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Nanomaterial bests all others in blocking speeding projectiles – University of Wisconsin-Madison

University of WisconsinMadison engineers have fabricated a rubbery nanomaterial that outperforms all other materials, including steel and Kevlar, in protecting against high-speed projectile impacts.

The research provides insights for using nanostructured polymers to develop lightweight, high-performance armor. In the future, these new types of armor could potentially be used as a shield on military vehicles to provide enhanced protection from bullets, as well as on spacecraft to mitigate impacts from meteorite debris.

Ramathasan Thevamaran

Ramathasan Thevamaran, a professor of engineering physics at UWMadison, and postdoctoral research associate Jizhe Cai made ultrathin films only 75 nanometers thick out of a relatively common polymer with a nearly impenetrable name semicrystalline poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-trifluoroethylene) and demonstrated that the material was superior at dissipating energy from microprojectile impacts over a wide range of velocities.

They detailed their research in a paper published in the journal Nano Letters.

Materials can exhibit different properties at the nanoscale than at larger sizes. This allows researchers to potentially improve specific properties of a material by working with it at extremely small sizes.

When we shrunk the polymer down to this nanometer length scale, we found that its internal microstructure completely changed in an unexpected fashion compared to its larger scale, Thevamaran says. Surprisingly, the energy-absorbing mechanisms in the material became very prominent, and we found that this particular polymer was performing significantly better than any other materialboth large materials and previously reported nanomaterialsat absorbing energy from the projectiles.

A post-impact scanning electron microscope image of a sample that was penetrated by a supersonic micro-projectile. Image courtesy of Ramathasan Thevamaran

To test their ultrathin polymer films, the researchers used a unique experimental technique called micro-ballistic impact testing. They launched projectile particles of about 10 microns (roughly one-tenth the width of a human hair) in size at the polymer film at velocities ranging from 300 feet per second to 3,500 feet per second several times the speed of a bullet.

Cai and Thevamaran used an ultrafast imaging system to capture images of the projectiles as they penetrated the polymer film, and then they calculated the penetration energy the amount of kinetic energy from the projectile that was absorbed by the material, per kilogram of the material.

We normalized the penetration energy values, which allows us to make comparisons between the performance of these polymer films and different material systems, Thevamaran says.

In addition, Cai and Thevamaran used scanning electron microscopy techniques to study how the material deformed during and after impact. They observed that the impacts caused extensive stretching and deformation in the material, similar to how a piece of rubber can stretch and snap back into shape.

The key reason this material is performing better across the broad spectrum of velocity is because of its elastic nature in room temperature, Thevamaran says. The organization of the materials internal structure enables ample stretching and deformation mechanisms, which enhance its ability to dissipate energy.

Maybe not so much for people, though: Thevamaran says the rubbery nature of this material would make it challenging to use for applications like bulletproof vests, because impacts from bullets would protrude into the material and potentially cause blunt trauma injuries to the wearer.

Instead, Thevamaran says this material could be suitable for developing so-called ambient armor, where the armor shields the target, but isnt applied directly to it.

For example, with ambient armor positioned a short distance from a spacecraft, meteorite debris would first have to penetrate through several layers of this armor, which would dissipate almost all the energy before the projectile strikes the spacecraft, greatly minimizing any damage, he says.

Thevamaran says the next steps in this research include further scaling up the material and the projectile sizes.

We want to test a multi-layered system to make sure the novel properties we discovered in micro-ballistics can still be exploited for performance at a larger scale, he says.

This work was supported by the UWMadison Office of the Vice Chancellor for Research and Graduate Education with funding from the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation.

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Nanomaterial bests all others in blocking speeding projectiles - University of Wisconsin-Madison

NTT Research Names Joe Alexander Distinguished Scientist in its MEI Lab – Business Wire

PALO ALTO, Calif.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--NTT Research, Inc., a division of NTT (TYO:9432), today announced that it has named Joe Alexander, M.D., Ph.D., as Distinguished Scientist in its Medical and Health Informatics (MEI) Lab. Dr. Alexander, who is also a Fellow of the American College of Cardiology, joined NTT Research in February 2020, after 18 years with Pfizer, Inc., where he most recently served as senior medical director, global medical affairs. He also worked for two years at Merck, Inc., and spent eight years at Vanderbilt University, where he completed a two-year residency in internal medicine and served as a professor of medicine and biomedical engineering. Dr. Alexander obtained his M.D. and Ph.D. (biomedical engineering) degrees at the Johns Hopkins Medical School. His post graduate training included fellowships at Albert Einstein College of Medicine in the Bronx and Kyushu University in Fukuoka, Japan. At NTT Research, he will lead the MEI Labs bio digital twin initiative.

We are delighted to have Dr. Alexander as a permanent member on our research team, said Professor Hitonobu Tomoike, M.D., Ph.D. His academic and medical background, persistent work in data analysis and experience in the life sciences and pharmaceutical industry make him a perfect fit for helping us to achieve our exciting and ambitious goals at the MEI Lab.

Under the direction of Dr. Tomoike, a cardiovascular medical scientist, the MEI Lab is targeting three fields: nano- or micro-scale sensors, in collaboration with the Technical University of Munich (TUM); innovative applications of artificial intelligence (AI) and analytics to digitized medical information; and precision medicine, which enables better distinctions between effective and ineffective treatments. Taken together, these components are prerequisites to the MEI Labs futuristic goal of leveraging the digital world and big data to predict the effect of treatment on individual patients via alter egos, or bio digital twins. The hoped-for outcome is more precise and finely tuned treatments.

This is a tremendous opportunity to expand many of my interests and areas of expertise, including my long-standing work in medical data analysis and knowledge of cardiovascular dynamics, said Dr. Alexander. I am especially thrilled at having a five-to-ten year research horizon and look forward to leading the bio digital twin initiative, which I believe will evolve in three stages: first, an initial cardiovascular model focused on acute care; next, a more sophisticated dynamic model incorporating multiple systems and more suited for chronic care; and finally, a third-generation model associated with wellness in general.

At Pfizer, Dr. Alexander served in various roles, including cardiovascular medical affairs, worldwide clinical imaging and measurement technologies, medical devices and pulmonary hypertension. In his most recent position, he created a virtual lab using advanced analytics and modeling methods connecting disparate data types in order to predict responders and non-responders to a market-leading drug. Over his tenure at Pfizer, Dr. Alexander each year took opportunities to conduct additional modeling and simulation research. Besides research on non-invasive glucose monitoring and methods better than QT prolongation for predicting serious arrhythmias, two other areas of Dr. Alexanders research, conducted in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory, involved the use of simulation to support management of neuropathic pain, and modeling based on CT scans for primary pulmonary hypertension. Dr. Alexander is the author or co-author of 94 publications.

The MEI Labs integration of medical data, systems engineering and AI not only promotes next-generation diagnostics and therapies; it also opens the door for synergies across the other NTT Research labs. Among the areas being explored in the Cryptography and Information Security (CIS) Lab, for instance, is homomorphic encryption, which allows for the analysis of encrypted (or private) data. The Physics and Informatics (PHI) Lab is engaged in quantum information systems, one application of which could be the solution of combinatorial optimization problems to advance new drug discovery.

The CIS and PHI Labs are also continuing to grow, both in external outreach and internal staffing. A new member of the CIS Lab is Hoeteck Wee, who holds a Ph.D. in computer science from UC Berkeley. He was previously a senior researcher at the French National Center for Scientific Research. Dr. Wee has co-authored more than 70 papers. His current research addresses new cryptographic challenges posed by Big Data and the internet.

About NTT Research

NTT Research opened its Palo Alto offices in July 2019 as a new Silicon Valley startup to conduct basic research and advance technologies that promote positive change for humankind. Currently, three labs are housed at NTT Research: the Physics and Informatics (PHI) Lab, the Cryptography and Information Security (CIS) Lab, and the Medical and Health Informatics (MEI) Lab. The organization aims to upgrade reality in three areas: 1) quantum information, neuro-science and photonics; 2) cryptographic and information security; and 3) medical and health informatics. NTT Research is part of NTT, a global technology and business solutions provider with an annual R&D budget of $3.6 billion.

NTT and the NTT logo are registered trademarks or trademarks of NIPPON TELEGRAPH AND TELEPHONE CORPORATION and/or its affiliates. All other referenced product names are trademarks of their respective owners. 2020 NIPPON TELEGRAPH AND TELEPHONE CORPORATION

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NTT Research Names Joe Alexander Distinguished Scientist in its MEI Lab - Business Wire

Spanish Scientists Explore Using Dromedary Antibodies to Treat COVID-19 – Morocco World News

Rabat Spanish scientists are attempting to find an antiviral for COVID-19, using antibodies from dromedaries, also known as Arabian camels.

Scientists from the National Center for Biotechnology (CNB), part of the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), are trying to develop an antiviral that could block the virus access into human cells.

CSIC explained that camelids produce a special type of antibody capable of recognizing the antigen with a single protein chain.

This allows them to reach inaccessible regions on the surface of viruses and bacteria, the council emphasized.

A scientific report that CSIC posted on May 19 explained that a team from the council seeks to produce nano antibodies that block the access of the SARS-CoV-2 into cells.

The antivirals should be able to reduce infection in patients with COVID-19, the report found.

The report explained that the team is generating a new collection of COVID-19-specific nano antibodies from samples of dromedaries that have been immunized against the novel coronavirus.

The team is tracking a collection of more than a billion nanoantibodies built in their laboratory. The CSIC researchers, who work in collaboration with the Veterinary Faculty of the University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, hope to have the first candidates in three months, the report explained.

Luis Angel Fernandez, who heads the bacterial engineering group of the National Center for Biotechnology (CNB-CSIC), said: Antibodies from humans and animals are made up of two different protein chains, which associate to create the antigen binding zone (virus or bacteria) and thus are able to block it and prevent its entry into cells.

The council explained that its bacterial engineering group spent years working with nano antibodies in different projects.

The scientific report explained that the group started a project to isolate nano antibodies that block the entry of the virus into cells after the initial outbreak of COVID-19.

Over the years, the bacterial engineering group has built a collection of over a billion nanoantibodies, which they are now tracking to locate those that may be useful against SARS-CoV-2, the statement explained.

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Spanish Scientists Explore Using Dromedary Antibodies to Treat COVID-19 - Morocco World News

Conformable self-assembling amyloid protein coatings with genetically programmable functionality – Science Advances

Abstract

Functional coating materials have found broad technological applications in diverse fields. Despite recent advances, few coating materials simultaneously achieve robustness and substrate independence while still retaining the capacity for genetically encodable functionalities. Here, we report Escherichia coli biofilm-inspired protein nanofiber coatings that simultaneously exhibit substrate independence, resistance to organic solvents, and programmable functionalities. The intrinsic surface adherence of CsgA amyloid proteins, along with a benign solution-based fabrication approach, facilitates forming nanofiber coatings on virtually any surface with varied compositions, sizes, shapes, and structures. In addition, the typical amyloid structures endow the nanofiber coatings with outstanding robustness. On the basis of their genetically engineerable functionality, our nanofiber coatings can also seamlessly participate in functionalization processes, including gold enhancement, diverse protein conjugations, and DNA binding, thus enabling a variety of proof-of-concept applications, including electronic devices, enzyme immobilization, and microfluidic bacterial sensors. We envision that our coatings can drive advances in electronics, biocatalysis, particle engineering, and biomedicine.

Surface modification of materials is an essential aspect of engineering and technology fields including electronics, biomedicine, catalysis, textiles, and industrial equipment (16). The application of diverse coatings is one of the major methods through which either surface properties of a substrate are changed or completely new properties to a finished product are imparted. Some advanced coating materials that have recently been developed include polyelectrolytes, proteins, polydopamine, and polyphenols (2, 714); however, certain limitations have prevented the widespread adoption and practical use of these materials. For example, although polydopamine and polyphenol coatings are substrate independent, both coating types are unstable in certain application environments: Polydopamine coatings suffer from easy detachment in polar solvents, whereas polyphenol coatings exhibit pH-dependent disassembly (7, 15).

Protein-based coating materials (e.g., bovine serum albumin, hydrophobins, and mussel foot proteins) have attracted considerable attention because of their outstanding biocompatibility, biodegradability, and environmental friendliness (11, 12, 16, 17). Amyloid proteins are particularly appealing as a potential source of bioinspired coatings, as their characteristic -sheet structures exhibit high tolerance toward high temperature, organic solvents, and harsh pH conditions (18, 19). Recent work demonstrated that phase transition lysozyme (PTL), an amyloid protein coating material, could coat the surface of virtually any substrates and have outstanding robustness; however, it is notable that the applications reported for PTL to date have mainly exploited its intrinsic chemical properties (i.e., the aforementioned -sheet structures) rather than its potentially genetically engineerable functionalities (10, 20, 21).

In nature, bacteria use biofilms to robustly coat an enormous number of surfaces, and these coatings promote cellular survival in harsh environments (22, 23). Fundamental studies have revealed that biofilms produced by Escherichia coli contain amyloid nanofibers, which are self-assembled by secreted monomers of the CsgA protein (the major protein component within the biofilms); these nanofibers provide mechanical strength and structural integrity to biofilms (Fig. 1A) (2426). In addition, a molecular dynamics study recently suggested that CsgA, owing to its unique protein sequence and structural features, should strongly adhere to both polar and nonpolar surfaces (27). For practical applications, multiple studies have shown that genetically engineered CsgA fusion proteins can be used as underwater adhesives, nanoparticle (NP) assembly scaffolds, patternable materials, biomimetic mineralization, and medical hydrogels (2832). In light of their intrinsic adherence toward diverse substrates as well as the fact that a variety of functional peptides and protein domains could be rationally inserted in the CsgA protein through a modular genetic strategy without disrupting their self-assembly into -sheet structures, we rationalized that engineered CsgA fusion proteins could be used as a coating platform to endow materials with diverse functionalities. Conceivably, such genetically engineered CsgA-based coatings would likely achieve precise performance for myriad applications, likely far surpassing the scope of existing protein coating materials such as PTL and bovine serum albumin. However, exploiting the genetically programmable functionality of CsgA amyloid proteins as a coating material have not been widely explored.

(A) Illustration of natural E. coli biofilms, in which self-assembled CsgA nanofibers constitute the major protein component. (B) Modular genetic design of genetically engineered CsgA proteins enabled by rationally fusing desired fusion domains at the C terminus of CsgA. (C) Illustrations of producing diverse protein coatings via a solution-based fabrication approach for various applications based on genetically engineered functionalities such as electronic devices, enzyme immobilization, and microfluidic sensor (from top to bottom).

Here, we report a proteinaceous coating material platform based on genetically programmable CsgA fusion amyloid nanofibers. We successfully used a simple, aqueous solutionbased fabrication method based on the amyloid protein self-assembly to generate thin-film materials that can conformably coat substrates with highly diverse compositions (e.g., polymeric, metal oxide, inorganic, and metal) and varied shapes (flat, round, pyramid, the interior of a microfluidic device, and even irregular or asymmetric structures). We demonstrate that these coating materials can be further decorated with various molecules and nano-objects such as fluorescent proteins, enzymes, DNA probes, and NPs. The robust coating materials maintained their integrity and functionality, even after exposure to various common organic solvents such as acetone and hexane or after high-temperature challenge. Last, we exploited the process simplicity, flexibility, and functional customization of our coating materials in proof-of-concept demonstrations for electronic devices including a touch switch and a pressure sensor, immobilized multienzyme systems for bioconversion production applications, as well as a hybrid amyloid/DNAzyme microfluidic sensor (Fig. 1, B and C). We anticipate that our genetically engineered CsgA coating materials, which are substrate independent, ultrastable, and afforded precisely with tailor-made and tunable functionality, will find broad application in electronics, biocatalysis, particle engineering, and biomedicine.

Leveraging a modular genetic design, we constructed four genetically engineered CsgA variants: CsgAHis-tag, CsgASpyTag, CsgASnoopTag, and CsgADNA binding domain (DBD) (Fig. 1B). We expressed our engineered CsgA proteins as inclusion bodies using E. coli BL21(DE3) as a host and purified the proteins following a typical guanidine denaturation protocol for amyloid proteins (28, 30); this approach markedly reduced batch-to-batch variation and impurities. To produce coating materials, we dissolved the purified proteins in an aqueous solution and directly immersed diverse substrates into this protein solution overnight. We first conducted detailed characterization to confirm the coating-forming ability of the CsgA fusion proteins. We chose plates made of unmodified poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE)a classical adhesion-resistant materialas the test substrate. After immersion of the substrate in fresh-made CsgAHis-tag monomer (His-tag fused at the C terminal of the CsgA protein) solution overnight, water contact angle tests showed that the contact angle of CsgAHis-tag nanofibercoated PTFE was 72.7 2.7, whereas that of bare PTFE was 110.2 3.2 (Fig. 2A). To test the coating effect, we first incubated the bare and coated PTFE in the presence of solution containing nickelnitrilotriacetic acid (Ni-NTA)decorated red-emitting quantum dots (QDs) (allowing thorough interactions between Ni-NTAdecorated QDs and CsgAHis-tag nanofibers) and subjected them to copious amount of water to remove nonspecific binding (33).

(A) Top: Digital images and water contact angles (inset) of bare and CsgAHis-tagcoated PTFE; bottom: digital images of bare and coated PTFE substrates after incubation with QD solution and illumination under UV light. Photo credit: Yingfeng Li, ShanghaiTech University. (B) AFM height image of CsgAHis-tagcoated PTFE. (C) XPS spectra of bare and CsgAHis-tagcoated PTFE, CPS representing counts per second. (D) Schematic showing stability tests consisting of a water contact angle test and a QD binding test. (E) Water contact angle comparison of CsgAHis-tag coatings on PTFE substrates after organic solvent exposure. (F) Digital image of challenged CsgAHis-tagcoated PTFE substrates after incubation with QD solution and illumination under UV light. Photo credit: Yingfeng Li, ShanghaiTech University. (G) Water contact angles of bare and CsgAHis-tagcoated diverse polymer substrates. (H) Water contact angles of bare and CsgAHis-tagcoated various inorganic substrates.

The coated sample displayed bright and uniform red fluorescence under ultraviolet (UV) illumination, whereas the bare PTFE sample showed almost no fluorescence (Fig. 2A). This vast difference in fluorescence intensity was also verified quantitatively through photoluminescence spectroscopy (fig. S1A). Moreover, as revealed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging, CsgAHis-tag nanofiber coatings were formed on the PTFE substrate (Fig. 2B and fig. S1B). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was also performed to further analyze the surface composition after nanofiber coating, revealing newly appeared N 1s and O 1s peaks at 399 and 531 eV, respectively, thereby confirming the coating of CsgAHis-tag proteins on the PTFE substrate (Fig. 2C). Collectively, these results validate the nanofiber coatingforming ability of the genetically engineered CsgA proteins.

To demonstrate the stability of CsgAHis-tag nanofiber coatings in organic solvents, we conducted two kinds of tests: contact angle and QD binding (Fig. 2D). We first measured the contact angles of coated PTFE substrates before and after contact with common organic solvents including hexane, acetone, and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). After immersion in these solvents for 24 hours, the contact angles of the substrates underwent almost no changes, indicating that our coatings had outstanding chemical endurance in these harsh solvents (Fig. 2E). Furthermore, digital images showed that CsgAHis-tagcoated PTFE substrates anchored with Ni-NTA QDs still displayed red fluorescence after contact with the aforementioned common organic solvents, again highlighting the organic solvent tolerance of our nanofiber coatings (Fig. 2F). The CsgAHis-tag proteins also have outstanding environmental tolerance even after long-term exposure to both acidic and basic aqueous solutions as described in a previous study (30).

We next assessed the thermal stability of CsgAHis-tag nanofiber coatings. To such ends, we first used NanoDSF (differential scanning fluorimetry) to determine melting temperatures of proteins using their intrinsic fluorescence change during a programmed temperature gradient increase (34). The fluorescence intensity change of a protein sample is directly correlated to the structural change (e.g., unfolding) of the protein over the heating process. Briefly, our NanoDSF analysis of CsgAHis-tag nanofibers and control bovine serum albumin proteins in solution revealed that whereas the serum albumin proteins began to unfold at ~65C, the CsgAHis-tag nanofibers had impressive thermal stability, as indicated by the steady fluorescence intensity even at 95C (fig. S2A). Moreover, the attenuated total reflectionFourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectrum of the challenged CsgAHis-tag nanofiber sample showed that the typical -sheet structures (absorption peak at ~1625 cm1) were still retained in the nanofiber structures after heating in a 90C oven for 24 hours (fig. S2B). In addition, water contact angle analysis and QD binding test indicated that CsgAHis-tag nanofibers were still completely coated over on the PTFE substrates even after challenge at 90C for 24 hours (fig. S2C). These data thus reveal that our CsgAHis-tag protein coatings have outstanding thermal stability.

Biodegradability under appropriate protease conditions is considered as one of the attractive material attributes for protein-based coatings (17). To assess whether our CsgAHis-tag protein coatings have such on-demand biodegradability, we chose two enzymes, trypsin from bovine pancreas and fungal protease from Aspergillus oryzae (protease AO), in our studies. Thioflavin T (ThT; an amyloid specific dye) assay was used to monitor the digestion process of CsgAHis-tag nanofibers. As illustrated in fig. S2 (D and E), the decreasing fluorescence intensities indicate the gradual disappearance of the -sheet structures over time, suggesting the structural instability of CsgAHis-tag nanofibers under trypsin or protease AO digestion conditions. We next challenged the stability of CsgAHis-tag nanofiber coatings by incubating the CsgAHis-tag nanofibercoated PTFE plate in the two enzyme solutions (trypsin, 2.5 mg/ml; fungal protease, 55 U/g) for 24 hours and assessed the morphological and physicochemical properties with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and water contact angle analysis, respectively. SEM images showed that very little amount of nanofibers was found on the substrate surface and water contact angle analysis revealed that the enzyme-treated substrates restored their hydrophobicity after nanofiber coating digestions (fig. S2, F to H). These data convincingly demonstrate that our CsgAHis-tag nanofiber coatings can be degraded in the presence of proteases. Collectively, our coating materials have strong environmental robustness while retaining their on-demand biodegradability, and thus can broaden the application scope of existing protein-based coating materials.

To establish that our CsgAHis-tag nanofiber coatings can be applied to other substrates, we coated several typical material substrates, including common organic polymers [polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET)] and inorganics [indium tin oxide (ITO), Si, Au, stainless steel 304, fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO), and glass]. Our results from water contact angle analysis revealed that CsgAHis-tag nanofibers were successfully coated on each of these substrates (Fig. 2, G and H). These applications convincingly demonstrate the substrate-independent nature of the genetically engineered CsgA protein coatings.

The apparently very broad substrate scope for our coatings raises interesting questions about the molecular interactions that occur between nanofibers and substrates. Previous molecular simulation research has demonstrated that the unique structural features as well as its unique amino acid sequence and diversity of the CsgA protein enable its strong adhesion capacity for both polar and nonpolar substrates (27). Therefore, on the basis of the above contact angle test results, we speculated that the hydrophobic residues within the CsgA protein such as alanine, proline, and valine could provide adhesion to hydrophobic surfaces such as PTFE and PDMS through hydrophobic interactions; that aromatic amino acids such as tyrosine, phenylalanine, and histidine may contribute to adhesion to PS and PET surfaces through - stacking interactions; and that charged and polar amino acids such as arginine, lysine, and glutamine could form strong interactions with oxides through electrostatic interactions (35).

Having illustrated the coating formation capacity as well as their basic physicochemical properties of genetically engineered CsgA coatings, we next focused on establishing proof of concept for multiple programmable functions for the CsgA fusion protein coatings.

Flexible and wearable electronics play critical roles in our daily lives, and the introduction of metal NPbased conductive coatings within such devices is definitely a key step (36, 37). Existing conventional top-down approaches to obtain metal NP coatings often require high temperature and sometimes suffer from low interfacial adhesion (36, 37). Gold enhancement is a promising bottom-up process for fabricating Au-based conductive coatings (38, 39). However, this process preliminarily requires the ability to anchor Au NPs to the targeted substrates (38, 39). Such NPs can then be used to heterogeneously catalyze further Au deposition and form NP-structured coatings in an aqueous AuCl4 and hydroxylamine solution. In the previous section, we confirmed that CsgAHis-tag coatings could anchor Ni-NTAcapped QDs on substrates. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images confirmed that CsgAHis-tag nanofibers could firmly bind Ni-NTAcapped Au NPs (fig. S3A). We thus reasoned that our Au NPbound CsgA nanofiber coatings could theoretically lead to a gold enhancement process on the surface of a substrate, potentially forming Au coatings consisting of closely packed NPs.

To test the feasibility of our concept, we first incubated a CsgAHis-tagcoated three-dimensional (3D)printed pyramid with Ni-NTAcapped Au NPs. After assembly for 30 min, we transferred this pyramid into a gold enhancement solution (AuCl4 and hydroxylamine), allowing chemical reduction (Fig. 3A). Photographic images showed that the surface color of the pyramid was successfully changed from pristine white to typical tan (Fig. 3B). The above experimental results thus showed the feasibility of our fabrication process. The simple Au coating technique could be easily applied to various substrates, including polyimide (PI), PDMS, PET, PTFE, and PP, highlighting the substrate independence and conformability features of our nanofiber coatings (fig. S3B).

(A) Schematic showing the fabrication of Au coatings based on CsgAHis-tag coatings. (B) Digital images of pristine and Au-coated CsgAHis-tagmodified 3D printed pyramids. Photo credit: Yingfeng Li, ShanghaiTech University. (C) Digital (left) and SEM (right) images of an Au interdigital electrode fabricated by a CsgAHis-tag coatingenabled gold enhancement process assisted by a patterned waterproof sticker. Photo credit: Yingfeng Li, ShanghaiTech University. (D) XPS spectrum of the Au interdigital electrode. (E) Capacitance change of the Au interdigital electrode with different distances between the electrode and a finger; the inset digital images indicate different distances. Photo credit: Yingfeng Li, ShanghaiTech University. (F) Digital images of the Au interdigital electrode as the sensing element in a touch switch. Photo credit: Yingfeng Li, ShanghaiTech University. (G) Digital (left) and SEM (right) images of pristine (top) and Au-coated textiles (bottom). Photo credit: Yingfeng Li, ShanghaiTech University. (H) Schematic diagram of a pressure sensor fabricated by Au-coated textiles along with an Au interdigital electrode (inset) and the corresponding current variation (I/I0) under different pressures. (I) Current variation as a function of time at two pressures (the inset digital images indicate the two different types of pressure applied). Photo credit: Yingfeng Li, ShanghaiTech University.

Having demonstrated the feasibility of conformable Au coating technique using the CsgAHis-tag protein as functional coating proteins, we next explored the fabrication of diverse electronic devices with increasingly complex functionalities. We first generated patterned Au coatings by first fabricating CsgAHis-tag coatings with commercially available patterned waterproof stickers, then incubating the substrates in an Au NP solution followed by an Au enhancement process (see the Supplementary Materials). Accordingly, we fabricated an interdigital electrode consisting of patterned Au coatings on a PDMS substrate that conformably stuck to the outer surface of a 50-ml centrifugation tube (Fig. 3C). As expected, SEM and AFM images indicated that the coating was composed of NPs, and further XPS analysis confirmed the appearance of Au element on the surface (Fig. 3, C and D, and fig. S3C). To demonstrate the potential application of this interdigital electrode, we carefully tested the capacitance change of the electrode when a finger approached and then moved away from the electrode. As illustrated in Fig. 3E, as a finger gradually began touching the electrode, the capacitance correspondingly decreased. Likewise, when the finger was removed, the capacitance was restored to the original value.

This behavior is attributed to the higher dielectric constant of the human body as compared to air: a higher dielectric constant reflects lower capacitance. In this way, such an electrode could be used as the sensing unit of a touch switch (40). We therefore linked this electrode to a circuit including a power source, a commercially available signal processing chip, and a light-emitting diode (LED). As shown in Fig. 3F, when no finger was in contact with the electrode, the LED was off; however, when a finger touched the electrode, the circuit was connected and the LED was on.

To assess the mechanical stability of the conductive Au coatings, we applied an abrasion test for our CsgAHis-tagenabled Au conductive coatings following a previous approach for coating structures (37, 41). Specifically, we first attached a soft PET fabric on the Au-coated PET plate, followed by placing a 2-kg counterweight on the fabric. We then moved the fabric against the conductive surface of PET plates. As illustrated in fig. S4A, the sheet resistance had almost no change (~23 ohms/sq) even after 500 cycles of abrasion. In addition, although SEM images showed the abrasion traces on the surfaces, the morphology of the conductive layers consisting of highly packed irregular Au NPs remained unchanged (fig. S4, B to D). These findings highlight the mechanical robustness of our conductive coatings on the PET plates. Because CsgAHis-tag coatings are vulnerable to enzymatic digestions, we next used trypsin and protease AO to challenge the Au conductive coatings. The sheet resistance and the microstructures of conductive coatings had negligible changes after incubation with the enzyme solutions for 24 hours, indicating the strong resistance of Au coatings to proteolytic digestion (fig. S5, A and B). It is likely that the extremely compact Au coatings above the nanofiber coatings could hinder the direct contact of enzymes with CsgAHis-tag nanofiber coatings and thus protected the nanofiber layers from enzymatic digestion.

Motivated by the impressive durability of CsgAHis-tag nanofiberenabled Au conductive coatings, we next turned to explore more exciting applications based on such coatings. We first coated PET textiles with CsgAHis-tag nanofibers and then fabricated Au-coated conductive textiles (fig. S6A). Photographic and SEM images indicated the vast differences between textiles in apparent color and micromorphology after the formation of Au coatings (Fig. 3G). Furthermore, energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) result implied the uniform distribution of Au on the textile surface, and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis showed that the in situ generated Au NPs were closely anchored on the entire PET textile (fig. S6, B and C). We next constructed a pressure sensor based on our Au-coated PET textiles (Fig. 3H, inset). Briefly, we first used the Au-coated PET textile to cover the aforementioned PDMS-based Au interdigital electrode and sealed it with 3M VHB tape. The constructed pressure sensor worked as designed following a specific working principle as follows: When a certain pressure that led to the compression of the hierarchical porous textile was applied, the contact area between the textile and electrode was increased, so the contact electric current increased correspondingly under a constant voltage. When the external pressure was removed, the textile recovered from the deformation because of its inert elasticity, and the current returned to the initial state (42). The large surface area and sufficient surface roughness of the Au-coated textile, as revealed by SEM and EBSD images (Fig. 3H and fig. S6C), reliably reflect the changes in contact resistance resulting from an external stimulus.

We next carefully conducted several critical tests on the prepared pressure sensor. The sensitivity of the pressure sensor is defined as S = (I/I0) /P, where I is the relative current change, I0 is the current without external pressure, and P is the applied pressure (42). In the range from 1.25 to 17.50 kPa, the relation between the change in current and the applied pressure was linear, and the sensitivity S was 8.3 kPa1 (Fig. 3H). Figure 3I shows two representative current profiles (I/I0) under two different pressures (5 kPa and finger press). After 300 cycles of bending (1-cm bending radius) or 500 cycles of repeated 5-kPa presses, the values of I/I0 under various external pressures had negligible changes, emphasizing the stable performance of the pressure sensor (tables S1 and S2). In general, our pressure sensor has high sensitivity (8.3 kPa1), mechanical flexibility (300 bends), and cycle stability (500 cycles).

Functional protein-immobilized particles have a broad spectrum of applications in biosensor, biocatalysis, and drug delivery (4345). However, existing approaches for protein-based conjugation of microparticles are largely based on nonspecific interactions (e.g., electrostatic interactions in enzyme immobilization on silica) (46). Accordingly, these systems typically lack specificity and functional tunability. Note that CsgA is a genetically engineerable protein, so it can be appended with a variety of functional tags. We next explored the functional flexibility of CsgA coatings for diverse applications ranging from fluorescent coating materials to enzymatic immobilization on spherical particles for optimized bioconversion reactions. To this end, we first developed CsgASpyTag (SpyTag fused at the C terminus of CsgA)/CsgASnoopTag (SnoopTag fused at the C terminus of CsgA)coated SiO2 microparticles as a platform to enable easy and flexible conjugation reaction systems (Fig. 4A). SpyTag and SnoopTag can covalently conjugate with their partners, SpyCatcher and SnoopCatcher, respectively (47, 48). Therefore, our CsgASpyTag/CsgASnoopTag coatings should be suitable for ligation of corresponding SpyCatcher- and SnoopCatcher-fused proteins.

(A) Illustration of CsgASpyTag/CsgASnoopTag (1:1, weight ratio)coated microparticles. (B) SEM images of a CsgASpyTag/CsgASnoopTag-coated SiO2 microparticle. (C) Schematic showing fluorescent proteins conjugated on CsgASpyTag/CsgASnoopTag nanofiber (top) and fluorescence microscopy images of corresponding fluorescent proteinconjugated CsgASpyTag/CsgASnoopTag-coated microparticles. (D) Schematic showing the immobilization of LDHSpyCatcher and GOXSnoopCatcher on a CsgASpyTag/CsgASnoopTag-coated microparticle. (E) Illustration of a dual-enzyme reaction system enabled by LDHSpyCatcher and GOXSnoopCatcher co-conjugated microparticles. (F) Conversion ratio of l-tert-leucine in two different microparticle systems (LDHSpyCatcher and GOXSnoopCatcher co-conjugated together on CsgASpyTag/CsgASnoopTag coatings versus LDHSpyCatcher-conjugated CsgASpyTag coatings along with GOXSnoopCatcher-conjugated CsgASnoopTag coatings) during a 3-hour reaction period. (G) Conversion ratio of l-tert-leucine in the CsgASpyTag/CsgASnoopTag coating system over five cycles of 3-hour reactions.

SEM images showed that the SiO2 microparticle surface was successfully covered with CsgASpyTag/CsgASnoopTag nanofibers (Fig. 4B). Furthermore, the fluorescence spectra revealed that, compared to pristine particles, CsgASpyTag/CsgASnoopTag-coated microparticles exhibited an obvious enhancement in fluorescence intensity at 480 nm induced by the specific interaction between ThT molecules and -sheet structures (fig. S7A). ATR-FTIR analysis of CsgASpyTag/CsgASnoopTag-coated microparticles showed an obvious absorption peak at ~1625 cm1 corresponding to a -sheet structure (fig. S7B) (49). In addition, XPS analysis of CsgASpyTag/CsgASnoopTag-coated microparticles revealed characteristic peaks of amide bonds originating from the coated proteins (fig. S7C). All the above results highlighted that the surface of SiO2 microparticles could be modified by our CsgASpyTag/CsgASnoopTag nanofiber coatings. Subsequent fluorescence microscopy images showed that these nanofiber-coated SiO2 microparticles displayed uniform bright red, green, and merged yellow fluorescence, confirming that SpyCatcher-fused mCherry (mCherrySpyCatcher) and SnoopCatcher-fused GFP (GFPSnoopCatcher) were successfully conjugated on the particle surfaces (Fig. 4C). Note that the microspheres stacking to each other displayed heterogeneous fluorescence strength in the image, which was likely due to their different focal planes under the fluorescence microscopy. Collectively, these results illustrate an alternative way of using nanofiber-coated microparticles to realize diverse applications.

We next applied a similar strategy to achieve multienzyme immobilization coupling with coenzyme regeneration. To this end, we first constructed SpyCatcher domainfused leucine dehydrogenase (LDH; EC1.4.1.9; LDHSpyCatcher) and SnoopCatcher domainfused glucose oxidase (GOX; EC1.1.3.4; GOXSnoopCatcher) and coimmobilized on the CsgASpyTag/CsgASnoopTag-coated SiO2 microparticle (Fig. 4D). In this proof-of-concept reaction system, trimethylpyruvic (TMP) acid was converted into the high-value chemical l-tert-leucine by LDH from the soil bacterium Lysinibacillus sphaericus, a reaction that requires NADH [reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)] as a coenzyme. Moreover, GOX from Bacillus subtilis can regenerate NADH by oxidizing low-value glucose into gluconic acid (Fig. 4E) Therefore, these two enzymes could assemble into an NADH-recycling system (Fig. 4E). We chose LDHSpyCatcher and GOXSnoopCatcher conjugated onto CsgASpyTag- and CsgASnoopTag-coated microparticles, respectively, as a control group. We used high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to analyze the conversion ratio of l-tert-leucine.

As shown in Fig. 4F, in the first 3-hour reaction, the conversion ratio of l-tert-leucine in the CsgASpyTag/CsgASnoopTag coating system was about 50%, whereas there was only 30% conversion in the control system. We speculate that the substantial disparity may lie in substrate channeling (50). That is, in the CsgASpyTag/CsgASnoopTag coating system, the generated NADH could be immediately consumed by adjacent LDHSpyCatcher on the same particle surface. However, in the control system, the produced NADH would not be used until it arrived at the surface of LDHSpyCatcher-conjugated particles, thereby resulting in a slower reaction rate.

To demonstrate the recyclable use of these immobilized enzymes, we recollected the enzyme-conjugated CsgASpyTag/CsgASnoopTag-coated microparticles via simple centrifugation. We then transferred these particles into a new reaction solution and again assessed the conversion ratio of l-tert-leucine. We found that the ratio did not significantly change over a series of five reaction cycles of 3 hours each (Fig. 4G). These experimental results demonstrate that our genetically engineered protein coatings are highly suitable for biocatalytic applications.

RNA-cleaving fluorogenic DNAzyme (RFD) is a well-established technology for detecting bacteria, and the ability to immobilize RFD probes on material surfaces such as the interiors of microfluidic devices is highly demanded because it could enable substantial improvements in the efficiency and speed of detection (5153). Our genetically engineered CsgA fusion coatings represent a potentially alternative approach. We produced CsgADBD proteins with a C-terminally fused DNA-binding domain (DBD) originally from Vibrio fischeri (fig. S8A) (54). We aimed to use this tailored protein to modify the surface of a microfluidic channel and bind E. colispecific RFD probes. We expected that upon interaction with target molecule(s) present in the supernatants of E. coli bacteria, these bound RFD probes would be converted into an active state that can catalyze the cleavage of the fluorogenic substrate, thereby producing a detectable fluorescent signal on the interiors of the microfluidic channel (Fig. 5A) (52).

(A) Schematic diagram of a DNAzyme-bound CsgADBD-coated microfluidic sensor device and an illustration of the DNAzyme detection mechanism. (B) Digital image of the microfluidic device. Photo credit: Yingfeng Li, ShanghaiTech University. (C) Fluorescence intensity of RFD-functionalized CsgADBD- and CsgAHis-tagcoated interiors of microfluidic channels upon exposure to supernatants from E. coli cultures of various cell densities. (D) 3D image of the RFD-functionalized CsgADBD coatings activated by E. coli culture (OD600 = 1) supernatants on the microfluidic channel.

To demonstrate the feasibility of our general design, we first incubated CsgADBD nanofibers with RFD probes. Agarose gel electrophoresis analysis indicated that CsgADBD nanofibers were able to bind these probes (fig. S8B). A standard PDMS microfluidic device was used for this experiment (Fig. 5B). We first coated the interior of a microfluidic channel and then conducted a Ni-NTAcapped QD binding test (the His-tag used for purification of CsgADBD protein can also be used to bind these QDs). The fluorescence microscopy image indicated that the channel interiors were homogeneously modified by CsgADBD proteins (fig. S8C). We next tested the detection performance by injecting a filtered supernatant from an E. coli culture into the channel and found that the CsgADBD-coated channel generated a strong fluorescent signal, whereas a control channel with a CsgA coating did not (Fig. 5C). Moreover, the fluorescence intensity increased linearly with the number of E. coli cells present in the samples [measured as OD600 (optical density at 600 nm); Fig. 5C]. In addition, 3D reconstructed images from fluorescence microscopy further confirmed that the resulting fluorescence was on the channel surface (Fig. 5D). These results establish proof of concept for the use of our genetically engineered protein coatings in diagnostic devices to monitor specific infectious pathogens.

In summary, we demonstrate that genetically engineered CsgA fusion proteins can be used as a functional coating system. These coatings have substrate universality, ultrastability, and genetically programmable functions. We also confirm that genetically engineered CsgA fusion protein nanofibers can modify various substrates with different compositions, sizes, shapes, and structures and show that these coatings exhibit outstanding chemical robustness. Moreover, these protein coatings offer flexible genetically programmable functionalization (e.g., NP anchoring, protein conjugation, and DNA binding). By combining the coatings with various fabrication processes, we established multiple proof-of-concept applications, including touch switching, pressure sensing, enzyme immobilization, and microfluidic sensors for bacterial detection. Given these unique coating features and the development of protein conjugation technologies, our genetically engineered CsgA fusion protein nanofiber coatings should serve as a versatile surface functionalization platform for electronics, biocatalysis, textiles, biomedicine, and other application areas.

All genes were synthesized by GENEWIZ and then amplified by polymerase chain reaction. The DNA fragment was cloned into pet-22b vectors (Nde I and Xho I sites) using one-step isothermal Gibson assembly. All constructs were sequence-verified by GENEWIZ.

For CsgAHis-tag, CsgASpyTag, CsgASnoopTag, or CsgADBD protein, the corresponding plasmid was transformed into BL21(DE3) E. coli competent cell. The bacterial seed was grown for 16 hours at 37C in shaking flasks (220 rpm/min) containing 20 ml of LB medium supplemented with carbenicillin (50 g/ml). The culture was then added into 1 liter of LB and grown to OD600 ~1.0. Protein expression was induced with 0.5 mM isopropyl--D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) at 37C for 45 min. Cells were collected by centrifugation for 10 min at 4000g at 4C. The cell pellet was then lysed in 50 ml of GdnHCl [8 M, 300 mM NaCl, 50 mM K2HPO4/KH2PO4 (pH 8)] for 12 hours at room temperature. Supernatants of the lysates were collected at 12,000g for 30 min before loading in a His-Select Ni-NTA column. The column was washed with KPI [300 mM NaCl, 50 mM K2HPO4/KH2PO4 (pH 8)] buffer and 40 mM imidazole KPI buffer and then eluted with 300 mM imidazole KPI buffer.

For mCherrySpyCatcher, GFPSnoopCatcher, LDHSpyCatcher, or GOXSnoopCatcher protein, the corresponding plasmid was transformed into BL21(DE3) E. coli competent cell. Cell seeds were cultured for 16 hours at 37C in LB broth containing carbenicillin (50 g/ml). The culture solution was then added into 1 liter of LB and grown to OD600 ~0.6. Protein expression was induced with 0.5 mM IPTG for 12 hours at 16C. Cells were collected by centrifugation for 10 min at 4000g at 4C. The collected cell pellets were then resuspended in KPI solution (50 ml) containing lysozyme (1 mg/ml) and incubated on ice for 30 min before ultrasound disruption. The purification follows the same procedure used for purification of the genetically engineered CsgA proteins. The purified proteins were stored at 4C for later use.

To enable coating formation, given substrates (plates, pyramids, or textiles) were directly immersed in fresh eluted CsgAHis-tag monomer (1 mg/ml) solution. After 16 hours of incubation at room temperature (~25C), proteins could form nanofiber coatings on substrates. The coated substrates were then washed by deionized H2O and dried by clean N2 and finally stored in a desiccative cabinet (~25C) for further use.

To coat microparticles with functional proteins, 1 ml of CsgASpyTag, CsgASnoopTag, or CsgASpyTag/CsgASnoopTag (1:1, weight ratio) monomer solution (1 mg/ml) was added into 2-ml tube containing 100 l of SiO2 aqueous solution (25 mg/ml). After 16 hours of incubation at room temperature (~25C), microparticles were collected by centrifugation for 5 min at 1000g and washed by deionized H2O followed by further centrifugation. This process was repeated for three times to remove the loosely bound proteins. The coated microparticles were then stored in a 4C refrigerator for further use.

PDMS channel was first fabricated by replica molding of a glass model and then pressed on the surface of a clean glass slide. To coat the PDMS microfluidic device channel, fresh eluted CsgADBD monomer solution was directly injected into the channel using a syringe and incubated for 16 hours at room temperature (~25C). The microfluidic channel was then washed by deionized H2O through injection. The microfluidic device was stored in the refrigerator (4C) for further use.

Synthesis of Ni-NTAcapped QDs was performed following a previous report (33). To ensure thorough QD binding on protein-coated flat substrates, the substrates were immersed in the aqueous QD solution (ca. 500 nmol/ml) at room temperature (~25C) and incubated for 30 min. The substrates were then washed by deionized H2O and dried by high-pressure N2 for further characterization. To ensure QD binding in a microfluidic device, QD solution was injected into the channel using a 1-ml syringe. After incubation for 30 min at room temperature (~25C), the channel was washed by deionized H2O for further characterization.

For the stability test of CsgAHis-tag coatings in organic solvents, 30 ml of acetone, hexane, or DMSO was poured into a 9-cm glass culture dish containing the CsgAHis-tagcoated PTFE substrates. After challenge at room temperature (~25C) for 24 hours, the PTFE substrates were washed by deionized H2O and dried by high pressure N2 for further characterization. For the high temperature challenge, CsgAHis-tagcoated PTFE substrates were directly placed in an oven (90C) for 24 hours and then taken out for further characterization.

CsgAHis-tagcoated PTFE substrates or Au-coated PET substrates were placed in 9-cm culture dishes containing 30 ml of solution of trypsin (2.5 mg/ml) from bovin pancreas or fungal protease (55 U/g) from A. oryzae (protease AO). After incubation at 37C for 24 hours, substrates were washed by deionized H2O and dried by high-pressure N2 for further characterization. For ThT assay, 100 l of enzyme solution (trypsin, 2.5 mg/ml or fungal protease, 55 U/g) was added into the 96-well microplate containing 100 l of CsgAHis-tag nanofiber protein solution (0.5 mg/ml). ThT was then added to a concentration of 20 M. Fluorescence was measured every 0.5 min after shaking 5 s with a BioTek Synergy H1 microplate reader (excitation at 438 nm, emission at 495 nm, and cutoff at 475 nm) at 37C.

Preparation of Ni-NTAcapped Au NPs was based on a previous report (33). To perform a gold enhancement process, CsgAHis-tag nanofibercoated pyramid or textile substrates were first immersed into Ni-NTAcapped Au NP solution. After incubation at room temperature (~25C) for 30 min, the substrates were washed with deionized H2O and dried by high-pressure N2. The substrates were then transferred into a 50-ml gold enhancement solution containing AuCl4 (50 mg/ml) and hydroxylamine (100 mg/ml). After reaction for 10 min at room temperature (~25C), substrates were washed by deionized H2O and dried by high-pressure N2.

To prepare patterned Au coatings including interdigital electrode, substrates were first covered by waterproof stickers followed by producing patterned CsgAHis-tag nanofiber coatings through protein solution incubation. The patterned CsgAHis-tag nanofiber coatings were then bound with Ni-NTAcapped Au NPs, followed by a standard gold enhancement procedure described above. After drying, the stickers were carefully peeled off using a tweezer to produce the patterned CsgAHis-tag nanofiberenabled Au coatings.

Bare PET fabric was attached on the Au conductive coatings formed on a PET plate, followed by placing a 2-kg counterweight on the fabric. The abrasion test was achieved by moving the bare PET fabric. Sheet resistance of PET-based conductive coatings was measured with a four-probe ohmmeter (HPS 2523).

The capacitance of the interdigital electrode was measured with an LCR (inductance, capacitance, and resistance) meter (HG2817A) at a voltage of 1 V and a frequency of 100 kHz at room temperature (~25C). To fabricate the pressure sensor, Au-coated PET textile was covered on the PDMS-based Au interdigital electrode. Then, the textile and bottom Au electrode were sealed with a 3M VHB tape. Functional performances of the pressure sensor including current change under different pressures were assessed with an electrochemical work station (CHI 660E) at room temperature (~25C).

For fluorescent protein conjugation, 1 ml of mCherrySpyCatcher/GFPSnoopCather (1:1, weight ration) aqueous solution (1 mg/ml) was added into a 2-ml tube containing the CsgASpyTag/CsgASnoopTag-coated SiO2 microparticles. After incubation for 1 hour at room temperature (~25C), fluorescent proteinconjugated microparticles were collected by centrifugation for 5 min at 1000g and washed by KPI solution followed by further centrifugation. This process was repeated for three times to remove those unreacted loosely bound fluorescent proteins.

For enzyme immobilization, 1 ml of LDHSpyCatcher, GOXSnoopCather, or LDHSpyCatcher/GOXSnoopCather (1:1, weight ration) aqueous solution (1 mg/ml) was added into a 2-ml tube containing the CsgASpyTag-, CsgASnoopTag-, or CsgASpyTag/CsgASnoopTag-coated SiO2 microparticles, respectively. After incubation for 1 hour at room temperature (~25C), the enzyme-immobilized microparticles were collected by centrifugation for 5 min at 1000g and washed by 100 mM phosphate buffer followed by further centrifugation. This process was repeated for three times to remove those unreacted loosely bound enzymatic proteins.

The enzyme-immobilized microparticles were resuspended in 100 l of 100 mM phosphate buffer, 50 l of LDHSpyCatcher immobilized microparticles, and 50 l of GOXSnoopCatcher immobilized microparticles added into the reaction solution, or 100 l of LDHSpyCatcher/GOXSnoopCatcher immobilized microparticles was directly pipetted into the reaction solution. The reaction mixture containing 50 mM glucose, 0.1 mM NAD+, 50 mM ammonium chloride, 50 mM TMP acid, and 100 mM phosphate buffer (pH 8.0) was fixed with a final volume of 1 ml. The reaction was then conducted at 37C under continuous shaking in a microplate reader.

To analyze the yield of l-tert-leucine, a 20-l sample was filtered with a 220-nm syringe filter and analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC using a 1200 Series chromatograph and ZORBAX SB-C18 column (4.6 mm 150 mm, 5 m) at 35C. The mobile phase composed of 2 mM CuSO4 was set with a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. Quantitative analysis of the l-tert-leucine was monitored with a UV spectra detector at 210 nm (55).

The yield of l-tert-leucine was determined using the following equation=Practical concentration of L-tert-leucineTheoretical concentration of L-tert-leucine(50mM)100%

For recyclable usage of the enzymes, the LDHSpyCatcher/GOXSnoopCatcher immobilized microparticles were collected by centrifugation for 5 min at 1000g after each round of reaction. The microparticles were then resuspended in 100 l of 100 mM phosphate buffer and pipetted into a new reaction solution for another new round of reaction. The yield of l-tert-leucine in the new reaction system was determined following the same equation.

The synthesis of RFD probes was based on a protocol described in a previously published study (52). The microfluidic channel was then homogeneously coated with CsgADBD proteins following a typical fabrication protocol described in the coating fabrication process.

To ensure thorough binding of RFD probes onto the protein coatings on the microfluidic channel, DNAzyme in 100 mM tris-HCl (pH 8.0) and 0.2 mM EDTA binding buffer was injected into the microfluidic channel. After incubation for 2 hours at room temperature (~25C), the channel was washed with 1 ml of injected 100 mM tris-HCl to remove loosely bound RFD probes.

E. coli K12 (MG1655) cell culture with different cell densities (OD600) was injected into the channels after filtration using a 220-nm PTFE filter. The channel was monitored by fluorescence microscopy, and the relative fluorescence intensity was calculated using the imaging software of the fluorescence microscopy.

Samples were tested with Asylum MFP-3D-Bio using the tapping mode with AC160TS-R3 cantilevers (Olympus, k 26 N/m, 300 kHz). The data are presented in Fig. 2B and figs. S1B, S2C, and S8A.

The water contact angle of samples was tested with a contact angle goniometer (SL200KS). The substrate was placed on the stage, and 1-l droplet of water was dropped onto the surface of the substrate. The data are presented in Fig. 2 (A, F, G, and H) and fig. S2 (C, G, and H).

XPS spectrum was obtained with Thermo Fisher Scientific ESCALAB 250 Xi. The data are presented in Figs. 2C and 3D and fig. S7C.

NanoDSF curve was obtained with NanoTemper Prometheus NT.48. The data are presented in fig. S2A.

Samples were coated with Au for 30 s with an SBC-12 sputter coater. SEM images including EBSD and EDS images were acquired with JEOL 7800 Prime or JSM-6010. The data are presented in Figs. 3 (C and G) and 4B and figs. S2 (F to H), S4 (B to D), S5B, and S6 (A to C).

TEM images were obtained on an FEI T12 transmission electron microscope operated at 120-kV accelerating voltage. The data are presented in fig. S3A.

Protein-coated microparticles, bare microparticles, or protein nanofibers were put on the ATR crystal directly. Spectra were recorded from 1700 to 1600 cm1 using a nominal resolution of 2 cm1 with Spectrum Two (PerkinElmer). The data are presented in figs. S2B and S7B.

Fluorescence imaging was performed on an Olympus IX83, Leica DMi8, or LSM 710 fluorescence microscope. Cy5 channel of Leica DMi8 was used to image RFD. The data are presented in Figs. 4C and 5D and fig. S8C.

Photoluminescence spectra were collected using HORIBA FL-3 with excitation at 350 nm. The data are presented in figs. S1A and S7A.

Acknowledgments: We thank X. Wang for AFM training. AFM characterization was executed at the Analytical Instrumentation Center (AIC), and SEM and TEM characterization were performed at the Electron Microscopy Center (EMC) at School of Physical Science and Technology (SPST), ShanghaiTech University. Funding: This work was partially sponsored by the Commission for Science and Technology of Shanghai Municipality (grant no. 17JC1403900), the Joint Funds of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Key Program No. U1932204), and the National Science and Technology Major Project of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (grant no. 2018YFA0902804). C.Z. also acknowledges start-up funding support from ShanghaiTech University and 1000 Youth Talents Program, granted by the Chinese Central Government. Author contributions: C.Z. conceived the concept and directed the research. C.Z., Y.L., and K.L. designed and conducted the experiments and data analysis. X.W. synthesized QDs and performed TEM. M.C. participated in coating fabrication process. P.G. and J.Z. fabricated microfluidic devices. F.Q. participated in protein purification. C.Z., Y.L., and K.L. wrote the manuscript with help from all authors. Competing interests: The authors have filed a provisional patent based on this work with the China Intellectual Property Office (PCT/CN2018/085988). The authors declare no other competing interests. Data and materials availability: All data needed to evaluate the conclusions in the paper are present in the paper and/or the Supplementary Materials. Additional data related to this paper may be requested from the authors.

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Conformable self-assembling amyloid protein coatings with genetically programmable functionality - Science Advances

University of Bradford engineers team up to make visors – Bradford Telegraph and Argus

COMPANIES have joined the University of Bradford to get behind the effort to produce PPE during the Covid-19 epidemic.

Engineers from the University have started the mass production of face shields with orders for 15,000 already.

The project is being carried out at the Faculty of Engineering & Informatics in partnership with two local companies, Leeds-based additive manufacturer ActiveCell Technologies and Teconnex from Keighley.

Academics are using hi-tech 3D printing and polymer injection moulding machines, capable of turning out thousands of pieces of protective face shield components a day.

Mould sets ordered from Germany and designed and machined in Bradford mean the university has the capacity to produce in excess of 5,000 units per day if needed.

Head of the Department of Mechanical and Energy Systems Engineering, Professor Tim Gough said the work was in response to an order for the equipment from the NHS, adding it had taken a number of weeks to get to the point of manufacture.

These are not the facemasks which you now see many people wearing in public but face shields, which have a clear plastic visor.

"A lot of transmission [of coronavirus] is coming from patient coughing and that can infect the carer through respiratory transmission. We are manufacturing headbands and headpieces to go around the head, which you can then attach a visor to.

It has taken us some time to get to this stage because everything has to comply with strict cleanliness standards, so we have had to deep clean everything, even the injection screws and screw barrels, to create a clean room environment.

He added the initial NHS order was for 10,000 units, with a further 5,000 ordered by Bradford Council.

Prof Gough, who has worked at the university for 23 years and has ongoing projects with a number of companies, including vacuum manufacturer Dyson, is one of a team of six who are carrying out the work on campus.

They are using 3D printers to create prototypes and then polymer injection moulding machines to create products. The headbands have even been made so that acetate sheets used in overhead projectors can be attached as visors as a last resort.

They are also working on two other designs, one called an ear saver to stop chafing caused by prolonged mask wearing in a medical setting and an alternative face shield design for use in care homes.

He added: In practical terms, this is what we do. Yes, theres a level of complexity to it but we are used to making products and we have done this kind of thing for years.

Tim is part of a six-strong team, which also includes Professor of Precision Manufacturing Ben Whiteside, research engineer Michael Hebda, technical services manager David Barker and engineers John Hornby and Glen Thompson.

Prof Whiteside, who leads the Polymer Micro and Nano Technology Research Centre said: The challenge has been to review the problem, finalise designs and manufacture tooling at time scales that are far quicker than industry norms, while also offering significant benefits over existing solutions for our NHS staff.

Teconnex production engineer Paul Shepherd, which is helping with manufacture of the headbands and laser-cutting of visors, said: Its important to help out at this time.

"We have also said we will help provide local care homes if we can.

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University of Bradford engineers team up to make visors - Bradford Telegraph and Argus

New Solution to Keep Lithium Batteries from Catching Fire – DesignNews

One of the big challenges that researchers have tried to solve regarding lithium-based batteries is their tendency to degrade or fail in a way that causes them to catch fire or explode. Now nanoengineers from the University of California (UC) San Diego have devised a new safety feature that could prevent lithium-metal batteries from this disastrous scenario in case of an internal short circuit.

A team led by UC San Diego nanoengineering professor Ping Liu has modified the batterys separator, which stands between the anode and cathode, to slow the flow of energyand thus the heatthat accumulates inside the battery when it short circuits, said Matthew Gonzalez, Lius PhD student who worked together on the project.

Were not trying to stop battery failure from happening, he said in a press statement. Were making it much safer so that when it does fail, the battery doesnt catastrophically catch on fire or explode.

Dendrite Dilemma

Its by now well known that lithium metal batteries fail because of the growth of needle-like structures called dendrites on the anode after many cycles of charging. Many researchers have been studying the growth and evolution of these dendrites in batteries to approach resolving the problem in this way.

The UC San Diego team took a slightly different tack. Researchers observed how, over time, the dendrites can grow so long that they pierce the separator and create a bridge between the anode and cathode, which causes the short circuit. If this scenario happens, then the flow of electrons between the anode and cathode is disrupted, causing the battery to overheat and stop working.

To solve this problem, researchers developed a separator that essentially can soften the blow when a dendrite punctures it. Gonzalez compared it to a spillway at a dam, which opens to let some water flow out in a controlled way so if the dam breaks, theres not enough water for a flood.

Thats the idea with our separator, he said in a press statement. We are draining out the charge much, much slower and prevent a flood of electrons to the cathode. When a dendrite gets intercepted by the separators conductive layer, the battery can begin to self-discharge so that when the battery does short, theres not enough energy left to be dangerous.

The separator the team developed has one side thats covered by a thin, partially conductive web of carbon nanotubes that intercepts any dendrites that form. If a dendrite does punch through the separator, it should hit the web, giving electrons a pathway through which they can slowly drain out rather than rush straight towards the cathode all at once.

A Different Approach

Gonzalez said the UC San Diego teams approach is slightly different than some other ways scientists have tried to prevent the same problem, which is to build separators out of materials that are strong enough to block dendrites entirely. This, however, could cause an even worse short circuit because the ions still need to flow through to keep the battery functioning.

Instead of prolonging what seems like an inevitable failure scenario, researchers aimed to mitigate the effects of a short circuit rather than try to prevent it from happening altogether, Gonzalez said.

In a real use-case scenario, you wouldnt have any advance warning that the battery is going to fail, he said in a press statement. But with our separator, you would get advance warning that the battery is getting a little bit worse, a little bit worse, a little bit worse, each time you charge it.

Researchers published a paper on their work in the journal Advanced Materials.

While the UC San Diego teams particular study focused on lithium-metal batteries, the researchers say the separatorfor which they already have filed a provisional patent--also can work in lithium-ion and other battery chemistries.

Elizabeth Montalbano is a freelance writer who has written about technology and culture for more than 20 years. She has lived and worked as a professional journalist in Phoenix, San Francisco and New York City. In her free time she enjoys surfing, traveling, music, yoga and cooking. She currently resides in a village on the southwest coast of Portugal.

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New Solution to Keep Lithium Batteries from Catching Fire - DesignNews

‘Breathable’ Electronics Pave the Way for More Functional Wearable Tech – NC State News

Engineering researchers have created ultrathin, stretchable electronic material that is gas permeable, allowing the material to breathe. The material was designed specifically for use in biomedical or wearable technologies, since the gas permeability allows sweat and volatile organic compounds to evaporate away from the skin, making it more comfortable for users especially for long-term wear.

The gas permeability is the big advance over earlier stretchable electronics, says Yong Zhu, co-corresponding author of a paper on the work and a professor of mechanical and aerospace engineering at North Carolina State University. But the method we used for creating the material is also important because its a simple process that would be easy to scale up.

Specifically, the researchers used a technique called the breath figure method to create a stretchable polymer film featuring an even distribution of holes. The film is coated by dipping it in a solution that contains silver nanowires. The researchers then heat-press the material to seal the nanowires in place.

The resulting film shows an excellent combination of electric conductivity, optical transmittance and water-vapor permeability, Zhu says. And because the silver nanowires are embedded just below the surface of the polymer, the material also exhibits excellent stability in the presence of sweat and after long-term wear.

The end result is extremely thin only a few micrometers thick, says Shanshan Yao, co-author of the paper and a former postdoctoral researcher at NCState who is now on faculty at Stony Brook University. This allows for better contact with the skin, giving the electronics a better signal-to-noise ratio.

And gas permeability of wearable electronics is important for more than just comfort, Yao says. If a wearable device is not gas permeable, it can also cause skin irritation.

To demonstrate the materials potential for use in wearable electronics, the researchers developed and tested prototypes for two representative applications.

The first prototype consisted of skin-mountable, dry electrodes for use as electrophysiologic sensors. These have multiple potential applications, such as measuring electrocardiography (ECG) and electromyography (EMG) signals.

These sensors were able to record signals with excellent quality, on par with commercially available electrodes, Zhu says.

The second prototype demonstrated textile-integrated touch sensing for human-machine interfaces. The authors used a wearable textile sleeve integrated with the porous electrodes to play computer games such as Tetris. Related video can be seen at https://youtu.be/7AO_cq8A_BE.

If we want to develop wearable sensors or user interfaces that can be worn for a significant period of time, we need gas-permeable electronic materials, Zhu says. So this is a significant step forward.

The paper, Gas-Permeable, Ultrathin, Stretchable Epidermal Electronics with Porous Electrodes, is published in the journal ACS Nano. First author of the paper is Weixin Zhou, a Ph.D. student at Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications (NUPT) who worked on the project while a visiting scholar at NCState. The paper was co-authored by Hongyu Wang, a Ph.D. student at NCState, and by Qingchuan Du of NUPT. Co-corresponding author of the paper is Yanwen Ma, a professor at NUPT.

The work was done with support from the National Science Foundation, under grant number CMMI-1728370.

-shipman-

Note to Editors: The study abstract follows.

Gas-Permeable, Ultrathin, Stretchable Epidermal Electronics with Porous Electrodes

Authors: Weixin Zhou, Qingchuan Du and Yanwen Ma, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications; Shanshan Yao, North Carolina State University and Stony Brook University; and Hongyu Wang and Yong Zhu, North Carolina State University

Published: April 29, ACS Nano

DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.0c00906

Abstract: We present gas-permeable, ultrathin, and stretchable electrodes enabled by self-assembled porous substrates and conductive nanostructures. Efficient and scalable breath figure method is employed to introduce the porous skeleton and then silver nanowires (AgNWs) are dip-coated and heat-pressed to offer electric conductivity. The resulting film has a transmittance of 61%, sheet resistance of 7.3 /sq, and water vapor permeability of 23 mg cm-2 h-1. With AgNWs embedded below the surface of the polymer, the electrode exhibits excellent stability with the presence of sweat and after long-term wear. We demonstrate the promising potential of the electrode for wearable electronics in two representative applications skin-mountable biopotential sensing for healthcare and textile-integrated touch sensing for human-machine interfaces. The electrode can form conformal contact with human skin, leading to low skin-electrode impedance and high quality biopotential signals. In addition, the textile electrode can be used in a self-capacitance wireless touch sensing system.

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'Breathable' Electronics Pave the Way for More Functional Wearable Tech - NC State News

Homemade masks made of silk and cotton may boost protection – UChicago News

The experiments took place in two plexiglass boxes connected by a tube. In one chamber, the team created a cloud of particles and blew them toward the tube, which was covered by different combinations of cloth. Mike Schmoldt and Greg Moss, environmental safety experts at Argonne who specialize in respirator testing and the effects of aerosol particles, used laboratory-grade scientific instruments to measured the number and size of particles in the chambers before and after passing through the fabric.

According to their results, one layer of a tightly woven cotton sheet, combined with two layers of polyester-based chiffona sheer fabric often used in evening gownsfiltered out the most aerosol particles (80% to 99%, depending on particle size). Substituting the chiffon with natural silk or a polyester-cotton flannel, or simply using a cotton quilt with cotton-polyester batting, produced similar results.

Though the study does not attempt to replicate real-world conditions, the findings are a useful guide. The researchers pointed out that tightly woven fabrics, such as cotton, can act as a mechanical barrier to particles; whereas fabrics that hold a static charge, like certain types of chiffon and natural silk, can serve as an electrostatic barrier. The electrostatic effect serves to suck in and hold the tiniest particles, which might otherwise slip through holes in the cotton. This is key to how N95 masks are constructed.

However, Guha added, even a small gap reduced the filtering efficiency of all masks by half or more, emphasizing the importance of a properly fitted mask.

Fabrics that did not do well included standard polyester and spandex with more open weave. In general, Guha said, fabric with tighter weaveswith fewer gaps between the strands of yarnworked better.

This is some of the first methodical data Ive seen on homemade masks. Its very helpful to have some idea of how the different types of fabric perform, said Emily Landon, executive medical director of infection prevention and control at the University of Chicago Medicine. I was also pleasantly surprised by how effective some of the homemade masks can be in the right conditions.

Landon noted that the advice to wear homemade masks while out in public is intended primarily to protect others from your own respiratory droplets, and that universal adoption of this recommendation will go a long way to make everyone safer.

In that case, any mask is better than none.

The first author on the study was Abhiteja Konda with Argonne National Laboratory. The other authors were Argonnes Abhinav Prakash as well as Pritzker School of Molecular Engineering graduate student Gregory Grant. The team used the U.S. Department of Energys Center for Nanoscale Materials user facility at Argonne National Laboratory.

Citation: Aerosol Filtration Efficiency of Common Fabrics Used in Respiratory Cloth Masks. Konda et al, ACS Nano, April 24, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.0c03252

Funding: partly supported by the U.S. Department of Defense Vannevar Bush Fellowship

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Homemade masks made of silk and cotton may boost protection - UChicago News

Hong Kong airport brings in cleaning robots and disinfection booth – CNN

(CNN) Cleaning robots, temperature checks and antimicrobial coatings could soon become synonymous with airport trips.

Hong Kong International Airport (HKIA) has provided a glimpse into what international airport procedures might look like once we're traveling again, and a lot of disinfection technologies are involved.

The busy Asia airport claims it's the first in the world to trial a live operation of CLeanTech, a full-body disinfection booth.

The short, but thorough, process sees those passing through undertake a temperature check before entering a small booth for the 40-second disinfection and sanitizing procedures.

According to the airport authority, the inside of the facility contains an antimicrobial coating that can remotely kill any viruses and/or bacteria found on clothing, as well as the body, by using photocatalyst advances along with "nano needles."

'Instant disinfection'

Hong Kong International Airport is trialing CLeanTech, a full-body disinfection facility.

Courtesy Airport Authority Hong Kong

The individual is also sprinkled with sanitizing spray for "instant disinfection" inside the booth, which is kept under negative pressure, an isolation technique used in hospitals and medical centers, to prevent cross-contamination.

While CLeanTech is at present only being used on staff who undertake public health and quarantine duties for passenger arrivals, the fact that it's being trialed at one of the world's busiest airports suggests facilities like this may be used more widely in the near future.

However, it's worth noting that, as this system aims to disinfect a person's clothes and skin externally, it may not be effective when it comes to detecting those already infected with coronavirus who are not displaying any symptoms.

Along with CLeanTech, the airport authority is also testing antimicrobial coating that will see an invisible coating which destroys all germs, bacteria and viruses being applied at all passenger facilities at Hong Kong International Airport.

This includes handles and seats, smart check-in kiosks and check-in counters, baggage trolleys and elevator buttons.

Once the trial is complete in May, a decision will be made on whether this measure will be implemented permanently.

Along with this, autonomous cleaning robots are being used to continuously disinfect public areas and passenger facilities at HKIA.

Intelligent Sterilization Robot

The Intelligent Sterilization Robot, which is kitted with ultraviolet light sterilizer and air sterilizer, maintains the public toilets, as well as crucial operating areas within the terminal building.

"Although air traffic has been impacted by the pandemic, the AA spares no effort in ensuring that the airport is a safe environment for all users.

"We will continue to look into new measures to enhance our cleaning and disinfection work."

HKIA is one of several aviation bodies to announce it's stepping up safety procedures due to the coronavirus crisis.

The company has confirmed to CNN that airlines are already showing interest in both designs and they're currently going through the engineering design steps.

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Hong Kong airport brings in cleaning robots and disinfection booth - CNN

COVID-19: Potential impact on New Trends of Nano Satellite Market with Worldwide Industry Analysis to 2068 Cole Reports – Cole of Duty

The novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) has caused a slowdown in the global economy and disrupted the stock markets. Hence, companies in the Nano Satellite market are tapping incremental opportunities via alternative business solutions to revive market growth post the lockdown period. Get a full analysis report on the impact of Coronavirus which has affected the Nano Satellite market and learn how businesses are tackling the situation.

Assessment of the Global Nano Satellite Market

According to the latest report on the Nano Satellite market, the market is expected to reach a value of ~US$XX by 20XX and register a CAGR growth of ~XX% during the forecast period (20XX-20XX). The report provides a thorough understanding of the various factors that are expected to influence the current and future prospects of the Nano Satellite market including the major trends, growth opportunities, restraints, and drivers.

The SWOT and Porters Five Forces Analysis by analysts of marketresearchhub.us offers a fair idea of the operations of some of the key players operating in the Nano Satellite market. The current structure of the market and the estimated growth of the market over the forecast period is accurately represented in the report along with graphs, figures, and tables.

Get Free Sample PDF (including COVID19 Impact Analysis, full TOC, Tables and Figures) of Market Report @ https://www.marketresearchhub.com/enquiry.php?type=S&repid=2578251&source=atm

Segregation of the Nano Satellite Market:

The following manufacturers are covered:Lockheed MartinNorthrop GrummanPlanet LabsSurrey Satellite TechnologiesSpire GlobalDauria AerospaceTyvakCubeSatNANOSATELLITE COMPANIESAEC-Able EngineeringAeroAstro L.L.C.AeroflexAerojetAirbus Defence and SpaceAitechAlenia SpazioAPCO TechnologiesArdATKAustrian AerospaceBoeing Space SystemsCAEN AerospaceRaytheon

Segment by RegionsNorth AmericaEuropeChinaJapanSoutheast AsiaIndia

Segment by TypeCommunications SatellitePositioning SatelliteOthers

Segment by ApplicationGovernment DepartmentsArmyOther

The report includes a Y-o-Y growth assessment of each of these market segments and sub-segments. Further, the market share, size, revenue growth, and CAGR growth of each segment is accurately presented in the in-depth study of the Nano Satellite market.

Do You Have Any Query Or Specific Requirement? Ask to Our Industry [emailprotected] https://www.marketresearchhub.com/enquiry.php?type=E&repid=2578251&source=atm

Valuable Insights Enclosed in the Report

The presented study resolves the following doubts related to the Nano Satellite market:

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COVID-19: Potential impact on New Trends of Nano Satellite Market with Worldwide Industry Analysis to 2068 Cole Reports - Cole of Duty

Metal Based Catalysts Market Industry Trends and Forecast to 2027 | BASF SE, Evonik Industries, Johnson Matthey, Heraeus Holding, Clariant – Bandera…

Global Metal Based Catalysts Market,By Type (Platinum, Palladium, Rhodium, Ruthenium, Iridium, Gold, Others), End- Users (Automobile, Pharmaceutical, Refinery, Others), Country (U.S., Canada, Mexico, Brazil, Argentina, Rest of South America, Germany, France, Italy, U.K., Belgium, Spain, Russia, Turkey, Netherlands, Switzerland, Rest of Europe, Japan, China, India, South Korea, Australia, Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, Philippines, Rest of Asia-Pacific, U.A.E, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, South Africa, Israel,Rest of Middle East and Africa), Industry Trends and Forecast to 2027.

Market Analysis and Insights: Global Metal Based Catalysts Market

Metal basedcatalysts market will grow at a growth rate of 6.25% for the forecast period of 2020 to 2027.Rising investment in the automobile industry is expected to create new opportunity for the market.

Download Exclusive Sample Copy of this Report 2020 across with 350 Pages and in-depth TOC Analysis@https://www.databridgemarketresearch.com/request-a-sample/?dbmr=global-metal-based-catalysts-market

Increasing R&D investments in the metal catalysts is expected to enhance the market growth. Some of the other factors such as growth in automotive industry, increasing concern about carbon emissions, rising investment in catalyst to enhance quality & decrease cost and growing demand from various end- industries is expected to accelerate the Metal based catalyst market in the forecast period of 2020 to 2027.

Growing demand for electric vehicles, increasing emergence ofnano- particlecatalysts and volatility in the cost of the metal is expected to hamper the market growth in the mentioned forecast period.

This metal based catalysts market report provides details of new recent developments, trade regulations, import export analysis, production analysis, value chain optimization, market share, impact of domestic and localised market players, analyses opportunities in terms of emerging revenue pockets, changes in market regulations, strategic market growth analysis, market size, category market growths, application niches and dominance, product approvals, product launches, geographical expansions, technological innovations in the market. To gain more info onData Bridge Market Research metal based catalysts market contact us for anAnalyst Brief,our team will help you take an informed market decision to achieve market growth.

Global Metal Based Catalysts Market Scope and Market Size

Metal based catalysts market is segmented of the basis of type and end-users. The growth amongst the different segments helps you in attaining the knowledge related to the different growth factors expected to be prevalent throughout the market and formulate different strategies to help identify core application areas and the difference in your target markets.

Metal Based Catalysts Market Country Level Analysis

Metal based catalysts market is analysed and market size, volume information is provided by country,type and end-users as referenced above.

The countries covered in the metal based catalysts market report are U.S., Canada and Mexico in North America, Germany, France, U.K., Netherlands, Switzerland, Belgium, Russia, Italy, Spain, Turkey, Rest of Europe in Europe, China, Japan, India, South Korea, Singapore, Malaysia, Australia, Thailand, Indonesia, Philippines, Rest of Asia-Pacific (APAC) in the Asia-Pacific (APAC), Saudi Arabia, U.A.E, Israel, Egypt, South Africa, Rest of Middle East and Africa (MEA) as a part of Middle East and Africa (MEA), Brazil, Argentina and Rest of South America as part of South America.

The country section of the report also provides individual market impacting factors and changes in regulation in the market domestically that impacts the current and future trends of the market. Data points such as consumption volumes, production sites and volumes, import export analysis, price trend analysis, cost of raw materials, down-stream and upstream value chain analysis are some of the major pointers used to forecast the market scenario for individual countries. Also, presence and availability of global brands and their challenges faced due to large or scarce competition from local and domestic brands, impact of domestic tariffs and trade routes are considered while providing forecast analysis of the country data.

Competitive Landscape and Metal Based Catalyst Market Share Analysis

Metal based catalysts market competitive landscape provides details by competitor. Details included are company overview, company financials, revenue generated, market potential, investment in research and development, new market initiatives, global presence, production sites and facilities, production capacities, company strengths and weaknesses, product launch, product width and breadth, application dominance. The above data points provided are only related to the companies focus related to metal based catalystsmarket.

Table Of Contents Is Available Herehttps://www.databridgemarketresearch.com/toc/?dbmr=global-metal-based-catalysts-market

The major players covered in the metal based catalysts market report areBASF SE, Evonik Industries, Johnson Matthey, Heraeus Holding, Clariant, Umicore, Alfa Aesar, Thermo Fisher Scientific., Shanxi Kaida Chemical Engineering Co.,ltd., Vineeth Precious Catalysts Pvt. Ltd., CHIMET, Sabin Metal Corporation, American Elements., ALS Limited, Kunming Sino- Platinum Metals Catalyst Co., Ltd., Stanford Advanced Materials, aroramatthey.com, among other domestic and global players. Market share data is available for global, North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific (APAC), Middle East and Africa (MEA) and South America separately. DBMR analysts understand competitive strengths and provide competitive analysis for each competitor separately.

Contact UsData Bridge Market ResearchUS: +1 888 387 2818UK: +44 208 089 1725Hong Kong: +852 8192 7475Mail: Corporatesales@databridgemarketresearch.com

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Data Bridge Market Research is a versatile market research and consulting firm with over 500 analysts working in different industries. We have catered more than 40% of the fortune 500 companies globally and have a network of more than 5000+ clientele around the globe. Our coverage of industries include Medical Devices, Pharmaceuticals, Biotechnology, Semiconductors, Machinery, Information and Communication Technology, Automobiles and Automotive, Chemical and Material, Packaging, Food and Beverages, Cosmetics, Specialty Chemicals, Fast Moving Consumer Goods, Robotics, among many others.

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Metal Based Catalysts Market Industry Trends and Forecast to 2027 | BASF SE, Evonik Industries, Johnson Matthey, Heraeus Holding, Clariant - Bandera...

Healthcare, Education & Economy In Post Covid World – Kashmir Observer

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Only a small over 50% of children enrolled in schools in India make it to 12th Class

Jalib Beigh

THE empty streets have become the new normal during the COVID-19 pandemic. The whole world has come to a sudden halt. The outbreak of COVID-19 has created a worldwide health catastrophe that has a deep impact on the way we perceive our world and our day to day lives. Not only the rate of contagion and patterns of transmission threatens our sense of agency, but the safety measures put in place to contain the spread of the virus also require social distancing by abstaining from doing what is naturally human, which is to find comfort in the company of others.

There are round about ten nuclear-powered nations & expenditure amounting to $1.8 trillion on the military by the whole world to fight against each other yet they are failing to tackle a nano-micron sized organism.

Healthcare workers are on the front line of the pandemic outbreak response with limited PPEs and as such are exposed to hazards that put them at threat of infection. These hazards include pathogen contact, extended working hours, psychological agony and fatigue. Self-isolation and quarantine have precipitated depression and anxiety among people. People are away from their loved ones, dispossessed of personal liberties, and altered routine and livelihood. This is leading to frustration, boredom, low mood, and potentially depression. Anxiety is also rising at an alarming rate from fear of contagion and scarce clarity around social distancing guidelines, often made worse by less reliable media sources creating confusion and fear-mongering. Prolonged isolation and stress from the pandemic can affect people differently. It could put a strain on families, make those feel isolated who living alone and threaten peoples sense of purpose by keeping them off from work and those who are experiencing financial uncertainty in the middle of the pandemic have added stress that is difficult to resolve. Despite those differences, the experience of staying home together through a pandemic can be considered a collective mental disturbance.

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected almost every sector & among those badly hit sectors is education. Education is a constitutional right in India, but its provision falls beneath the satisfactory standards. Lack of education is a primary problem in India, and the Indian government schools are a clear picture of this. The infrastructure of schools is in a pathetic state and a lot of school teachers are not properly qualified, with 31% of them not having a degree. About 40% of schools are without electricity. Only a small over 50% of children enrolled in schools in India make it to 12th Class. Less than half of them enter higher educational institutes. By and large, only those students who can afford posh private coaching advance through the entrance tests to the popular engineering and medical colleges.

When the whole world is trying to impart education through online mediums India is lagging way behind in this race. It is the time when India should try investing in the educational sector & promote online education which will eventually help masses of students. Diversity of online study material in the form of videos and texts will encourage students to adopt online education platforms & online courses at UG or PG level are much more affordable than traditional programs.

The pace at which the economic shockwaves from the plague has hit developing countries is dramatic. The COVID-19 crumple of the global economy is prompting comparisons with earlier major economic adjustments at the time of World War II. Globalisation has made countries inter-dependent to some extent & by closing borders completely, the world is deprived of goods and products that were produced by countries together, therefore, hurting economies and worsening unemployment situation. There are round about ten nuclear-powered nations & expenditure amounting to $1.8 trillion on the military by the whole world to fight against each other yet they are failing to tackle a nano-micron sized organism. Now, will 13,890 nuclear warheads help any of the nations out there or will there be anyone left on this planet to use them? This pandemic is exposing each and every fault in the working of governments, International bodies & Organisations like UN/WHO/ILO.

Talking about Indias economy it was already in decline due to the recession in the automobile sector & this pandemic is adding nails to the coffin. The impact of COVID-19 has mostly been felt across sectors such as logistics, auto, tourism, metals, electronic goods, MSMEs and retail. The Demand & Supply chain is also affected to the worst extent, as a result, India is suffering huge inefficiencies of working capital, which is tied up in stock/inventory that is probably in the wrong place at the wrong time. Also, India is facing losses in income to parallel trade, counterfeiting, and other reliability intimidation, and a lack of adaptableness to shifts in demand or conditions.

In the moment of dire mental trauma world is going through something which needs to be addressed with diligent care. Even after the pandemic is over it will leave its traces over the global economies which will take round about at least five to six years to overcome the trade depression post COVID-19 pandemic. It is the high time for organisations like United Nations, World Health Organisation, International Labour Organisation and all the countries over the globe to come & work together for the betterment of humankind. In the future the amounts spent by countries on defence should be temporarily stopped and those funds should be diverted into healthcare & in the development of trade & commerce.

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undefined: Suprajit Engineering started in 1987 as Automative Cables Supplier of TVS Motors, and is .. – Moneycontrol.com

Suprajit is a growth oriented company which also shows considerable caution when needed. Suprajit had bagged Rs.40 Cr contract for Tata Nano in 2010, beating 5 other competitors. Accordingly it bought land in Sanand to supply to Tata Nano factory. However, Tata Nano did not scale up, and Suprajit simply supplied from its plant in Vapi. Finally, in 2015-16 the company made its factory in Sanand, to cater to its own needs.

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undefined: Suprajit Engineering started in 1987 as Automative Cables Supplier of TVS Motors, and is .. - Moneycontrol.com

The impact of the coronavirus on the Graphene Market to Witness Stellar CAGR During the Forecast Period 2019 2066 – 3rd Watch News

In 2018, the market size of Graphene Market is million US$ and it will reach million US$ in 2025, growing at a CAGR of from 2018; while in China, the market size is valued at xx million US$ and will increase to xx million US$ in 2025, with a CAGR of xx% during forecast period.

The report on the Graphene market provides a birds eye view of the current proceeding within the Graphene market. Further, the report also takes into account the impact of the novel COVID-19 pandemic on the Graphene market and offers a clear assessment of the projected market fluctuations during the forecast period. The different factors that are likely to impact the overall dynamics of the Graphene market over the forecast period (2019-2029) including the current trends, growth opportunities, restraining factors, and more are discussed in detail in the market study.

Get Free Sample PDF (including COVID19 Impact Analysis, full TOC, Tables and Figures) of Market Report @ https://www.marketresearchhub.com/enquiry.php?type=S&repid=2573805&source=atm

This study presents the Graphene Market production, revenue, market share and growth rate for each key company, and also covers the breakdown data (production, consumption, revenue and market share) by regions, type and applications. Graphene history breakdown data from 2014 to 2018, and forecast to 2025.

For top companies in United States, European Union and China, this report investigates and analyzes the production, value, price, market share and growth rate for the top manufacturers, key data from 2014 to 2018.

In global Graphene market, the following companies are covered:

The following manufacturers are covered:2-DTech LimitedACS MaterialNanoinnova TechnologiesXG ScienceNano X ploreThomas SwanAngstron MaterialsUnited Nano-TechnologiesCambridge NanosystemsAbalonyxPerpetuus Advanced MaterialsGranpheneaNing Bo Mo Xi TechnologyThe New Hong MstarSixth Element TechnologyGroup Tangshan JianhuaDeyang Carbon TechnologyJining Leader Nano TechnologyBeijing Carbon Century Technology

Segment by RegionsNorth AmericaEuropeChinaJapanSoutheast AsiaIndia

Segment by TypeGraphene PowderGraphene OxideGraphene Film

Segment by ApplicationPhotovoltaic CellsComposite MaterialsBiological EngineeringOther

Do You Have Any Query Or Specific Requirement? Ask to Our Industry [emailprotected] https://www.marketresearchhub.com/enquiry.php?type=E&repid=2573805&source=atm

The content of the study subjects, includes a total of 15 chapters:

Chapter 1, to describe Graphene product scope, market overview, market opportunities, market driving force and market risks.

Chapter 2, to profile the top manufacturers of Graphene , with price, sales, revenue and global market share of Graphene in 2017 and 2018.

Chapter 3, the Graphene competitive situation, sales, revenue and global market share of top manufacturers are analyzed emphatically by landscape contrast.

Chapter 4, the Graphene breakdown data are shown at the regional level, to show the sales, revenue and growth by regions, from 2014 to 2018.

Chapter 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9, to break the sales data at the country level, with sales, revenue and market share for key countries in the world, from 2014 to 2018.

You can Buy This Report from Here @ https://www.marketresearchhub.com/checkout?rep_id=2573805&licType=S&source=atm

Chapter 10 and 11, to segment the sales by type and application, with sales market share and growth rate by type, application, from 2014 to 2018.

Chapter 12, Graphene market forecast, by regions, type and application, with sales and revenue, from 2018 to 2024.

Chapter 13, 14 and 15, to describe Graphene sales channel, distributors, customers, research findings and conclusion, appendix and data source.

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The impact of the coronavirus on the Graphene Market to Witness Stellar CAGR During the Forecast Period 2019 2066 - 3rd Watch News

How Coronavirus Pandemic Will Impact The Leading Companies Competing in the Targeted Delivery Drugs Market: Industry Forecast, 2019-2064 Aminet…

The presented study on the global Targeted Delivery Drugs market provides an out-and-out analysis of the overall dynamics of the Targeted Delivery Drugs market. Further, the report elaborates on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the market and the various factors that are likely to mold the growth of the Targeted Delivery Drugs market in the forthcoming decade. The underlying trends, growth prospects, restraints, and opportunities within the Targeted Delivery Drugs market are discussed in the report.

According to the study, the Targeted Delivery Drugs market is on its course to grow at a CAGR of ~XX% over the forecast period (2019-2029) and reach a value of over ~US$XX by 2029. The business prospects of some of the most prominent players in the Targeted Delivery Drugs market are evaluated in the report with precision.

Get Free Sample PDF (including COVID19 Impact Analysis, full TOC, Tables and Figures) of Market Report @ https://www.marketresearchhub.com/enquiry.php?type=S&repid=2576498&source=atm

The report aims to address the following queries related to the Targeted Delivery Drugs market:

Competitive Outlook

The competitive outlook section of the report includes the company profiles of some of the leading players operating in the Targeted Delivery Drugs market. A detailed market share analysis and comparison of leading players in the Targeted Delivery Drugs market is enclosed in the report.

Regional Outlook

The regional outlook section enclosed in the report offers a thorough understanding of the growth potential of the Targeted Delivery Drugs market. The political, business environment and economic outlook of each region is analyzed in detail in the presented report along with informative graphs, tables, and figures.

The following manufacturers are covered:Raytheon CompanyBall Aerospace and TechnologiesThales GroupLockheed Martin CorporationEnvironmental SensorsEmersonSiemensAgilent TechnologiesShimadzuFutekDytranNemotoEndress HauserFalcon Analytical

Segment by RegionsNorth AmericaEuropeChinaJapanSoutheast AsiaIndia

Segment by TypeSemiconductor Nano Gas SensorElectrochemistry Nano Gas SensorPhotochemistry (IR Etc) Nano Gas SensorOther

Segment by ApplicationElectricity GenerationAutomobilesPetrochemicalAerospace & DefenseMedicalBiochemical EngineeringOther

Do You Have Any Query Or Specific Requirement? Ask to Our Industry [emailprotected] https://www.marketresearchhub.com/enquiry.php?type=E&repid=2576498&source=atm

Targeted Delivery Drugs Market Segmentation

To provide a thorough analysis of the Targeted Delivery Drugs market at the granular level, the report segments the Targeted Delivery Drugs market on the basis of product type, region, application, and more. The different products studied in the report include product 1, product 2, product 3, and product 4. The adoption patterns, pricing structure, and demand for each product are accurately mapped in the report.

Key takeaways from the Report:

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How Coronavirus Pandemic Will Impact The Leading Companies Competing in the Targeted Delivery Drugs Market: Industry Forecast, 2019-2064 Aminet...

That Black Stuff on the Road? Technically Not Asphalt – HowStuffWorks

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When you hear the word asphalt, you probably imagine the black tar stuff on roads and highways, right? But that's not exactly correct.

"Asphalt is the liquid that is in the road," says J. Richard Willis, Ph.D., vice president for engineering, research and technology at the National Asphalt Pavement Association (NAPA), who has a doctorate in asphalt design and construction. "It's the binding agent that kind of holds the rocks together." Asphalt comes from crude oil, while tar comes from coal.

Asphalt also is found naturally in the earth, and there are lakes of it where oil from underground has risen to the surface, like the La Brea Tar Pits in Los Angeles and Pitch Lake in Trinidad, which is the largest natural deposit of asphalt in the world.

But the most common way the binder is made today is through the oil refining process. Asphalt is the heaviest of materials in a barrel of oil; it's basically the waste product.

"Asphalt is the heavy residue that settles to the bottom," Willis says. It cannot be used for energy, so it takes on new life as the sticky stuff that holds materials together. Combined with various amounts and types of rocks and other substances, it eventually becomes the mixture we drive on. The road is really an asphalt mixture or better termed "asphalt pavement."

All the talk of oil refining may make asphalt sound like a relatively modern invention, but the first recorded use of asphalt in a road was in Babylon in 615 B.C.E.; asphalt and burned brick were used to pave a procession street during the reign of King Nabopolassar, according to the NAPA. The Romans used it to seal structures like baths and aqueducts. When English explorer Sir Walter Raleigh turned up at Pitch Lake in Trinidad in 1595, he used the asphalt for caulking his ships.

"It's been used in other non-road functions throughout history," Willis says. Using it as a binder in roads became more common in the 1800s. John Loudon McAdam, who built the Scottish turnpike, added hot tar to reduce dust and maintenance on roads. This method also improved driving conditions.

In the United States, bituminous mixtures (asphalt concrete) first appeared in the 1860s, and the first "true asphalt pavement" was laid in Newark in 1870 by Edmund J. DeSmedt, a Belgian, according to NAPA. It was modeled after a natural pavement highway in France. DeSmedt then paved Washington, D.C.'s Pennsylvania Avenue with asphalt from Trinidad, further proving its durability.

Enterprising chemists and inventors soon filed patents for different blends of asphalt mixtures, which appeared under a variety of names. As the industry grew, cities began requiring warranties on workmanship and materials. Until the early 1900s, nearly all asphalt came from natural sources, but with the launch of the first modern asphalt facility in East Cambridge, Massachusetts, in 1901 and the increase in automobiles, requests for better roads invigorated the asphalt industry. By 1907, natural asphalt production was overtaken by refined petroleum asphalt.

"People started demanding better modes of transportation," Willis explains. "The roads where people started using the asphalt to keep the rocks together held up longer than the conventional dirt road that people were used to." Driving on a gravel road versus one that was paved offered a significantly different experience. Finally, the 1956 Federal-Aid Highway Act helped transform the roads in the United States still made of packed dirt and created the 48,876-mile (78,658-kilometer) Interstate System in the U.S.

Although it's most often associated with roads, asphalt is used for many purposes, though roads account for its most extensive use. Of the more than 2.7 million miles (4.3 million kilometers) of paved roads in the U.S., 94 percent are surfaced with asphalt, according to NAPA.

Interestingly, though, all of that includes a mixture of about 95 percent stone, sand and gravel, and just 5 percent asphalt cement. Asphalt also is used for parking lots, airport runways and racetracks.

"Asphalt is a really flexible and versatile product," explains Willis. It can be used to line fishponds and water reservoirs or for sporting purposes like tennis courts. A couple of years ago, it was chosen as the base surface for the field at the Minnesota Vikings stadium in Minneapolis.

Since the early days of asphalt production, the industry has continued to innovate new products, becoming more scientific and rigorous, according to Willis.

"We've changed the way we engineer the mixes," he says. "We're at an era today where you are seeing a giant shift in how the industry and how states work." Using advanced testing methods, asphalt researchers have been aiming to improve performance. Incorporating new materials, additives and technologies, they are seeking to learn how various recipes will perform in different temperatures and climates.

One major update has been the creation of warm-mix asphalt (WMA), which reduces the production temperature of asphalt at a plant, thereby reducing energy usage and saving time in both production and road surfacing. WMA also improves working conditions with lowered exposure to fuel emissions, fumes and odors, according to the U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration. WMA is technology that did not exist in U.S. in 2002 and now accounts for about 40 percent of the market, says Willis.

Asphalt probably isn't something you think of as ecofriendly; it could be partly guilt by association because asphalt is naturally aligned with major polluters driving automobiles and oil production. And some of the negativity is warranted: Because asphalt has low reflectivity, it has been determined to be a significant contributor to the urban heat island (UHI) effect, Abbas Mohajerani, Jason Bakaric and Tristan Jeffrey-Bailey wrote in a 2017 article in the "Journal of Environmental Management." Anyone who has sat in a highway traffic jam on a hot summer day can attest to that.

As far as asphalt's contributions to the UHI, the Environmental Protection Agency states that conventional asphalt pavements can be modified with materials or treated after installation to raise reflectance. For decades, this has been sometimes implemented on surfaces like parking lots and highways. The EPA includes porous asphalt and rubberized asphalt as examples of permeable pavements.

Asphalt has also earned bad marks for being impermeable, for the gases it produces when melted and the fumes it exposes workers to during paving and roofing. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) says those fumes can lead to headache, skin rash, fatigue and even skin cancer. While OSHA's standards do not specifically address asphalt fumes, the administration recommends that controlling exposure can be done through "engineering controls, administrative actions and personal protective equipment."

And of course, there's still the fact that asphalt is made from petroleum. But asphalt does have positive eco-qualities too.

"What a lot of people don't know is all of the environmentally friendly things the asphalt industry is actually doing," Willis says. For starters, asphalt is 100 percent recyclable, and more importantly, it actually does get recycled. In 2018, 82.2 million tons (74.5 million metric tons) of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) was put back into new mixes. That means every asphalt mix put down in the U.S. included about 21 percent RAP. In fact, the combined weight of all items people recycle annually in the U.S. paper, plastic and aluminum totaled a fraction of (about 68 percent) of the weight of RAP the asphalt industry recycles annually.

"That's just one material we recycle," says Willis. "We are the most active recycling industry in the country." It is also one of the biggest recyclers of tire rubber, which is used as a modifier for mixtures in some states. Roof shingles also are recycled into new asphalt mixtures, and the industry is looking into how plastic might become part of the discussion. "When people bring those questions to us, we try to find solutions."

A lot of engineering and material science goes into constructing a road. Today, asphalt roads are designed around the concept of "perpetual pavement," or at least to last 40 years or more. Routine maintenance consists of "milling" the surface taking off the top inch or so every 12 to 20 years and replacing it with a new overlay. That top inch can be recycled, and the periodic overlays "significantly improve the ride quality and fuel consumption of vehicles traveling on these roads," according to the Asphalt Pavement Alliance.

Until it's time for hover cars, asphalt roads are likely to stick around. And the industry plans to keep innovating in product and production. Willis describes recent breakthroughs like autonomous rollers and equipment, as well as the increased use of virtual reality for training.

"I see technology as a big part of the industry's future," he says. As asphalt experts get better at handling big data, they can use it for production and placement to improve efficiencies in real time. One day, he could even see intelligent pavements with nano-sensors in the roads providing feedback on how the pavement is behaving and lasting. "Our roads are going to get a lot smarter. We've got the technology to really improve the experience of the riding public."

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That Black Stuff on the Road? Technically Not Asphalt - HowStuffWorks

Apple Watch designer reveals history of faces and features on fifth anniversary – 9to5Mac

Imran Chaudhri spent over 20 years at Apple and helped create the companys hero products like iPhone, iPad, and Apple Watch. Now on the fifth anniversary of Apples highly successful wearable, Chaudhri has shared some neat details on the history of what went into creating the Apple Watchs faces and features.

Chaudri left Apple back in 2017 and is currently working on a company thats mostly still in stealth mode called Humane who just picked up another Apple veteran, this time its VP of product engineering.

But fondly looking back today,Chaudhri shared the fascinating details about Apple Watch on Twitter today including the original sketch of the UI, the first prototype band, and more (via TechCrunch).

Heres a shot of the Apple Watch team five years ago on launch day and a reproduction of Chaudhris original sketch for the watchOS home screen.

Another fun tidbit, the Digital Touch feature that allows users to send their heartbeat and more was called E.T. for electronic touch at first.

And below he shared a look at the first prototype strap that was used with a 6th gen iPod nano.

The loop bands that arrived for Apple Watch were inspired by the velcro speedmaster used by Apollo astronauts and that Andrew Zuckerman was who captured the butterfly Motion watch face.

Another neat fact, the Solar watch face was designed by Chaudhri to be helpful for Muslims as they observed Ramadan as well as teaching everyone about how the sun and time are connected. Hodinkee also just shared a neat article about Apple Watch and twilight.

Just yesterday we also saw Hodinkee post a look at how Apple Watch has transformed the watch industry over the last five years.

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Apple Watch designer reveals history of faces and features on fifth anniversary - 9to5Mac

Four from UC San Diego Elected to American Academy of Arts and Sciences – UC San Diego Health

Left to right, top: Paul Churchland and Vicki Grassian; bottom: Margaret Leinen and David Victor. Photos courtesy of UC San Diego

Four members of the University of California San Diego community, including three professors and one vice chancellor, have been elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciencesone of the oldest and most esteemed honorary societies in the nation.

Paul M. Churchland, Vicki H. Grassian, Margaret S. Leinen and David G. Victor are among the Academys 2020 class of 276 members. They join fellow classmates who are artists, scholars, scientists and leaders in the public, non-profit and private sectors, including: singer/activist Joan C. Baez; immunologist Yasmine Belkaid; former Attorney General Eric H. Holder, Jr.; author Ann Patchett and CEO and electrical engineer Lisa T. Su.

The American Academy of Arts and Sciences has honored exceptionally accomplished individuals and engaged them in advancing the public good for more than 240 years. Professor Walter Munk was the first UC San Diego faculty member elected to the Academy. Since then, 79 more have joined Munk in receiving this prestigious honor. For a relatively young institution such as ours, this speaks volumes of the innovative and visionary nature of this university and our well-respected and accomplished faculty, said UC San Diego Chancellor Pradeep K. Khosla. I am proud to see the career accomplishments of these four individuals being recognized on such a distinguished national platform.

According to Academy PresidentDavid W. Oxtoby, the members of the class of 2020 have excelled in laboratories and lecture halls, amazed on concert stages and in surgical suites, and they have led in board rooms and courtrooms. Thesenew members are united by a place in history and by an opportunity to shape the future through the Academys work to advance the public good, said Oxtoby.

Following is more information about each of UC San Diegos newest Academy members:

Paul Churchland, professor emeritus and former chair of the Department of Philosophy in the Division of Arts and Humanities, is an expert in the philosophy of science, philosophy of the mind, epistemology and cognitive science, philosophy of language and the history of philosophy. At UC San Diego, Churchland held the Valtz Family Endowed Chair in Philosophy from 1984 to 2010, taught in the Department of Cognitive Science, and is currently an affiliated faculty member of the Institute for Neural Computation. One of the most distinguished theorists in the field of the neurophilosophy and the philosophy of the mind, Churchland introduced and defended an influential view known as eliminative materialism, also known as eliminativism, in his book Scientific Realism and the Plasticity of Mind. The research published in his book Matter and Consciousness, which presents an overview of the philosophical issues regarding the mind, is a leading text in philosophy and cognitive science education. Additional published work includes Images of Science: Scientific Realism versus Constructive Empiricism, The Engine of Reason, The Seat of the Soul: A Philosophical Journey into the Brain and Platos Camera: How the Physical Brain Captures a Landscape of Abstract Universals.

Vicki Grassian is the Distinguished Chair of Physical Chemistry, who currently serves as the chair of the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry in the Division of Physical Sciences and also as a faculty member within the Department of Nanoengineering and Scripps Institution of Oceanography. She is co-director of the Center for Aerosol Impacts on Chemistry of the Environment (CAICE). A leader in championing the inclusion of women and underrepresented groups in the sciences, Grassian focuses her research on the chemistry of complex environmental interfaces with projects on atmospheric aerosols, geochemical interfaces, indoor surfaces that impact indoor air quality and nanomaterials in the environment. She has pioneered laboratory studies of the reactivity and physicochemical properties of mineral dust and sea spray aerosols, providing a molecular understanding of its atmospheric chemistry and global impacts. Her studies on metal and metal oxide nanoparticles have shed light on the unique surface and environmental reactivity of these materials. Grassian is a Fellow of the American Chemical Society, the Royal Society of Chemistry, the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the American Physical Society. She has received numerous awards including the 2019 William H. Nichols Medal Award for her contributions to the chemistry of environmental interfaces and the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry 2019 Distinguished Women in Chemistry or Chemical Engineering Award. Grassian was a distinguished member of the faculty at the University of Iowa before joining UC San Diego in 2016. She has more than 250 peer-reviewed publications in a wide range of journals.

Margaret Leinen is UC San Diegos vice chancellor for marine sciences, dean of the School of Marine Sciences and the director of Scripps Institution of Oceanography. Leinen is an award-winning oceanographer and an accomplished executive with extensive national and international experience in ocean science, global climate and environmental issues, federal research administration and more. Her research has focused on paleo-oceanography and paleo-climatology, specifically on ocean sediments and their relationship to global biogeochemical cycles and the history of Earths ocean and climate. Leinen currently serves on the Executive Planning Group for the UN Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development. From 2016-2018, Leinen served as a U.S. Science Envoy focusing on ocean science in Latin America, East Asia and the Pacific. She is past president of the American Geophysical Union, a member of the distinguished Leadership Council of the Joint Ocean Commission Initiative and past president of The Oceanography Society. Prior to joining UC San Diego, Leinen held academic leadership positions at Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute, a unit of Florida Atlantic University, and the University of Rhode Island. She also served as assistant director for Geosciences and Coordinator of Environmental Research and Education at the National Science Foundation.

David Victor is the Center for Global Transformation Endowed Chair in Innovation and Public Policy and professor of international relations at the School of Global Policy and Strategy. He serves as co-director of the Laboratory on International Law and Regulation and UC San Diegos Deep Decarbonization Initiative. Victors research interests are in energy policy and energy marketsthe future role of natural gas, electric power market reform and rural energy development. His interdisciplinary approach to climate change research, which integrates science, technology and policy, has made him one of worlds top experts on gauging the globes progress on addressing the issue, and what countries and industries need to do collectively and individually to reduce emissions. He is a leading contributor to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), a United Nations-sanctioned international body with 195 country members. Victor is author of "Global Warming Gridlock," which explains why the world has not made much diplomatic progress on the problem of climate change while also exploring new strategies that would be more effective. Prior to joining UC San Diego, Victor served as director of the Program on Energy and Sustainable Development at Stanford University, where he was a professor at Stanford Law School and taught energy and environmental law. Earlier in his career, he also directed the science and technology program at the Council on Foreign Relations and led the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis. Victor also serves as an adjunct professor of climate, atmospheric science and physical oceanography at UC San Diegos Scripps Institution of Oceanography. He is a senior fellow at the Brookings Institution and co-chairs the Cross-Brookings Initiative on Energy and Climate. In addition, he leads the community engagement panel for decommissioning of the San Onofre Nuclear Power Plant.

The American Academy of Arts & Sciences was founded in 1780 by John Adams, John Hancock and others who believed the new republic should honor exceptionally accomplished individuals and engage them in advancing the public good. The 2020 members join the company of those elected before them, including Benjamin Franklin and Alexander Hamilton in the eighteenth century; Ralph Waldo Emerson and Maria Mitchell in the nineteenth; Robert Frost, Martha Graham, Margaret Mead, Milton Friedman and Martin Luther King, Jr. in the twentieth; and more recently, Antonin Scalia, Michael Bloomberg, John Lithgow, Judy Woodruff and Bryan Stevenson. International Honorary Members include Charles Darwin, Albert Einstein, Winston Churchill, Laurence Olivier, Mary Leakey, John Maynard Keynes, Akira Kurosawa and Nelson Mandela.

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Four from UC San Diego Elected to American Academy of Arts and Sciences - UC San Diego Health

5 key innovations in mining ventilation – Mining Technology

]]> Modern ventilation systems are finding novel uses for artificial intelligence, internet of things technology, and other innovative solutions to improve the efficiency of airflow through underground mines. Ventilation on demand

Ventilation on Demand (VOD) systems have become popular solutions for more efficient ventilation, with companies including Bestech, ABB and Simsmart offering variations of the software. VOD allows for a more intuitive ventilation system, with software capable of scheduling airflow to different parts of the mine based on a daily schedule, in response to pre-programmed events, or by tracking environmental factors or the locations of personnel and equipment throughout the mine.

These systems allegedly reduce the total air requirements of mines by directing air only to where it is needed, when it is needed and reducing energy consumption in the process.

In theory, VOD systems can be integrated with tag and tracking systems, meaning the ventilation software can locate personnel and equipment in the mine and direct airflow to areas of work as appropriate. In practice, the concept seems to be easier said than done. Innovation in VOD systems has focused on making that selling point a consistently viable reality, as a system that can automatically dictate airflow speed, temperature and direction has huge cost-cutting potential.

In February, Natural Resources Canada awarded C$1.5m ($1.07m) to the Natural Heat Exchange Engineering Technology (NHEET) research project, which is run between the Mining Innovation, Rehabilitation and Applied Research Corporation (MIRARCO) and other organisations including Vale, Teck and Laurentian University.

The project is examining the potential use of fractured rocks to improve cooling and air delivery in underground mines. The concept was discovered more than half a century ago at Vales Creighton nickel mine near Sudbury, Ontario, when miners realised that cool air was entering the mine through waste rock during summer, while warm air was entering during the winter. By directing the airflow through the mine, the miners could work to a depth of 2.5km without the use of artificial refrigeration.

Powering ventilation systems consumes 25-50% of the total energy requirements of an underground coal mine. If the NHEET project can successfully replicate the natural ventilation properties of the Creighton mine, it could not only displace the capital and operational costs of a refrigeration and heating system, it could reduce the overall energy consumption of mines reducing costs while also improving the environmental impact of underground mining.

Hydraulic air compressors (HACs) are an almost ancient idea from a technology standpoint, being used in mines more than 100 years ago.

Compressed air systems were most notably used as a means of power generation at mines that could not be easily connected to the existing power grid, such as the Ragged Chutes HAC system that powered silver mines in rural Ontario, Canada, more than a century ago. That system remained operational for 70 years, and only stopped operations twice for repairs in that time.

The high cost of compressed air as a resource meant that the proliferation of electrical and mechanical systems in the latter half of the 20th century resulted in compressed air becoming a non-viable resource for miners.

Now, a modern HAC designed by Electrale Innovation has modified existing air compression technology to provide cooling for underground mines. A demonstration of the HAC is operational in Sudbury, Ontario, and has received funding from the Canadian government, as well as support from mining innovators MIRARCO.

Developers on the project believe that if a natural hydropower resource can be harnessed, compressed air could be produced at almost zero marginal cost. The use of water cools the compressed air without the need for external power sources, and the hope is that the refrigerated air can be used as a low cost means of cooling and dehumidifying ultra-deep mines.

Surface-level monitoring stations can directly monitor the air quality of underground mines using real-time sensors that have the capability to be seamlessly swapped out rather than undergoing time consuming recalibration processes underground.

The Ultra-Deep Mining Network and its partners have developed sensors that can be calibrated on the surface in a stable controlled environment, before being hot swapped with the existing underground sensors.

Modern air quality sensors are touted as increasing productivity by removing the need for manual subsurface recalibration, and can hasten remedial work in the event toxic gases are detected.

Air quality stations are able to accurately monitor airflow rate and direction, gas levels, barometric pressure, and wet/dry bulb temperatures in real-time, and that information can then be used to adjust main and auxiliary ventilation fans as necessary.

Some of the technologies in this bracket are Industrial Internet of Things devices that connect directly to existing networks without requiring the addition of new equipment, resulting in efficiency boosts without large-scale refitting of existing hardware.

While dust, carbon dioxide, and toxic gases such as methane are key air quality concerns for miners, it is predominantly nitrogen dioxide emissions from diesel vehicles that drive the bulk of underground ventilation concerns. Increased uptake of electric mining vehicles could be set to change that, however.

Rapid advancement in battery technologies have led mining companies to begin replacing diesel-fuelled vehicles and drills for lithium-ion battery powered alternatives. For underground mines, electric vehicles dont just boost environmental credentials, they reduce gas and heat emissions too in turn reducing airflow requirements throughout the mine.

A 2019 report by corporate consultants BDO predicted that within four years diesel machinery will not be used in new mines in Australia, and existing mines in the country will have begun phasing them out in favour of battery electric vehicles. The report predicted that the push to electrification will come from the financiers of new mines, as well as potential government regulation as the health risks of nano diesel particulate matter become more commonly accepted.

Free Whitepaper ULTIMATE GUIDE TO MINING SAFETY: Seven ways to make your mine safer and more efficient

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UC San Diego Engineers and Doctors Team Up to Retrofit and Build Ventilators with 3D-Printing – UC San Diego Health

Students, staff and faculty address one of the key challenges of COVID-19 outbreak

Manual to automatic: A team of engineering students and faculty at Jacobs School of Engineering at UC San Diego have developed a device to convert a manual ventilator into an automatic ventilator. This system uses 3D-printed parts to compress the bag to push air into a patients lungs.

Even as university campuses close across the nation in an effort to slow the spread of the novel coronavirus, a team of engineers and physicians at the University of California San Diego is rapidly developing simple, ready-to-use ventilators to be deployed if the need arises.

The project kick-started several weeks ago when news started to trickle in that communities in Northern Italy with widespread COVID-19 were in dire straits.

One of the biggest things we heard was that there werent enough ventilators to treat all of the patients coming into the hospitals, said James Friend, a professor in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering and the Department of Surgery at UC San Diego. Its clear that if were not careful, we might end up in the same situation.

Ventilators are medical devices that push air in and out of a patients lungs when they are unable to breathe on their own. One of the primary symptoms of COVID-19 is difficulty in breathing; approximately 1 percent of people who contract the virus require ventilation to support their recoverysometimes for weeks.

The situation in Italy spurred Dr. Lonnie Petersen, an assistant professor in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at UC San Diego and an adjunct with UC San Diego Health, to reach out to her medical and engineering colleagues, proposing a new collaboration to quickly produce simple ventilators that could be easily built and readily used to support patients in a crisis.

We immediately had a lot of support from staff and faculty, all working to get this project off the ground, Petersen said. Our community is taking this threat very seriously and acting accordingly.

The first step was to seek consensus with anesthetists and respiratory therapists about minimum requirements for a ventilator. The next was to determine whether engineers could reasonably produce them, and how quickly.

Within days, a team of researchersfrom the Friend and Petersen labs, including graduate students Aditya Vasan, William Connacher, Jeremy Sieker and Reiley Weekes, began building devices using premade parts and 3D printers. Their first goal was to convert an existing manual ventilator model to automatic, able to provide breathing assistance without human intervention.

Engineering students and faculty are developing a simple device using 3D-printed parts and off-the-shelf components to convert an existing manual ventilator system into an automatic one.

The existing manual design features a mask fitted over a patients face and a bag that can be squeezed by hand to push air into the patients lungs. The team is designing a machine that can do the squeezing instead, freeing doctors and nurses to address other concerns.

Were 3D-printing parts that can be attached to a motor to compress the bag of the manual ventilator, said Ph.D. student Vasan. This allows us to control the speed and volume of the compressions to help patients breathe.

The advantage of 3D printing is that it can be used to quickly produce customized parts. Devices can be made on a small scale much faster than by traditional manufacturing methods.

As long as the correct materials are used, 3D printing can be used to produce a wide variety of tools in the fight against COVID-19, said Shaochen Chen, a professor of nanoengineering at the Jacobs School of Engineering. Its not good for, say, entire N95 masks, but it can be used for producing testing swabs or even face shields for healthcare workers.

Meanwhile, Petersens team is awaiting a few more parts to build a more sophisticated ventilator using an electric pump. Our aim is to have functional devices as soon as possible, she said. Once weve got the bare bones system up and running, we can start adding layers of sophistication and automation. Those additional layers will include advanced regulation of air pressure and flow to allow for a more disease-specific and patient-tailored respiratory support.

The first ventilators will be simple, but the goal is to have something readily at hand when the need arises.

But a simple design isnt the teams only goal.

We are preparing for a shortage of both ventilators and specialized staff to run them, said Petersen. The questions quickly became How can we tweak the ventilators that are available to support multiple patients? How can we create more ventilators that are easier for staff to use?

Other projects include collecting and inventorying oxygen supplies in preparation for increased demand by local hospitals; converting other air pressure machines, such as CPAPs and Bi-PAPs into ventilators; and adapting existing ventilators to serve more patients.

Dr. Sidney Merritt displays an in-house pressure measurement device, currently in testing for use on a system designed to split a single ventilator to serve up to four patients.

The team hopes to have functional prototypes within a few days and are ready to test them in simulators, in collaboration with anesthesiologists, before potentially applying to patients.

Normally, the production timeline on something like this would be months, or even years, said Petersen. By building on existing technology and taking multiple steps at once, we aim to reduce that timeline to weeks.

While grappling with challenges in locating parts that cant be 3D-printed and obtaining them from outside vendors, the biggest roadblock right now is gathering enough people to assemble the devices.

The UC San Diego campus is largely closed and empty, due to efforts to minimize coronavirus exposure and slow the spread of COVID-19. The graduate student team continues work, thanks to a special exception granted by the Dean of the Jacobs School of Engineering.

This is a team effort, said Petersen. And we can use the assistance of other engineers. We would love to hear from students, staff, and faculty with hands-on engineering experience who can help us with this project.

Qualified volunteers should email: UCSDVentilatorEngHelp@gmail.com

Meanwhile, Petersens colleague Dr. Sidney Merritt, an associate clinical professor of anesthesiology at UC San Diego Health, is working with a team that includes U.S. Navy and Lockheed Martin personnel to develop a 3D-printable system for splitting a ventilator designed for one patient so that it can be used by up to four patients at a time.

We found a file online that showed us how it could be done, said Merritt. Weve been working with the Navy and others to print them in different materials and test them on a ventilator, and, so far, it works. We were able to get enough pressure on each line that it should be adequate for serving four patients at a time.

The challenge now is finding valves that can regulate the pressure for each patient on the system and monitor individual air pressure for each one, allowing for the fine control needed to support each patients specific needs. As soon as we have the valves worked out, well be just a couple days out from getting them set up and running, said Merritt.

Using 3D-printed parts, Dr. Sidney Merritt and a team at the U.S. Navy and Lockheed Martin are developing a system to convert ventilators designed for a single patient to be used by up to four patients at a time.

This situation is going to be very severe, she continued. We need to have every tool available to us, so we are ready to treat patients because we still dont know how many people will get sick.

Despite obstacles, the team said it has been overwhelmed by support and advocacy from colleagues and university leadership. For example, the University of California's Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation (IGCC) has contributed $10,000 to assist in the development of prototypes.

The UC San Diego family is really pulling together on this one, said Petersen. From the dean, through chairs, faculty and students, regardless of who weve spoken to, everyone has gone above and beyond to help with this project as much as they can. Its really bringing the community together. Everyone is moving in the same direction. While the work may be preparing for something unpleasant, its very good to be working in such a supportive environment.

Dr. Casper Petersen, an assistant project scientist in the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, is co-leading this project alongside Lonnie Petersen. Other members of the continuously growing team include Dr. Daniel Lee; Dr. Preetham Suresh; Dr. William Mazzei; Dr. Matthew Follansbee; Dr. Micheal Vanietti; Dr. Hemal Patel; Theodore Vallejos of UC San Diego Health; Mark Stambaugh of the Qualcomm Institute; and Tania Morimoto, a professor in the Department of Aerospace and Engineering at the Jacobs School.

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