Eight trends accelerating the age of commercial-ready quantum computing – TechCrunch

Ethan BatraskiContributor

Ethan Batraski is a partner at Venrock, where he invests across sectors with a particular focus on hard engineering problems such as developer infrastructure, advanced computing and space.

Every major technology breakthrough of our era has gone through a similar cycle in pursuit of turning fiction to reality.

It starts in the stages of scientific discovery, a pursuit of principle against a theory, a recursive process of hypothesis-experiment. Success of the proof of principle stage graduates to becoming a tractable engineering problem, where the path to getting to a systemized, reproducible, predictable system is generally known and de-risked. Lastly, once successfully engineered to the performance requirements, focus shifts to repeatable manufacturing and scale, simplifying designs for production.

Since theorized by Richard Feynman and Yuri Manin, quantum computing has been thought to be in a perpetual state of scientific discovery. Occasionally reaching proof of principle on a particular architecture or approach, but never able to overcome the engineering challenges to move forward.

Thats until now. In the last 12 months, we have seen several meaningful breakthroughs from academia, venture-backed companies, and industry that looks to have broken through the remaining challenges along the scientific discovery curve. Moving quantum computing from science fiction that has always been five to seven years away, to a tractable engineering problem, ready to solve meaningful problems in the real world.

Companies such as Atom Computing* leveraging neutral atoms for wireless qubit control, Honeywells trapped ions approach, and Googles superconducting metals, have demonstrated first-ever results, setting the stage for the first commercial generation of working quantum computers.

While early and noisy, these systems, even at just 40-80 error-corrected qubit range, may be able to deliver capabilities that surpass those of classical computers. Accelerating our ability to perform better in areas such as thermodynamic predictions, chemical reactions, resource optimizations and financial predictions.

As a number of key technology and ecosystem breakthroughs begin to converge, the next 12-18 months will be nothing short of a watershed moment for quantum computing.

Here are eight emerging trends and predictions that will accelerate quantum computing readiness for the commercial market in 2021 and beyond:

1. Dark horses of QC emerge: 2020 will be the year of dark horses in the QC race. These new entrants will demonstrate dominant architectures with 100-200 individually controlled and maintained qubits, at 99.9% fidelities, with millisecond to seconds coherence times that represent 2x-3x improved qubit power, fidelity and coherence times. These dark horses, many venture-backed, will finally prove that resources and capital are not sole catalysts for a technological breakthrough in quantum computing.

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Eight trends accelerating the age of commercial-ready quantum computing - TechCrunch

Quantum Computing and the evolving cybersecurity threat – Security Boulevard

Where would we be without computers? Whether giving us the chance to work remotely, work on files with colleagues in real time, or for recreational activities like streaming there can be no doubt that computing devices have changed the way we go about our day-to-day lives.

However, while more traditional computers are great for completing run-of-the-mill tasks, there are many more complex problems in the world that these machines will struggle to solve. For problems above a certain size and complexity, traditional machines simply dont have enough computational power to tackle them. To put this in perspective, Fugaku, the worlds fastest supercomputer is over 1,000 times faster than a regular computer, and, in 2019 Google claimed its Sycamore quantum processor was more than a billion times faster at solving problems than a supercomputer.

Given their processing superiority, if we want to have a chance at solving some of the worlds most complex issues, we must look to quantum computers.

Understanding Quantum Computing

In case you are unfamiliar with the concept, quantum computing leverages the substantial mechanics principles of superposition and entanglement in order to create states that scale exponentially with the number of quantum bits or qubits. Rather than just being on or off, qubits can also be in whats called superposition where theyre both on and off at the same time, or somewhere on a spectrum between the two.

Put more simply, for scientists to properly simulate scientific situations, the calculations they make on a computer must be able to handle uncertainty in the way that traditional, and even supercomputers cant. This is the key characteristic of quantum computing.

Today, real quantum processors are used by researchers from all over the world to test out algorithms for applications in a variety of fields. Indeed, these computers may soon be able to spur the development of new breakthroughs in science, medication for currently incurable diseases, discovering materials to make more efficient devices and structures like more powerful solar panels as well as creating algorithms to quickly direct resources to where they are needed, such as ambulances.

Quantum Computing and Cybersecurity

However, not only do these machines have to be protected from hackers, they themselves could also pose a threat to digital life as we know it.

Right now, for example, cyberattacks can be carried out with relative ease, due to the fact many organisations do not have protections in place for their confidential information. As such, placing a much greater emphasis on improving the security of communications and data storage is crucial for guaranteeing the protection of sensitive information for states, private entities and individuals, than say 20 years ago. However, if quantum computers can launch attacks that break asymmetric cryptography, they then render the entire PKI-based encryption method we currently use to protect our sensitive information, obsolete. Which begs the question: Then what?

To take advantage of the time quantum computers will be able to break such systems, some countries are already beginning to collect encrypted foreign communications, with the expectation that they will be able to extract valuable secrets from that data in the future. Indeed, countries need to be aware that when quantum cryptanalysis does become available, it will significantly affect international relations by making any broadcast communications in the state open to decryption. For countries that extensively rely on encryption to secure military operations, diplomatic correspondence or other sensitive data, this could be a watershed event.

As quantum computers continue to improve, businesses and the general public will become increasingly aware of the threat cryptographic systems pose to all digital security globally. The ability to update cryptographic algorithms, keys and certificates quickly in response to advances in cracking techniques and processing speed will therefore be key.

To prepare for these inevitable cryptographic updates, more enterprises than ever will need to explore automation as a critical component for ensuring future-proofed security. Quantum resistant communication technology will soon be an inevitable part of cybersecurity mitigation.

Business and technology strategists must monitor progress on the evolution and potential implications of quantum computing starting now. Confidential data, over-the-air software updates, identity management systems, connected devices, and anything else with long-term security obligations must be made quantum safe before large quantum computers are developed and are reliable, meaning their error rates are low.

We have announced collaborations with ISARA Corporation and ID Quantique to make quantum-safe crypto more widely available for data protection in the cloud, applications and networks. Innovations like these can help combat the future security threats of quantum computing. With governments and organisations, such as NIST, racing to become cryptographically quantum resilient, readying enterprises for this change has never been more important.

You can find out more information on our quantum cybersecurity solutions here and if you have any other questions please feel free to tweet us @ThalesDigiSec.

*** This is a Security Bloggers Network syndicated blog from Enterprise Security Thales blog authored by Aline Gouget. Read the original post at: https://dis-blog.thalesgroup.com/security/2020/08/05/quantum-computing-and-the-evolving-cybersecurity-threat/

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Quantum Computing and the evolving cybersecurity threat - Security Boulevard

QUANTUM COMPUTING : Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, (form 10-Q) – marketscreener.com

This quarterly report on Form 10-Q and other reports filed Quantum Computing,Inc. (the "Company" "we", "our", and "us") from time to time with the U.S.Securities and Exchange Commission (the "SEC") contain or may containforward-looking statements and information that are based upon beliefs of, andinformation currently available to, the Company's management as well asestimates and assumptions made by Company's management. Readers are cautionednot to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which are onlypredictions and speak only as of the date hereof. When used in the filings, thewords "anticipate," "believe," "estimate," "expect," "future," "intend," "plan,"or the negative of these terms and similar expressions as they relate to theCompany or the Company's management identify forward-looking statements. Suchstatements reflect the current view of the Company with respect to future eventsand are subject to risks, uncertainties, assumptions, and other factors,including the risks contained in the "Risk Factors" section of the Company'sAnnual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019, relatingto the Company's industry, the Company's operations and results of operations,and any businesses that the Company may acquire. Should one or more of theserisks or uncertainties materialize, or should the underlying assumptions proveincorrect, actual results may differ significantly from those anticipated,believed, estimated, expected, intended, or planned.Although the Company believes that the expectations reflected in theforward-looking statements are reasonable, the Company cannot guarantee futureresults, levels of activity, performance, or achievements. Except as required byapplicable law, including the securities laws of the United States, the Companydoes not intend to update any of the forward-looking statements to conform thesestatements to actual results.Our financial statements are prepared in accordance with accounting principlesgenerally accepted in the United States ("GAAP"). These accounting principlesrequire us to make certain estimates, judgments and assumptions. We believe thatthe estimates, judgments and assumptions upon which we rely are reasonable basedupon information available to us at the time that these estimates, judgments andassumptions are made. These estimates, judgments and assumptions can affect thereported amounts of assets and liabilities as of the date of the financialstatements as well as the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during theperiods presented. Our financial statements would be affected to the extentthere are material differences between these estimates and actual results. Inmany cases, the accounting treatment of a particular transaction is specificallydictated by GAAP and does not require management's judgment in its application.There are also areas in which management's judgment in selecting any availablealternative would not produce a materially different result. The followingdiscussion should be read in conjunction with our financial statements and notesthereto appearing elsewhere in this report.OverviewAt the present time, we are a development stage company with limitedoperations. The Company is currently developing "quantum ready" softwareapplications and solutions for companies that want to leverage the promise ofquantum computing. We believe the quantum computer holds the potential todisrupt several global industries. Independent of when quantum computingdelivers compelling performance advantage over classic computing, the softwaretools and applications to accelerate real-world problems must be developed todeliver quantum computing's full promise. We specialize in quantumcomputer-ready software application, analytics, and tools, with a mission todeliver differentiated performance using non-quantum processors in thenear-term.We are leveraging our collective expertise in finance, computing, mathematicsand physics to develop a suite of quantum software applications that may enableglobal industries to utilize quantum computers, quantum annealers and digitalsimulators to improve their processes, profitability, and security. We primarilyfocus on the quadratic unconstrained binary optimization (QUBO) formulation,which is equivalent to the Ising model implemented by hardware annealers, bothnon-quantum from Fujitsu and others and quantum from D-Wave Systems, and alsomappable to gate-model quantum processors. We have built a software stack thatmaps and optimizes problems in the QUBO form and then solves them powerfully oncloud-based processors. Our software is designed to be capable of running onboth classic computers and on annealers such as D-Wave's quantum processor. Weare also building applications and analytics that deliver the power of oursoftware stack to high-value discrete optimization problems posed by financial,bio/pharma, and cybersecurity analysts. The advantages our software delivers canbe faster time-to-solution to the same results, more-optimal solutions, ormultiple solutions. 19

Products and Products in Development

The Company is currently working on software products to address, communitydetection (analysis for pharmaceutical applications and epidemiology),optimization of job shop scheduling, logistics, and dynamic route optimizationfor transportation systems. The Company is continuing to seek out difficultproblems for which our technology may provide improvement over existingsolutions.

We are continuing to develop software to address two classes of financialoptimization problems: Asset allocation and Yield Curve Trades. For assetallocation, our target clients are the asset allocation departments of largefunds, who we envision using our application to improve their allocation ofcapital into various asset classes.

Three Months Ended June 30, 2020 vs. June 30, 2019

Gross margin for the three months ended June 30, 2020 was $0 as compared with $0for the comparable prior year period. There was no gross margin because theCompany has not yet commenced marketing and selling products or services.

Six Months Ended June 30, 2020 vs. June 30, 2019

Gross margin for the Six months ended June 30, 2020 was $0 as compared with $0for the comparable prior year period. There was no gross margin because theCompany has not yet commenced marketing and selling products or services.

Liquidity and Capital Resources

The following table summarizes total current assets, liabilities and workingcapital at June 30, 2020, compared to December 31, 2019:

Off Balance Sheet Arrangements

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

We have identified the accounting policies below as critical to our businessoperations and the understanding of our results of operations.

The Company's policy is to present bank balances under cash and cashequivalents, which at times, may exceed federally insured limits. The Companyhas not experienced any losses in such accounts.

Net loss per share is based on the weighted average number of common shares andcommon shares equivalents outstanding during the period.

Edgar Online, source Glimpses

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QUANTUM COMPUTING : Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, (form 10-Q) - marketscreener.com

Why global collaboration is key to Accelerated Discovery – World Economic Forum

A short line down, slow and steady, followed by five more to complete a perfect hexagon.

As a 15-year-old in Madrid, I loved my science classes. I had a particularly inspiring chemistry teacher who challenged us to memorize the entire periodic table. I cherished going to the labs, experimenting with bubbly liquids changing color as I heated up my flask steamy substances changing phase before my eyes and drawing funny stick diagrams of molecules.

Decades later, in 2015, I would see the same perfect hexagon in an image of a molecule taken with the Nobel Prize-winning scanning tunneling microscope designed by IBM in the early 1980s. As a teenager, I believed stick diagrams were platonic ideals, an easy way to represent the realm of the small. And here I was, staring at a very real molecule of pentacene a row of five hexagons. I was transported back to my teenage years, when I peeked into the future. Suddenly, the future was right there in front of me.

Today, the lead scientist of that project, IBM Research chemist Leo Gross, and other researchers around the world routinely image molecules. They can even snap a picture as molecules change their charge state, and before and after a chemical reaction.

But its not just chemical imaging thats making leaps and bounds. The entire scientific method is getting turbocharged. Thats partly due to cutting-edge tools like artificial intelligence (AI) and quantum computers futuristic machines that look like steampunk golden chandeliers. Its also due to the changing way we do science. At last, the world is starting to grasp the importance of public-private collaborations to scientific discovery. And the COVID-19 pandemic is a catalyst to several such successful global partnerships.

We should keep the momentum. Classical high-performance computers (HPC), AI and quantum computing on their own are powerful, but the potential is even greater. To truly embrace the Future of Computing, policymakers, industry and academia have to create an infrastructure in which these technologies work together, boosting and complementing each other.

At the nodes of this infrastructure should be strategic national and international partnerships, with industry, academia and governments working jointly to accelerate progress, better prepare for and address global threats, and improve the world. We need more scientists in leadership positions in government and industry. And we need to ensure seamless links between policymakers and researchers, in regular times and during global emergencies.

One global collaboration we should create is what I suggest calling the Science Readiness Reserves (SRR). This organization would help rapidly mobilize researchers who are experts in various global disasters, connecting scientists worldwide with organizations that have cutting-edge technology, such as supercomputers or quantum computers.

The impact will touch every sector of our society and economy. We have all the ingredients to make it happen: bits, neurons and qubits. The secret sauce? They have to work together.

IBM Q System One, the world's first fully integrated universal quantum computing system

Image: IBM

Take pentacene, that simple molecule I once loved to draw, five perfect hexagons connected side to side. With 22 electrons and 22 orbitals, its among the most complex molecules we can simulate on a traditional, classical computer.

But there are billions upon billions of molecular configurations more possible combinations for a new molecule than there are atoms in the universe.

Sifting effectively through this vast chemical space would allow us to rapidly find a specific molecule and create a new material with the properties we want. This could unlock endless possibilities of material design for life-saving drugs, better batteries, more advanced prosthetic limbs or faster and safer cars, advancing healthcare, manufacturing, defense, biotechnology, communications and nearly every other industry. This design ability would replace our centuries-old reliance on serendipity in material discovery something weve been through with plastics, Teflon, Velcro, Vaseline, vulcanized rubber and so many other breakthroughs. Even graphene the atom-thick layer of carbon and the thinnest, strongest material known was discovered by (informed) chance, when physicist Kostya Novoselov found discarded Scotch tape in his labs waste basket.

Material design has long been a slow and iterative process. Typically, researchers jog between experiments, theory and simulations between a computer, perfecting calculations that approximate the behavior of unknown molecules, and a lab, to test if the molecules work as predicted, in a seemingly never-ending loop. Yes, high-performance computing (HPC) can simulate simple physical and chemical processes. Yes, advances in HPC have helped us pinpoint potentially useful molecules for lab tests. And yes, AI is increasingly valuable in screening novel high-performance materials, creating models to assess the relationship between the behavior of matter and its chemical structure, predicting properties of unknown substances and combing through previously published papers.

Still, it takes years to develop new materials. We need to inject quantum into the mix and get bits, neurons and qubits to play side by side.

We all deal with bits daily, from toddlers aptly manipulating tablets to autonomous robots clearing up the site of a nuclear power plant accident. Bits power smartphones, the brain scanner in our local hospital and a remotely controlled NASA rover on Mars. Artificial neurons, on the other hand, are mathematical functions that help AIs deep neural networks learn complex patterns, loosely mimicking natural neurons our brains nerve cells.

Then there are qubits, the fundamental units of information. They are bits oddball and much younger quantum cousins. Qubits behave just like atoms, with weird properties of superposition (being in multiple states at once) and entanglement (when one qubit changes its state at the same time as its entangled partner, even if they are light years apart). While a classical computer has to sift through potential combinations of values of a bit (0 or 1), one at a time, a quantum computer can make an exponential number of states interact simultaneously.

Molecules are groups of atoms held together by chemical bonds, and qubits are a great way to simulate a molecules behavior. For material design, quantum computing will add an invaluable extra dimension: accurate simulations of much more complex molecular systems.

Beyond material discovery, quantum computers will be a boon in any field where its necessary to predict the best outcome based on many possibilities, such as calculating the investment risk of a financial portfolio or the most optimal fuel-saving path for a passenger jet. This technology is just entering the phase of commercialization, accessible and programmable through the cloud.

At IBM, we believe quantum computers will reach the so-called quantum advantage outperforming any classical computer in certain use cases within this decade.

At IBM, we believe quantum computers will reach the so-called quantum advantage outperforming any classical computer in certain use cases within this decade.

When that happens, the world will no longer be the same provided we dont forget the secret sauce. Bits, neurons and qubits are powerful on their own, but working together, they will trigger a true technology revolution enabling a new Accelerated Discovery workflow, the default scientific method of the future.

In healthcare, this will impact drug discovery and lead to better personalized medicine, more efficient bioprinting of organs and rapidly developed vaccines. AI is already helping classical computers speed up medical imaging, diagnosis and data analysis. Quantum computers could, in the future, assist AI algorithms to find new patterns by exploring extremely high dimensional feature spaces, impacting fields like imaging and pathology. Together, HPC, AI and quantum computers have the potential to help us deal with dwindling food supplies, pollution, CO2 capture, energy storage and climate change. And this method will complement our own assessments of the risks of global threats that havent happened yet but could at any time.

This brings me to the other element needed to achieve the Future of Computing: national and international collaborations.

The pandemic has shown that public-private collaborations work, even when composed of industry rivals. Formed in March 2020, the COVID-19 High Performance Computing Consortium brought together government, industry leaders and academic labs to pool computing resources to support scientists conducting COVID-19 research. The collaboration also offers critical data sharing and creativity exchange.

This is the kind of collaboration we need on a global scale, beyond pandemics. The boost to the scientific method powered by quantum, HPC and AI can help address and improve many elements of society, from cybersecurity to entertainment to manufacturing. It is time to also reimagine how we use the talent in our science and technology institutions, and explore new ways to foster collaboration. This is why the proposed Science Readiness Reserves could be so important.

Science is vital to our future prosperity and health. It always has been, and always will be. If ever we needed a wake-up call to recognize the urgency of science and the power of collaboration, the time is now.

The World Economic Forum was the first to draw the worlds attention to the Fourth Industrial Revolution, the current period of unprecedented change driven by rapid technological advances. Policies, norms and regulations have not been able to keep up with the pace of innovation, creating a growing need to fill this gap.

The Forum established the Centre for the Fourth Industrial Revolution Network in 2017 to ensure that new and emerging technologies will helpnot harmhumanity in the future. Headquartered in San Francisco, the network launched centres in China, India and Japan in 2018 and is rapidly establishing locally-run Affiliate Centres in many countries around the world.

The global network is working closely with partners from government, business, academia and civil society to co-design and pilot agile frameworks for governing new and emerging technologies, including artificial intelligence (AI), autonomous vehicles, blockchain, data policy, digital trade, drones, internet of things (IoT), precision medicine and environmental innovations.

Learn more about the groundbreaking work that the Centre for the Fourth Industrial Revolution Network is doing to prepare us for the future.

Want to help us shape the Fourth Industrial Revolution? Contact us to find out how you can become a member or partner.

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Why global collaboration is key to Accelerated Discovery - World Economic Forum

7 Quantum Computing Stocks to Buy for the Next 10 Years – InvestorPlace

Quantum computing or the use of quantum mechanics to create a genre of next-generation quantum computers with nearly unlimited compute power has long been a concept stuck in the theory phase.

But quantum computing is starting to grow up. Recent breakthroughs in this emerging field such as Alphabet (NASDAQ:GOOG, NASDAQ:GOOGL) claiming to achieve quantum supremacy in late 2019 have laid the foundation for the quantum computing space to go from theory, to reality, over the next several years. This transition will spark huge growth in the global quantum computing market.

The investment implication?

Its time to buy quantum computing stocks.

At scale, quantum computing will disrupt nearly every industry in the world, ranging from finance, to biotechnology, to cybersecurity, and everything in between.

It will improve the way medicines are developed by simulating molecular processes. It will reduce energy loss in batteries through optimized routing and design, thereby allowing for the creation of things like hyper-efficient electric car batteries. In finance, it will speed up and optimize portfolio optimization, risk modeling and derivatives creation. In cybersecurity, it will disrupt the way we think about encryption. It will create superior weather forecasting models, unlock advancements in autonomous vehicle technology and help humans fight climate change.

Im not kidding when I say quantum computing will change everything.

And quantum computing stocks are positioned to be big winners over the next decade.

So, with that in mind, here are seven quantum computing stocks to buy for the next 10 years:

Source: rvlsoft / Shutterstock.com

Among the various quantum computing stocks to buy for the next 10 years, the best buy is probably Alphabet stock.

That is because many many consider Alphabets quantum computing arm Google AI Quantum, which is built on the back of a state-of-the-art 54-qubit processor dubbed Sycamore to be the leading quantum computing project in the world. Why? This thinking is bolstered mostly by the fact that, in late 2019, Sycamore performed a calculation in 200 seconds that would have taken the worlds most powerful supercomputers 10,000 years to perform.

This achievement led Alphabet to claim that Sycamore had reached quantum supremacy. What does this mean? Well, this benchmark is loosely defined as point when a quantum computer can perform a task in a relatively short amount of time that no other supercomputer could complete in any reasonable amount of time.

Many have since debated whether or not Alphabet has indeed reached quantum supremacy.

But thats somewhat of a moot point.

The reality is that Alphabet has built the worlds leading quantum computer. The engineering surrounding this supercomputer will only get better. So will Sycamores compute power. As that happens, Alphabet has the ability to through its Google Cloud business turn Sycamore into a market-leading quantum-computing-as-a-service business with huge revenues at scale.

To that end, GOOG stock is one of the best quantum computing stocks to buy today for the next 10 years.

Source: JHVEPhoto / Shutterstock.com

The other big dog in the quantum computing space that closely rivals Alphabet is IBM.

IBM has been big in the quantum computing space for years. But Big Blue has attacked this space in a fundamentally different way than its peers.

That is, while other quantum computing players like Alphabet have forever chased quantum supremacy, IBM has shunned that idea in favor of building on something the company calls the quantum advantage.

Ostensibly, the quantum advantage really isnt too different from quantum supremacy. The former deals with a continuum focused on making quantum computers perform certain tasks faster than traditional computers. The latter deals with a moment focused on making quantum computers permanently faster at all things than traditional computers.

But its a philosophical difference with huge implications. By focusing on building the quantum advantage, IBM is specializing its quantum computing efforts into making quantum computing measurably useful and economic in certain industry verticals, for certain tasks.

In so doing, IBM is actually creating a fairly straightforward go-to market strategy for its quantum computing services in the long run. Help this industry, do this task, really well.

And so, with such a realizable, simple and tangible approach, IBM stock is one of the most sure-fire quantum computing stocks to buy today for the next 10 years.

Source: NYCStock / Shutterstock.com

Another big tech player in the quantum computing space with promising long-term potential is Microsoft.

Microsoft already has a huge infrastructure cloud business, Azure. Building on that infrastructure foundation, Microsoft has launched Azure Quantum, a quantum computing business with potential to turn into a huge QCaaS business at scale.

In its current state, Azure Quantum is a secure, stable and open ecosystem which serves as a one-stop-shop for quantum computing software, hardware and applications.

The bull thesis here is that Microsoft will lean into its already huge Azure customer base in order to cross-sell Azure Quantum. Doing so will give Azure Quantum a big and long runway for widespread early adoption, which is the first step in turning Azure Quantum into a huge QCaaS business.

It also helps that Microsofts core Azure business is absolutely on fire right now.

Putting it all together, quantum computing is simply one facet of the much broader Microsoft enterprise cloud growth narrative. That growth narrative will remain robust for the next several years. And it will continue to support further gains in MSFT stock.

Source: Shutterstock

The most interesting, smallest and potentially most explosive quantum computing stock on this list is Quantum Computing.

The Quantum Computing bull thesis is fairly simple.

Quantum computing is going to change everything over the next several years. But the hardware is expensive. It likely wont be ready to deliver measurable benefits at reasonable costs to average customers for several years. So, Quantum Computing is building a portfolio of affordable quantum computing software and apps that deliver quantum compute power, but can be run on traditional legacy supercomputers.

In so doing, Quantum Computing is hoping to fill the gap and turn into a widespread, low-cost provider of easily accessible quantum computing software for companies that cannot afford full-scale quantum compute hardware.

Quantum Computing is just starting to commercialize this software in 2020, through three products currently in beta mode. Those three products will likely start signing up financial, healthcare and government customers to long-term contracts in the back half of the year. Those early signups could be the beginning of tens of thousands of companies signing up for Quantums services over the next five to 10 years.

Connecting the dots, you really could see this company go from zero dollars in revenue today, to several hundred million dollars in revenue in the foreseeable future.

If that happens, QUBT stock which has a market capitalization of just $12 million today could soar.

Source: Kevin Chen Photography / Shutterstock.com

Much like the other big tech players on this space, Alibaba is in the business of creating a robust QCaaS arm to complement its already huge infrastructure-as-a-service business.

Long story short, Alibaba is the leading public cloud provider in China. Indeed, Alibaba Cloud owns about 10% of the global IaaS market. Alibaba intends to leverage this leadership position to cross-sell quantum compute services to its huge existing client base, and eventually turn into the largest QCaaS player in China, too.

Will it work?


The Great Tech Wall of China will prevent many of the other companies on this list from reaching scale, or even sustainably doing operations in, China. Alibaba does have some in-country quantum computing competition. But this isnt a winner-take-all market. And given Alibabas enormous resource advantages, it is highly likely that the company eventually turns into either the No. 1 or No. 2 player in Chinas quantum computing market.

Thats just another reason to buy and hold BABA stock for the long haul.

Source: StreetVJ / Shutterstock.com

The other big Chinese tech company diving head-first into quantum computing is Baidu.

Baidu launched its own quantum computing research center in 2018. According to the company website, the goal of this research center is to integrate quantum computing into Baidus core businesses.

If so, that means Baidus goal with quantum computing diverges from the norm. Others in this space want to build out quantum compute power to sell it, as a service, to third parties. Baidu wants to build out quantum compute power to, at least initially, improve its own operations.

Doing so will pay off in a big way for Baidu.

Baidus core search and advertising businesses could markedly improve with quantum computing. Advancements in compute power could dramatically improve search algorithms and ad-targeting techniques.

BIDU stock does have healthy upside thanks to its early research into quantum computing.

Source: Sundry Photography / Shutterstock.com

Last, but not least, on this list of quantum computing stocks to buy is Intel.

While Intel may be falling behind competitors namely Advanced Micro Devices (NASDAQ:AMD) on the traditional CPU front, the semiconductor giant is on the cutting edge of creating potential quantum CPU candidates.

Intels newly announced Horse Ridge cryogenic control chip is widely considered the markets best quantum CPU candidate out there today. The chip includes four radio frequency channels that can control 128 qubits. That is more than double Tangle Lake, Intels predecessor quantum CPU.

In other words, Intel is the leader when it comes to quantum compute chips.

The big idea, of course, is that when quantum computers are built at scale, they will likely be built on Intels quantum CPUs.

To that end, potentially explosive growth in the quantum computing hardware market over the next five to 10 years represents a huge, albeit speculative, growth catalyst for both Intel and INTC stock.

Luke Lango is a Markets Analyst for InvestorPlace. He has been professionally analyzing stocks for several years, previously working at various hedge funds and currently running his own investment fund in San Diego. A Caltech graduate, Luke has consistently been rated one of the worlds top stock pickers by various other analysts and platforms, and has developed a reputation for leveraging his technology background to identify growth stocks that deliver outstanding returns. Luke is also the founder of Fantastic, a social discovery company backed by an LA-based internet venture firm. As of this writing, he was long MSFT.

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7 Quantum Computing Stocks to Buy for the Next 10 Years - InvestorPlace

Quantum Key Distribution: The Next Generation – A Ten-year Forecast and Revenue Assessment 2020-2029 – ResearchAndMarkets.com – Business Wire

DUBLIN--(BUSINESS WIRE)--The "Quantum Key Distribution: The Next Generation - A Ten-year Forecast and Revenue Assessment: 2020 to 2029" report has been added to ResearchAndMarkets.com's offering.

This report provides forecasts and analysis for key QKD industry developments. The author was the first industry analysis firm to predict that quantum security in mobile phones would become a significant revenue earner in the short-term. Phones using QRNGs were announced earlier this year and this report discusses how the mobile QRNG market will evolve.

There have been some big developments in the QKD space. In particular, the regulatory and financial framework for the development of a vibrant QKD business has matured. On the standardization and funding front, the ITU-T standardization is near complete while both the US and UK governments have announced major funding for large-scale quantum networks with QKD as a central component. And the QuantumCtek IPO may just be the beginning of the new public companies in this space.

The report contains forecasts of the hardware and service revenues from QKD in all the major end-user groups. It also profiles all the leading suppliers of QKD boxes and services. These profiles are designed to provide the reader of this report with an understanding of how the major players are creating QKD products and building marketing strategies for QKD as quantum computers become more ubiquitous.

Key Topics Covered:

Executive Summary

E.1 Key Developments Since our Last Report

E.2 Specific Signs that the Market for QKD is Growing

E.3 Evolution of QKD Technology and its Impact on the Market

E.3.1 Reach (Transmission Distance)

E.3.2 Speed (Key Exchange Rate)

E.3.3 Cost (Equipment)

E.4 Summary of Ten-year Forecasts of QKD Markets

E.4.1 Forecasts by End-user Segment

E.5 Five Firms to Watch Closely in the QKD Space

Chapter One: Introduction

1.1 Why QKD is a Growing Market Opportunity

1.2 Overview of QKD Technological Challenges

1.3 Goals and Scope of this Report

1.4 Methodology of this Report

1.5 Plan of this Report

Chapter Two: Technological Assessment

2.1 Setting the Scene: QKD in Cryptography-land

2.2 Why QKD: What Exactly does QKD Bring to the Cryptography Table?

2.3 PQC's Love-Hate Relationship with QKD

2.4 QKD's Technological Challenges

2.5 QKD Transmission Infrastructure

2.6 Chip-based QKD

2.7 QKD Standardization: Together we are Stronger

2.8 Key Takeaways from this Chapter

Chapter Three: QKD Markets - Established and Emerging

3.1 QKD Markets: A Quantum Opportunity Being Driven by Quantum Threats

3.2 Government and Military Markets - Where it all Began

3.3 Civilian Markets for QKD

3.4 Key Points from this Chapter

Chapter Four: Ten-year Forecasts of QKD Markets

4.1 Forecasting Methodology

4.2 Changes in Forecast Since Our Last Report

4.2.1 The Impact of COVID-19

4.2.2 Reduction in Satellite Penetration

4.2.3 Faster Reduction in Pricing

4.2.4 Bigger Role for China?

4.2 Forecast by End-User Type

4.3 Forecast by Type of QKD Infrastructure: Terrestrial or Satellite

4.4 Forecast of Key QKD-related Equipment and Components

4.5 Forecast by Geography/Location of End Users

Chapter Five: Profiles of QKD Companies

5.1 Approach to Profiling

5.2 ABB (Switzerland/Sweden)

5.3 Cambridge Quantum Computing (United Kingdom)

5.4 ID Quantique (Switzerland)

5.5 KETS Quantum Security (United Kingdom)

5.6 MagiQ Technologies (United States)

5.7 Nokia (Finland)

5.8 QuantumCtek (China)

5.9 Quantum Xchange (United States)

5.10 Qubitekk (United States)

5.11 QuintessenceLabs (Australia)

5.12 SK Telecom (Korea)

5.13 Toshiba (Japan)

For more information about this report visit https://www.researchandmarkets.com/r/jp7dzd

About ResearchAndMarkets.com

ResearchAndMarkets.com is the world's leading source for international market research reports and market data. We provide you with the latest data on international and regional markets, key industries, the top companies, new products and the latest trends.

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Quantum Key Distribution: The Next Generation - A Ten-year Forecast and Revenue Assessment 2020-2029 - ResearchAndMarkets.com - Business Wire

Quantum plan will be ready in a few months; we arent irreversibly behind others: Prof Ashutosh Sharma, Secretary, DST – The Financial Express

A fortnight ago, the US Department of Energy released its blueprint of a quantum internet; earlier this year one of its partnering Universities had set up a quantum loop to transfer protons. Close to Hague, Delft University researchers will be testing a similar project later this year. While India does not have any such groundbreaking research in the field, it is moving towards setting this up.

The FM, in her speech, announced setting up of a National Quantum Technology Mission with an investment of Rs 8,000 crore over five years. Prof Ashutosh Sharma, secretary, department of science and technology, in a conversation with Ishaan Gera, discusses the developments in the field of quantum technology, and how the government is moving towards creating a holistic ecosystem.Edited excerpts:

Quantum technology is emerging and also very disruptive. Like all exponential technologies, it would expand rapidly. Department of Science and Technology had started an initiative on quantum technology in 2018. In this, we first did a mapping of researchers in the country. To see who is working on what aspects of quantum technology, what kind of infrastructure or potential we have. And, what kind of human resources are there and how they need to be trained. Being a new area, you need to build from scratch. And, as you know, there are many applications of quantum that have emerged, which is quantum computing, communication, security or quantum key distribution, clocks, sensors, imaging devices, quantum material or superconductivity. And, of course, Quantum algorithms, which are now getting integrated into the new quantum mission.

In 2018, there were nearly 100 research groups in areas and over 100 PhD students. We made a scheme for three years with Rs 186 crore.

Progress has been in smaller-sized areas. Fifty groups have been identified. Meanwhile, bigger interest has developed. Departments like MeiTY, Isro and DRDO have started looking towards this area. Isro, for instance, is looking at satellites for quantum communication. We decided to upscale, and that is what the mention of Rs 8,000 crore in the Budget was all about.

Consultations have been going on. We have had half a dozen meetings till now. Detailed DPR is nearly drafted, and in another couple of weeks, we will have that ready. Lockdown has slowed down progress, but in another couple of months, we will get started. Now, this mission is interesting in many aspects. One is the content. However, the structure is extremely critical. We have an institute of quantum technologies, which sets up the mission and target. There will be some element of research to it, but its primary job will be coordinating the mission and targets, for example, setting targets like at least a 50-qubit quantum computer within five years. It will also guide the development of sub-systems and sub-technologies required. There will be a national committee chaired by a scientist, someone who knows the domain.

The apex committee will have one-third representation from all stakeholders. We are looking to involve the industry right from the beginning so that they will constitute one-third. Academia and R&D will have one-third share, and the ministry will have a third share to present their demands. We need to cover the entire knowledge ecosystem. We will be doing human resource generation from undergrad to PhD and post-doctoral programmes.

We will also have technology transmission and incubation. So, there are enough incubators for start-ups. Funding from start-ups can also come from here. Two-way participation will be flexible. We will either employ the industry or give them money. This usually hasnt been happening as far as the government is concerned. So, we will be signing MoUs with the industry and international MoUs. As we want to attract the best talent, salaries would be as per industry standards.

The second tier is the hubs, which will function as mini ministries focused on a particular area. These are aggregators and custodians of all activities in that area. Below hubs are centres. Centres will be geographical entities, like IITs. Below centres, we have spikes. This is a hub-spoke-spikes model. These will be one group or two groups which are working on a specific technology. So, we will cover the entire knowledge ecosystem, instead of working in silos.

There is also flexibility in powers given to the mission. They dont have to come back to the ministry for funds. They will be able to invite people from abroad and send our researchers abroad. We should remain plugged into the global ecosystem. And, we cannot catch up if we dont have expertise.

A similar model was put in place for interdisciplinary cyber-physical systems, started last year at an investment of Rs 3,660 crore. We have established 21 hubs, and we are looking at four research parks. Each hub has an incubator and an integrated process. Because of the coronavirus, we have slowed down, but the project is underway. Hubs are Section 8 companies with an autonomous board, and they are empowered to make all decisions. Apex committee is set up with a top-level vision, and they do not micromanage.

Supercomputing mission is now fully operational. We are currently assembling and partly producing supercomputers in India; earlier, we had a plan to import. We have set this up in three different phases. Chips we are importing, but board-level integration is done in India. Six supercomputers have been made, three have been installed, and three will be installed within a month; 12 more will come by next year. We will also pick up other things, design and everything will happen here. Another domain is the cyber-physical mission, which caters to technologies like artificial intelligence, machine learning, IoT, Blockchain, Industry 4.0 and VR/VR/MR. These intersections will provide a lot of muscle.

Supercomputing mission has a private partnership based on a global tender. We had given the contract to a French company, which has now set up its base in Pune.

We will also have a hub for policy regulation and ethics. We call it light and shadow of technology. In India, we are developing policy in consonance. Standards are also an important part. No matter what technology we develop, if we cant figure out standards, we cannot sell it within India or globally. Globally, standards are driven by companies and not by governments.

We are following a model of collaboration and cooperation. If something is high-risk, initially the government will do the funding. As we proceed further, the government will slowly exit and industry will put in more. So, we have a graded approach. We are integrating the industry from the first day. Industry, in our new model, has the same right to make use of resources.

We are just beginning. Often in these frontier technologies, the nation didnt invest the kind of resources that were needed. Semi-conductors and processors is one example. We have remedied that here. Our investment is comparable to what Europeans and Americans are doing. We are not going sub-critical. China, for instance, started a year or two ago. But we are not irreversibly behind.

New science, technology and innovation policy is in the making. And, by the end of this year, we will have it ready. This policy considers some of the concerns regarding the industry. We need a science technology, and innovation policy and stakeholder consultation has been going on for the last three months.

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Quantum plan will be ready in a few months; we arent irreversibly behind others: Prof Ashutosh Sharma, Secretary, DST - The Financial Express

Deep tech may stumble on insufficient computing power – Livemint

It appears that many of the deep tech" algorithms the world is excited about will run into physical barriers before they reach their true promise. Take Bitcoin. A cryptocurrency based on blockchain technology, it has a sophisticated algorithm that grows in complexity, as very few new Bitcoin are mintedthrough a digital process called mining". For a simple description of Bitcoin and blockchain, you could refer to an earlier Mint column of mine.

Bitcoins assurance of validity is achieved by its proving" algorithm, which is designed to continually increase in mathematical complexityand hence the computing power needed to process itevery time a Bitcoin is mined. Individual miners are continually doing work to assess the validity of each Bitcoin transaction and confirm whether it adheres to the cryptocurrencys rules. They earn small amounts of new Bitcoin for their efforts. The complexity of getting several miners to agree on the same history of transactions (and thereby validate them) is managed by the same miners who try outpacing one another to create a valid block".

The machines that perform this work consume huge amounts of energy. According to Digiconomist.net, each transaction uses almost 544KWh of electrical energyenough to provide for the average US household for almost three weeks. The total energy consumption of the Bitcoin network alone is about 64 TWh, enough to provide for all the energy needs of Switzerland. The website also tracks the carbon footprint and electronic waste left behind by Bitcoin, which are both startlingly high. This exploitation of resources is unsustainable in the long run, and directly impacts global warming. At a more mundane level, the costs of mining Bitcoin can outstrip the rewards.

But cryptocurrencies are not the worlds only hogs of computing power. Many Artificial Intelligence (AI) deep learning neural" algorithms also place crushing demands on the planets digital processing capacity.

A neural network" attempts to mimic the functioning of the human brain and nervous system in AI learning models. There are many of these. The two most widely used are recursive neural networks, which develop a memory pattern, and convolutional neural networks, which develop spatial reasoning. The first is used for tasks such as language translation, and the second for image processing. These use enormous computing power, as do other AI neural network models that help with deep learning".

Frenetic research has been going into new chip architectures for these to handle the ever-increasing complexity of AI models more efficiently. Todays computers are binary", meaning they depend on the two simple states of a transistor bitwhich could be either on or off, and thus either a 0 or 1 in binary notation. Newer chips try to achieve efficiency through other architectures. This will ostensibly help binary computers execute algorithms more efficiently. These chips are designed as graphic-processing units, since they are more capable of dealing with AIs demands than central processing units, which are the mainstay of most devices.

In a parallel attempt to get beyond binary computing, firms such as DWave, Google and IBM are working on a different class of machines called quantum computers, which make use of the so-called qubit" , with each qubit able to hold 0 and 1 values simultaneously. This enhances computing power. The problem with these, though, is that they are far from seeing widespread adoption. First off, they are not yet sophisticated enough to manage todays AI models efficiently, and second, they need to be maintained at temperatures that are close to absolute zero (-273 celsius). This refrigeration, in turn, uses up enormous amounts of electrical energy.

Clearly, advances in both binary chip design and quantum computing are not keeping pace with the increasing sophistication of deep tech algorithms.

In a research paper, Neil Thompson of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and others analyse five widely-used AI application areas and show that advances in each of these fields of use come at a huge cost, since they are reliant on massive increases in computing capability. The authors argue that extrapolating this reliance forward reveals that current progress is rapidly becoming economically, technically and environmentally unsustainable.

Sustained progress in these applications will require changes to their deep learning algorithms and/or moving away from deep learning to other machine learning models that allow greater efficiency in their use of computing capability. The authors further argue that we are currently in an era where improvements in hardware performance are slowing, which means that this shift away from deep neural networks is now all the more urgent.

Thompson et al argue that the economic, environmental and purely technical costs of providing all this additional computing power will soon constrain deep learning and a range of applications, making the achievement of key milestones impossible, if current trajectories hold.

We are designing increasingly sophisticated algorithms, but we dont yet have computers that are sophisticated enough to match their demands efficiently. Without significant changes in how AI models are built, the usefulness of AI and other forms of deep tech is likely to hit a wall soon.

Siddharth Pai is founder of Siana Capital, a venture fund management company focused on deep science and tech in India

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Former Intel exec to be new CEO of Semiconductor Research Corporation – WRAL Tech Wire

DURHAM A former Intel Corporation executive has been appointed as president and CEO ofSemiconductor Research Corporation (SRC), a global semiconductor research consortium based in Durham.

Todd Younkin, who is currently executive director of SRCs Joint University Microelectronics Program (JUMP),replacesKen Hansen who is retiring after leading SRC the past five years. Younkin will starttransitioning to his new role on August 18.

I am honored to lead SRC, a one-of-a-kind consortium with incredible potential and exceptionally talented people, Younkin said in a statement. Together, we will deliver on SRCs mission to bring the best minds together to achieve the unimaginable. SRC is well-positioned to meet our commitment to SRC members, employees, and stakeholders by paving the way for the semiconductor industry. Our strong values, unique innovation model, and unflinching commitment to our members are core SRC principles that we will maintain as we move forward.

Todd Younkin

Prior to SRC, Younkin held senior technical positions at Intel Corporation. Among them, he was an assignee to IMEC, an international semiconductor research and development hub, where he worked closely within the consortium to help move Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) into commercialization.

He holds a Ph.D. from the California Institute of Technology and Bachelor of Science from the University of Florida.

The challenges facing the semiconductor industry today are as exciting and demanding as ever before, said Gil Vandentop, SRC Chairman of the Board, in a statement. At the same time, AI, 5G+, and Quantum Computing promise to provide unfathomable gains and benefits for humanity. The need for research investments that bring these technology advances to bear is paramount. Todd has demonstrated an ability to bring organizations together, tackle common research causes, and advance technologies into industry. He has a clear vision to take SRC to the next level. I am delighted that Todd has accepted this challenge and will become the next SRC CEO.

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Former Intel exec to be new CEO of Semiconductor Research Corporation - WRAL Tech Wire

Rep. John Joyce: TikTok, the spy in your child’s pocket, just tip of tech iceberg – TribLIVE

TribLIVE's Daily and Weekly email newsletters deliver the news you want and information you need, right to your inbox.

During the coronavirus crisis, Americans have increasingly turned to technology for work, school, keeping in touch with friends and loved ones, and entertainment. Staying at home, we improvised and took advantage of the video chats and conference calls that connected us to the outside world.

At the same time, droves of young Americans found virtual community and amusement on TikTok, a popular video sharing platform. And, contrary to what our kids may believe, it is not a safe space.

Videos uploaded by American children and teenagers, which can range from seemingly benign dance routines to harmful depictions of violence or worse, are stored on TikToks servers deep within communist China along with every TikTok users personal information. Owned by the Chinese company ByteDance, TikTok is a shameless front for data harvesting on behalf of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP).

If youre concerned about TikToks influence and encroachment on the American people, youre not alone. Recently, President Donald Trump and national security leaders like Secretary of State Mike Pompeo have indicated that they will not allow TikTok to continue pocketing the private data of American citizens.

Congress also is taking action. On the China Task Force, we have been taking on the CCP and exposing TikToks efforts to mine Americans data and edge out competition in the free market. We know that the CCPs end goal is to limit free speech and the flow of information in America and across the world.

Our nation simply cannot allow this trajectory to continue. Ending TikToks influence in the United States would be a solid step in the right direction, but this platform is just the beginning of our problems. For too long, the Chinese communist government has sought to exert influence in the world by gaining dominance in the global telecommunications network.

In addition to TikToks parent company ByteDance, the CCP uses pawns like Huawei and ZTE to gain control over next-generation technology including artificial intelligence, semiconductor production, quantum computing and 5G.

Enabled by years of manipulative practices, including cheating and even outright theft, the Chinese government is poised to achieve global dominance in the technology and telecommunications sectors with the ultimate goal of controlling critical market segments and weaponizing global supply chains for medical equipment, weapons and other critical electronics.

In the 21st century, America cannot allow China to win the race to next-generation technology, and we on the China Task Force are leading Congress efforts in this pursuit.

Countering Chinas overreach into our technology requires a comprehensive approach. To be successful, we must equip young Americans with the skills and resources they need to once again lead in innovation. Additionally, we must move the manufacturing of our technology away from China.

As a solution, I introduced legislation that seeks to end Americas dependence on China for the rare earth elements and other minerals which are used to manufacture medical supplies, defense technology and high-tech products by establishing a supply chain for these resources in the United States. Instead of relying on China for the materials needed to make smartphones and other devices that we use every day, we should be utilizing the resources that we have here at home. In Pennsylvania, we have the dedicated skilled workforce and the rich stores of minerals needed to move the supply chain away from the hostile Chinese government and create jobs in our community.

Given Americans ever-increasing dependence on technology, its more important than ever that we guard against cyberattacks and protect our country from foreign interference. As our nation seeks to combat the CCP, we know that theres a long road ahead but this is the time to make a difference.

Each parents first step should be removing the spies from our childrens pockets by deleting TikTok to protect their privacy and thats just the beginning. Beyond banning TikTok, we must take steps today to limit the Chinese governments attempts to gain dominance tomorrow.

As a nation, we cannot afford to fall behind and endanger our national security. On the China Task Force, we are working to protect you and your data from the Chinese communist government. To win this fight, the China Task Force is leading the way to correct course and ensure that Americans are never beholden to the CCP.

U.S. Rep. John Joyce, M.D., a Republican from Altoona, represents Pennsylvanias 13th Congressional District.

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ASX Small Cap Lunch Wrap: Who’s beating expectations today? – Stockhead

Global investors were bracing for a rough earnings season, but most companies have so far surpassed much-lowered analyst expectations.

Refinitiv data showed that about 60 per cent of the biggest European listed companies have, so far, beaten dramatically lowered estimates.

On Wall Street, about 82 per cent of S&P 500 companies reporting so far have beaten estimates.

Meanwhile, the Australian reporting season continues today with large cap rail company Aurizon Holdings and real estate giant GPT Group both of which nudged higher in early trade.

The ASX more generally is in positive territory, with the benchmark ASX 200 Index up 0.85 per cent to 6,055 points by 11:30am AEST.

Here are the best performing ASX small cap stocks at 12pm Monday August 10:

Swipe or scroll to reveal the full table. Click headings to sort.

Biotech Emerald Clinics (ASX:EMD) jumped +70 per cent after signing a contract with the UK arm of pot giant Canopy Growth.

Secos Group (ASX:SES) locked in a significant supply contract for its compostable pet waste bags with a leading US pet supply company.

The stock was up +25 per cent in morning trade.

And quantum computing stock Archer Materials (ASX:AXE) is progressing through milestones as it aims to build a room-temperature quantum computing qubit processor.

Here are the worst performing ASX small cap stocks at 12pm Monday August 10:

Swipe or scroll to reveal the full table. Click headings to sort.

Farm Pride Foods (ASX:FRM) fell after confirming that the Lethbridge facility in Victoria has tested positive for H7N7 avian influenza virus.

The approximate number of hens lost represents about 30 per cent of the companys productive hen flock, it says.

The full financial impact of this event is still being determined but is considered material.

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ASX Small Cap Lunch Wrap: Who's beating expectations today? - Stockhead

Quantum Computing in Aerospace and Defense Market 2020: Global Key Players, Trends, Share, Industry Size, Segmentation, Opportunities, Forecast To…

Quantum Computing in Aerospace and Defense Market is analyzed with industry experts in mind to maximize return on investment by providing clear information needed for informed business decisions. This research will help both established and new entrants to identify and analyze market needs, market size and competition. It explains the supply and demand situation, the competitive scenario, and the challenges for market growth, market opportunities, and the complication faced by prominent players.

Click here to get sample of the premium report: https://www.quincemarketinsights.com/request-sample-29723?utm_source= pf/hp

The reports authors have segmented the global market for Quantum Computing in Aerospace and Defense by product, application, and region. Global market segments for Quantum Computing in Aerospace and Defense will be analyzed based on market share, production, consumption, revenue, CAGR, market size, and more factors. The analysts have profiled leading players in the global market for Quantum Computing in Aerospace and Defense, taking into account their recent developments, market share, sales, revenue, covered areas, product portfolios and other aspects.

It has a wide-ranging analysis of the impact of these advancements on the markets future growth, wide-ranging analysis of these extensions on the markets future growth. The research report studies the market in a detailed manner by explaining the key facets of the market that are foreseeable to have a countable stimulus on its developing extrapolations over the forecast period.

Get ToC for the overview of the premium report https://www.quincemarketinsights.com/request-toc-29723?utm_source=pf/hp

Table of Contents:

Market Segmentation:By Component (Hardware, Software, Services), By Application (QKD, Quantum Cryptanalysis, Quantum Sensing, Naval)

A detailed outline of the Global Quantum Computing in Aerospace and Defense Market includes a comprehensive analysis of different verticals of businesses. North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Middle East & Africa, and South America have been considered for the studies on the basis of several terminologies.

This is anticipated to drive the Global Quantum Computing in Aerospace and Defense Market over the forecast period. This research report covers the market landscape and its progress prospects in the near future. After studying key companies, the report focuses on the new entrants contributing to the growth of the market. Most companies in the Global Quantum Computing in Aerospace and Defense Market are currently adopting new technological trends in the market.

Finally, the researchers throw light on different ways to discover the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats affecting the growth of the Global Quantum Computing in Aerospace and Defense Market. The feasibility of the new report is also measured in this research report.

The Key Players mentioned in our report are D-Wave Systems Inc, Qxbranch LLC, IBM Corporation, Cambridge Quantum Computing Ltd, 1qb Information Technologies Inc., QC Ware Corp., Magiq Technologies Inc., Station Q-Microsoft Corporation, and Rigetti Computing

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Daily Crunch: Twitter and Facebook take action against Trump – TechCrunch

Facebook and Twitter are taking a stronger stand against pandemic misinformation, we preview the latest version of macOS and a mental health startup raises $50 million. Heres your Daily Crunch for August 6, 2020.

The big story: Twitter, Facebook take action against Trump misinformation

Facebook and Twitter both took action against a post from President Donald Trump and his campaign featuring a clip from a Fox News interview in which he misleadingly described children as almost immune to COVID-19. Facebook took down the offending post, while Twitter went further and locked the Trump campaign out of its account (separate from Trumps personal account).

The @TeamTrump Tweet you referenced is in violation of the Twitter Rules on COVID-19 misinformation, Twitters Aly Pavela said in a statement. The account owner will be required to remove the Tweet before they can Tweet again.

Meanwhile, Twitter also announced today that it will be labeling accounts tied tostate-controlled media organizations and government officials (but not heads of state).

The tech giants

macOS 11.0 Big Sur preview Big Sur is the operating systems first primary number upgrade in 20 years, and Brian Heater says it represents a big step forward in macOS evolution.

Apple 27-inch iMac review This will be one of the last Macs to include Intel silicon.

Uber picks up Autocab to push into places its own app doesnt go Uber plans to use Autocabs technology to link users with local providers when they open the app in locations where Uber doesnt offer rides.

Startups, funding and venture capital

On-demand mental health service provider Ginger raises $50 million Through Gingers services, patients have access to a care coordinator who serves as the first point of entry into a companys mental health plans.

Mode raises $33 million to supercharge its analytics platform for data scientists Mode has also been introducing tools for less technical users to structure queries that data scientists can subsequently execute more quickly and with more complete responses.

Crossbeam announces $25 million Series B to keep growing partnerships platform Crossbeam is a Philadelphia startup that automates partnership data integration.

Advice and analysis from Extra Crunch

Can learning pods scale, or are they widening edtechs digital divide? In recent weeks, the concept has taken off all across the country.

Eight trends accelerating the age of commercial-ready quantum computing Venrocks Ethan Batraski writes that in the last 12 months, there have been meaningful breakthroughs in quantum computing from academia, venture-backed companies and industry.

5 VCs on the future of Michigans startup ecosystem According to the Michigan Venture Capital Association (MVCA), there are 144 venture-backed startup companies in Michigan, up 12% over the last five years.

(Reminder: Extra Crunch is our subscription membership program, which aims to democratize information about startups. You can sign up here.)

Everything else

More Chinese phone makers could lose US apps under Trumps Clean Network The Trump administrations five-pronged Clean Network initiative aims to strip away Chinese phone makers ability to pre-install and download U.S. apps.

UK reported to be ditching coronavirus contact tracing in favor of risk rating app Reports suggest a launch of the much-delayed software will happen this month, but also that the app will no longer be able to automatically carry out contact tracing.

The Daily Crunch is TechCrunchs roundup of our biggest and most important stories. If youd like to get this delivered to your inbox every day at around 3pm Pacific, you can subscribe here.

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Daily Crunch: Twitter and Facebook take action against Trump - TechCrunch

McCaul: Semiconductors are the future. Building them should stay in Texas. – Austin American-Statesman

The COVID-19 pandemic has opened the eyes of many Americans to the danger the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) poses to our supply chain, especially for critical items such as personal protective equipment (PPE) and lifesaving pharmaceuticals. When COVID was allowed to spread rapidly throughout China and the world, Chinese Communist Party officials hoarded supplies of PPE and banned their export to other countries a move they were able to make because of their stranglehold on that supply chain.

And just as frightening, the United States sources approximately 80 percent of its active pharmaceutical ingredients from overseas, including the Peoples Republic of China. Through one of its propaganda outlets, the CCP even threatened to impose export controls on pharmaceuticals needed to fight the coronavirus the party allowed to spread. Can you imagine what would have happened if they had followed through?

Thats why its important that we secure critical medical supply chains now. We also need to secure our technological supply chains before it is too late and that starts with re-establishing the United States as a true leader in the production of advanced semiconductors.

Semiconductors are the tiny chips that serve as the brains behind your toaster, your smartphone, all the way to fighter jets and, in the very near future, they will serve as the brains behind the innovations of tomorrow such as 5G, quantum computing, and artificial intelligence (AI). America is already a leader on semiconductors, with the U.S. industry accounting for nearly 50 percent annual global market share and with American companies at the forefront of advanced semiconductor chip design. But our leadership is being threatened.

The Chinese Communist Party is spending billions of dollars to become the leader in the production of advanced semiconductors, posing a serious threat to our economic and national security. Unless we take bold action, the United States may lose its edge in making advanced semiconductor chips to our adversary and endanger our technological future.

Thats why I worked with Democrats and Republicans in both Chambers of Congress, including my House colleague Rep. Doris Matsui (D-CA), and my Senate colleagues Senator John Cornyn and Senator Mark Warner (D-VA), to introduce the CHIPS for America Act. By providing funding and support throughout the semiconductor supply chainfrom research and development to productionour bill will supercharge investment, create thousands of jobs, and safeguard national security. I am proud a version of the CHIPS for America Act passed on the House floor as an amendment to this years National Defense Authorization Act, and will work with my colleagues in the Senate to get this to the presidents desk.

Existing semiconductor ecosystems like ones in Austin should be further energized by this bill, which will have a cascading effect on the local economy. And with the Armys Future Command, the University of Texas and the high-tech community already based in Austin, our city is ideally situated for this industry to grow and thrive here. Semiconductor manufacturing jobswhich net an average salary of $150,000 per yearcreate nearly five additional jobs in the broader economy. We have already seen this effect in Austin thanks to the Samsung Semiconductor facility the most significant foreign direct investment in this country. Beyond this fabrication facility, there are dozens of semiconductor companies that conduct research, design, or testing of semiconductors in my district, and dozens more that use a semiconductor to power a finished product, such as Apple, which builds its MacBook Pro computer in Austin.

Now is the time to act to preserve American leadership in the development and manufacturing of the technologies of the future.

McCaul, R-Austin, is lead Republican on the House Foreign Affairs Committee and chairman of the China Task Force.

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McCaul: Semiconductors are the future. Building them should stay in Texas. - Austin American-Statesman

DST Secretary highlights the importance of industry participation in Quantum Technology & Science in India – IBG NEWS

By PIB Delhi

Department of Science and Technology (DST) Secretary Professor Ashutosh Sharma highlighted the importance of bringing Industry on board in Quantum Technology and Science in India at the India Quantum Technology Conclave (IQTC2020), a webinar on Quest towards Indias Quantum Supremacy organized byThe Associated Chambers of Commerce of India(ASSOCHAM) recently.

The future is all about quantum and Industry 4.0, which involves convergence of cyber and digital spheres encompassing communication, computing, decision making and acting on it, needs to participate in it, he pointed out.

Further elaborating on DSTs initiatives in the field of Quantum Technology, Prof. Ashutosh Sharma said, Three years ago DST started a new division called Frontier Technology which has rolled out a mission on Cyber-Physical Systems. This mission has set up about 21 hubs and 4 research parks across India, which are going to form the base for the architecture and processes of Quantum Technology Mission and will empower the Industry.

These 21 hubs are holistic entities, starting from basic R&D in each hub, human resource generation, and training at different levels to translation of the knowledge with incubators attached with every hub. Thus this model completes the whole knowledge chain from knowledge generation to knowledge to consumption, he added.

For Quantum Technology (QT), a more ambitious mission called National Mission on Quantum Technology worth Rs 8,000 Crore has been launched by the Government if India. DST has mapped all the people and groups in India working in the field of QT and brought them on-board to write a Detailed Project Report, Professor Sharma mentioned.

Both these missions of DST are self-sufficient in terms of generating knowledge, translation of knowledge in terms of prototype design, and this ecosystem is part of Atmanirbhar Bharat in terms of science, technology, and innovation in India, he added.

The conclave focused on preparedness on Quantum computing and Technology adaptation in India where the attendees discussed the future strategies & roadmap in the development of quantum technologies in India.

Dignitaries like Shri Deepak Sood, Secretary-General, ASSOCHAM, Dr. Shesha Shayee Raghunathan, Senior IBM Quantum Ambassador, Dr. Rohini Srivathsa, National Technology Officer, Microsoft India, Asst. Prof. Manas Mukherjee, Principal Investigator, Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore Dr Lovneesh Chanana, Chairman, ASSOCHAM National Council on IT/ITes & e-Commerce, Shri Aditya Chaudhuri, MD, Accenture, Dr Hemant Darbari, Director General, CDAC, Dr. Philip Makotyn, Quantum Marketing Manager, Honeywell Quantum Solutions, USA were among the key participants of the conclave which saw the presence of eminent personalities from the public sector as well as the private sector, industry and academia from India and abroad. The India Quantum Technology Conclave looked at relevant solutions at a time when the whole world is hit with COVID, and technology is the way forward.

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DST Secretary highlights the importance of industry participation in Quantum Technology & Science in India - IBG NEWS

OODAcast: Bradley Rotter On The Future Of Work, CryptoCurrencies, Quantum Computing and Leadership – OODA Loop

Bradley Rotter is a visionary investor who has pioneered investments in many new alternative investments classes including having been an early backer of hedge funds in 1982 while speculating on the Chicago Mercantile Exchange. He was also an early investor in Bitcoin and other cryptocurrency ecosystems and at a dinner with OODA CEO Matt Devost in 2012 predicted Bitcoin would exceed the price of gold.

Bradley moved to San Francisco in mid 80s to be close to the technology fountainhead of the Bay Area. In 1995 he was famously quoted saying this internet thing is going to be big and this vision guided his investments in several successful technology companies.

Bradley has made numerous VC and PE investments, with a particular focus on internet and technology and spanning from hedge funds to satellites.

This wide ranging conversation hits on multiple high tech topics including quantum computing, crypto currencies and the data analytics.

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Quantum Computing Sensemaking

Is Quantum Computing Ushering in an Era of No More Secrets?

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OODAcast: Bradley Rotter On The Future Of Work, CryptoCurrencies, Quantum Computing and Leadership - OODA Loop

University of Arizona Awarded $26M to Architect the Quantum Internet – HPCwire

Aug. 5, 2020 The University of Arizona will receive an initial, five-year, $26 million grant from the National Science Foundation, with an additional five-year $24.6 million option, to establish and lead a new National Science Foundation Engineering Research Center called theCenter for Quantum Networks with core partners Harvard University, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Yale University.

Laying the Foundations of the Future Quantum Internet

CQN aims to lay the foundations of the quantum internet, which will revolutionize how humankind computes, communicates and senses the world, by creating a fabric to connect quantum computers, data centers and gadgets using their native quantum information states of quantum bits, or qubits. Qubits offer dramatic increases in processing capacity by not just having the 0 or 1 state of the classical bit, but also allowing what is termed a superposition of both states at the same time.

The University of Arizona has been fortunate to attract key talent in quantum optics, materials and information sciences, said University of Arizona PresidentRobert C. Robbins. It is rewarding to see our deep culture of collaboration across campus naturally position us to lead this extremely ambitious project in partnership with amazing institutions across the nation.

In February, the White House National Quantum Coordination Office underscored the importance of the field by issuing A Strategic Vision for Americas Quantum Networks. The document stated, By leading the way in quantum networking, America is poised to revolutionize national and financial security, patient privacy, drug discovery, and the design and manufacturing of new materials, while increasing our scientific understanding of the universe.

Transformative Technology

The transformation of todays internet through quantum technology will spur entirely new tech industries and create an innovation ecosystem of quantum devices and components, service

providers and applications. The potential impact of CQN is so immense, it is almost incalculable, notesSaikat Guha, CQN director and principal investigator and associate professor of optical sciences. What we are proposing to do with CQN is analogous to the critical role played by the ARPANET, the historical precursor to the internet. The pioneering scientists behind the ARPANET could not have possibly imagined the kind of computing, communications and mobile networking capabilities their discoveries would inspire and enable, and CQN aspires to follow in their footsteps to usher the world into the era of quantum networking.

The team at the University of Arizona is led by theJames C. Wyant College of Optical Sciencesand includes theCollege of Engineering, theJames E. Rogers College of Lawand theCollege of Social and Behavioral Sciences.

In recent years, the university has focused heavily on quantum engineering, increasing the breadth and depth of our expertise by hiring across several colleges six additional faculty members specializing in quantum technologies, saidElizabeth Betsy Cantwell, University of Arizona senior vice president for research and innovation. With the strength and innovative approaches of these researchers and our strong culture of industry partnerships to translate cutting-edge technologies to the market, CQN will make significant strides towards ushering in a new era of quantum networking at market scale.

CQN also includes scientific and educational leaders at core partners Harvard University, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Yale University, in addition to those at Brigham Young University, Howard University, Northern Arizona University, the University of Massachusetts Amherst, the University of Oregon and the University of Chicago.

A major focus of the CQN team will be research to advance quantum materials and devices, quantum and classical processing required at a network node, and quantum network protocols and architectures. CQN also aims to demonstrate the first U.S.-based quantum network that can distribute quantum information at high speeds, over long distances, to multiple user groups.

As one of the key goals of CQN, we will be creating a versatile Quantum Network Testbed and making it available as a national resource to validate system performance and boost innovation by the scientific and industrial communities alike, saidZheshen Zhang, CQN Testbed co-lead and assistant professor of materials science and engineering.

For the full announcement and additional graphics, visit https://news.arizona.edu/story/university-arizona-awarded-26m-architect-quantum-internet

Source: University of Arizona

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University of Arizona Awarded $26M to Architect the Quantum Internet - HPCwire

Microsofts plan to scrub carbon out of the atmosphere? Quantum computers – Digital Trends

Quantum computers promise to be game-changers in fields where there are enormously complex calculations to be carried out. Hoping to use quantum computing to address one of humanitys biggest problems climate change investigators from Microsoft Research and ETH Zurich have developed a quantum algorithm they say is able to simulate catalytic processes extremely quickly. In doing so, they claim that it could be used to find an efficient method for carrying out carbon fixation, cutting down on carbon dioxide in the atmosphere by turning it into useful compounds.

At present, synthetic catalytic processes are discovered using laborious trial-and-error lab experiments. Computer simulations are much faster, but modern computers have a difficult job calculating the properties of very complex molecules. By contrast, Microsofts quantum catalytic simulation algorithm reportedly beats existing state-of-the-art algorithms by 10 times; boding well for the transformational possibilities of using quantum computing as a cornerstone of future chemistry.

Our unique approach pushes the boundaries to deliver the promise of quantum computing and to create unprecedented possibilities for our world, Matthias Troyer, distinguished scientist at Microsoft Research, told Digital Trends. Quantum computing is redefining what is possible with technology, creating unprecedented possibilities to solve humanitys most complex challenges. Microsoft is committed to turning the impossible into reality in a responsible way that brings the best solutions to humanity and our planet.

Troyer explained that the advancements in algorithms gained from this research will serve as a springboard for future work. Microsoft is hoping that it will be able to work alongside the chemistry community to find new ways for quantum computers to help develop new chemical processes, molecules, and, eventually someday, materials. The research is available to read via Microsofts blog.

This isnt the first promising quantum algorithm Digital Trends has covered this month. Recently we wrote about a quantum algorithm that could help revolutionize disease diagnosis. However, like all quantum algorithms, it is going to rely on quantum computers advancing sufficiently in order for researchers to be able to gain the most benefit from it. The hardware this will require is another topic Microsoft discusses in the research paper on this work.


Microsofts plan to scrub carbon out of the atmosphere? Quantum computers - Digital Trends

Meet The Scrappy Space Startup Taking Quantum Security Into Space – Forbes

Loft Orbital is helping take quantum security into space

What do you get when you combine space, lasers, photons, the laws of physics, a Fortune 100 company, the Canadian Space Agency and a scrappy space startup?

The answer, it is hoped, will be a revolution in encrypted communications. Or, at least, the start of one: a mission to test quantum security in space. Why might you want to do that? Let me explain, with the help of a scrappy space startup and a seriously clued-up quantum security boffin.

The Fortune 100 company involved here is Honeywell, the prime contractor for the Canadian Space Agency's Quantum Encryption and Science Satellite mission, QEYSSat. The aim? Quite simply to put space-based quantum key distribution (QKD) to the test. More of that in a moment, but first, let's meet the scrappy space startup.

Loft Orbital is a company that specializes in deploying and operating space infrastructure as a service. Using its Payload Hub technology, Loft Orbital takes a "Yet Another Mission" or YAM approach to payloads with a hardware and software stack to enable plug and play sensors on a standard microsatellite platform.

QEYSSat is, I am informed, the largest contract since Loft Orbital was founded in 2017. By coincidence, the same year that the Chinese Academy of Sciences launched a similar QKD program using the Micius satellite.

So, why should you give a rat's behind if it's all been done before? Because, dear reader, QKD is a nascent technology, so every new test program will, almost inevitably, unlock further and valuable information. A few years is a very long time in quantum technology, to bastardize the political idiom.

There are a bunch of differences between the older Micius approach to QKD and that which QEYSSat is taking. For a start, QEYSSat is aiming to be less than 20% the size of the Micius satellite and will leverage commercial technology. Hence the involvement of Loft Orbital. Does size matter? You betcha. Reductions in size of that scale should lead to significant savings in both cost and time as far as the next generation of test projects is concerned. Size and mass will also be key if you'll forgive the pun, as any QKD implementation at scale will demand a large satellite constellation.

Ultimately, if all goes according to plan, QEYSSat could have broad-reaching impacts as it should prove the capability to deliver QKD over much longer distances than the current ground to ground tests have managed to date. "This mission will demonstrate game-changing technology with far-reaching implications for how information will be shared and distributed in the future," says Loft Orbital CEO, Pierre-Damien Vaujour, "we are honored and thrilled to be supporting it."

Time, I think, to bring in my friendly quantum security expert, mathematician and security researcher, Dr. Mark Carney, who you may remember helped me explain why the math says Person Woman Man Camera TV made such a lousy password. Dr. Carney has a particular interest in quantum key distribution threat modeling, so makes the ideal guide to what we can expect, or not, from the QEYSSat mission.

"There are four ways quantum affects security," Dr. Carney begins, "quantum computers break classical algorithms, post-quantum algorithms try to get around this by using harder math problems in classical crypto, quantum algorithms can be used to accelerate decisions (popular in quantum finance, but nobody in infosec has really looked at what algorithms can help where), and QKD, that uses quantum effects to do cryptography, bypassing the need for 'mathematical crosswords' altogether."

Still with me, good? Because it gets a little more complicated from this point on.

The algorithms that drive QKD are oldish, and the most popular and well-established, BB84 and E91, primarily work in the same way.

"Because regular cryptography goes over regular networks, it is fully error corrected," Dr. Carney says, "the security is in the underlying math. As such, it can be packet-switched without any consequence."

What has all this got to do with QKD in space? I'm getting there, and so is Dr. Carney. "The problem with QKD is that packet switching is somewhere between very very hard and basically impossible," he says, "because unlike the security of classical crypto being in the math, the security of QKD is in the physical photon state."

Time to get your just accept this at face value head screwed on: if you observe a photon, the quantum effects you are using disappear and you may as well just use classical crypto because it is much better at being transmitted in the clear.

So, if not packet switching, then what? "You need a direct fiber link to do light photon-based QKD between every single endpoint you want to exchange a key with," Dr. Carney explains. One major manufacturer of QKD fiber solutions produces building-to-building link equipment so that the internal security of the network is the only concern of the QKD keys produced. "This is where satellites turn out to be really handy," says Dr. Carney, "send up one satellite, and have a load of users communicate with that, and no need to build dozens or hundreds of fiber links."

If you have a laser array and a laser receiver, you can send pulses of photons up to satellites and still do QKD, albeit with higher error rates due to atmospheric diffusion of light that cannot be avoided. Dr. Carney will come back to that shortly, I'm sure.

"Another advantage of space is that you don't need fiber repeaters," he says, "and for distances of over 14km, single fiber connections get kind of useless." There are fiber repeater network designs for QKD, but these are not necessarily immune to tampering, so breaking the trust modeling according to Dr. Carney.

"I mentioned error and atmospheric dispersion on uplink before," Dr. Carney reminds me, as much as bad weather doesn't actually affect cloud computing, cloud cover certainly affects QKD! Dispersion on the way down is also an issue, and targeting your downlink comms is also hard."

It turns out that getting the aperture of that link down to a minimum seems like a tough problem. "I don't think the calculations are favorable if your downlink laser disperses over a broad area," Dr. Carney adds, "Eve would just have to plant a small mirror on your fence or carefully park another satellite quietly next to yours," to break the threat model once more.

Dr. Carney is of the opinion that "going into space solves a few problems, but also introduces others." Not least because QKD has a fundamental problem which is hard to solve under any circumstance: all of the security is in the physicality of the system. "One foot wrong," Dr. Carney says, "and you can fail pretty badly very quickly."

As for the Chinese Micius program and what that taught us about QKD in space, the latest I heard was a June 2020 paper published in Nature that explained "entanglement-based QKD between two ground stations separated by 1,120 kilometers at a finite secret-key rate of 0.12 bits per second, without the need for trusted relays." That paper claims the methods used increased the on the ground secure distance tenfold and increased the "practical security of QKD to an unprecedented level."

And what of Loft Orbital, which seems to think that this new QKD technology should be available to the private sector, and adopted at scale, in the 2030s? Dr. Carney doesn't have a problem with that as a date for adoption, given that Loft Orbital is demonstrating how microsats are getting ever easier to launch.

"Adopted at scale," he says, "this is I think the kicker. There seem to be a lot of variables in the mix that don't have easy engineering solutions. Unless you are launching a satellite per region and getting decent coverage with superb bandwidth to mitigate issues such as cloud cover, it's hard to see how the cost viability is maintained."

One thing is for sure, this is a move forward, and it will be interesting to see where all this takes us. Especially with "private equity making investments that heretofore were only really of interest and in reach of nation-states," Dr. Carney concludes.


Meet The Scrappy Space Startup Taking Quantum Security Into Space - Forbes

Quantum Computing Explained for Investors – Barron’s

Quantum computing was named a breakout technology in 2017 by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. It showed up again on the list for 2020. Does that mean quantum computing is ready for prime time? Possibly. That is good news for the world, but the problem is few know what a quantum computer actually doesand investors dont know what quantum computing means for their portfolio.

Where to start? Microsoft (ticker: MSFT) is a large quantum player. And looking at its quantum business can help frame the issue for investorsand anyone else.

Its helpful to start a few steps back from Microsofts quantum aspirations.

Many people have heard of the quantum realm, thanks in large part to Walt Disneys (DIS) Marvel Cinematic Universe. The Avengers, after all, defeated Thanos in Avengers: Endgamethe highest-grossing film of all timewith the help of quantum tunnels. And the Guardians of the Galaxy navigated a quantum asteroid field in their latest stand-alone film.

In the quantum asteroid field, rocks popped in and out of existence. The idea being that in the quantum realm, almost anything is possible. Quantum has become an analogy for weird, counterintuitive outcomes.

Quantum physics does indeed dictate a bunch of weird things, including particlesnot the size of asteroidspopping in and out of existence.

Physicist Richard Feynman said once that all people need to know about quantum physics is the double-slit experiment.

In the experiment, a single electronwhich is a negatively-charged subatomic particlepasses through both slits at the same time. Very weird. But that is because particles have wavelike properties. A wave of water would hit both slits.

So an electron behaves like a wave. OK. But heres the thing, if someone watches the experiment unfoldputting a detector in front of the slitsthe electron stops acting like water. It goes back to being a particle. Weird.

That, curiously, has some benefits for a computer. In a traditional computer, a bitthe basic unit of computing powercan have a value of one or zero. A quantum bit, more commonly called a qubit, is the basic unit of quantum computing. It can have a value of one or zero or anything in betweenat the same time.

There are other things qubits can do, but multiple, simultaneous values makes quantum computers faster. A 64-bit computer can have roughly 18 quintillion (18 with 18 zeros) values. If a computer can do 2 billion values per second, it will take roughly 300 years to go through all potential values.

A 64-bit quantum computer can have, in theory, all 18 quintillion values at once. Go figure.

MIT put quantum computing back on its technology list in 2020 because a quantum computer with 53 qubits built by Google parent Alphabet (GOOGL) did a calculation, in about three minutes, that would have taken a traditional computer 10,000 years.

Quantum supremacy was demonstrated. Great. So when will consumers be buying a quantum desktop, and when will investors be bidding up Alphabet stock on exploding quantum sales?

Not yet.

Qubits are not reliable yet. There is noise, Stephen Jordan, Microsoft quantum principal researcher, told Barrons. People are still working out the hardware. There are, for instance, superconducting qubits, trapped-ion qubits, and topological qubits.

Picking between qubits isnt like beta or VHS, or a Mac versus a PC. With todays computers underlying hardware is the same and 100% reliable, adds Jordan.

The industry is still working out the hardware. To reduce the noise, usually, you take qubits and string a bunch together to make a computing qubit, explains Helmut Katzgraber, Microsoft quantum principal research manager.

Microsoft, of course, is known for software. Maybe that means what the quantum computing industry needs is quantum Intel (INTC), pumping out the quantum equivalent of silicon chips with 1 billion transistors on them. (A transistor can store a bita one or zeroas information.)

For Katzgraber, the qubit hardware industry will be like FPGA, short for field programmable gate arrays, which are integrated circuits that can be configured into ASIC, short for application-specific integrated circuits.

Xilinx (XLNX) makes FPGAs. They get their supply from businesses like Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing (TSM), and Taiwan Semi gets silicon from a company like Lam Research (LCRX).

There is now a quantum value chain like that. Honeywell International (HON) can make trapped-ion qubits. That is probably as close as investors have to a quantum supplier at this point.

Hardware doesnt have to come before software and applications though.

We have gone through computer creation before, says Katzgraber. We are doing the whole stackthe software to the qubitsall at once.

That speeds development, but doesnt mean there will be a quantum smartphone soonor sooner than it took to go from mainframe to desktop, to laptop to iPhone. Quantum computing will probably look a little different. These [systems] will live in data centers in the cloud, adds Jordan.

Along with hardware comes apps. And a killer quantum app will help elevate the technology from MITs tech review to the nightly news. There are areas where the existing tech is having an impact. Julie Love, Microsoft quantum applications team leader, tells Barrons about several problems being addressed now from traffic light optimization to industrial catalyst for chemical production.

For now, big tech is big quantum. Google, Microsoft, IBM (IBM), and Amazon.com (AMZN) have quantum aspirations. Honeywell has its toes in quantum waters too. Its tough to buy any of those stock as a quantum investment yet.

Superconductor makers dont talk about quantum computing much in filings either. And superconducting is only a $2 billion industry at the moment.

Quantum computing remains a watch item for investorsalbeit an interesting one.

Write to Al Root at allen.root@dowjones.com

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Quantum Computing Explained for Investors - Barron's