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FEATURE: These bold engineering ideas could take humanity to the stars – Professional Engineering

New approaches to propulsion could extend humanity's reach further beyond the Solar System than ever before (Credit: Shutterstock)

It has been 50 years since humanity set foot on the Moon.

Since then we might have expected a continued drive to explore the cosmos, but limitations of money, technology and political will have put the brakes on the space race. In the 50 years since visiting the Moon we have not stepped onto Mars or explored much beyond our solar system.

But that might all be about to change. With rapid improvements in propulsion technologies, a new generation are daring to dream again, this time not of a Moon shot, or even a Mars shot, but a star shot.

One project aiming for the stars is Breakthrough Starshot. Announced in 2016 by Russian venture capitalist Yuri Milner and physicist Stephen Hawking, the project would propel tiny nano-craft attached to light sails up to a fifth the speed of light using powerful arrays of Earth-based lasers. The ambitious goal would be to travel the four light years to our nearest stellar neighbour, Alpha Centauri, in just 20 years. From there the craft would beam back images and data on, among other things, the star systems Earth-like planet, Proxima B.

The idea is to leave the fuel behind, unlike any rocket that was used in the past, says Avi Loeb, physicist at Harvard University in Massachusetts and chairman of Breakthrough Starshot. The amount of power one needs is comparable to what is used for the lift-off of todays shuttles, says Loeb. The difference here is you are delivering that to a single gram of material. The electronics would also weigh less than a gram and that part is already here we do have a camera, navigation device and communication device that could be packed into a single gram.

According to the plan, the nano-craft would be delivered into orbit where the light sails measuring at current estimates about the size of a person would unfurl. An array of lasers based on Earth would then propel the craft up to 100 million miles an hour within a few minutes. Unfortunately, this wont be happening next year or even next decade as several technological hurdles stand in the way.

At the moment we are focusing on three challenges, says Loeb, one is the sail, the other is the laser and the third would be communication.

The laser itself would need to be immensely powerful around 100GW, according to Loeb. This would be too expensive to achieve with a single laser but research into creating laser arrays made up of many less-powerful lasers looks promising. The challenge is to combine these lasers in a coherent fashion so that their power adds up in a synchronised or collimated beam.

Communication is another issue. Not only will it take four years to send data back from Alpha Centauri, the great distance means it will be challenging to focus the beam on a small patch of Earth. You cannot focus the beam better than the separation between the Earth and the Sun, says Loeb, so it will be a very broad beam that will be highly diluted. What we need is a telescope or observatory that will collect that information and analyse it and that is a great challenge.

A laser array on Earth would fire together to create a powerful beam...

propelling the craft up to 100,000,000mph

One of the most immediate challenges is the sail itself which needs to combine a large number of factors to be successful, such as strength, durability, lightness and efficient reflection. We need the material to reflect 99.99% of the laser, says Loeb, otherwise it will heat up and evaporate. Diamond is one candidate, while so-called metamaterials materials engineered at the nano-scale might also be promising possibilities.

One of the biggest challenges has been creating sails that are stable enough that they dont spin uncontrollably or fall off the laser beam entirely. At first rather unwieldy spherical-shaped sails seemed a promising solution. But research at Caltech has shown that nano-engineering the surface of the material could provide the stability required. If you think of a plastic bag on a garden hose, the chances are its going to fly off to one side or the other, says Ognjen Ilic, former researcher with the Caltech team, now an assistant professor at the University of Minnesota. What we can do is essentially engineer the way the object scatters light such that it wants to stay pinned to the beam of light and can be accelerated in a stable way.

The key is to create specific nano-scale patterns on the surface of the material which effectively encode their own stability, mimicking different macro-scale geometries, such as a sphere. The technique also works if the light source is a long way away several million miles in fact. Although it is still at the theoretical stage, Ilic believes it could be a promising solution to the problem of stability.

Breakthrough Starshot might still be up in the air, but another proposed contender for interstellar travel is even more contentious. If correct it might even require the physics textbooks to be rewritten.

The EM Drive, first proposed by engineer Roger Shawyer in 2001, takes a conical chamber and pumps it full of microwaves which bounce around inside the cone. If the geometry of the cone is designed so that it matches the frequency of the waves, resonance will occur which boosts the activity inside the cone further.

According to Shawyers description, these waves exert a force against the walls of the chamber and produce thrust. Because the device requires no fuel, needing only electricity to operate, it could be extremely light and therefore break free of the rocket equation the effective brakes put upon rockets by the mass of their fuel.

The only problem is that such thrust should be impossible according to basic laws of physics such as the conservation of momentum. The thrust is coming out of nowhere, says Martin Tajmar, head of space systems at Dresden University of Technology in Germany, who is currently testing the EM Drive. In our understanding there is no radiation leaving the system so its a closed box a closed box that moves. Any physicist will tell you thats nonsense. It would be, as another commentator observed, like Han Solo powering the Millennium Falcon by headbutting the dashboard.

This hasnt stopped Shawyer, who has designed an interstellar probe based on the EM Drive which, he claims, would travel at two thirds the speed of light, reaching Alpha Centauri in just 10 years. NASA has also got involved, building its own version of the EM Drive which, it claims, has produced observable amounts of thrust in tests. This is where Tajmar got involved. I didnt take it seriously, he says, until I saw a video where this EM Drive was mounted on a test stand which showed rotation.

Tajmar decided to test it himself using the hyper-sensitive vacuum-encased equipment at his Dresden lab. Initial tests showed that thermal drift could account for some of the thrust. The microwave radiation caused the chamber to heat up and expand, so shifting the centre of gravity which could produce a false thrust signal.

The first generation of Roger Shawyer's EM Drive

Another possible source of the thrust was the magnetic field produced by the electronics powering the system. This can interact with the Earths magnetic field, explains Tajmar, and then you can get a force or torque in your system which is coming from the electronics and not necessarily the thrust itself. Tajmars team has removed the electronics from the chamber, replacing them with RF waves coming from outside. This should remove the source of error, but the new system requires tinkering. Tajmar hopes to have a device that can prove or disprove the EM Drive by the end of the year.

If the former happens the implications for space travel and physics itself could be immense. Tajmar however is not optimistic for the EM Drives chances. This is such an extraordinary claim that you must, as Carl Sagan said, have extraordinary proofs, he says. You must be really super sure on that. Without that, its just a fairy tale.

So what are the chances of going interstellar this century? The Breakthrough Starshot project has a proposed timeline a decade to develop the technology, a decade to build a prototype, and a decade to prepare the real system. Loeb recognises this is ambitious but, even if it doesnt live up to the highest hopes, it will still be a vast improvement on rocket technology. If we reach only a tenth of the speed of light, he says, we can get to Pluto within a week. That is much faster than the New Horizons spacecraft which took almost a decade.

Compared with NASAs Moon shot it would certainly be cheaper, costing tens of millions of dollars, according to Ilic, rather than the tens of billions spent on the space race. Given the same critical mass as was put behind the Moon missions, Ilic believes we could achieve a star shot in this generation.

Loeb is more cautious. It was not obvious that we could land a man on the Moon but 50 years ago we did, he says. There was some risk in that but much less of a risk because rockets were used, and the technology was known. Here the technology has to be developed. So my hope is that, even if it doesnt work out the way we envision it, we will have some by-products that will be very useful for other purposes.

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FEATURE: These bold engineering ideas could take humanity to the stars - Professional Engineering

Nanoform Wins Award for Drug Development and Delivery – AZoNano

Image Credit: phive/Shutterstock.com

Nanoform, a Finnish nanotechnology and drug particle engineering company, has won the prestigious Excellence in Pharma Award for Formulation at the 16th CPhI Pharma Awards which took place in Germany this November.

The prize sees world-renowned innovative companies competing against one another. This year Nanoforms ingenious medicine enabling nanotechnology, in the form of its CESS nanonization technology, won the highly contested award.

Who are Nanoform?

International pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies are well aware of the work that Nanoform dedicates itself to. Nanoform partners with businesses with the aim to boost their molecules formulation performance as well as to reduce clinical attrition. Nanoform is committed to working with international companies to provide them with cutting-edge, innovative solutions for the development and delivery of drugs.

The technology that won it the esteemed prize at the CPhI Pharma Awards was its multi-patented nanonization process which was designed with the capability of substantially improving dissolution rates and bioavailability, having the impact of doubling the number of drug compounds reaching clinical trials. In addition, the innovation has been shown to add value to the drug delivery spaces of pulmonary, transdermal, ocular and blood-brain barrier.

For this innovative new process, Nanoform surpassed the efforts of other respected companies such as Cambrex, Lonza Capsugel, and Glatt Pharmaceutical Services, who had also entered in the same category.

The Innovation

The new CESS, short for Controlled Expansion of Supercritical Solutions, nanonization technology has multiple patents for its unique design. It creates designed-for-purpose, nano-sized active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) particles, using a process that can control the particles shape, increasing uniformity. The system also has the ability to produce nanoparticles as small as 10 nm.

The method works by controlling the solubility of an API in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) through a bottom-up method of recrystallization. Previous alternatives had been limited, and the CESS system surpasses those due to its utilization of controlled mass transfer, pressure reduction and flow. Another benefit of the system is that it is green, its process is free from using excipients and organic solvents.

Through Nanoforms innovation, novel opportunities are opening up to the field of drug research and development.

The Significance of the CESS System

Nanomaterials have unique properties that differ from their bulk material counterparts. These different properties have made them of special interest to a number of scientific fields, which has boosted exploration into nanoparticles over recent years. It has been found that these unique properties have potential applications in the areas of nanomedicine, therapeutics, medical devices and more. They have been identified as vectors for medical imaging, biological diagnostics and therapeutics.

What has been achieved by Nanoform is that another avenue of potential use has been opened up for nanoparticles. Nanoform has developed a reliable system that allows the benefits of nanoparticles to be harnessed in drug research and development. The unique properties of nanoparticles will be able to be put to use in developing new therapeutic treatments, which could induce a significant shift in the pharmaceutical sector.

It is generally accepted that advancements in the use of nanoparticles in this area would significantly influence the advancement of human therapeutics. Now pharmaceutical companies have access to a system that allows them to tailor-make nanoparticles, the innovation of new therapies that previously would not have been possible could be on the horizon.

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Nanoform Wins Award for Drug Development and Delivery - AZoNano

Renowned researcher, UTRGV professor blazes trail from Monterrey to White House to TedXMcAllen – Monitor

UTRGV professor Karen Lozano keeps her calendar full.

Shes often found in the lab, where she and her students have pioneered production methods in nanotechnology. Other times, youll catch her mentoring prospective engineers in her office, or out in the community, proselytizing to high schoolers about careers in science and technology.

If students need to talk to her, they usually try to catch her in her office. She gets so many emails that its hard for her to reply to all of them.

Last month, Lozanos research took her all the way to the White House, where she received the Presidential Excellence Award in Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Mentoring she was one of just 15 educators chosen for the award. This week, shell speak about her work at TEDxMcAllen.

Arguably, shes one of the busiest professors on campus, but it definitely wasnt easy getting there.

Twenty-five years ago Lozano graduated from the Universidad de Monterrey at the age of 21, with a degree in mechanical engineering. Shed always been passionate about solving problems and the hard sciences, and mechanical engineering seemed like a natural path to take.

Lozano had her doubts, however: It was almost unheard of for a woman to become a mechanical engineer in Monterrey, but her mother pushed her to stick to her passion, telling her that it would open up doors in the future.

If were going to keep on supporting you and sacrificing for you, why are you going to study something that will not give you opportunities? Lozano remembers her mother saying. Study something that will give you opportunities. Follow the path less traveled.

Lozano did just that, but it was a lonely path. She was the only female mechanical engineering graduate in Monterrey in 1993. In fact, she was the only female in her program at UdeM.

The guys would all go together to a house to study and I was never allowed to go to somebodys house to study with 20 guys, so they would all study in teams and I would study alone, in my house, she recalled. Of course, once in a while, somebody would give me the comments like, Why are you here? Youre only gonna marry and have kids. Why are you here?

Lozano would blow off the comment with a tongue-in-cheek joke.

If Im gonna have kids, and Im doing all this advanced math and stuff, Im gonna be able to help them in their math when they were in high school. That was my answer all the time, she said. Which is something that I never did. I have a senior in high school and one that already graduated, and I dont think I ever sat to help them with math.

Monterrey is an industrial city, and theres no shortage of engineering jobs. Lozano remembers watching companies snap up her male peers before theyd even graduated. No calls came for her.

After college, she started applying to jobs she found in the newspaper. Days turned into weeks, and weeks turned into months.

Every morning I would wake up and the first thing I would do, I would go through the classifieds, Lozano said. I was just sitting in my house for three months.

There were plenty of listings, but none she was qualified for.

There were tons of openings, Lozano remembered, but all of them said, Were looking for a mechanical engineer. Sex: Male. You can google right now, and youll still find them, in 2019.

Finally, one morning Lozano opened the paper and saw a different ad, asking specifically for a female mechanical engineer. Lozano thought her classmates had bought the ad and were making fun of her.

Everyone that graduated me was already working, she said. It was totally weird.

Lozano applied anyway and got an interview.

I went, and it was legit, she said. There was this girl working there, this engineer, that graduated four years before I did from another university as a mechanical engineer, and she had faced the same situation that I was facing. So when they had a position, she asked the boss if it was OK for her to post this one as a social experiment, to see how many women would show up. I was the only one, so I was hired.

Lozano worked at the company for a few months before being accepted into a Masters/PHD program at Rice. After her post-doc she was hired on at UTRGV, where shes researched and taught for the past 20 years, making one of the most significant breakthroughs in her field in the late aughts.

Nanofibers are an interesting technology. A thousandth the diameter of a human hair, nanofibers can be worked into a variety of products that can be used in medicine as skin grafts and drug delivery, as an ultra-efficient filtration material and even as batteries.

There are some that are very, very small and have very high thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity, so if we combine them with plastics, then we can make plastics that can conduct electricity, Lozano said. Instead of copper or aluminum it can be a polymer, a plastic, that will have similar properties in terms of electrical and thermal properties, and we can lower the weight.

According to Lozano, theres a fair chance that because of advances in nanotech, your cellphone battery will weigh little more than a Post-it Note in the near future.

As exciting as the field was, Lozano had a problem: nanofibers took forever to make. They were traditionally made through a process that involved using heat or electricity, and only produced a miniscule fiber or two an hour. Instead of making groundbreaking discoveries in the fields of medicine or technology, Lozanos undergrads were spending all of their lab time laboriously teasing out solitary strands of nanofibers.

At the undergrad level, you need to hold something in your hand, to see it, to be able to bring that interest, she said. If I just give you one little hair, you cant do very much. Theres no way I could excite them or ignite that spark to fall in love with research.

Lozano was at a loss. She considered directing her students to research something else. Then, one day, inspiration struck her in one of the most likely forms: a cotton candy machine.

My mind just went crazy, she said. You have tons of fibers, very simple to produce. Theyre not nanofibers, but were engineers, we can make changes to make it nano. A group of students started working on it, and long story short, we developed those machines, we even created a company.

With the new machines, Lozano and her students could make nanofiber material by the bolt. They created an actual business that operated in McAllen for several years, producing material at an industrial scale and showing off their new process to others in the field.

At one point there were so many people coming by, Lozano says, the FBI dropped in to see what was going on.

It was very good, Lozano said. We hired lots of people and we had people from all over the world coming by.

The business was bought by a larger company in Tennessee in 2017, but Lozano and her students have continued to work with nanofiber. Their research has led to dozens of patents and scholarly articles.

A lot of our undergraduate students are co-authors in scientific publications, and thats amazing, Lozano said. Its not that common that undergraduate students graduate with journal publications from top journals. Even our high school students that work in the lab get the opportunity to be co-authors.

For Lozano, exposing students to science in such a direct way is just as, or more, important than her research breakthroughs and academic recognitions.

If you walk into her office, you wont see the White House commendation from October; it resides in a drawer at her home. It was gratifying, she says, but not as gratifying as seeing her students working in the lab.

You will, however, see a full-sized carnival cotton candy machine in Lozanos office, a reminder of the inspiration that helped her students succeed.

I see my students getting like five offer letters, and they come to me and their problem is which one to select, she said. So Ive seen what can come after, and I tell people that theres opportunities and theres jobs and you can contribute to society.

In many ways, the woman whose own path toward a career in science was unlikely has devoted herself to paving the way for others. Lozano frequently works with local high schools and even made a YouTube channel geared at inspiring and instructing children.

Its important to plant that seed in boys and girls, she said. To me, its the fuel that keeps me going.

On Tuesday, Lozano will continue talking about science at TEDxMcAllen. Her discussion will be streamed live on the groups Facebook page.

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Renowned researcher, UTRGV professor blazes trail from Monterrey to White House to TedXMcAllen - Monitor

Micromotors move single cells using magnets and ultrasound – CMU The Tartan Online

A new type of micromotor has been developed. Directed by magnets and powered by ultrasound, these micromotors are capable of traveling across microscopic particles and cells in very crowded areas without causing any damage.

These microswimmers provide a new way to manipulate single particles with precise control and in three dimensions, without having to do special sample preparation, labeling, surface modification, said Joseph Wang, a professor of nanoengineering at University of California San Diego (USCD), in a UCSD press release.

Wang, Thomas Mallouk, a professor of chemistry at the University of Pennsylvania, and Wei Wang, professor of materials science and engineering at Harbin Institute of Technology, are credited as senior authors of a paper detailing the development of these micromotors. The study was published on Oct. 25 in Science Advances.

Researchers tested the technology by moving HeLa cells the oldest and most commonly used cell line for scientific research and silica particles in aqueous media with micromotors. They accomplished this task without damaging nearby particles and cells. In one test, the researchers were able to create letters by pushing particles with the micromotors. In another, they exerted control over the micromotors, making them climb up microscopic blocks and stairs. This test demonstrated that they were capable of navigating over three-dimensional objects.

The micromotors are essentially gold-coated hollow polymer structures that are shaped like a half capsule. Within the body of the micromotor is a tiny magnetic nickel nanoparticle, allowing them to be steered with magnets. The inside surface is treated so it can repel water, so when the micromotor is submerged in water, an air bubble is trapped inside the device. This trapped bubble is integral to the functioning of the micromotor, as it allows the micromotor to respond to ultrasound. Upon receiving ultrasound waves, the trapped bubble begins to oscillate, forming forces that give it an initial push to movement. By applying an external magnetic field, it can move continuously, while altering the direction of the field allows researchers to control the speed and trajectory of the micromotors.

We have a lot of control over the motion, unlike a chemically fueled micromotor that relies on random motion to reach its target, said Fernando Soto, a nanoengineering Ph.D. student studying at UC San Diego. Also, ultrasound and magnets are biocompatible, making this micromotor system attractive for use in biological applications.

The authors plan on making improvements to the micromotors in the coming years. For example, they want to make them more biocompatible using biodegradable polymers and a magnetic material that is less toxic, such as iron oxide. Thanks to this technology, the researchers have opened new possibilities for nanomedicine, tissue engineering, targeted drug delivery, regenerative medicine, and other applications in the field of biochemistry.

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Micromotors move single cells using magnets and ultrasound - CMU The Tartan Online

Rice receives Army grant amid concerns – The Rice Thresher

By Serena Shedore 11/12/19 11:39pm

Last week, Rice announced a new five-year, $30 million cooperative agreement with the U.S. Army to research next-generation wireless networks and diamond materials manufacturing for use in electronics, according to Yousif Shamoo, vice provost for research. This agreement has been in progress since General John Murray, commander of U.S. Army Futures Command, visited Rice in April 2019.

According to a Rice news release, there will be two teams with different research focuses on this new agreement: a diamonds team and a networks team. The diamond team will focus on formulating diamond structures and materials for use in electronics, while the networks team will work on creating more secure wireless networks that have the ability to sense attacks.

According to Shamoo, faster and more secure communication networks will benefit both soldiers and civilians who depend on networks in phones and computers. These devices rely on silicon-based technology, and diamond materials have the potential to be more efficient than silicon materials.

Pulickel Ajayan, chair of the materials science and nanoengineering department, will co-lead the diamond team with a member of the Army Research Lab, and Ashutosh Sabharwal, chair of the electrical and computer engineering department, will co-lead the networks team with another member of the Army Research Lab.

We plan to establish a world-class facility in diamond growth and a materials program that will lead to innovative device ideas utilizing diamond heterostructures, Ajayan said.

According to the news release, the networks team is working to reduce the time needed to establish wireless networks. Innovations from the diamond materials team could benefit the networks team.

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Ajayan said this relationship between the Army Research Lab and Rice will benefit Rice students and faculty through opportunities for the exchange of students and researchers, as well as the opportunity for Rice students to engage in innovative research.

Shamoo said that undergraduate students will be able to get involved with this project either through taking an undergraduate research course for credit or by working with a professor who is a part of the project.

I fully expect Rice undergraduate and graduate students to be important members of our research teams, Shamoo said.

According to Shamoo, the Army Research Lab established this research agreement with Rice because of its reputation as an international leader in materials science.

[Richard] Smalley and [Robert] Curl won the Nobel Prize for their discovery of the buckyballs [in 1996] and since then Rice has always been at the forefront of materials discovery and innovation, Shamoo said.

Shamoo said that this technology will not only modernize the Army but will help Americans lacking access to high-speed internet.

Rice Left, a student political organization raised concerns over the repercussions of the agreement in an email sent out to its members.

Rice helping the Army modernize means Rice is directly making U.S. imperialism more efficient and more deadly, Rice Left wrote. The U.S. Army has carried out countless war crimes, in the Philippines, in Korea, in Vietnam. Since 9/11, the war on terror has resulted in over 244,000 civilian deaths in Iraq, Afghanistan and Pakistan.

Mezthly Pena, a Duncan College sophomore, expressed concerns on Twitter.

Rice claims to care about sustainability yet still collaborates with one of the biggest polluting organizations in the world, Pena tweeted.

Editors Note: The Thresher requested a comment from Shamoo about student concerns and will update the story online.

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Rice receives Army grant amid concerns - The Rice Thresher

NTT Research and Technical University of Munich (TUM) Enter Joint Research Agreement to Collaborate on Technologies to Affect the Future of Patient…

PALO ALTO, Calif.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--NTT Research, Inc., a division of NTT (TYO:9432), today announced that its Medical and Health Informatics (MEI) Lab has entered a joint research agreement with the Technical University of Munich (TUM) to work on three-dimensionally transformable and implantable electrodes. Dr. Hitonobu Tomoike (M.D., Ph.D.), a renowned scientist and medical researcher, directs the MEI Lab, which will be collaborating with Dr. Bernhard Wolfrum, Professor of Neuroelectronics at TUM in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and the Munich School of BioEngineering (MSB). The scope of work for this multi-year project includes screening and optimizing functional materials, assembling 3D structures, and evaluating their biocompatibility.

Charged with discovering technologies that can revolutionize patient care, the NTT Research MEI Lab is focusing on the transformation and miniaturization of medical device components. This joint research will address the tendency of conventional electronics to work against and at a relative distance from, rather than with and alongside their targeted organ or tissue. The flexible micro- or nano-scale electrodes envisioned as an outcome of this project are expected to minimize the negative impact that rigid and planar electrode materials have on soft and curvilinear biological samples.

In order to acquire in vivo biological signals stably, with a high accuracy for a long period of time, a flexible electrode with high biocompatibility is required, said Dr. Tomoike. To achieve this, we will use nano and micro-scale conductive polymer thin films that are friendly to living bodies and consider the use of in vivo implant electrodes, as well as the control of structural changes of the functional electrodes in the body.

The two principal researchers bring considerable expertise to this project. Dr. Tomoike, former Director of the Sakakibara Heart Institute, Director Emeritus at the National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center in Japan, and former Professor of Cardiology at Yamagata University, is known for his work in precision medicine involving bio-sensors and analytics. Dr. Wolfrums research focuses on neuro- and bioelectronics. He has developed electrochemical sensor arrays and interfaces to cellular networks and employed microfabrication techniques, advanced printing technologies, and microfluidic cell culture methods with the goal of establishing neuroelectronic hybrids and systems for on-chip neuroscience and bioelectronic medicine.

The Technical University of Munich has strengths in neuron growth control and electrophysiological measurement and has recently accumulated know-how and knowledge of printing technology for bioelectronics, said Dr. Tomoike, who is also a Fellow of the American College of Cardiology and of the American Heart Association. We are aiming for breakthroughs in fundamental material science and unprecedented technologies for diagnostic, therapeutic and surgical functions.

Along with pursuing ambitious research targets, this agreement also advances NTT Researchs goal of engaging with partners around the world. As part of this project, NTT Research MEI Lab will send two of its researchers to Munich. The MEI Lab also plans to open an office in Germany. The research will officially launch in Q1 2020; the first phase of the project may take as long as three years.

We are very pleased to have entered this long-term joint research agreement with the MEI Lab of NTT Research and believe our combined strengths will lead to promising advances in a critically important field of bioengineering, said Dr. Wolfrum, who conducted postdoctoral research in nanoscience at Delft University, has led a research group at the Peter Grnberg Institute in Jlich, lectured at Aachen University, and conducted research as a visiting associate professor at Tohoku University in Sendai.

Throughout this interdisciplinary research project, the two organizations are expected to leverage their respective strengths. The Technical University of Munich, which is a member of the TU9 alliance of nine leading German institutes of technology, will be involved through its Neuroelectronics Group (NEL), Munich School of BioEngineering, in the investigation, characterization, and micro/nanofabrication of materials. For its part, the MEI Lab will design experiments and research targets and conduct data analysis based on IoT and AI technologies. Each party will assume roles in evaluating the biocompatibility of fabricated devices.

One notable aspect of this project, according to Dr. Tomoike, is its focus on the physics of soft nanomaterials, the self-assembly of which allows not only for precise control of 3D structures but also reversible transformation of electrodes that interface and function with cells and tissues. Possible applications involve sensing and stimulation electrodes for the brain and heart, brain-machine interfaces, multi-array electrodes for neuronal analysis, and new approaches to vasodilation.

About NTT Research

NTT Research opened its Palo Alto offices in July 2019 as a new Silicon Valley startup to conduct basic research and advance technologies that promote positive change for humankind. Currently, three labs are housed at NTT Research: the Physics and Information Science (PHI) Lab, the Cryptography and Information Security (CIS) Lab, and the Medical and Health Informatics (MEI) Lab. The organization aims to upgrade reality in three areas: 1) quantum information, neuro-science and photonics; 2) cryptographic and information security; and 3) medical and health informatics. NTT Research is part of NTT, a global technology and business solutions provider with an annual R&D budget of $3.6 billion.

NTT and the NTT logo are registered trademarks or trademarks of NIPPON TELEGRAPH AND TELEPHONE CORPORATION and/or its affiliates. All other referenced product names are trademarks of their respective owners. 2019 NIPPON TELEGRAPH AND TELEPHONE CORPORATION

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NTT Research and Technical University of Munich (TUM) Enter Joint Research Agreement to Collaborate on Technologies to Affect the Future of Patient...

Nanosatellite And Microsatellite Market with Report In Depth Industry Analysis on Trends, Growth, Opportunities and Forecast till 2026 – Tech Admirers

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New York, NY 13 Nov 2019: According to a new research published by Polaris Market Research the global Nanosatellite And Microsatellite Marketis anticipated to reach overUSD 6,111.8 million by 2026. In 2017, the nano satellite segment dominated the global market, in terms of revenue. In 2017, North America accounted for the majority share in the global Nano Satellite and Micro Satellite market.

Nano satellites are used in civil, government, defense, and commercial sectors for earth observation and telecommunication applications. Organizations are increasingly adopting nano and micro satellites for technology demonstration, and scientific research and experimentation. The growing commercial sector, along with low costs associated with these satellites drive the market. There has been a rising demand of earth observation services among various sectors such as agriculture, energy, civil engineering, oil and gas, and defense. Growing use of these satellites in defense sector would boost the growth of this market. Technological advancement in terms of miniaturization of components, and associated software has encouraged established organizations, and small and medium enterprises to invest in these satellites. Advancements in microelectronics such as light weight apertures, antennas, panels, transreceivers, control sensors and actuators, and multi spectral imagers would increase the efficiency and processing power of these satellites and make it easy to assemble and test, reducing the complexities associated with heavy satellites.

Request for sample copy of this report @https://www.polarismarketresearch.com/industry-analysis/nano-satellite-and-micro-satellite-market/request-for-sample

The well-known companies profiled in the report include Lockheed Martin Corporation, Planet Labs, Inc., Sierra Nevada Corporation, Raytheon Company, Clyde Space, Inc., SpaceQuest Ltd., Surrey Satellite Technology Limited, Vector Space Systems, Tyvak Inc., The Boeing Company, GomSpace Group AB, Harris Corporation, and Thales Group among others. These companies launch new products and collaborate with other market leaders to innovate and launch new products to meet the increasing needs and requirements of consumers.

Cubesat technology is growing at a rapid rate. CubeSats are a class of research spacecraft called nanosatellites. Cubesats are miniaturized satellites with mass between 1-3 kg. CubeSats are developed to standard dimensions (Units or U) of 10x10x11. They can be 1U, 2U, 3U, or 6U in size, and typically weigh less than 1.33 kg (3 lbs) per U. CubeSats are widely used by academia and research, and would constitute around 30% of total nano satellite market during the forecast period. Nano satellites in the range of 4-6 kg would constitute around 60% of the nano-satellite market during the forecast period owing to its increasing applications in remote sensing, earth observation, and technology development.

The adoption of nano and micro satellites in the commercial sector has increased tremendously over the past few years owing to miniaturization of bulky satellite components, reduced costs, and standardization of satellite parts. In the commercial sector, these satellites are used in forestry, agriculture, energy, civil engineering, archaeology, insurance, and media and entertainment among others. These satellites are used for obtaining high-resolution earth imaging, space-based internet, and communication services. Planet, a company based in U.S., has a constellation of 36 small satellites in orbit, and offers high resolution imaging to consumers in the commercial sector. Other companies such as Skybox, Digital Globe, and O3B offer services such as real time satellite imaging, telecommunication, and space-based internet through these satellites.

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The various applications of nanosatellites and microsatellitesinclude earth observation, communication, technology demonstration, biological experimentation, scientific research & academic training, and others. Earth observation accounted for the highest share in 2017.These satellites are increasingly being used in this sector for commercial weather monitoring, agricultural monitoring and management, and synthetic aperture radar imagery. They are also used by the defense sector for border monitoring, disaster management, and other military missions. Companies such as Planet, Skybox Imaging, and Dauria Aerospace have launched several small satellites dedicated only for remote sensing. Over 2,100 satellites are anticipated to be launched from 2016 to 2025. Leading companies in this sector include Planet, Spire, BlackSky Global and Satellogic, which together plan to launch 1,400 out of the total 2,100 satellites. An emerging application of these satellites is near real-time remote sensing, with two U.S. companies, Planet Labs and Skybox Imaging offering services. Near-real time satellite imagery would enable monitoring of assets at the same time for global corporations, and generating high-resolution visual data for individual companies, and governments. Increasing demand of on-demand geographic information systems with pay-per-image business model is expected to supplement the growth of this market.

North America is expected to dominate the market throughout the forecast period. Rise in applications of nano and micro satellites in agriculture, real estate, defense, and government sectors in the North American region is the major driver for market growth. The affordable price of these satellites also accelerates the penetration in the commercial sector. Rise in investment in the defense sector, along with technological advancement in telecommunication industry, is expected to drive the nano and micro satellite market growth during the forecast period. Use of high-resolution imaging, and communication services for border security and monitoring high-risk situation by federal agencies, government, and non-government organizations are expected to raise the market investment for these services.

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Nanosatellite And Microsatellite Market with Report In Depth Industry Analysis on Trends, Growth, Opportunities and Forecast till 2026 - Tech Admirers

SMART discovers nondisruptive way to see surface of nanoparticles – Mirage News

New method overcomes limitations of existing chemical procedures and may accelerate nanoengineering of materials.

Schematic illustration of probe adsorption influenced by an attractive interaction within the corona

Researchers from the Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology (SMART) have made a discovery that allows scientists to look at the surface density of dispersed nanoparticles. This technique enables researchers to understand the properties of nanoparticles without disturbing them, at a much lower cost and far more quickly than with existing methods.

The new process is explained in a paper entitled Measuring the Accessible Surface Area within the Nanoparticle Corona using Molecular Probe Adsorption, published in the academic journal Nano Letters. It was led by Michael Strano, co-lead principal investigator of the Disruptive and Sustainable Technologies for Agricultural Precision (DiSTAP) research group at SMART and the Carbon P. Dubbs Professor at MIT, and MIT graduate student Minkyung Park. DiSTAP is a part of SMART, MITs research enterprise in Singapore, and develops new technologies to enable Singapore, a city-state which is dependent upon imported food and produce, to improve its agriculture yield to reduce external dependencies.

The molecular probe adsorption (MPA) method is based on a noninvasive adsorption of a fluorescent probe on the surface of colloidal nanoparticles in an aqueous phase. Researchers are able to calculate the surface coverage of dispersants on the nanoparticle surface which are used to make it stable at room temperature by the physical interaction between the probe and nanoparticle surface.

We can now characterize the surface of the nanoparticle through its adsorption of the fluorescent probe. This allows us to understand the surface of the nanoparticle without damaging it, which is, unfortunately, the case with chemical processes widely used today, says Park. This new method also uses machines that are readily available in labs today, opening up a new, easy method for the scientific community to develop nanoparticles that can help revolutionize different sectors and disciplines.

The MPA method is also able to characterize a nanoparticle within minutes compared to several hours that the best chemical methods require today. Because it uses only fluorescent light, it is also substantially cheaper.

DiSTAP has started to use this method for nanoparticle sensors in plants and nanocarriers for delivery of molecular cargo into plants.

We are already using the new MPA method within DiSTAP to aid us in creating sensors and nanocarriers for plants, says Strano. It has enabled us to discover and optimize more sensitive sensors and understand the surface chemistry, which in turn allows for greater precision when monitoring plants. With higher-quality data and insight into plant biochemistry, we can ultimately provide optimal nutrient levels or beneficial hormones for healthier plants and higher yields.

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SMART discovers nondisruptive way to see surface of nanoparticles - Mirage News

Simera Sense And Space Inventor To Collaborate On Offering Earth Observation Solutions – Space in Africa

Today Simera Sense and Space Inventor announced that they would collaborate through marketing Simera Senses optical payloads, enabling earth observation satellite operators to sense the earth in more detail with smaller satellites from reliable platforms.

As part of the agreement, Space Inventor will offer its clients Simera Senses range of optical payloads as part of its portfolio of products.

The cooperation between Simera Sense and Space Inventor provide satellite operators access to the best of both worlds, high-performance optical payloads in a small form factor and reliable CubeSat platforms in an extremely short time-to-orbit. Together, Simera Sense and Space Inventor are positioned to address the earth observation needs for the NewSpace industry through its tailored end-to-end performance, quick design iterations and short lead times.

Space Inventors versatile onboard computing platform and optical gigabit downlink capabilities will add a new dimension to earth observation, eliminating the inefficiencies associated with many CubeSat earth observation missions.

Simera Senses xScape100 and xScape200 product ranges are setting a new standard for remote sensing. The large aperture diameter and long focal length in a compact form factor enable a compelling spatial resolution for CubeSats.

At Simera Sense we are expanding into new geographical markets with local support, says Johann du Toit, CEO of Simera Sense. We are excited in partnering with a company with the experience and commitment to excellence as offered by Space Inventor. Working with Space Inventor will not only increase our global reach but will also enable us to provide cost-effective end-to-end solutions to our customers and make earth observation data more accessible to every person on earth.

We are very pleased to partner with Simera Sense, who as a pioneer in optical payloads is an obvious choice as a supplier to strengthen our product range, says Jacob M. Nissen, Chief Sales Officer at Space Inventor. At Space Inventor, we offer our customers some of the most innovative nanosatellite solutions on the market, and through our partnership with Simera Sense, we will be able to provide turn-key earth observation platforms with top-of-the-class optical payloads.

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Simera Sense And Space Inventor To Collaborate On Offering Earth Observation Solutions - Space in Africa

Global Nano Gas Sensors Market 2019 Raytheon Company, Ball Aerospace and Technologies, Thales Group, Lockheed Martin Corporation – Daily Industry…

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Global Nano Gas Sensors Market 2019 Raytheon Company, Ball Aerospace and Technologies, Thales Group, Lockheed Martin Corporation - Daily Industry...

Global Nano Gas Sensors Market Insights 2019 Raytheon Company, Ball Aerospace and Technologies, Thales Group – Daily Industry News Journal

The global "Nano Gas Sensors Market" report offers precise analytical information about the Nano Gas Sensors market. The market experts and proficient analysts generate the information based on the past and current situation of Nano Gas Sensors market, various factors affecting the growth trajectory, global sales, demand, total revenue generated, and capitalization of the market. Moreover, the report delivers a summarized assessment of the impact of federal policies and regulations on market operations. It also comprises detailed information pertaining to the Nano Gas Sensors markets current dynamics. The global Nano Gas Sensors market acts as a huge platform that offers several opportunities for many reputed firms, organizations, manufacturers, vendors, and suppliers Raytheon Company, Ball Aerospace and Technologies, Thales Group, Lockheed Martin Corporation, Environmental Sensors, Emerson, Siemens, Agilent Technologies, Shimadzu, Futek, Dytran, Nemoto, Endress Hauser, Falcon Analytical to compete with each other to become one of the globally and regionally leading business holders.

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For a thorough analysis, The report presents a demand for individual segment in each region. It demonstrates various segments Semiconductor Nano Gas Sensor, Electrochemistry Nano Gas Sensor, Photochemistry (IR Etc) Nano Gas Sensor, Other and sub-segments Electricity Generation, Automobiles, Petrochemical, Aerospace & Defense, Medical, Biochemical Engineering, Other of the global Nano Gas Sensors market. The global Nano Gas Sensors market report delivers all-inclusive study about the business growth enhancers and obstructers, earlier and current trends being followed by the market, and the comparison between the global as well as regional revenue generation by the market. The brief study, about recent technological developments, detailed profiles of the leading firms in the market, and unique model analysis, is included in the report. The global Nano Gas Sensors market report offers a detailed review of micro and macro aspects that are essential for driving the business along with comprehensive value chain analysis.

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There are 15 Chapters to display the Global Nano Gas Sensors market

Chapter 1, Definition, Specifications and Classification of Nano Gas Sensors , Applications of Nano Gas Sensors , Market Segment by Regions;Chapter 2, Manufacturing Cost Structure, Raw Material and Suppliers, Manufacturing Process, Industry Chain Structure;Chapter 3, Technical Data and Manufacturing Plants Analysis of Nano Gas Sensors , Capacity and Commercial Production Date, Manufacturing Plants Distribution, R&D Status and Technology Source, Raw Materials Sources Analysis;Chapter 4, Overall Market Analysis, Capacity Analysis (Company Segment), Sales Analysis (Company Segment), Sales Price Analysis (Company Segment);Chapter 5 and 6, Regional Market Analysis that includes United States, China, Europe, Japan, Korea & Taiwan, Nano Gas Sensors Segment Market Analysis (by Type);Chapter 7 and 8, The Nano Gas Sensors Segment Market Analysis (by Application) Major Manufacturers Analysis of Nano Gas Sensors ;Chapter 9, Market Trend Analysis, Regional Market Trend, Market Trend by Product Type Semiconductor Nano Gas Sensor, Electrochemistry Nano Gas Sensor, Photochemistry (IR Etc) Nano Gas Sensor, Other, Market Trend by Application Electricity Generation, Automobiles, Petrochemical, Aerospace & Defense, Medical, Biochemical Engineering, Other;Chapter 10, Regional Marketing Type Analysis, International Trade Type Analysis, Supply Chain Analysis;Chapter 11, The Consumers Analysis of Global Nano Gas Sensors ;Chapter 12, Nano Gas Sensors Research Findings and Conclusion, Appendix, methodology and data source;Chapter 13, 14 and 15, Nano Gas Sensors sales channel, distributors, traders, dealers, Research Findings and Conclusion, appendix and data source.

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Nano-Motors Find Tilt-Illating Solution to Move Against the Current – SciTechDaily

Nano-motors of micron-meter size, made of platinum and gold, propel themselves against a flow (big arrows on channel walls) that contains hydrogen peroxide. Random thermal jiggling from the fluid molecules disturbs the motors motion, but the long-gold motors (pullers) still maintains a relatively straight trajectory because its steeper tilt helps it align more easily against the flow and hence move upstream. Credit: Dr. Yan-Peng Liu

Going upstream, and against a current, involves a front-first downward tilt and then moving along a surface, shows new research by a team of scientists, which created nano-motors to uncover this effective means of locomotion under such conditions. Its findings and the creation of these tiny motors offer new insights into the nature of movement in fluids and have implications for engineering.

These nano-motors not only helped us better understand the nature of moving against flows at the tiny scales we cant easily see, but also could be the first step in developing smart material and robotic systems in the microscopic world, says Jun Zhang, a professor of physics and mathematics at New York University and a co-author of the paper, which was published on October 25, 2019, in the journal Physical Review Letters.

While this effect of movement has long been known, our work offers a comprehensive explanation for it, which enhances our understanding of this widespread dynamic, adds co-author Michael Shelley, a professor at NYUs Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences.

The researchers, who also included Quentin Brosseau, a postdoctoral fellow at NYUs Courant Institute and the papers first author, focused on a previously discovered phenomenon, rheotaxismovement involving a change of direction to head upstream or into a current.

However, detailed explanations for rheotaxis had been lacking. To fully understand this process, the scientists created nano-motors composed of two metalsplatinum and gold (Pt/Au). Shelley, Zhang, also a professor at NYU Shanghai, and their colleagues had previously created a more basic version of these nano-motors, which are less than the width of a human hair.

Fabricated in the Molecular Design Institute in NYUs Department of Chemistry, the motors described in the Physical Review Letters paper were more advanced; the researchers varied the proportions of these metals in order to vary their movementin some models, the composition was evenly split while others had a 3:1 gold-to-platinum ratio or a 3:1 platinum-to-gold make-up.

Fueled chemically by a hydrogen peroxide dilution when placed in water, the nano-motors could swimwith the platinum end always serving as the head. However, these motors had different tilts, which differed depending on their make-up. Those composed primarily of gold were labeled pullers while those largely made up of platinum were called pushers. The pullers tended to move with their tails up (a pronounced tilt) while the pushers remained relatively flat.

This difference was significant when it came to moving against currents.

When the tilt is large (pullers), the tail is more exposed to an oncoming flow, which catches the tail and turns the motor aroundsimilar to the way wind turns a weather vane. Consequently, the motors front faces the flow, after which the motor continues forward, now moving against the current. By contrast, if the motor is not tilted (pushers), a current cannot catch its tail and spin it around to move against this flowand, as a result, it is unlikely to respond to an oncoming flow.

This synthetic system mimics natural micro-organisms, such as E. coli in flow, and offers a means for predicting their pathways through the human body, observes Brosseau. It is key to understand contamination processes and engineer smart material for targeted drug delivery.

###

Reference: Relating Rheotaxis and Hydrodynamic Actuation using Asymmetric Gold-Platinum Phoretic Rods by Quentin Brosseau, Florencio Balboa Usabiaga, Enkeleida Lushi, Yang Wu, Leif Ristroph, Jun Zhang, Michael Ward and Michael J. Shelley, 25 October 2019, Physical Review Letters.DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.123.178004

The papers other authors included Michael Ward, a professor in NYUs Department of Chemistry, Florencio Balboa Usabiaga of the Flatiron Institute, Enkeleida Lushi of the New Jersey Institute of Technology, Yang Wu, a doctoral candidate in NYUs Department of Chemistry, and Leif Ristroph, an associate professor at NYUs Courant Institute.

This work was supported by the MRSEC Program of the National Science Foundation (DMR-1420073) and also by additional NSF grants (DMS-1463962 and DMS-1620331).

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Nano-Motors Find Tilt-Illating Solution to Move Against the Current - SciTechDaily

Doheny and UCLA Stein Eye Institutes Welcome Kaustabh Ghosh, PhD, to the Scientific and Clinical Research Faculty – P&T Community

LOS ANGELES, Oct. 31, 2019 /PRNewswire/ --Doheny and UCLA Stein Eye Institutes proudly welcome Kaustabh Ghosh, PhD, to the scientific faculty as Associate Professor in basic science at the UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine. Dr. Ghosh is distinguished as an interdisciplinary researcher with expertise in the fields of vascular inflammation, mechanobiology, bioengineering, and nanomedicine.

"I am tremendously proud and honored to begin this position at Doheny-UCLA," says Dr. Ghosh. "I entered the field of biomedical research from an engineering background, which perhaps gave me a new perspective to see things differently. As a biomedical engineer, it allowed me to think about diseases in a way that a typical biomedical researcher and clinician may not."

Dr. Ghosh states that also as a vascular biologist, one such perspective he was able to successfully introduce was the importance of "stiffness" of blood vessels in disease pathogenesis.

"Doheny will be the ideal place for me to realize the true translational potential for my work as it offers strength and resources in ophthalmic imaging," shares Dr. Ghosh. "Doheny also provides the perfect balance between basic science and clinical research."

He adds, "I look forward to developing strong, collaborative relationships with members of Doheny-UCLA engineering, biomedical sciences and clinical infrastructure. Our goal will be to discover effective treatment strategies from a multidisciplinary approach especially in the area of investigating the role of chronic vascular inflammation, a major determinant of various debilitating conditions including macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy."

Dr. Ghosh was most recently Associate Professor of Bioengineering at University of California, Riverside (UCR) as well as Participating Faculty in the Division of Biomedical Sciences, Stem Cell Center and the Program in Cell, Molecular and Developmental Biology. The Ghosh Research Group at UCR focused on leveraging the principles of mechanobiology to examine and treat inflammationmediated vascular degeneration associated with diabetic retinopathy and agerelated macular degeneration, the leading causes of vision loss in the diabetic and aging population. In 2016, these studies were supported by two R01 grants from the National Eye Institute (NEI), and a macular degeneration grant from the BrightFocus Foundation. Dr. Ghosh has received numerous awards during his research career, including the Hellman Fellowship and the NIH Postdoctoral Training Grant, and has published 24 peer-reviewed papers in highly-regarded journals that include PNAS, The FASEB Journal, Science, and Nano Letters, among others.

In 2011, prior to joining UCR, Dr. Ghosh was a postdoctoral fellow in the laboratory of Donald Ingber, MD, PhD, part of the Vascular Biology Program at Boston Children's Hospital and Harvard Medical School. In 2006, Dr. Ghosh received his PhD in Biomedical Engineering from Stony Brook University, New York. He obtained his undergraduate degree in Chemical Engineering from National Institute of Technology, Warangal, India in 2001.

Dr. Ghosh's dedication to collaborative research and team building is evident in his numerous and illustrious achievements. His distinguished scientific leadership demonstrates an excellence that will contribute greatly to Doheny Eye Institute's research programs.

About Doheny Eye InstituteFor over 70 years, Doheny Eye Institute has been at the forefront of vision science. From seeking new ways to free blockages that prevent fluid drainage in glaucoma, to replacing retinal cells in age-related macular degeneration, to providing colleagues worldwide with standardized analyses of anatomical changes in the eyes of patients, Doheny clinicianscientists and researchers are changing how people see and also how they think about the future of vision. Please visit doheny.org for more information.

Doheny Eye Institute and UCLA Stein Eye Institute have joined forces to offer the best inpatient care, vision research and education. This affiliation combines the strength, reputation and distinction of two of the nation's top eye institutions to advance vision research, education and patient care in Southern California.

CONTACT INFORMATIONMedia Contact:Matthew RabinDirect: (323) 342-7101Email: mrabin@doheny.org

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Japanese ‘Supercar’ Made From Recycled Wood Has A Top Speed Of 20 Kmph – Mashable India

The automobile industry has taken a shift towards developing hybrid and electric vehicles (EVs) in recent years. A complete shift to EVs might not be happening anytime soon but Japan is on the fast track to make automobile manufacturing more eco-friendly.

Japan has developed a concept car fashioned mostly from wood. Unveiled at the Tokyo Motor Show 2019, the Nano Cellulose Vehicle (NCV) is a car concept developed by a consortium of companies and universities established by the Japanese Ministry Of Environment in 2016. The idea of a wooden car might seem something straight out of The Flintstones but the NCV concept is much more modern.

According to Carscoops, the car is made using Cellulose Nano Fibre (CNF) - a fibre material made from wood, agricultural waste, and other organic materials. CNF is one-fifth the weight of steel but is five times stronger than the most widely used engineering material. The use of CNF in most of the bodywork and part of the tub makes the car half as light as traditional cars.

SEE ALSO: Jaguar Designed An Electric Sportscar Just For Gran Turismo

The goal behind the cars development to be environment-friendly is apparent, as the production process will have the least carbon emissions in the car manufacturing industry. E1izabeth Blackstock of Jalopnik puts the manufacturing process in better words by stating that manufacturing is basically just recycling on a massive scale.

he wooden car really looks the supercar part. The exterior design with butterfly doors and sharp-cut angles look like something youd see on a Lamborghini or Pagani. But he interior has a more traditional Japanese aesthetic, with white kimono-esque seats, a steering wheel covered with the hilt of a katana, an actual wooden dashboard, and a golden flower pattern running throughout.

Although the car might look like its ready to zip through the curves of Autobah, it currently only maxes out at a top speed of 12mph (20kmph) since its powered by hydrogen fuel cells. We can only hope that the NCVs power train in the future would allow for speeds befitting of its supercar semblance.

SEE ALSO: CEO Elon Musk Says Plaid Will Be Faster Than Ludicrous Speed

Image Credit: Kankyosho (Ministry of the Environment, Japan)

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Japanese 'Supercar' Made From Recycled Wood Has A Top Speed Of 20 Kmph - Mashable India

Preparation And Antibacterial Effects Of Carboxymethyl Chitosan-Modifi | IJN – Dove Medical Press

Jin Zhang, Chuan-Zhen Ye, Ze-Yu Liu, Qian Yang, Yong Ye

Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, Peoples Republic of China

Correspondence: Yong YeDepartment of Pharmaceutical Engineering, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, Peoples Republic of ChinaTel +86-20-87110234Email yeyong@scut.edu.cn

Background: Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is a persistent and intractable problem. The sapogenin isolated from the seeds of Camellia oleifera can inhibit antibiotic-resistant bacteria after structural modification.Purpose: This study aims to improve sapogenins antibacterial activity and avoid bacterial resistance based on nano-preparation with photo responsiveness.Methods: The liposome shell material of carboxymethyl chitosan-phosphatidyl ethanolamine (CMC-PE) was prepared using amidation reaction, and photo-responsive cationic (PCC) liposomes containing Camellia sapogenin derivative (CSD) and photosensitizer pheophorbide-a were prepared by film dispersion method. Encapsulation efficiency, drug loading, zeta potential, particle size distribution, morphology and stability of the PCC liposomes were determined by HPLC, particle size analyzer, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and fluorescence microscopy. Photo-responsive release of CSD in the PCC liposomes was determined by laser (0.5 mW/cm2) at 665 nm. Antibacterial activity of the PCC liposomes with or without irradiation was analyzed by MIC50, MBC, MBIC50, and bacterial morphology to evaluate the antibacterial effects on amoxicillin resistant Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.Results: Size distribution, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency and drug loading of the PCC liposomes were 189.23 2.12 nm, 18.80 1.57 mV, 83.52 1.53% and 2.83 0.05%, respectively. The PCC liposomes had higher storage stability and gastrointestinal stability, and no obvious hemolytic toxicity to rabbit red blood cells and no cytotoxicity after incubation with Hela cells. The photosensitizer pheophorbide-a was uniformly dispersed in the phospholipid layer of the PCC liposomes and increased the CSD release after irradiation. The PCC liposomes could bind to bacteria and impaired their morphology and structure, and had significant bactericidal effect on amoxicillin resistant E. coli and S. aureus.Conclusion: The photo-responsive PCC liposomes are efficient antibacterial agents for avoidance of bacterial resistance against antibiotics.

Keywords: Camellia sapogenin derivative, photo-responsive cationic liposomes, carboxymethyl chitosan, antibacterial effects, antibiotic substitutes

This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License.By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

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Nano Gps Chip Market to Witness Increased Revenue Growth Owing to Rapid Increase in Demand – Health News Office

The Wrist and Hand MRI Equipment Market research report added by Market Study Report, LLC, provides a succinct analysis on the recent market trends. In addition, the report offers a thorough abstract on the statistics, market estimates and revenue forecasts, which further highlights its position in the industry, in tandem with the growth strategies adopted by leading industry players.

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The Wrist and Hand MRI Equipment market report Elucidated with regards to the regional landscape of the industry:

The geographical reach of the Wrist and Hand MRI Equipment market has been meticulously segmented into United States, China, Europe, Japan, Southeast Asia & India, according to the report.

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Analog DevicesMicrochip Technology Inc.Sony CorporationMaxim IntegratedAdafruit IndustriesTexas Instruments IncorporatedAsahi Kasei Microdevices Co., .Intersil Americas LLCNational InstrumentsDiligent Inc

Segment by RegionsNorth AmericaEuropeChinaJapanSoutheast AsiaIndia

Segment by TypeDisplay ADCDelta-sigma ADCPipelined ADCDual slope ADC

Segment by ApplicationIT and telecommunicationIndustrialConsumer electronicsAutomotive

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Nano Gps Chip Market to Witness Increased Revenue Growth Owing to Rapid Increase in Demand - Health News Office

Codexis Protein Engineering Forum Highlights Progress and Future Direction of the Field – Yahoo Finance

Industry and academic leaders convened to discuss the direction of protein engineering for a wide range of applications

REDWOOD CITY, Calif., Oct. 15, 2019 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Codexis, Inc. (CDXS), a leading protein engineering company, assembled approximately 150 top scientists in protein engineering to discuss recent progress and future direction in a forum held last week in Palo Alto, Calif. Speakers highlighted recent successes in enzymatic manufacturing, biologics discovery, and agricultural and diagnostic applications, as well as technical progress in library generation, high-throughput screening, and bioinformatics.

Through two days of presentations, panel discussions and networking events, representatives from more than 50 industrial, entrepreneurial, and academic institutions learned about the latest developments in the field and exchanged ideas about future developments.

The keynote address by Nobel Laureate Dr. Frances H. Arnold illuminated the audience on the history of the field and highlighted the promise of protein engineering technology. Invited speakers from industry and academia followed, providing insights from pharmaceutical, chemical, and other bioindustrial manufacturing through single enzyme processes, enzyme cascades, and direct fermentation. Along the way, technology advances in DNA synthesis, genome engineering, nano-liter scale screening, application of in vitro transcription/translation, continuous and cell-free evolution formats, and machine learning and artificial intelligence were presented.

I'm proud of the Codexis team for organizing this groundbreaking forum attended by a Whos Who of protein engineering innovators. Discussions and presentations generated tremendous energy, as well as new ideas and inspiration to expand the impact of proteins in the real world, said John Nicols, Codexis President and CEO.

Gjalt Huisman, Ph.D., Senior Vice President of Strategic Development at Codexis, added, This forum elevated protein engineering toward real world application at a time when successes are finding their way to market faster and more frequently. Cross-functional learning by participants from diverse industries helps everyone advance the use of synthetic biology in their organizations to deliver novel protein-based products that hold enormous prospect to add substantial and unique value.

About Codexis, Inc.

Codexis is a leading protein engineering company that applies its proprietary CodeEvolver technology to develop proteins for a variety of applications, including as biocatalysts for the commercial manufacture of pharmaceuticals, fine chemicals and industrial enzymes, and enzymes as biotherapeutics and for use in molecular diagnostics. Codexis proven technology enables improvements in protein performance, meeting customer needs for rapid, cost-effective and sustainable manufacturing in multiple commercial-scale implementations of biocatalytic processes. For more information, see http://www.codexis.com.

Forward-Looking Statements

To the extent that statements contained in this press release are not descriptions of historical facts regarding Codexis, they are forward-looking statements reflecting the current beliefs and expectations of management made pursuant to the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, including Codexis expectation that increased use of synthetic biology by an organization can help create highly valuable protein-based products and solve significant challenges. You should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements because they involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that are, in some cases, beyond Codexis control and that could materially affect actual results. Additional information about factors that could materially affect actual results can be found in Codexis Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) on March 1, 2019 and Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q filed August 6, 2019, including under the caption Risk Factors and in Codexis other periodic reports filed with the SEC. Codexis expressly disclaims any intent or obligation to update these forward-looking statements, except as required by law.

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InvestorsLHA Investor RelationsJody Cain, 310-691-7100 jcain@lhai.com

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Codexis Protein Engineering Forum Highlights Progress and Future Direction of the Field - Yahoo Finance

Nano One looks to be a winner as they work to make a better lithium-ion battery – InvestorIntel

Its been an exciting few weeks in the world of nanotechnology and lithium-ion batteries. The Royal Swedish Academy of Scienceshas awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for 2019 to the developers of the lithium-ion battery.

The foundation of lithium-ion battery development waslaid during the oil crisis in the 1970s; however, its importance has grown each decade. Given we are now entering the electric vehicle boom, our dependence on the lithium-ion battery will grow even greater. The 2019 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to the following 3 Scientists; John B. Goodenough, M. Stanley Whittingham, and Akira Yoshino.

Stanley Whittingham started to research superconductors and discovered an extremely energy-rich material, which he used to create an innovative cathode in a lithium battery. John Goodenoughpredicted that the cathode would have even greater potential if it was made using a metal oxide instead of a metal sulfide and by using Goodenoughs cathode as a basis,Akira Yoshinocreated the first commercially viable lithium-ion battery in 1985.

The 2019 Nobel Prize for Chemistry was awarded to the 3 inventors of the lithium-ion battery

Nano One could be the next winner

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Canadas Nano One Materials Corp. (TSXV: NNO) has the potential to make todays lithium-ion battery much better using nanotechnology. Nano One has developed powerful technologies that are fully patented. Nano One uses a scalable industrial process for producing low cost, high performance, battery materials. Now thats a winning formula and means that one day Nano One could potentially also be receiving awards for chemistry.

The Nano One process aims to increase performance and safety while reducing the cost of battery materials for applications in advanced lithium ion batteries used in transportation, grid storage and consumer electronics.

Nano One gets a visit from Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau

You know you are doing something right if the Prime Minister comes to check out your work. Nano One were very excited to receive a personal visit from Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau to Nano Ones pilot facility in Burnaby BC.

Prime Minister Trudeau received a tour of the pilot and laboratory facility and watched a demonstration in the process of making cathode materials such as lithium iron phosphate (LFP) and lithium nickel manganese cobalt (NMC). He then participated in the assembly of electrodes and separators into lithium ion battery test cells.

The Prime Minister was visiting British Columbia to announce a climate change initiative and a cut in corporate taxes for companies that develop technologies or manufacture products that have zero emissions.

Mr. Dan Blondal CEO of Nano One commented on the visit: It is great to see increased support on climate change initiatives, and Nano One is pleased to have the ongoing support of the Government of Canada.

Nano One receives further support

Nano One has received over $10 million in non-dilutive non-repayable support funding that has been critical in expanding its scientific, engineering and marketing activities as it advances towards commercialization. As well as funding from the Canadian government, Nano One has strategic partnerships with Volkswagen, Pulead Technology and Saint-Gobain.

The news of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for 2019 having been awarded to the developers of lithium-ion batteries will only bring greater attention to lithium and Nano Ones technology. Ever since they entered the market in 1991, lithium-ion batteries have continued to revolutionize our lives. They have laid the foundation of a wireless, fossil fuel-free society, and are of the greatest benefit to humankind.

Nano Ones patented process for making cathode materials is changing the way the world makes battery materials, addressing waste, cost and performance. The mission is to establish its patented technology as a leading platform for the global production of a new generation of battery materials.

Certainly Nano One looks to be on the winning path with top tier international partners (Saint-Gobain, Pulead, and Volkswagen), potential award winning technology, and backing from the Canadian Government.

Nano One looks to be a winner and still with a market cap of only C$ 81.9 million.

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Nano One looks to be a winner as they work to make a better lithium-ion battery - InvestorIntel

This Huge Amazonian Fish That Lives in Piranha-Infested Waters Has Some of the Toughest Scales on the Planet – Newsweek

Scientists who studied why the scales of a huge Amazonian fish, which lives piranha-infested waters, are some of the toughest in the world hope their work could help to create armor.

In order to survive in lakes of the Amazon, the arapaima fish has evolved armor-like scales. The creature can grow up to 3 meters long, weigh 200kg and is thought to be the largest freshwater fish in the world, study co-author Wen Yang of the University of California, San Diego, Department of Nanoengineering, told Newsweek.

The outer layer of its scales is mineralized, providing a barrier against potential threats, like the teeth of hungry predators. But ridges and protrusions make the scales flexible, the scientists explained in their paper published in the journal Matter. The surface is bound by collagen to a lower layer featuring what is known as a Bouligand structure.

Resembling a twisting staircase of layers, this shape is also found in the shells of lobsters, beetles and crabs, Yang explained.

To find out more about its hardy exterior, researchers at the University of California, San Diego, and the University of California, Berkeley, performed tests to see how much strain the scales can take.

First, the team soaked crushed arapaima fish scales in water for 48 hours. Next, they put pressure on the centre of the scales, while pulling at the edges. During this process, they noticed that the outer layer enlarged at first, before cracking and peeling away. The structure of the scales appeared to prevent these fractures from spreading.

The scientists concluded the inner and outer layers work together to enable to scales to be lightweight, flexible yet tough. The scales are among the toughest bendy biomaterials on the planet, they said.

Similar mechanisms have been found in the striped bass, however, the arapaima's scales are thicker and more mineralized, providing a useful barrier against piranhas, the authors wrote.

Robert Ritchie, senior author of the study and a professor of materials science and engineering at UC Berkeley, commented in a statement: "A window may appear strong and solid, but it has no give. If something attempted to puncture it, the glass would shatter.

"When nature binds a hard material to a soft material, it grades it, preventing this shattering effect. And in this case, the binding structure is mineralized collagen."

He said the structure of the fish's skin could be copied to create impermeable synthetic armor, although this would be a long way in the future.

Yang explained such resilient materials are a "sexy" topic among scientists in this area.

"If we have such lightweight and tough materials, our aerospace engineering will advance in a huge step," she said.

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This Huge Amazonian Fish That Lives in Piranha-Infested Waters Has Some of the Toughest Scales on the Planet - Newsweek

Aerostructure Equipment Market To Soar Across Top Countries In The Globe – Online News Guru

Fact.MR has recently published a new study titled Aerostructure Equipment MarketForecast, Trend Analysis & Competition Tracking: Global Market Insights 2019 to 2027, which comprehensively discusses the overall development across the global aerostructure equipment market. At present, the international market is driven by increased deliveries of commercial aircraft together with rising count of passengers flying each year. The bolstering status of the commercial aviation industry has been fueling higher opportunities for the global aerostructure equipment market, which is likely to continue until 2027.According to research insights, the global aerostructure equipment market is likely to record growth at over 1.5% CAGR during the forecast period of 2019 2027. The report stresses on the fact that primary trend active across the global market will most probably impact the competitive dynamics, thereby, shifting the manufacturing of aerostructure equipment from potential players to OEMs. Based on the data acquired for the year 2018, numerous highly valued mergers and acquisitions took place in the aerostructure equipment industry as chief vendors took over other small and medium scale vendors to seize a greater portion of the market.Request Sample Report-https://bit.ly/2IvflWjHigher Shares to Be Acquired by Commercial Aircraft and Helicopters

As per the International Air Transport Association, number of passengers transported by airlines is expected to rise more than 6% within the next decade. This significant surge of air travelers would surely require the production of additional aircraft perpetually elevating the demand for aerostructure equipment. According to Boeing, an international designer and manufacturer of rotorcraft and airplanes, the passenger and freighter fleet is anticipated to expand from 21,000 to 40,000 aircraft with the inclusion of 37,000 new airplanes during the stated assessment period. With such firm development figures, it is predicted that the global aerostructure equipment market will experience improved statistics during the period between 2019 and 2027.Expansion of Lightweight Materials Supported by Nanotechnology

It is imperative to know that apart from substantial economic values, the overall aerostructure equipment market associates huge resource consumption with one of the largest carbon footprint over the planet. As a result, the primary drivers persisting across the current aerostructure equipment research and development are focused towards the introduction of lighter structural materials together with efficient engines. Interestingly, potential nanomaterials and nano-engineering is surely strengthening the fulfilment of such goals. To be precise, various nanomaterials are already incorporated for supporting aircraft construction as filler materials that are aimed at enhancing the properties of structural polymers. Furthermore, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is receiving superior traction as fillers in polymers, especially due to its exceptional toughness and distinctive electrical properties. These developments are directly targeted towards the manufacturing of lightweight and durable aerostructure materials that is expected to drive the global aerostructure equipment market in the coming years.Passenger Mobility across Asia Pacific Set to Heighten Market Development

Going by the records collected by the International Air Transport Association (IATA), there were close to 4.1 billion air travelers in 2017, where majority of the traffic was centered in the Asia Pacific region. Air travel is experiencing a major swell up, since people are migrating for better economic prospects; these factors are impacting the global aerostructure equipment market in a positive manner.The report also discourses contribution by major players operating in the global market for aerostructure equipment. Some of the prime manufacturers mentioned in the report are KUKA Systems GmbH, Broetje-Automation GmbH, Electroimpact, Inc., MTorres Diseos Industriales, Gemcor (Ascent Aerospace), REEL, SENER and a lot more.Request Research Methodology-https://bit.ly/2oTMkwF

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Aerostructure Equipment Market To Soar Across Top Countries In The Globe - Online News Guru


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