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atheism | Definition, Philosophy, & Comparison to …

Atheism, in general, the critique and denial of metaphysical beliefs in God or spiritual beings. As such, it is usually distinguished from theism, which affirms the reality of the divine and often seeks to demonstrate its existence. Atheism is also distinguished from agnosticism, which leaves open the question whether there is a god or not, professing to find the questions unanswered or unanswerable.

The dialectic of the argument between forms of belief and unbelief raises questions concerning the most perspicuous delineation, or characterization, of atheism, agnosticism, and theism. It is necessary not only to probe the warrant for atheism but also carefully to consider what is the most adequate definition of atheism. This article will start with what have been some widely accepted, but still in various ways mistaken or misleading, definitions of atheism and move to more adequate formulations that better capture the full range of atheist thought and more clearly separate unbelief from belief and atheism from agnosticism. In the course of this delineation the section also will consider key arguments for and against atheism.

A central, common core of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam is the affirmation of the reality of one, and only one, God. Adherents of these faiths believe that there is a God who created the universe out of nothing and who has absolute sovereignty over all his creation; this includes, of course, human beingswho are not only utterly dependent on this creative power but also sinful and who, or so the faithful must believe, can only make adequate sense of their lives by accepting, without question, Gods ordinances for them. The varieties of atheism are numerous, but all atheists reject such a set of beliefs.

Atheism, however, casts a wider net and rejects all belief in spiritual beings, and to the extent that belief in spiritual beings is definitive of what it means for a system to be religious, atheism rejects religion. So atheism is not only a rejection of the central conceptions of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam; it is, as well, a rejection of the religious beliefs of such African religions as that of the Dinka and the Nuer, of the anthropomorphic gods of classical Greece and Rome, and of the transcendental conceptions of Hinduism and Buddhism. Generally atheism is a denial of God or of the gods, and if religion is defined in terms of belief in spiritual beings, then atheism is the rejection of all religious belief.

It is necessary, however, if a tolerably adequate understanding of atheism is to be achieved, to give a reading to rejection of religious belief and to come to realize how the characterization of atheism as the denial of God or the gods is inadequate.

To say that atheism is the denial of God or the gods and that it is the opposite of theism, a system of belief that affirms the reality of God and seeks to demonstrate his existence, is inadequate in a number of ways. First, not all theologians who regard themselves as defenders of the Christian faith or of Judaism or Islam regard themselves as defenders of theism. The influential 20th-century Protestant theologian Paul Tillich, for example, regards the God of theism as an idol and refuses to construe God as a being, even a supreme being, among beings or as an infinite being above finite beings. God, for him, is being-itself, the ground of being and meaning. The particulars of Tillichs view are in certain ways idiosyncratic, as well as being obscure and problematic, but they have been influential; and his rejection of theism, while retaining a belief in God, is not eccentric in contemporary theology, though it may very well affront the plain believer.

Second, and more important, it is not the case that all theists seek to demonstrate or even in any way rationally to establish the existence of God. Many theists regard such a demonstration as impossible, and fideistic believers (e.g., Johann Hamann and Sren Kierkegaard) regard such a demonstration, even if it were possible, as undesirable, for in their view it would undermine faith. If it could be proved, or known for certain, that God exists, people would not be in a position to accept him as their sovereign Lord humbly on faith with all the risks that entails. There are theologians who have argued that for genuine faith to be possible God must necessarily be a hidden God, the mysterious ultimate reality, whose existence and authority must be accepted simply on faith. This fideistic view has not, of course, gone without challenge from inside the major faiths, but it is of sufficient importance to make the above characterization of atheism inadequate.

Finally, and most important, not all denials of God are denials of his existence. Believers sometimes deny God while not being at all in a state of doubt that God exists. They either willfully reject what they take to be his authority by not acting in accordance with what they take to be his will, or else they simply live their lives as if God did not exist. In this important way they deny him. Such deniers are not atheists (unless we wish, misleadingly, to call them practical atheists). They are not even agnostics. They do not question that God exists; they deny him in other ways. An atheist denies the existence of God. As it is frequently said, atheists believe that it is false that God exists, or that Gods existence is a speculative hypothesis of an extremely low order of probability.

Yet it remains the case that such a characterization of atheism is inadequate in other ways. For one it is too narrow. There are atheists who believe that the very concept of God, at least in developed and less anthropomorphic forms of Judeo-Christianity and Islam, is so incoherent that certain central religious claims, such as God is my creator to whom everything is owed, are not genuine truth-claims; i.e., the claims could not be either true or false. Believers hold that such religious propositions are true, some atheists believe that they are false, and there are agnostics who cannot make up their minds whether to believe that they are true or false. (Agnostics think that the propositions are one or the other but believe that it is not possible to determine which.) But all three are mistaken, some atheists argue, for such putative truth-claims are not sufficiently intelligible to be genuine truth-claims that are either true or false. In reality there is nothing in them to be believed or disbelieved, though there is for the believer the powerful and humanly comforting illusion that there is. Such an atheism, it should be added, rooted for some conceptions of God in considerations about intelligibility and what it makes sense to say, has been strongly resisted by some pragmatists and logical empiricists.

While the above considerations about atheism and intelligibility show the second characterization of atheism to be too narrow, it is also the case that this characterization is in a way too broad. For there are fideistic believers, who quite unequivocally believe that when looked at objectively the proposition that God exists has a very low probability weight. They believe in God not because it is probable that he existsthey think it more probable that he does notbut because belief is thought by them to be necessary to make sense of human life. The second characterization of atheism does not distinguish a fideistic believer (a Blaise Pascal or a Soren Kierkegaard) or an agnostic (a T.H. Huxley or a Sir Leslie Stephen) from an atheist such as Baron dHolbach. All believe that there is a God and God protects humankind, however emotionally important they may be, are speculative hypotheses of an extremely low order of probability. But this, since it does not distinguish believers from nonbelievers and does not distinguish agnostics from atheists, cannot be an adequate characterization of atheism.

It may be retorted that to avoid apriorism and dogmatic atheism the existence of God should be regarded as a hypothesis. There are no ontological (purely a priori) proofs or disproofs of Gods existence. It is not reasonable to rule in advance that it makes no sense to say that God exists. What the atheist can reasonably claim is that there is no evidence that there is a God, and against that background he may very well be justified in asserting that there is no God. It has been argued, however, that it is simply dogmatic for an atheist to assert that no possible evidence could ever give one grounds for believing in God. Instead, atheists should justify their unbelief by showing (if they can) how the assertion is well-taken that there is no evidence that would warrant a belief in God. If atheism is justified, the atheist will have shown that in fact there is no adequate evidence for the belief that God exists, but it should not be part of his task to try to show that there could not be any evidence for the existence of God. If the atheist could somehow survive the death of his present body (assuming that such talk makes sense) and come, much to his surprise, to stand in the presence of God, his answer should be, Oh! Lord, you didnt give me enough evidence! He would have been mistaken, and realize that he had been mistaken, in his judgment that God did not exist. Still, he would not have been unjustified, in the light of the evidence available to him during his earthly life, in believing as he did. Not having any such postmortem experiences of the presence of God (assuming that he could have them), what he should say, as things stand and in the face of the evidence he actually has and is likely to be able to get, is that it is false that God exists. (Every time one legitimately asserts that a proposition is false one need not be certain that it is false. Knowing with certainty is not a pleonasm.) The claim is that this tentative posture is the reasonable position for the atheist to take.

An atheist who argues in this manner may also make a distinctive burden-of-proof argument. Given that God (if there is one) is by definition a very recherch realitya reality that must be (for there to be such a reality) transcendent to the worldthe burden of proof is not on the atheist to give grounds for believing that there is no reality of that order. Rather, the burden of proof is on the believer to give some evidence for Gods existencei.e., that there is such a reality. Given what God must be, if there is a God, the theist needs to present the evidence, for such a very strange reality. He needs to show that there is more in the world than is disclosed by common experience. The empirical method, and the empirical method alone, such an atheist asserts, affords a reliable method for establishing what is in fact the case. To the claim of the theist that there are in addition to varieties of empirical facts spiritual facts or transcendent facts, such as it being the case that there is a supernatural, self-existent, eternal power, the atheist can assert that such facts have not been shown.

It will, however, be argued by such atheists, against what they take to be dogmatic aprioristic atheists, that the atheist should be a fallibilist and remain open-minded about what the future may bring. There may, after all, be such transcendent facts, such metaphysical realities. It is not that such a fallibilistic atheist is really an agnostic who believes that he is not justified in either asserting that God exists or denying that he exists and that what he must reasonably do is suspend belief. On the contrary, such an atheist believes that he has very good grounds indeed, as things stand, for denying the existence of God. But he will, on the second conceptualization of what it is to be an atheist, not deny that things could be otherwise and that, if they were, he would be justified in believing in God or at least would no longer be justified in asserting that it is false that there is a God. Using reliable empirical techniques, proven methods for establishing matters of fact, the fallibilistic atheist has found nothing in the universe to make a belief that God exists justifiable or even, everything considered, the most rational option of the various options. He therefore draws the atheistical conclusion (also keeping in mind his burden-of-proof argument) that God does not exist. But he does not dogmatically in a priori fashion deny the existence of God. He remains a thorough and consistent fallibilist.

Such a form of atheism (the atheism of those pragmatists who are also naturalistic humanists), though less inadequate than the first formation of atheism, is still inadequate. God in developed forms of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam is not, like Zeus or Odin, construed in a relatively plain anthropomorphic way. Nothing that could count as God in such religions could possibly be observed, literally encountered, or detected in the universe. God, in such a conception, is utterly transcendent to the world; he is conceived of as pure spirit, an infinite individual who created the universe out of nothing and who is distinct from the universe. Such a realitya reality that is taken to be an ultimate mysterycould not be identified as objects or processes in the universe can be identified. There can be no pointing at or to God, no ostensive teaching of God, to show what is meant. The word God can only be taught intralinguistically. God is taught to someone who does not understand what the word means by the use of descriptions such as the maker of the universe, the eternal, utterly independent being upon whom all other beings depend, the first cause, the sole ultimate reality, or a self-caused being. For someone who does not understand such descriptions, there can be no understanding of the concept of God. But the key terms of such descriptions are themselves no more capable of ostensive definition (of having their referents pointed out) than is God, where that term is not, like Zeus, construed anthropomorphically. (That does not mean that anyone has actually pointed to Zeus or observed Zeus but that one knows what it would be like to do so.)

In coming to understand what is meant by God in such discourses, it must be understood that God, whatever else he is, is a being that could not possibly be seen or be in any way else observed. He could not be anything material or empirical, and he is said by believers to be an intractable mystery. A nonmysterious God would not be the God of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.

This, in effect, makes it a mistake to claim that the existence of God can rightly be treated as a hypothesis and makes it a mistake to claim that, by the use of the experimental method or some other determinate empirical method, the existence of God can be confirmed or disconfirmed as can the existence of an empirical reality. The retort made by some atheists, who also like pragmatists remain thoroughgoing fallibilists, is that such a proposed way of coming to know, or failing to come to know, God makes no sense for anyone who understands what kind of reality God is supposed to be. Anything whose existence could be so verified would not be the God of Judeo-Christianity. God could not be a reality whose presence is even faintly adumbrated in experience, for anything that could even count as the God of Judeo-Christianity must be transcendent to the world. Anything that could actually be encountered or experienced could not be God.

At the very heart of a religion such as Christianity there stands a metaphysical belief in a reality that is alleged to transcend the empirical world. It is the metaphysical belief that there is an eternal, ever-present creative source and sustainer of the universe. The problem is how it is possible to know or reasonably believe that such a reality exists or even to understand what such talk is about.

It is not that God is like a theoretical entity in physics such as a proton or a neutrino. They are, where they are construed as realities rather than as heuristically useful conceptual fictions, thought to be part of the actual furniture of the universe. They are not said to be transcendent to the universe, but rather are invisible entities in the universe logically on a par with specks of dust and grains of sand, only much, much smaller. They are on the same continuum; they are not a different kind of reality. It is only the case that they, as a matter of fact, cannot be seen. Indeed no one has an understanding of what it would be like to see a proton or a neutrinoin that way they are like Godand no provision is made in physical theory for seeing them. Still, there is no logical ban on seeing them as there is on seeing God. They are among the things in the universe, and thus, though they are invisible, they can be postulated as causes of things that are seen. Since this is so it becomes at least logically possible indirectly to verify by empirical methods the existence of such realities. It is also the case that there is no logical ban on establishing what is necessary to establish a causal connection, namely a constant conjunction of two discrete empirical realities. But no such constant conjunction can be established or even intelligibly asserted between God and the universe, and thus the existence of God is not even indirectly verifiable. God is not a discrete empirical thing or being, and the universe is not a gigantic thing or process over and above the things and processes in the universe of which it makes sense to say that the universe has or had a cause. But then there is no way, directly or indirectly, that even the probability that there is a God could be empirically established.

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atheism | Definition, Philosophy, & Comparison to …

Atheism – Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Atheism is rejecting the belief in a god or gods. It is the opposite of theism, which is the belief that at least one god exists.A person who rejects belief in gods is called an atheist.Theism is the belief in one or more gods. Adding an a, meaning “without”, before the word theism results in atheism, or literally, “without theism”.. Atheism is not the same as agnosticism: agnostics say that …

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Atheism – Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

atheism r/atheism – reddit: the front page of the internet

This happened around last year when they just found out that i was an atheist. My parents sat down with me (and for some reason they roped my brother in too) to kinda talk it out with them, the why and how and all that.

So my father was talking about how god had blessed him and his family with a luxurious and comfortable life. I, thinking that my parents would hear me out since they got out of their own way just to talk about religion with us, told them that i believed that they worked hard and earned the money themselves.

Surprisingly enough, my father immediately blew his top off and yelled at me, insisting that it was by god’s grace that we are now able to live such a good life. He then, for some reason told me that my ability to draw was a god-given talent. Naturally, i was pissed. After all, i went to years and years of art class just to be able to draw like i do now, though it only looks nice in my family’s standards since i’m the only one in my family that can draw. But i didn’t say anything back since i don’t want to start another war with m parents.

Seriously, if it really was just god’s grace that allowed my family to live comfortably, why have i never seen god just bestow upon my father a paycheck? Why is it that he’s so happy about having all his hard work credited to an invisible sky daddy? Call me greedy or selfish, but if someone took all the credit to my hard work i’d be bloody pissed. But hey, thanks for reading this.

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atheism r/atheism – reddit: the front page of the internet

Atheism | CARM.org

Atheism is a lack of belief in any God and deities as well as a total denial of the existence of any god. It is a growing movement that is becoming more aggressive, more demanding, and less tolerant of anything other than itself – as is exemplified by its adherents. Is atheism a sound philosophical system as a worldview or is it ultimately self-defeating? Is the requirement of empirical evidence for God a mistake in logic or is it a fair demand? Can we prove that God exists or is that impossible? Find out more about atheism, its arguments, and its problems here at CARM. Learn how to deal with the arguments raised against the existence of God that seek to replace Him with naturalism, materialism, and moral relativism.

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Atheism | CARM.org

Cryptocurrency News: This Week on Bitfinex, Tether, Coinbase, & More

Cryptocurrency News
On the whole, cryptocurrency prices are down from our previous report on cryptos, with the market slipping on news of an exchange being hacked and a report about Bitcoin manipulation.

However, there have been two bright spots: 1) an official from the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) said that Ethereum is not a security, and 2) Coinbase is expanding its selection of tokens.

Let’s start with the good news.
SEC Says ETH Is Not a Security
Investors have some reason to cheer this week. A high-ranking SEC official told attendees of the Yahoo! All Markets Summit: Crypto that Ethereum and Bitcoin are not.

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Ripple Price Forecast: XRP vs SWIFT, SEC Updates, and More

Ripple vs SWIFT: The War Begins
While most criticisms of XRP do nothing to curb my bullish Ripple price forecast, there is one obstacle that nags at my conscience. Its name is SWIFT.

The Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication (SWIFT) is the king of international payments.

It coordinates wire transfers across 11,000 banks in more than 200 countries and territories, meaning that in order for XRP prices to ascend to $10.00, Ripple needs to launch a successful coup. That is, and always has been, an unwritten part of Ripple’s story.

We’ve seen a lot of progress on that score. In the last three years, Ripple wooed more than 100 financial firms onto its.

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Ripple Price Forecast: XRP vs SWIFT, SEC Updates, and More

Cryptocurrency News: Bitcoin ETFs, Andreessen Horowitz, and Contradictions in Crypto

Cryptocurrency News
This was a bloody week for cryptocurrencies. Everything was covered in red, from Ethereum (ETH) on down to the Basic Attention Token (BAT).

Some investors claim it was inevitable. Others say that price manipulation is to blame.

We think the answers are more complicated than either side has to offer, because our research reveals deep contradictions between the price of cryptos and the underlying development of blockchain projects.

For instance, a leading venture capital (VC) firm launched a $300.0-million crypto investment fund, yet liquidity continues to dry up in crypto markets.

Another example is the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission’s.

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Cryptocurrency News: Bitcoin ETFs, Andreessen Horowitz, and Contradictions in Crypto

Cryptocurrency News: Looking Past the Bithumb Crypto Hack

Another Crypto Hack Derails Recovery
Since our last report, hackers broke into yet another cryptocurrency exchange. This time the target was Bithumb, a Korean exchange known for high-flying prices and ultra-active traders.

While the hackers made off with approximately $31.5 million in funds, the exchange is working with relevant authorities to return the stolen tokens to their respective owners. In the event that some is still missing, the exchange will cover the losses. (Source: “Bithumb Working With Other Crypto Exchanges to Recover Hacked Funds,”.

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Cryptocurrency News: Looking Past the Bithumb Crypto Hack

Cryptocurrency News: XRP Validators, Malta, and Practical Tokens

Cryptocurrency News & Market Summary
Investors finally saw some light at the end of the tunnel last week, with cryptos soaring across the board. No one quite knows what kicked off the rally—as it could have been any of the stories we discuss below—but the net result was positive.

Of course, prices won’t stay on this rocket ride forever. I expect to see a resurgence of volatility in short order, because the market is moving as a single unit. Everything is rising in tandem.

This tells me that investors are simply “buying the dip” rather than identifying which cryptos have enough real-world value to outlive the crash.

So if you want to know when.

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Cryptocurrency News: What You Need to Know This Week

Cryptocurrency News
Cryptocurrencies traded sideways since our last report on cryptos. However, I noticed something interesting when playing around with Yahoo! Finance’s cryptocurrency screener: There are profitable pockets in this market.

Incidentally, Yahoo’s screener is far superior to the one on CoinMarketCap, so if you’re looking to compare digital assets, I highly recommend it.

But let’s get back to my epiphany.

In the last month, at one point or another, most crypto assets on our favorites list saw double-digit increases. It’s true that each upswing was followed by a hard crash, but investors who rode the trend would have made a.

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Cryptocurrency News: What You Need to Know This Week

Cryptocurrency News: Vitalik Buterin Doesn’t Care About Bitcoin ETFs

Cryptocurrency News
While headline numbers look devastating this week, investors might take some solace in knowing that cryptocurrencies found their bottom at roughly $189.8 billion in market cap—that was the low point. Since then, investors put more than $20.0 billion back into the market.

During the rout, Ethereum broke below $300.00 and XRP fell below $0.30, marking yearly lows for both tokens. The same was true down the list of the top 100 biggest cryptos.

Altcoins took the brunt of the hit. BTC Dominance, which reveals how tightly investment is concentrated in Bitcoin, rose from 42.62% to 53.27% in just one month, showing that investors either fled altcoins at higher.

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Cryptocurrency News: New Exchanges Could Boost Crypto Liquidity

Cryptocurrency News
Even though the cryptocurrency news was upbeat in recent days, the market tumbled after the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) rejected calls for a Bitcoin (BTC) exchange-traded fund (ETF).

That news came as a blow to investors, many of whom believe the ETF would open the cryptocurrency industry up to pension funds and other institutional investors. This would create a massive tailwind for cryptos, they say.

So it only follows that a rejection of the Bitcoin ETF should send cryptos tumbling, correct? Well, maybe you can follow that logic. To me, it seems like a dramatic overreaction.

I understand that legitimizing cryptos is important. But.

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Cryptocurrency News: Bitcoin ETF Rejection, AMD Microchip Sales, and Hedge Funds

Cryptocurrency News
Although cryptocurrency prices were heating up last week (Bitcoin, especially), regulators poured cold water on the rally by rejecting calls for a Bitcoin exchange-traded fund (ETF). This is the second time that the proposal fell on deaf ears. (More on that below.)

Crypto mining ran into similar trouble, as you can see from Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.‘s (NASDAQ:AMD) most recent quarterly earnings. However, it wasn’t all bad news. Investors should, for instance, be cheering the fact that hedge funds are ramping up their involvement in cryptocurrency markets.

Without further ado, here are those stories in greater detail.
ETF Rejection.

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Bitcoin Rise: Is the Recent Bitcoin Price Surge a Sign of Things to Come or Another Misdirection?

What You Need to Know About the Bitcoin Price Rise
It wasn’t that long ago that Bitcoin (BTC) dominated headlines for its massive growth, with many cryptocurrency millionaires being made. The Bitcoin price surged ever upward and many people thought the gravy train would never stop running—until it did.

Prices crashed, investors abandoned the space, and lots of people lost money. Cut to today and we’re seeing another big Bitcoin price surge; is this time any different?

I’m of a mind that investors ought to think twice before jumping back in on Bitcoin.

Bitcoin made waves when it once again crested above $5,000. Considering that it started 2019 around $3,700,.

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Bitcoin Rise: Is the Recent Bitcoin Price Surge a Sign of Things to Come or Another Misdirection?

Molecular medicine – Wikipedia

Molecular medicine is a broad field, where physical, chemical, biological, bioinformatics and medical techniques are used to describe molecular structures and mechanisms, identify fundamental molecular and genetic errors of disease, and to develop molecular interventions to correct them.[1] The molecular medicine perspective emphasizes cellular and molecular phenomena and interventions rather than the previous conceptual and observational focus on patients and their organs.[2]

In November 1949, with the seminal paper, “Sickle Cell Anemia, a Molecular Disease”,[3] in Science magazine, Linus Pauling, Harvey Itano and their collaborators laid the groundwork for establishing the field of molecular medicine.[4] In 1956, Roger J. Williams wrote Biochemical Individuality,[5] a prescient book about genetics, prevention and treatment of disease on a molecular basis, and nutrition which is now variously referred to as individualized medicine[6] and orthomolecular medicine.[7] Another paper in Science by Pauling in 1968,[8] introduced and defined this view of molecular medicine that focuses on natural and nutritional substances used for treatment and prevention.

Published research and progress was slow until the 1970s’ “biological revolution” that introduced many new techniques and commercial applications.[9]

Some researchers separate molecular surgery as a compartment of molecular medicine.[10]

Molecular medicine is a new scientific discipline in European universities.[citation needed] Combining contemporary medical studies with the field of biochemistry, it offers a bridge between the two subjects. At present only a handful of universities offer the course to undergraduates. With a degree in this discipline the graduate is able to pursue a career in medical sciences, scientific research, laboratory work and postgraduate medical degrees.

Core subjects are similar to biochemistry courses and typically include gene expression, research methods, proteins, cancer research, immunology, biotechnology and many more. In some universities molecular medicine is combined with another discipline such as chemistry, functioning as an additional study to enrich the undergraduate program.

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Molecular medicine – Wikipedia

Molecular Medicine Conference 2019 | Molecular Diagnostics …

Scientific Sessions Track 1: Molecular Medicine

Molecular medicine is a broad field which deals with the development of diseases at a molecular level and identifies fundamental molecular and genetic errors of disease and to develop molecular interventions to correct them. Molecular structures and mechanisms are described by Physical, chemical, biological, bioinformatics and medical techniques. Disease pathogenesis at the molecular or physiological level may lead to the design of specific tools for disease diagnosis, treatment, or prevention.

By understanding the genes, proteins, and other cellular molecules work molecular medicine develops ways to diagnose and treat disease. Molecular Medicine develops knowledge and skills in cellular and molecular biology.

Molecular diagnostics is a collection of techniques used to analyse an individual’s genetic code and to identify biological markers in the genome and proteome. Molecular diagnostics apply molecular biology to see how cell express their genes to medical testing. For any successful application of gene therapy or biologic response modifiers, molecular diagnostics offers a great tool. Molecular diagnostics now provides most laboratory tests in infectious diseases, genetics, and an increasing number in oncology. Molecular diagnostics analyse a person’s health at a molecular level by detecting specific sequences in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) or ribonucleic acid (RNA) that may be related to disease

Molecular genetics employs methods of both molecular biology and genetics to study the structure, function and interactions among genes at a molecular level.

The study of chromosomes and gene expression of an organism can give an accurate and deep understanding of heredity, genetic variation, and mutations. Molecular Genetics and Genomics cover all areas on the latest research innovations, population genetics, gene function and expression and molecular genetics. Molecular genetics is concerned with the study of your favourite gene, genomics is concerned with studying all the genes. Molecular genomics is a critical component of the expanding database linking alterations of DNA and RNA with the disease, disease prognosis and therapeutic response.

Molecular oncology refers to the chemistry of cancer and tumours at the molecular scale and their development and application on molecularly targeted therapies.

Molecular Oncology studies especially the genetic alterations and their implications. Molecular Oncology focuses on new discoveries, approaches, as well as technical developments in basic, clinical and discovery-driven cancer research. It mainly focuses on advances in the understanding of disease processes leading to human tumour development. Molecular Oncology establishes novel concepts of clear clinical significance in diagnosis, prognosis and prevention strategies.

A biomarker is used as an indicator of the biological state. In routine clinical use Oncology biomarkers actually, make their way. A biological marker points to the presence of a disease, a physiological change, response to treatment, or a psychological condition.

Molecular biomarkers are used for various purposes including disease diagnosis and prognosis and assessment of treatment response. Over the last decade, there has been a significant increase in the number of drug labels containing information on molecular biomarkers. In most of the chronic diseases, biomarkers can confirm a difficult diagnosis or even make it possible in the first place.

Molecular biology is the study of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell. It also includes the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis as well as the regulation of these interactions.

Cellular and Molecular Biology majorly study the processes that occur within and between the body’s cells. This includes genes, the way cells carry nutrients throughout the body, and how diseases attack healthy cells. The process of replication, transcription and translation of the genetic material are studied under Molecular biology. Cellular biology study cells, including their function, systems, structure and interactions with living organisms. These typically work in medical fields and are often focused on the treatment of disease.

Molecular pathology is the study of molecules within organs, tissues or bodily fluids. Molecular pathology is commonly used in the diagnosis of bone, soft tissue tumours, cancer and infectious diseases. The purpose of molecular pathology is to understand the mechanisms of disease by identifying molecular and pathway alterations. It is considered the heart of modern diagnostics and translational research. Molecular pathology studies and diagnose disease through the examination of genetic and molecular abnormalities. Molecular pathology and biomarkers are used to study molecular and genomic abnormalities in tissues for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. Molecular diagnosis is useful and sometimes necessary as an adjunct for diagnosis especially in morphologically or clinically unusual lesions.

Living things all are alike at the cellular and molecular level. The fundamental similarities between living organisms are explained by evolutionary theory. Major topics in molecular evolution concern the rates and impacts of single nucleotide changes, origins of new genes, the evolution of development, and ways that evolutionary forces influence genomic and phenotypic changes. Some of the key advances are quantitative estimates of both the diversity in populations and of evolutionary relationships, as well as improvements in theoretical understanding. There is an improved understanding of the function of proteins and much better models of the common patterns of development.

Advances in cell and molecular biology studies have revolutionized the diagnosis and treatment of many different diseases. It is considered as a modern Biotechnology concerned with understanding the Genetic Diagnosis, Molecular Diagnosis, Molecular Forensics.

People at the present day are facing serious global challenges in healthcare from emerging and re-emerging diseases. The availability of new sequencing methods, microarrays, microfluidics, biosensors, and biomarker assays has made a shift toward developing diagnostic platforms, which stimulates growth in the field regarding diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment, leading to improved outcomes and greater cost savings.

Much research is being done in foetal whole exome sequencing and is beginning to play a large role in miscarriage testing. With all this research and screening, clinicians and genetic counsellors need to keep abreast of these changes and guidelines in order to effectively care for patients.

The genetic cause of foetal abnormalities detected on ultrasound imaging and in high-risk families can be significantly identified and improved in Foetal diagnostic exome sequencing. Testing based on isolation of foetal cells from maternal blood would provide an attractive alternative to testing of cell-free DNA. An updated implementation of these different approaches will make lively discussion and insight into this field and is headed ways for researchers, test providers, clinicians and clinics to take these developments into consideration.

Point-of-care testing is medical diagnostic testing at the time and place of patient care. In Recent years there are tremendous advances in POCD due to innovations lab-on-a-chip technologies, and complementary technologies. Critical advances in POCD provides directions for future research. Point-of-care allows physicians and medical staff to accurately achieve real-time, lab-quality diagnostic results within minutes rather than hours. The global Point of Care diagnostic tests renders immediate results providing improved patient care in rural areas too. This factor has significantly impacted the market growth.

Clinical diagnostics is defined as diagnosis and treatment of human disease. Clinical diagnostics for a disease can be done by patient’s complaints based on signs, symptoms and medical history rather than on laboratory examination or medical imaging. Clinical diagnostics is considered as an ever-changing field of medicine and research. In recent years Clinical diagnostics has become more exciting as advances in new techniques aid in fulfilling the potential of personalized medicine. Clinical research determines the safety and effectiveness of medications, devices, diagnostic products and treatments.

A monoclonal antibody (mAb) is originally produced by a single B-cell. Biosimilars are a lot complicated than small-molecule medicine and generics. In the past few years, monoclonal antibody drugs have dominated the world’s largest biopharmaceutical drug sales, and in the coming years, monoclonal antibody drugs will continue to be the main force. Considering the huge profit margins and potential market, the monoclonal antibody-based therapeutics is the hot territory many pharmaceutical companies chases. This session will summarize the market in terms of therapeutic applications, type, and structure of mAbs, dominant companies, manufacturing locations, and emerging markets. These requirements would lead to greater development in the process and tighter quality controls during the production of biosimilar mAbs.

Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic organisms such as viruses, bacteria, or fungus. Normally harmless but under certain conditions, they can be fatal and can cause death too. They can be spread from one person to another directly or indirectly. Infectious diseases are caused by infection-causing organisms that use the human body for surviving, reproducing and colonizing. These organisms are known as pathogens.

Antibiotics are used to treat bacterial infections;

Antiviral agents treat viral infections;

and

Antifungal agents treat fungal infections.

Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has revolutionised the study of genomics and molecular biology by allowing us to sequence DNA and RNA much more quickly and cheaply than the previously used Sanger sequencing. Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) relies on capillary electrophoresis. NGS although with shorter read lengths and less accuracy reduces the time that genome sequencing projects took with Sanger methods.

Thousands to millions of DNA molecules can be sequenced simultaneously by using Powerful Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) platform. By offering a high throughput option NGS is revolutionizing in fields such as personalized medicine, genetic diseases, and clinical diagnostics.

Immunogenicity is the ability of a particular substance induce a humoral and/or cell-mediated immune responses. An immune response can be potentially elicited by administering any substance into the human body.

Products which increase the potential of anti-drug antibodies include :

Therapeutic antibodies, enzyme therapies, peptides and combination products.

An immune response may also impact a drugs safety and efficacy. Assays should be designed in such a way that they provide sufficient sensitivity and are free from potential risks to the target patient population. By designing assays with these factors, it is possible to gather data about the strength and type of immune response that a drug may produce in humans.

Metagenomics is the study of genetic material recovered from environmental samples. Metagenomics could be an asset of analysis techniques comprising several connected approaches and ways. We tend to anticipate that metagenomics can complement and stimulate analysis on people and their genomes.

Metagenomics represents a brand-new approach in exceedingly genomic analysis. Metagenomic libraries can be screened for novel physiological, metabolic, and genetic options. Though long and labour-intensive, metagenomics is the most powerful environmental approach that provides prospects to get novel genes and novel biomolecules through the expression of genes from an uncultivated and unknown bacterium in a recipient host cell. Metagenomic information ought to contain DNA sequences for all the genes within the microorganism community

Cell therapies and regenerative medication boost the health of patients by repairing, replacing, or by creating broken cells within the body. Some elements of our bodies will repair themselves quite well when injured, while others dont repair in any respect. We cant develop an entire leg or arm; however, some animals will develop or regenerate whole body elements. Stem cells (SC) offer totally different. Despite the promise of embryonic stem cells, in several cases, adult or perhaps vertebrate stem cells give a lot of fascinating approach for clinical applications. Clinical applications in regenerative medication have increased tremendously throughout the last ten years. Regenerative medication revolutionizes the method to improve the health and quality of life by restoring, maintaining or enhancing tissue and functions of organs.

Clinical chemistry is usually involved with analysis of bodily fluids for diagnostic and therapeutic functions. It’s an applied style of organic chemistry. There are currently several blood tests and clinical tests with intensive diagnostic capabilities. These are performed on any bodily fluid or plasma. The foremost common specimens tested in clinical chemistry are blood and Serum. Many various tests exist to check glucose, electrolytes, enzymes, hormones, lipids (fats), and proteins. By running tests on these samples, physicians will confirm patient conditions and potential diseases, and recommend a counselled treatment up. Clinical chemistry procedures create precise diagnoses, offer effective treatment choices and monitor a patients response to treatment.

Pharmacogenomics is the study of the gene effect on a persons response to medication. This comparatively new field combines pharmacological medicine and genetics to develop effective, safe medications and doses that may be tailored to a persons genetic makeup. Several medications presently accessible do not work a similar manner for everybody. Adverse drug reactions are a unit of big trouble for hospitalizations. With the data gained from the HGP, researchers are learning variations in genes have an effect on the bodys response to medications.

The field of pharmacogenomics continues to be in its infancy. Its use is presently quite restricted, however new approaches are in clinical trials. In future, pharmacogenomics can permit the tailored medication to treat health issues, as well as disorders, Alzheimer sickness, cancer, HIV/AIDS, and asthma.

DNA sequencing is the method of sequencing the base pairs of a DNA (As, Ts, Cs, and Gs). Sequencing a whole organisms DNA is a huge task. It needs breaking the DNA into several smaller items, sequencing the items, and collection of these sequences into one long “consensus.”

These bases give the information on genotype and also the phenotype. Nucleotides aren’t the sole determinants of phenotypes but are essential to their information. Every individual and organism feature a specific ester base sequence. DNA sequencing additionally underpins pharmacogenomics. This can be a comparatively new field that is leading to an individualized medication. Over a hundred and forty medication approved by the FDA currently by pharmacogenomic data in their labelling.

Translational medicine is defined as an interdisciplinary branch of the biomedical field. By using a highly collaborative approach Translational medicine is growing in biomedical research discipline and aims to expedite the discovery of new diagnostic tools and treatments. Within public health, translational medicine is focused on ensuring proven strategies for disease treatment and prevention. Translational medicine aims to improve human health and longevity by determining the relevance to human disease of novel discoveries in the biological sciences. Translational medicine is enhancing the efficiency of biomedical discovery and application. There are many compelling reasons to find cost-effective solutions to health care delivery.

Integrative Molecular Medicine covers novel findings in molecular, biological, and biomedicine research. The broad spectrum of Integrative Molecular Medicine includes rare and common disorders from diagnosis to treatment.

Molecular drugs strive to know traditional body functioning and illness pathological process at the molecular level which can enable researchers and physician-scientists to use that information within the style of specific molecular tools for illness identification, treatment, and prognosis. Integrative Molecular drugs (imMed) offers a scientific setting, which mixes basic and clinical analysis and offers a broad vary of advanced opportunities.

Medical doctors, patients, and health care providers consider the prevention of genetic diseases as an essential tool to improve the general health status of the population and the proportion of people suffering from genetics and genomics disease will increase by 65.2% by 2025. The top institutions researching in the related studies have been funded with 100 Billion Dollar worldwide. According to recent statistics, genetic diseases worldwide will double between 2012 and 2025. The market value of Molecular Medicine is $24 billion in 2015 and is expected to reach more than $100 billion by 2025.

Molecular Diagnostics Equipment market is influencing the

Molecular Diagnostics Equipment market is growing in –

witnessed growth in the –

followed by Molecular Diagnostics Equipment market in –

and the Middle East and Africa –

In 2015, the global molecular diagnostics market size was valued at USD 6,451.5 million and is anticipated to grow. In 2018, infectious diseases account for the largest share of the global molecular diagnostics market. Greater accuracy, portability, cost-effectiveness and Technological advancements enable molecular diagnostics to significantly drive the market.

Over the forecast period, the rising prevalence of infectious diseases and hospital-acquired infections are expected to drive market growth. Rise in cardiovascular, neurological, and genetic disorders is also expected to fuel market growth. Governments and different organizations Increase in funding for clinical studies in the molecular diagnosis space boost the market growth.

The hospitals and academic laboratories segment are expected to account for the largest share of the market in 2018.

The growth of the UAE diagnostic market can be attributed to the high prevalence of chronic and infectious diseases. WHO estimates of all deaths worldwide Chronic diseases account for approximately 60 %. Chronic diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and chronic respiratory diseases are responsible for 12%, 40%, 5%, and 5% of mortality in the United Arab Emirates. There has been a paradigm shift from traditional diagnostics to a new generation diagnostic, that works at the gene level. The inclusion of Advanced technologies such as genetic testing, molecular diagnostics, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and next-generation sequencing (NGS) made it possible.

The major market players in the UAE molecular diagnostics market are :

The competition among manufacturers is increasing, with the increasing number of companies.

Genomics 2018

ME Conferenceshosted10thInternational Conference on Genomics & Molecular BiologyduringMay 21-23, 2018atBarcelona, Spainbased on the theme Advanced Approaches In Genomics and Molecular Biology.

Active participation and generous response was received from the Organizing Committee Members, scientists, researchers, as well as experts from Non-government organizations, and students from diverse groups who made this conference as one of the most successful and productive events in 2018 fromME Conferences.

The conference was marked with several workshops, multiple sessions, Keynote presentations, panel discussions and Poster sessions. We received active participation from scientists, young and brilliant researchers, business delegates and talented student communities representing more than 35 countries, who have driven this event into the path of success.

The conference was initiated with a warm welcome note by Honorable guests and the Keynote forum.The proceedings went through interactive sessions and panel discussions headed byhonorable ModeratorDr.Laila Alves Nahum, Ren Rachou Research Center, Brazilfor the conference.

The conference proceedings were carried out through various Scientific-sessions and plenary lectures, of which the following Speakers were highlighted asKeynote speakers:

Single point mutation of a gene creates mirror-image animals in freshwater gastropod:Reiko Kuroda, Tokyo University of Science, Japan

Evolutionary genomics to improve functional prediction of parasite genes and proteins:Laila Alves Nahum, Ren Rachou Research Center, Brazil

Big data in noncoding RNA and precision medicine:Runsheng Chen, Institute of Biophysics – CAS, China

Treatment of landfi ll leachate via advanced biological treatment technology:Ling Tau Chuan, University of Malaya, Malaysia

Biophysical signaling, systems biology and carcinogenesis:Sarah S Knox, West Virginia University School of Public Health USA

How does nucleoid complexity affect cell dimensions during the division process in bacillary bacteria: Arieh Zaritsky, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel

ME Conferenceshas taken the privilege of felicitating Genomics-2018 Organizing Committee, Keynote Speakers who supported for the success of this event.ME Conferences, on behalf of the Organizing Committee, congratulates the Best Poster awardees for their outstanding performance in the field of Genomics & Pharmacogenomics and appreciates all the participants who put their efforts in poster presentations and sincerely wishes them success in future endeavors.

Poster Judging was done byDr.Arieh Zaritsky, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel

We are also obliged to various delegate experts, company representatives and other eminent personalities who supported the conference by facilitating active discussion forums. We sincerely thank theOrganizing Committee Membersfor their gracious presence, support, and assistance towards the success of Genomics-2018.

With the unique feedback from the conference,ME Conferenceswould like to announce the commencement of the “4th International Conference on Molecular Medicine and Diagnostics”duringJuly 15-16, 2019 in Abu Dhabi, UAE.

For More details visit:https://molecularmedicine.conferenceseries.com/

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Molecular Medicine Conference 2019 | Molecular Diagnostics …

Master of Science (MSc) in Molecular Medicine – Trondheim …

The field of molecular medicine is often referred to as “tomorrow’s medicine”. It aims to provide a molecular understanding of how normal cellular processes change, fail or are destroyed by disease. The purpose of the MSc programme is to develop knowledge and skills in cellular and molecular biology. These have applications in both research and practical clinical work, and will contribute to an increased understanding of processes, diagnostics and treatment of diseases.

The application deadline for for applicants from non-EU/non-EEA students is 1 December. The application deadline for students from EU/EEA countries is 1 March. The application for student from Nordic countries is 15 April. You submit your application electronically.

The MSc in Molecular Medicine qualifies graduates for a wide range of careers, including practical clinical work and technical executive positions in hospital laboratories, and positions in pharmaceuticals and MedTech/BioTech companies.

The MSc is a two-year, full-time programme starting in the autumn semester. There are two main components: a master’s thesis worth 60 credits, and theoretical and methodological courses totalling a further 60 credits.

Contact one of our student counsellors if you have any questions about the MSc in Molecular Medicine. Email: studie@ikom.ntnu.no/ Telephone: +47 72 82 07 00

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Master of Science (MSc) in Molecular Medicine – Trondheim …

Home | EMBO Molecular Medicine

Rare diseases, which affect over 350million people worldwide and frequently go undiagnosed or misdiagnosed for years, suffer from sparse and dispersed medical knowledge leading to even rarer approved and effective therapeutic options for patients. A vast, unmet need for research and investment to advance diagnostic capabilities and therapeutic development must be confronted, despite the myriad of challenges faced. Several fundamental shifts are changing the landscape of rare diseases research and development, particularly with the application and extension of results to common diseases and the advancement of personalized medicine initiatives. Collaborative strategies that pool resources and knowledge are vital, including team science, research networks, novel funding models, shared knowledge platforms, and innovative regulatory frameworks. Importantly, patients are also increasingly involved as research partners and funders, pushing for open science and transparency, and breaking down data silos and geographical borders, often enabled by online platforms accessible from across the globe. The International Rare Diseases Research Consortium (IRDiRC), established in 2011, has been working diligently to unify stakeholders (e.g., funding bodies, companies, umbrella patient advocacy groups, researchers, and experts) to seek and drive solutions that aim to accelerate diagnosis and therapeutic development for rare diseases worldwide. Further and future advances will depend on continued collaborations and cooperation among stakeholders, working hand in hand with patients, and exponentially improving research and development efficiency. Critically, engagement with stakeholders from underrepresented populations and lessdeveloped countries must be prioritized, to enable all people living with a rare disease to receive an accurate diagnosis, care, and therapy.

Rare diseases: further and future advances for diagnostic capabilities and therapeutic development will depend on continued collaborations and cooperation among stakeholders, working handinhand with patients, and exponentially improving research and development efficiency.

EMBO Mol Med (2019) e10486

This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Department of Molecular Genetics … – College of Medicine

Work alongside a distinguished group of researchers in Gene Expression, RNA Processing, DNA replication, Genomics, Gene Therapy, Molecular Basis of Disease, and the Mechanisms of Viral and Bacterial Pathogenesis.

MGM plays a central role in several interdisciplinary research programs in the HSC. Affiliated centers include the UF Genetics Institute, the Powell Gene Therapy Center, the Center for Epigenetics, and the University of Florida Brain Institute.

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Department of Molecular Genetics … – College of Medicine

Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI)

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