German Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Molecular Biology Society of Japan, Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging

Track: 9Precision Medicine and Immuno-Oncology

The significance and role of the human genome in thediagnosisand treatment of disease, they lay out the groundwork for precision or genomic medicine. In turn,immuno-oncologyresearches are changing the way we treat cancer by unleashing the immune system, and achieving better survival for many patients and cure for some. Covering latest advances in precision medicine,genomicsand genetics for drug discovery application, cancer immuno-therapy, biomarkers and translational strategies in immune-oncology, Precision Medicine and Immuno-Oncology tracks will bring together uppermost experts from industry and academia to discuss emerging trends and solutions in order to provide the most up-to-date, scientifically sound care for patients with cancer and chronic diseases.

Relevant Conferences: Proteomics Conferences | Proteomics and Molecular Medicine Conferences | Proteomics Conferences 2018 | Proteomics Conferences USA

12th International Conference on Advancements in Bioinformatics and Drug Discovery November 26-27, 2018 Dublin, Ireland; Nordic Proteomics Conference April 18-20, 2018 Bergen, Norway; XII Eupa Congress – Translating genomes into biological functions June 16-20, 2018 Santiago de Compostela, Spain; 43rd FEBS 2018 Congress July 7-12, 2018 Prague, Czech Republic; Human Proteome Organization September 30 October 03 2018 Orlando, USA; Annual Swiss Proteomics Meeting 2018 April 19-20, 2018 Montreux, Switzerland; 22nd International Mass Spectrometry Conference August 26-31, 2018 Florence, Italy; 12th International Conference and Expo on Proteomics and Molecular Medicine November 26-28, 2018 Dublin, Ireland

Relevant Societies: Human Proteome Organization, European Proteomics Association (Eupa), Spanish Proteomics Society (Seprot), Netherlands Proteomic Platform (Npp), Japan Human Proteome Organisation (Jhupo), Italian Proteomic Association (Itpa), Portugese Proteomic Association (Rede Procura), Iranian Proteomic Society, Taiwan Proteomic Society (Tps), Austrian Proteomics Society, European Proteomics Association, British Mass Spectrometry Society, Belgian Mass Spectrometry Society, Danish Mass Spectrometry Society

Track: 10Proteomics in Computational Systems Biology

Systems biologyis an exciting new approach to understand biological complexity. It builds on large-scale measurement technologies, such asnext-generation sequencingandmass spectrometry.

Relevant Conferences: Proteomics Conferences | Proteomics and Molecular Medicine Conferences | Proteomics Conferences 2018 | Proteomics Conferences USA

12th International Conference on Advancements in Bioinformatics and Drug Discovery November 26-27, 2018 Dublin, Ireland; Nordic Proteomics Conference April 18-20, 2018 Bergen, Norway; XII Eupa Congress – Translating genomes into biological functions June 16-20, 2018 Santiago de Compostela, Spain; 43rd FEBS 2018 Congress July 7-12, 2018 Prague, Czech Republic; Human Proteome Organization September 30 October 03 2018 Orlando, USA; Annual Swiss Proteomics Meeting 2018 April 19-20, 2018 Montreux, Switzerland; 22nd International Mass Spectrometry Conference August 26-31, 2018 Florence, Italy; 12th International Conference and Expo on Proteomics and Molecular Medicine November 26-28, 2018 Dublin, Ireland

Relevant Societies: Australian and New Zealand Mass Spectrometry Society, Indiana Proteomics Consortium, Proteome Society, European federation of biotechnology, Australasian Proteomics Society, Association for Molecular Pathology, Molecular and Cellular Cognition Society, Hong Kong Society For Molecular Diagnostic Sciences Limited, Biochemical Society, Society for Molecular Biology & Evolution, The French Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The German Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Molecular Biology Society of Japan, Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging

Track: 11Proteomics for Bioinformatics

Bioinformaticsis both an umbrella term for the body of biological studies that use computer programming as part of their methodology, as well as a reference to specific analysis “pipelines” that are repeatedly used, particularly in the fields of genetics andgenomics. Common uses ofbioinformaticsinclude the identification of candidate genes and nucleotides.

Relevant Conferences: Proteomics Conferences | Proteomics and Molecular Medicine Conferences | Proteomics Conferences 2018 | Proteomics Conferences USA

12th International Conference on Advancements in Bioinformatics and Drug Discovery November 26-27, 2018 Dublin, Ireland; Nordic Proteomics Conference April 18-20, 2018 Bergen, Norway; XII Eupa Congress – Translating genomes into biological functions June 16-20, 2018 Santiago de Compostela, Spain; 43rd FEBS 2018 Congress July 7-12, 2018 Prague, Czech Republic; Human Proteome Organization September 30 October 03 2018 Orlando, USA; Annual Swiss Proteomics Meeting 2018 April 19-20, 2018 Montreux, Switzerland; 22nd International Mass Spectrometry Conference August 26-31, 2018 Florence, Italy; 12th International Conference and Expo on Proteomics and Molecular Medicine November 26-28, 2018 Dublin, Ireland

Relevant Societies: Human Proteome Organization, European Proteomics Association (Eupa), Spanish Proteomics Society (Seprot), Netherlands Proteomic Platform (Npp), Japan Human Proteome Organisation (Jhupo), Italian Proteomic Association (Itpa), Portugese Proteomic Association (Rede Procura), Iranian Proteomic Society, Taiwan Proteomic Society (Tps), Austrian Proteomics Society, European Proteomics Association, British Mass Spectrometry Society, Belgian Mass Spectrometry Society, Danish Mass Spectrometry Society

Track: 12Proteomics and its Research

Proteins provide most of themolecularmachinery of cells. Many areenzymesor subunits of enzymes. Other proteins play structural or mechanical roles, such as those that form the struts and joints of the cytoskeleton. Eachproteinis linear polymers built ofamino acids.

Relevant Conferences: Proteomics Conferences | Proteomics and Molecular Medicine Conferences | Proteomics Conferences 2018 | Proteomics Conferences USA

12th International Conference on Advancements in Bioinformatics and Drug Discovery November 26-27, 2018 Dublin, Ireland; Nordic Proteomics Conference April 18-20, 2018 Bergen, Norway; XII Eupa Congress – Translating genomes into biological functions June 16-20, 2018 Santiago de Compostela, Spain; 43rd FEBS 2018 Congress July 7-12, 2018 Prague, Czech Republic; Human Proteome Organization September 30 October 03 2018 Orlando, USA; Annual Swiss Proteomics Meeting 2018 April 19-20, 2018 Montreux, Switzerland; 22nd International Mass Spectrometry Conference August 26-31, 2018 Florence, Italy; 12th International Conference and Expo on Proteomics and Molecular Medicine November 26-28, 2018 Dublin, Ireland

Relevant Societies: Australian and New Zealand Mass Spectrometry Society, Indiana Proteomics Consortium, Proteome Society, European federation of biotechnology, Australasian Proteomics Society, Association for Molecular Pathology, Molecular and Cellular Cognition Society, Hong Kong Society For Molecular Diagnostic Sciences Limited, Biochemical Society, Society for Molecular Biology & Evolution, The French Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The German Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Molecular Biology Society of Japan, Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging

Proteomics attribute to the study of proteomes, but is also used to characterize the techniques used to determine the complete set of proteins of an organism or system, such as protein purification and MS. Proteomics is a developing field that has been deeply enabled by the human genome project. Proteins which are the products of genes, the machinery of the cells in our bodies. When genes are disturbed, the proteins are also damaged. When pathogens infect us, causing disease, proteins play a major role in signaling the presence & ridding us of these invaders. Almost every process which that occurs in our cells from the metabolization of clean sugar to the distribution of cells is dependent on proteins for smooth operation. In general, proteomics seeks to distinguish & quantify as many proteins as possible likewise Molecular Medicine promotes the understanding of biological mechanism of disease at the cellular and molecular levels for better diagnoses, treatment, and prevention of disease. Proteomics plays an important role in medical research and molecular medicine, such as in drug discovery and diagnostics, because of the link between proteins, genes and diseases, and it is considered to be the next step in modern biology.

There are numerous advances in this proteomics innovation, especially in the field of sub-atomic science. New proteomics and genomics advancements and creations could be utilized for ailment particular biomarker revelation and to screen tolerant reaction to the treatment. Proteomics might likewise set up new, atomic order of the malady. Applying genomic and proteomic strategies to body liquids (serum, cerebrospinal liquid, pee, and so on.) and tissue concentrates would put profitable goal diagnostic force in the hands of the clinician however approval of those techniques is an imperative issue. The quick extension of the analytic apparatuses taking into account advancements in proteomic and genomic advances can be essential for the improvement of customized solution. As a science that studies interactions between the molecular components that carry out the various biological processes in living cells, an important idea in molecular biology states that information flow in organisms follows a one-way street: Genes are transcribed into RNA, and RNA is translated into proteins.

Why Dublin, Ireland?

Europe is one such region which encompasses the major share of the Proteomics and molecular medicine research which is mainly on ovarian cancer biomarker research. Dublin being one of the most advanced European economies is bound to hold the chief share in Europes Proteomics and molecular medicine market. Further as EU expands the research, export and trading relations are bound to enhance.

The globalproteomics marketis expected to reach over USD 24.8 billion by 2024 according to a new report by Grand View Research, Inc. The introduction of technology-enabled proteomics products is one of the high-impact rendering drivers for the proteomics market growth. These products find extensive applications in drug discovery, diagnostic services, and many other research areas. The increasing market penetration of these technologies, such as ESI-LC-MS (electrospray ionization liquid chromatography mass spectrometry), is expected to serve as a driver of this market.

Proteomics Market By Product, USD Million, 2013 – 2024

Theeurope molecular diagnostics marketis expected to reach USD4.0 billion by 2024, according to a new report by Grand View Research, Inc. Growing geriatric population and the increasing prevalence of neurological and cardiovascular disorders is expected to drive the growth of molecular diagnostics. Moreover, increasing demand for more efficient healthcare delivery to facilitate early diagnostics is further expected to boost market growth.

Molecular medicine, diagnostic market by application, 2013-2024USD Million

Proteomics Congress 2017

Conference Series llc LTDtakes a great pride in announcing the 9thInternational Conference & Expo on Proteomics and Molecular Medicine(Proteomics Congress 2017) which was held in Paris, France, during 13-15 November, 2017.

Proteomics Congress 2017 witnessed an amalgamation of peerless speakers who enlightened the crowd with their knowledge and confabulated on various newfangled topics related to the field of proteomics and molecular medicine. The extremely illustrious conference hosted byConference Series llc LTDwas marked with the attendance of young and brilliant researchers, business delegates and talented student communities representing more than 30 countries around the world.

The conference aimed a parallel rail with theme Novel Advancements in Proteomics and Molecular Medicine. The meeting engrossed a vicinity of cognizant discussions on novel subjects like Mass spectrometry in Proteome Research, Protein Expression and Analysis, Proteomics from Discovery to Function, Molecular Medicine and Diagnostics, to mention a few. The three days event implanted a firm relation of upcoming strategies in the field of Proteomics, Molecular Medicine, Bioinformatics and Mass Spectrometry Technology with the scientific community. The conceptual and applicable knowledge shared, will also foster organizational collaborations to nurture scientific accelerations.

The Organizing Committee would like to thank the moderatorsDr. Oliva Petra from Sanofi Genzyme, USA, Dr. Marwa Eltoweissy, University of Gttingen, Germany for their contributions which resulted in smooth functioning of the conference.

The conference was embarked with an opening ceremony followed by a series of lectures delivered by both Honorable Guests and members of the Keynote forum. The highlights of the conference were the keynote forum by prominent scientists,Boris Zaslavsky, Cleveland Diagnostics, USA;Bin Huang, Kaohsiung Medical University, Taiwan;Judit Ovdi, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Hungary;Jarrod A Marto, Harvard Medical School, USA; Magnus S Magnusson, University of Iceland, Iceland; gave their fruitful contributions in the form of highly informative presentations and made the conference a top notch one.

Conference Series llc LTDis prerogative to thank the Organizing Committee Members, Keynote speakers, Chair and Co-chairs on transcribing the plenary sessions, workshops and special sessions in a diversified and variegate manner to make this conference an enviable artifact.

Conference Series llc LTDoffers its heartfelt appreciation to the exhibitor Proteintech, collaborators Instruct Integrating Biology, European Biotechnology Network, Bilkent Genetik Toplulugu, Malaysian Biotechnology Information Center, Swiss Biotech Association & Human Behaviour Laboratory who supported the conference in every aspect for the awe-inspiring exhibition at the venue. We also express our sincere thanks to all the media partners for the promotion of our event to glory.

Conference Series llc LTDcongratulates the best poster award winner Dr. Pratibha Sharma, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, India. We would also like to thank Dr. Jarrod A Marto, Harvard Medical School, USA and Dr. Pavlina Dolashka, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Bulgaria who supported us by evaluating the posters.

We once again thank all the participants for their wonderful contribution towards the event which helped us for successful accomplishment of this event.

Conference Series llc LTD9thInternational Conference & Expo on Proteomics and Molecular Medicine would not have been successful if it has not been supported by international, multi-professional steering committee and coordination of theJournal of Proteomics & Bioinformatics, Journal of Pharmacogenomics & Pharmacoproteomics & Journal of Data Mining in Genomics & Proteomics.

After the successful completion of eleven consecutive conferences we are overwhelmed to announce our next upcoming conferences which are going to be held in Europe is the 12thInternational Conference and Expo on Proteomics and Molecular Medicine which is going to be held during November 26-28, 2018 in Dublin, Ireland.

Conference Series llc LTDtakes a great pride in announcing the 7thInternational Conference & Expo on Proteomics(Proteomics Congress 2016) which was held in Rome, Italy, during 24-26 October, 2016.

Proteomics Congress 2016 witnessed an amalgamation of peerless speakers who enlightened the crowd with their knowledge and confabulated on various newfangled topics related to the field of proteomics. The extremely illustrious conference hosted by Conference Series LLC was marked with the attendance of young and brilliant researchers, business delegates and talented student communities representing more than 25 countries around the world.

The conference aimed a parallel rail with theme Proteomics: An atlas of expression. The meeting engrossed a vicinity of cognizant discussions on novel subjects like Proteomics from Discovery to Function, Mass Spectrometry in Proteome Research, Proteomics for Bioinformatics, Cancer and Clinical proteomics, to mention a few. The three days event implanted a firm relation of upcoming strategies in the field of Proteomics, Bioinformatics and Mass Spectrometry Technology with the scientific community. The conceptual and applicable knowledge shared, will also foster organizational collaborations to nurture scientific accelerations.

The Organizing Committee would like to thank the moderatorsDr. Marwa Eltoweissy, University of Gttingen, Germany,Dr. Jill Barber, University of Manchester, UK for their contributions which resulted in smooth functioning of the conference.

The conference was embarked with an opening ceremony followed by a series of lectures delivered by both Honorable Guests and members of the Keynote forum. The highlights of the conference were the keynote forum by prominent scientists,Boris Zaslavsky, Cleveland Diagnostics, USA;John F Cipollo, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research-USFDA, USA;Stefan Kempa, Berlin Institute for Medical Systems Biology – MDC Berlin, Germany;Magnus S Magnusson, University of Iceland, Iceland; gave their fruitful contributions in the form of highly informative presentations and made the conference a top notch one.

Conference Series llc LTDis prerogative to thank the Organizing Committee Members, Keynote speakers, Chair and Co-chairs on transcribing the plenary sessions, workshops and special sessions in a diversified and variegate manner to make this conference an enviable artifact.

Go here to see the original:

Proteomics Conferences 2018 | Molecular Medicine Congress …

Center for Applied Proteomics and Molecular Medicine

What is Personalized Medicine?

Every individuals disease is different. Personalized medicine strives to provide the right medicine for the right patient with the lowest toxicity. Personalized cancer therapy using proteomics involves molecular profiling of the patients cancer cells to map the susceptible drug targets and thereby guide therapy. Research, like that being done by the Center for Applied Proteomics and Molecular Medicine, provides strategies for personalized treatment with the goal of providing physicians key missing molecular information about the disease in each of their patients and improving the quality of life for patients.

The Center for Applied Proteomics and Molecular Medicines mission is to: a) create new technologies and make basic science discoveries in the field of disease pathogenesis b) apply these discoveries and technologies to create and implement strategies for disease prevention, early diagnosis and individualized therapy. The primary emphasis of our disease research is cancer, but new technologies developed in the center are being applied to a number of important human diseases including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity, as well as liver, ocular, neurodegenerative and infectious diseases.

The Scientists at George Mason University have developed a nanotechnology that for the first time can measure a sugar molecule in urine that identifies tuberculosis with high sensitivity and specificity, setting the stage for a rapid, highly accurate and far less-invasive urine test of the disease that could potentially prove to be the difference between life and death in many underdeveloped parts of the world.The international team led by George Masons Alessandra Luchini and Lance Liotta report in Science Translational Magazine that a sugar molecule called LAM, which comes from the surface of the tuberculosis bacteria, can be measured in the urine of all patients with active tuberculosis regardless of whether they have a simultaneous infection with another pathogen (e.g. HIV). The more severe the disease, the higher the sugar concentration in the urine, said Luchini, an associate professor in Masons College of Science.Current methods of detection skin tests, blood tests and chest X-rays are often very expensive and not always available in rural settings in lesser developed parts of the world. Urine is considered an ideal body fluid for a TB test because it can be easily and noninvasively collected.We can measure now what could never be measured before, said Liotta, co-director of Masons Center for Applied Proteomics and Molecular Medicine.

The Side-Out Metastatic Breast cancer trial was announced at the annual meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) and is expected to expand into phase two this month.

ASCO Poster Presentation

The pilot study was the first of its kind to utilize novel protein activation mapping technology along with the genomic fingerprint of cancer as a way to find the most effective treatment. Results indicate that while prior standard chemotherapy failed the 25 women who participated in the 2.5 year pilot study, nearly half of the patients enrolled in the Side-Out trail had at least a 30 percent increase in progression-free survival.

This molecular approach creates opportunities for new therapies. For example, if a breast tumor shares the same protein pathway activation shared with lung cancer, then the drug developed to hit that target for lung cancer can be used now for breast cancer. The pilot study included only FDA-approved drugs currently on the market. Additional studies are expected to fold in new drugs as they become available with experimental drug.

Hear what patients and a treating physician has to say: Funded by Volleyball Tournaments, Breast Cancer Pilot Study Succeeds

Based on the results of this trial, CAPMM and the Side-Out Foundation are expanding this study to a new trial that is set to launch within the next month.

Continued here:

Center for Applied Proteomics and Molecular Medicine

Home | WSU Center for Molecular Medicine and Genetics

Our underlying goal is excellence in molecular biology, molecular medicine, and genetics to increase the understanding, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of human disease.

The Center for Molecular Medicine and Genetics is interdisciplinary by design, built around modern molecular genetics, and comprising basic researchers, physician-scientists, computational scientists, and genetic counselors. Thisassembly of disciplines has lead to a diverse portfolio of projects.

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Home | WSU Center for Molecular Medicine and Genetics

Alphabet Will Bring Its Balloon-Powered Internet to Kenya

Alphabet has inked a deal with a Kenyan telecom to bring its balloon-powered internet to rural and suburban parts of Kenya

BADASS BALLOONS. In 2013, Google unveiled Project Loon, a plan to send a fleet of balloons into the stratosphere that could then beam internet service back down to people on Earth.

And it worked! Just last year, the project provided more than 250,000 Puerto Ricans with internet service in the wake of the devastation of Hurricane Maria. The company, now simply called Loon, was the work of X, an innovation lab originally nestled under Google but now a subsidiary of Google’s parent company, Alphabet. And it’s planning to bring its balloon-powered internet to Kenya.

EYES ON AFRICA. On Thursday, Loon announced a partnership with Telkom Kenya, Kenya’s third largest telecommunications provider. Starting next year, Loon balloons will soar high above the East African nation, sending 4G internet coverage down to its rural and suburban populations. This marks the first time Loon has inked a commercial deal with an African nation.

“Loon’s mission is to connect people everywhere by inventing and integrating audacious technologies,” Loon CEO Alastair Westgarth told Reuters. Telkom CEO Aldo Mareuse added,“We will work very hard with Loon, to deliver the first commercial mobile service, as quickly as possible, using Loon’s balloon-powered internet in Africa.”

INTERNET EVERYWHERE. The internet is such an important part of modern life that, back in 2016, the United Nations declared access to it a human right. And while you might have a hard time thinking about going even a day without internet access, more than half of the world’s population still can’t log on. In Kenya, about one-third of the population still lacks access.

Thankfully, Alphabet isn’t the only company working to get the world connected. SpaceX, Facebook, and SoftBank-backed startup Altaeros have their own plans involving satellites, drones, and blimps, respectively. Between those projects and Loon, the world wide web may finally be available to the entire world.

READ MORE: Alphabet to Deploy Balloon Internet in Kenya With Telkom in 2019 [Reuters]

More on Loon: Alphabet Has Officially Launched Balloons that Deliver Internet In Puerto Rico

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Alphabet Will Bring Its Balloon-Powered Internet to Kenya

Most Of NASA’s Moon Rocks Remain Untouched By Scientists

we have only studied about 16 percent of the moon rocks taken during the Apollo missions. NASA's Apollo curator keeps them for future generations.

Forty-nine years ago this Friday, Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin became the first humans to set foot on the Moon. That day, they also became the first people to harvest samples from another celestial body and bring them back to Earth.

Over the course of the Apollo missions, astronauts collected about 2,200 individual samples weighing a total of 842 pounds (382 kg) for scientific study that continues today, NASA curator Ryan Zeigler told Futurism. Zeigler, who also conducts geochemical research, is responsible for overseeing NASA’s collection of space rocks from the Apollo missions, as well as those from Mars, asteroids, stars, and anywhere else other than Earth.

Scientists have only studied about 16 percent of all the Apollo samples by mass, Zeigler told Futurism. Within that 16 percent, just under one-third has been put on display, which Zeigler noted largely keeps the samples pristine. Another quarter were at least partially destroyed (on purpose) during NASA-approved research, and the rest have been analyzed in less destructive ways.

“Trying not to deplete the samples so that future scientists will still have the opportunity to work with them is definitely something we are considering,” says Zeigler. “Also, while I would consider the Apollo samples primarily a scientific resource (though as a scientist am obviously biased), it is undeniable that these samples also have significant historic and cultural importance as well, and thus need to be preserved on those grounds, too.”

The cultural reasons to preserve moon rocks, Zeigler says, are harder to define. But it’s still important to make sure future scientists have enough space rocks left to work with, especially since we can’t fully predict the sorts of questions they’ll try to answer using the Apollo samples, or the technology that will be at their disposal.

“Every decade since the Apollo samples came back has seen significant advances in instrumentation that have allowed samples to be analyzed at higher levels of precision, or smaller spatial resolution,” Zeigler says. “Our understanding of the Moon, and really the whole solar system, has evolved considerably by continuing studies of the Apollo samples.”

“Our understanding of the Moon, and really the whole solar system, has evolved considerably by continuing studies of the Apollo samples.”

In the last six years, Zeigler says that his curation team saw 351 requests for Apollo samples, which comes out to about 60 each year. Within those requests, the scientists have asked for about 692 individual samples per year, most of which weigh one to two grams each. Even if the researchers don’t get everything that they ask for, Zeigler says, most of the studies are at least partially approved, and he’s been loaning out about 525 samples every year. That comes out to just over 75 percent of what the scientists requested.

“So while it is true that significant scientific justification is required to get Apollo samples, and we (NASA, with the support of the planetary scientific community) are intentionally reserving a portion of the Apollo samples for future generations of scientists and scientific instruments to study, the samples are available to scientists around the world to study, and we are slowly lowering the percentage of material that is left,” Zeigler says.

Thankfully, about 84 percent of the Apollo samples are still untouched. That pretty much guarantees that the next generation of geologists and astronomers who try to decipher the Moon’s remaining secrets will have enough samples to fiddle with.

To read more on future lunar research, click here: Three Reasons Why We Might Return To The Moon

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Most Of NASA’s Moon Rocks Remain Untouched By Scientists

3 Reasons Why We Might Return to The Moon

we may see manned missions to the moon. Science, politics, and celestial cash grabs are at the forefront of why people want to go back.

Friday marks the 49th anniversary of the first time any human set foot on solid, extraterrestrial ground. The details are probably familiar: on July 20, 1969, Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin became the first people to walk on the Moon. It’s a rare privilege, even now: only ten other people have landed on the Moon and gone out for a stroll.

Just over three years later, humans walked on the Moon for the last time. Changing political and economic priorities meant NASA would no longer focus on sending people to the Moon. After all, we had already planted a flag, confirmed that the Moon wasn’t made of cheese, and played some golf. What else is left?

Well, it just so turns out that we might be heading back out there — and soon. President Trump has insisted on resuming manned Moon missions, despite the fact that it doesn’t match the public or scientific community’s desires for a space program (no one is quite sure where his determination stems from, but it doesn’t seem to have much more substance than a whim).

But there are some other, real reasons that we might want to send someone to the Moon. There’s science to be done, and money to be made. Let’s dig a little deeper and see what might be bringing us back to our lunar neighbor.

1) Trump really wants it to happen.

Last December, President Trump signed a directive indicating that NASA would prioritize human exploration to the Moon and beyond. Just imagine: a human setting foot on the Moon! Accomplishing such an impossible feat would show the rest of the world that America is capable of great things, which would really assert our dominance on the international stage!

So, assuming that President Trump knows we won the space race 43 years ago (he knows, right? right?) there might be other reasons why Trump wants more people to go visit. Maybe it’s a display of national achievement, maybe it’s to develop economic or military advantages. Either way, the White House is pushing hard for that giant leap.

2) Cash money.

A rare isotope called helium-3 could help us produce clean and safe nuclear energy without giving off any hazardous or radioactive waste. And it just so happens that the Moon has loads of the stuff (so does Jupiter, but that’s a bit harder to reach).

While a helium nuclear fusion reactor does not yet exist, many expect that helium-3 could be the missing piece — and whoever secures the supply would unlock riches to rival Scrooge McDuck.

Two years ago, the federal government gave a private company its blessing to land on the Moon for the first time. Moon Express, which also plans to dump human ashes on the Moon (read: litter) for customers who want an unconventional cremation, has the ultimate goal of establishing a lunar mining colony. According to the company’s website, Expedition “Harvest Moon” plans to have a permanent research station up and running by 2021. At that point, it will begin extracting samples and raw materials to send back to Earth.

This could lead to more and (maybe) better research into the moon’s history and makeup, especially since our supply of samples from the Apollo missions is so limited. But helium-3 is what Moon Express is really after. And they’re not the only ones  the Chinese government also has its eyes set on the Moon’s helium-3 supply.

In addition to opening space up to private mining operations, Trump has reached out to NASA in hopes that the agency’s technology could be used to launch mining rigs to the Moon and to asteroids.

But there’s a lot that needs to happen before the spacefaring equivalents of coal barons start selling space rocks. For instance, we need to figure out how to approach and land on an asteroid, and to set up at least semi-permanent bases and mining operations. But still, some companies some companies are forging ahead.

3) Science! slash, practice for Mars.

The government, along with multiple space-interested billionaires, have some well-publicized plans to colonize Mars. Their reasons range from: furthering scientific research, to exploring the cosmos for funsies, to saving humanity from, uh, something.

The Moon could play a vital role in those plans — as practice off-world destination, and as a celestial truck stop along the way.

In February, Commerce Secretary Wilbur Ross said that setting up a colony on the Moon will be essential for future space exploration. Especially, he mentioned, so that it can serve as a refueling station. His logic seems to be based on the fact that the Moon exerts less gravitational force than the Earth, so landing and relaunching a refueled rocket would let that rocket explore farther into space.

Some have also proposed using a Moon base as practice for a Martian settlement, since they would be much closer to Earth — Moon-dwellers would only be three days from Earth, while human Martians would be eight months from home.

NASA’s Gateway mission, as Time reported, could give rise to lunar settlements within the next ten years. Gateway would function as a space station in orbit around the Moon, but would be capable of traveling to and from the surface. The expected Gateway timeline is controversial even within NASA, however, as some feel that its far too optimistic about when we might actually see results.

There are still too many unknowns and hazards for people in space settlements for such a program to succeed today. Even trying to simulate a Mars colony on Earth led to several unforeseen mental strains and complications.

But either way, ongoing exploration and research missions continue to radically change our understanding of the Moon.

“Ten years ago we would have said that the Moon was complete dry,” Ryan Zeigler, NASA’s curator of lunar samples from the Apollo missions, told Futurism. “Over the past ten years, new instruments and new scientists have shown this to not be the case, and that has had profound effects on the models that predict how the Earth-Moon system has formed,” he added.

Of course, there are financial reasons at the forefront the recent push for lunar exploration. But even if its just a pleasant side effect, we may get valuable new science out of these missions, too.

Read more about complications with NASA’s lunar plans: NASA Just Canceled Its Only Moon Rover Project. That’s Bad News for Trump’s Lunar Plans.

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Malta Plans to Create the World’s First Decentralized Stock Exchange

Malta has announced plans to created the world's first decentralized stock exchange

BLOCKCHAIN ISLAND. The tiny European nation of Malta is truly living up to its nickname of “Blockchain Island.” On Thursday, MSX (the innovation arm of the Malta Stock Exchange) announced a new partnership with blockchain-based equity fundraising platform Neufund and Binance, one of the world’s biggest cryptocurrency exchanges). Their goal: create the first global stock exchange that’s both regulated and decentralized.

THE NEW SCHOOL. There are a lot of complex concepts at play here, so let’s break them down.

First, tokens. In the realm of cryptocurrency, a token is a digital asset on a blockchain, a ledger that records every time two parties trade an asset. A token can represent practically anything, from money to a vote in an election. Today, many blockchain startups raise funds by selling “equity tokens” through initial coin offerings (ICO).

When a person buys one of these equity tokens, they are essentially buying a percentage ownership of the startup. They can later use an online platform known as a cryptocurrency exchange to sell the tokens or buy more from other investors at any time, quickly and fairly cheaply.

Though various governments are starting to look into regulating tokens, the cryptocurrency realm is still largely unregulated, making it an enticing target for scammers.

THE OLD SCHOOL. Equity securities, also known as stocks, are similar to equity tokens. A person who buys stock in a company owns a percentage of that company. However, securities are not traded via 24-hour online exchanges — they’re bought and sold via stock exchanges, which are only open during certain hours. Navigating them often requires the help of middleman, such as a broker or lawyer, which could be costly.

A government agency typically regulates a nation’s securities and stock exchanges — in the United States, that agency is the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). This regulation can protect investors from scams and ensure companies don’t try to swindle them.

TOKENIZED SECURITIES. Tokenized securities are a melding of these two worlds. They’re securities, and when they’re traded, a blockchain records the transaction. This combines the fast, cheap transactions associated with tokens with the protective oversight of securities.

Right now, there’s not a government-regulated, global platform hosting the trading of tokenized securities, and that’s the void the Malta team plans to fill with their decentralized stock exchange.

“We are thrilled to announce the partnerships with Malta Stock Exchange and Binance, that will ensure high liquidity to equity tokens issued on Neufund,” Zoe Adamovicz, CEO and Co-founder at Neufund, said in a press release. “It is the first time in history that security tokens can be offered and traded in a legally binding way.”

Experts estimate that the value of the world’s equity tokens could soar as high as $1 trillion by 2020. Malta’s project is still in the pilot stages, but if all the pieces for its decentralized stock exchange fall into place, the tiny European island could find itself at the center of that incredibly fruitful market.

READ MORE: Malta Paves the Way for a Decentralized Stock Exchange [TechCrunch]

More on tokens: Tokens Will Become the Foundation of a New Digital Economy

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Malta Plans to Create the World’s First Decentralized Stock Exchange

This Wearable Controller Lets You Pilot a Drone With Your Body

PUT DOWN THE JOYSTICK. If you’ve ever tried to pilot a drone, it’s probably taken a little while to do it well; each drone is a little different, and figuring out how to use its manual controller can take time. There seems to be no shortcut other than to suffer a crash landing or two.

Now, a team of researchers from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL) have created a wearable drone controller that makes the process of navigation so intuitive, it requires almost no thought at all. They published their research in the journal PNAS on Monday.

NOW, PRETEND YOU’RE A DRONE. To create their wearable drone controller, the researchers first needed to figure out how people wanted to move their bodies to control a drone. So they placed 19 motion-capture markers and various electrodes all across the upper bodies of 17 volunteers. Then, they asked each volunteer to watch simulated drone footage through virtual reality goggles. This let the volunteer feel like they were seeing through the eyes of a drone.

The researchers then asked the volunteers to move their bodies however they liked to mimic the drone as it completed five specific movements (for example, turning right or flying toward the ground). The markers and electrodes allowed the researchers to monitor those movements, and they found that most volunteers moved their torsos in a way simple enough to track using just four motion-capture markers.

With this information, the researchers created a wearable drone controller that could relay the user’s movements to an actual drone — essentially, they built a wearable joystick.

PUTTING IT TO THE TEST. To test their wearable drone controller, the researchers asked 39 volunteers to complete a real (not virtual) drone course using either the wearable or a standard joystick. They found that volunteers wearing the suit outperformed those using the joystick in both learning time and steering abilities.

“Using your torso really gives you the feeling that you are actually flying,” lead author Jenifer Miehlbradt said in a press release. “Joysticks, on the other hand, are of simple design but mastering their use to precisely control distant objects can be challenging.”

IN THE FIELD. Mehlbradt envisions search and rescue crews using her team’s wearable drone controller. “These tasks require you to control the drone and analyze the environment simultaneously, so the cognitive load is much higher,” she told Inverse. “I think having control over the drone with your body will allow you to focus more on what’s around you.”

However, this greater sense of immersion in the drone’s environment might not be beneficial in all scenarios. Previous research has shown that piloting strike drones for the military can cause soldiers to experience significant levels of trauma, and a wearable like the EPFL team’s has the potential to exacerbate the problem.

While Miehlbradt told Futurism her team did not consider drone strikes while developing their drone suit, she speculates that such applications wouldn’t be a good fit.

“I think that, in this case, the ‘distance’ created between the operator and the drone by the use of a third-party control device is beneficial regarding posterior emotional trauma,” she said. “With great caution, I would speculate that our control approach — should it be used in such a case —  may therefore increase the risk of experiencing such symptoms.”

READ MORE: Drone Researchers Develop Genius Method for Piloting Using Body Movements [Inverse]

More on rescue drones: A Rescue Drone Saved Two Teen Swimmers on Its First Day of Deployment

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Google and The UN Team Up To Study The Effects of Climate Change

Google agreed to work with UN Environment to create a platform that gives the world access to valuable environmental data.

WITH OUR POWERS COMBINED… The United Nations’ environmental agency has landed itself a powerful partner in the fight against climate change: Google. The tech company has agreed to partner with UN Environment to increase the world’s access to valuable environmental data. Specifically, the two plan to create a user-friendly platform that lets anyone, anywhere, access environmental data collected by Google’s vast network of satellites. The organizations announced their partnership at a UN forum focused on sustainable development on Monday.

FRESHWATER FIRST. The partnership will first focus on freshwater ecosystems, such as mountains, wetlands, and rivers. These ecosystems provide homes for an estimated 10 percent of our planet’s known species, and research has shown that climate change is causing a rapid loss in biodiversity. Google will use satellite imagery to produce maps and data on these ecosystems in real-time, making that information freely available to anyone via the in-development online platform. According to a UN Environment press release, this will allow nations and other organizations to track changes and take action to prevent or reverse ecosystem loss.

LOST FUNDING. Since President Trump took office, the United States has consistently decreased its contributions to global climate research funds. Collecting and analyzing satellite data is neither cheap nor easy, but Google is already doing it to power platforms such as Google Maps and Google Earth. Now, thanks to this partnership, people all over the world will have a way to access information to help combat the impacts of climate change. Seems the same data that let’s you virtually visit the Eiffel Tower could help save our planet.

READ MORE: UN Environment and Google Announce Ground-Breaking Partnership to Protect Our Planet [UN Environment]

More on freshwater: Climate Change Is Acidifying Our Lakes and Rivers the Same Way It Does With Oceans

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This New Startup Is Making Chatbots Dumber So You Can Actually Talk to Them

A Spanish tech startup decided to ditch artificial intelligence to make its chatbot platform more approachable

Tech giants have been trying to one-up each other to make the most intelligent chatbot out there. They can help you simply fill in forms, or take the form of fleshed-out digital personalities that can have meaningful conversations with you. Those that have voice functions have come insanely close to mimicking human speech — inflections, and even the occasional “uhm’s” and “ah’s” — perfectly.

And they’re much more common than you might think. In 2016, Facebook introduced Messenger Bots that businesses worldwide now use for simple tasks like ordering flowers, getting news updates in chat form, or getting information on flights from an airline. Millions of users are filling waiting lists to talk to an “emotional chatbot” on an app called Replika.

But there’s no getting around AI’s shortcomings. And for chatbots in particular, the frustration arises from a disconnect between the user’s intent or expectations, and the chatbot’s programmed abilities.

Take Facebook’s Project M. Sources believe Facebook’s (long forgotten) attempt at developing a truly intelligent chatbot never surpassed a 30 percent success rate, according to Wired — the remaining 70 percent of the time, human employees had to step in to solve tasks. Facebook billed the bot as all-knowing, but the reality was far less promising. It simply couldn’t handle pretty much any task it was asked to do by Facebook’s numerous users.

Admittedly, takes a a lot of resources to develop complex AI chatbots. Even Google Duplex, arguably the most advanced chatbot around today, is still limited to verifying business hours and making simple appointments. Still, users simply expect far more than what AI chatbots can actually do, which tends to enrage users.

The tech industry isn’t giving up. Market researchers predict that chatbots will grow to become a $1 billion market by 2025.

But maybe they’re going about this all wrong. Maybe, instead of making more sophisticated chatbots, businesses should focus on what users really need in a chatbot, stripped down to its very essence.

Landbot, a one-year-old Spanish tech startup, is taking a different approach: it’s making a chatbot-builder for businesses that does the bare minimum, and nothing more. The small company landed $2.2 million in a single round of funding (it plans to use those funds primarily to expand its operations and cover the costs of relocating to tech innovation hub Barcelona).

“We started our chatbot journey using Artificial Intelligence technology but found out that there was a huge gap between user expectations and reality,” co-founder Jiaqi Pan tells TechCrunch. “No matter how well trained our chatbots were, users were constantly dropped off the desired flow, which ended up in 20 different ways of saying ‘TALK WITH A HUMAN’.”

Instead of creating advanced tech that could predict and analyze user prompts, Landbot decided to work on a simple user interface that allows businesses to create chat flows that link prompt and action, question and answer. It’s kind of like a chatbot flowchart builder. And the results are pretty positive: the company has seen healthy revenue growth, and the tool is used by hundreds of businesses in more than 50 countries, according to TechCrunch.

The world is obsessed with achieving perfect artificial intelligence, and the growing AI chatbot market is no different. So obsessed in fact, it’s driving users away — growing disillusionment, frustration, and rage are undermining tech companies’ efforts. And this obsession might be doing far more harm than good. It’s simple: people are happiest when they get the results they expect. Added complexity or lofty promises of “true AI” will end up pushing them away if it doesn’t actually end up helping them.

After all, sometimes less is more. Landbot and its customers are making it work with less.

Besides, listening to your customers can go a long way.

Now can you please connect me to a human?

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U.S. Department of Defense Established A Center To Better Integrate AI

The U.S. military's AI center will help the nation's armed forces develop and implement the latest in artificial intelligence

ALL EYES ON AI. The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) is going all-in on AI. The department, which oversees everything pertaining to the U.S.’s national security and armed forces, has been tossing around the idea of establishing a center focused on artificial intelligence (AI) since October 2016. On June 27, the idea became a reality when Deputy Defense Secretary Patrick Shanahan issued a memo officially establishing the Joint Artificial Intelligence Center (JAIC).

The JAIC will serve as the military’s AI center, housing the DoD’s 600 or so AI projects. According to a request the DoD submitted to Congress in June, the center will cost an estimated $1.7 billion over the next six years.

“Deputy Secretary of Defense Patrick M. Shanahan directed the DoD Chief Information Officer to standup the Joint Artificial Intelligence Center (JAIC) in order to enable teams across DOD to swiftly deliver new AI-enabled capabilities and effectively experiment with new operating concepts in support of DOD’s military missions and business functions,” Department of Defense spokeswoman Heather Babb told Futurism.

AT THE JAIC. In his memo, Shanahan notes that advances in AI will likely change the nature of warfare and that the military needs a new approach to AI that will allow it to rapidly integrate any advances into its operations and “way of fighting.” He believes the military’s AI center could help in those efforts by focusing on four areas of need:

  • Helping the military execute its National Mission Initiatives (NMIs). These are large-scale AI projects designed to address groups of urgent, related challenges.
  • Creating a DoD-wide foundation for the execution of AI. This would mean finding a way to make any AI-related tools, data, technologies, experts, and processes available to the entire DoD quickly and efficiently.
  • Improving collaboration on AI projects both within the DoD and with outside parties, such as U.S. allies, private companies, and academics.
  • Working with the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) to determine how to govern and standardize AI development and delivery.

CROSSING THE LINE. Last week, many of the biggest names in AI research from the private sector and academia took a stand against autonomous weapons, machines that use AI to decide whether or not to attempt to kill a person. Signatories of the pledge vowed to never work on any such projects; one even called autonomous weapons “as disgusting and destabilizing as bioweapons.”

By establishing an AI center, the U.S. government makes its stance clear: Not only does it see AI as an inevitable part of the future of war, it wants to be the best at implementing it. As Shanahan wrote in an email to DoD employees, “Plenty of people talk about the threat from AI; we want to be the threat.”

READ MORE: Pentagon’s Joint AI Center Is ‘Established,’ but There’s Much More to Figure Out [FedScoop]

More on autonomous weapons: Top AI Experts Vow They Won’t Help Create Lethal Autonomous Weapons

Editor’s note 7/23/18 at 3:15 PM: This piece was updated to include statements from Deputy Defense Secretary Patrick Shanahan and DoD spokesperson Heather Babb.

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MIT Researchers Create an Aerosol Spray Loaded With Nanobots

MIT researchers have created nanobots that can travel via an aerosol spray, potentially opening up a new field in robotics.

AEROSOLS FOR GOOD. You may have sworn off aerosol sprays in the ’90s when everyone was talking about the hole in the ozone layer, but a team of researchers from MIT has found a use for aerosols that could be good for both the environment and our health. This spray contains nanobots, tiny sensors with the potential to do everything, from detecting dangerous leaks in pipelines, to diagnosing health issues. They published their research in Nature Nanotechnology on Monday.

NANO-SCALE SENSORS. Each sensor in the aerosol spray contains two parts. The first is a colloid, an extremely tiny insoluble particle or molecule. Colloids are so small, in fact, they can remain suspended in a liquid or the air indefinitely — the force of particles colliding around them is stronger than the force of gravity attempting to pull them down.

The second part of the sensor is a complex circuit containing a chemical detector built from a two-dimensional material, such as graphene. When this detector encounters a certain chemical in its environment, its ability to conduct electricity improves. The circuit also contains a photodiode, a device that can convert ambient light into electric current. This provides all the electricity needed to power the circuit’s data collection and memory.

The researchers grafted their circuits onto colloids, thereby giving them the colloid’s ability to travel in unique environments. Once combined, the researchers aerosolized the nanobots (converted them into a sprayable form). This delivery method wouldn’t be possible without the addition of the colloid. “[The circuits] can’t exist without a substrate,” said the study’s lead author Michael Strano in a news release. “We need to graft them to the particles to give them mechanical rigidity and to make them large enough to get entrained in the flow.”

TWO TYPES OF PIPELINES. The MIT team sees a number of potential diagnostic uses for their sprayable, microscopic sensors, demonstrating a couple in their study. As one example, they designed their sensors to detect the toxic chemical ammonia, then tested its ability within a sealed section of pipe. They sprayed the sensors into one side of a pipe, then gathered them at the other end using a piece of cheesecloth. When they examined the sensors, they could tell they’d come in contact with ammonia based on the information stored in the sensors’ memory.

In the real-world, this could save inspectors from having to manually look at an entire length of pipe from the outside. Instead, they could simply let the aerosol travel the length of the pipeline, then look for any data in its memory that might signal a problem, such as an encounter with an outside chemical that should not be in the pipeline.

As the MIT team noted in the news release, eventually, this same technology could help diagnose problems in the human body, for example, by traveling along our digestive tract, gathering data, and relaying it to medical experts. “We see this paper as the introduction of a new field [in robotics],” said Strano.

READ MORE: Cell-Sized Robots Can Sense Their Environment [MIT News]

More on nanobots: Kurzweil: By 2030, Nanobots Will Flow Throughout Our Bodies

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Tesla Is Reportedly Asking Suppliers to Refund Payments so It Can Appear Profitable

Tesla's refund request to suppliers is raising eyebrows in the financial world, with some calling it

RETROACTIVE NEGOTIATION. Tesla seems to have a weird understanding of the old adage “You have to spend money to make money.” In order to look like it’s making money, the company is asking for refunds on the money it’s already spent — even though the people paid delivered on their part of the deal.

On Sunday, The Wall Street Journal reported that it had obtained a memo Tesla sent to one of its suppliers last week. In the memo, Tesla requested a refund on a “meaningful amount” of the money it had paid the supplier since 2016. The author of the memo, one of Tesla’s global supply managers, wrote that the money was “essential” to Tesla’s ability to continue operating and asked that the supplier view the refund as an “investment” that would allow Tesla and the supplier to continue to grow their relationship.

Though the memo claimed that all suppliers were receiving such refund requests, at least some contacted by The WSJ knew nothing about it.

HOW BIZARRE. A Tesla spokesperson doesn’t seem to think Tesla’s refund request is all that noteworthy, telling The WSJ it’s a standard practice. Many of those outside the company, however, think it’s downright bizarre. “I have never heard of that,” finance expert Ron Harbour told Bloomberg. “Suppliers have been asked for reductions, but going back for them in arrears reeks of desperation.”

It’s also a pretty self-centered move, according to manufacturing consultant Dennis Virag. “It’s simply ludicrous, and it just shows that Tesla is desperate right now,” he told The WSJ. “They’re worried about their profitability, but they don’t care about their suppliers’ profitability.”

TESLA’S WOES. Tesla’s current financial woes center on its Model 3, with frequent production issues repeatedly pushing back deliveries of the vehicle. The company currently carries more than $10 billion in debt and has been beset by one controversy after another throughout 2018. Just last month, shareholders even held a vote to decide whether or not to let CEO Elon Musk retain his position as chairman (they ultimately decided to let him stay on in that role).

If the plan behind Tesla’s refund request was to increase faith in the company as it continues to navigate the troubled waters of Model 3 production, it appears to be backfiring; Tesla’s stock dropped by 4 percent Monday morning, even though the first reviews of the Model 3 have started rolling out and have been largely positive (including from the WSJ).

On August 1, Musk will update shareholders on Tesla’s Q2 financial results, so he has just about a week to get the bad taste of Tesla’s refund request out of shareholders’ mouths. If he can’t, it’s not hard to imagine his role as chairman once again in jeopardy.

READ MORE: Tesla Asks Suppliers for Cash Back to Help Turn a Profit [The Wall Street Journal]

More on Model 3 production: In an Effort to Speed up Production, Tesla Is Assembling Model 3s in a Giant Tent

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Leaders Who Pledged Not To Build Autonomous Killing Machines Are Ignoring The Real Problem

That major pledge against building autonomous killing machines is a great start, but it has some glaring holes in what it covers.

Last week, many of the major players in the artificial intelligence world signed a pledge to never build or endorse artificial intelligence systems that could run an autonomous weapon. The signatories included: Google DeepMind’s cofounders, OpenAI founder Elon Musk, and a whole slew of prominent artificial intelligence researchers and industry leaders.

The pledge, put forth by AI researcher Max Tegmark’s Future of Life Institute, argues that any system that can target and kill people without human oversight is inherently immoral, and condemns any future AI arms race that may occur. By signing the pledge, these AI bigwigs join the governments of 26 nations including China, Pakistan, and the State of Palestine, all of which also condemned and banned lethal autonomous weapons.

So if you want to build a fighter drone that doesn’t need any human oversight before killing, you’ll have to do it somewhere other than these nations, and with partners other than those who signed the agreement.

Yes, banning killer robots is likely a good move for our collective future — children in nations ravaged by drone warfare have already started to fear the sky — but there’s a pretty glaring hole in what this pledge actually does.

Namely: there are more subtle and insidious ways to leverage AI against a nation’s enemies than strapping a machine gun to a robot’s arm, Terminator-style.

The pledge totally ignores the fact that cybersecurity means more than protecting yourself from an army of killer robots. As Mariarosaria Taddeo of the Oxford Internet Institute told Business Insider, AI could be used in international conflicts in more subtle but impactful ways. Artificial intelligence algorithms could prove effective at hacking or hijacking networks that are crucial for national security.

Already, as Taddeo mentioned, the UK National Health Service was held hostage by the North Korea-linked WannaCry virus and a Russian cyberattack took control of European and North American power grids. With sophisticated, autonomous algorithms at the helm, these cyberattacks could become more frequent and more devastating. And yet, because these autonomous weapons don’t go “pew pew pew,” the recent AI pledge doesn’t mention (or pertain to) them at all.

Of course, that doesn’t make the pledge meaningless. Not by a long shot. But just as important as the high-profile people and companies that agreed to not make autonomous killing machines are the names missing from the agreement. Perhaps most notably is the U.S. Department of Defense, which recently established its Joint Artificial Intelligence Center (JAIC) for the express purpose of getting ahead for any forthcoming AI arms races.

“Deputy Secretary of Defense Patrick M. Shanahan directed the DOD Chief Information Officer to standup the Joint Artificial Intelligence Center (JAIC) in order to enable teams across DOD to swiftly deliver new AI-enabled capabilities and effectively experiment with new operating concepts in support of DOD’s military missions and business functions,” Heather Babb, Department of Defense spokesperson, told Futurism.

“Plenty of people talk about the treat from AI; we want to be the threat,” Deputy Defense Secretary Patrick Shanahan wrote in a recent email to DoD employees, a DoD spokesperson confirmed to Futurism.

The JAIC sees artificial intelligence as a crucial tool for the future of warfare. Given the U.S.’s hawkish stance on algorithmic warfare, it’s unclear if a well-intentioned, incomplete pledge can possibly hold up.

More on pledges against militarized AI: Google: JK, We’re Going To Keep Working With The Military After All

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