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Nanostructure of the Anodic and Nanomaterials Sol-Gel Based Materials Application: Advances in Surface Engineering – Products Finishing Magazine

by

Xavier Albort Ventura*

Laboratory Electrochemical R&D, Barcelona, Spain

University Politecnic of Catalonia, Barcelona, Spain

Tecnocrom Industrial Cabrera de Mar, Barcelona, Spain

Editors Note: A printable pdf of this paper can be accessed and printed HERE.

ABSTRACT

Numerous metals are processed by anodic oxidation. As a result, one can obtain amorphous barrier-type oxides, crystalline barrier-type oxides or amorphous nanoporous oxides. Currently, highly-ordered nanoporous anodic aluminum oxides (AAO) are obtained with various electrolytes to form nanostructures with a range of geometrical features. This material can serve as a template for nanofabrication of variety of nanowires, nanotubes and nanodots. In this way, porous alumina can be fabricated electrochemically through anodic oxidation of aluminum, yielding highly ordered arrays of nano-holes several hundreds down to several tens of nanometers in size.

Sol-gel chemistry offers a flexible approach to obtain a diverse range of materials. It allows differing chemistries to be achieved as well as the ability to produce a wide range of nano-/micro-structures.

In bio-medical applications, sol-gel materials have been found to hold significant potential. One interesting application relates to hybrid materials that utilize sol-gel chemistry to achieve unusual composite properties. Another intriguing feature of sol-gels is the unusual morphologies that are achievable at the micro, and nano-scale. The ability to control pore chemistry at a number of different scales and geometries has proven to be a fruitful area of study, providing excellent bioactivity, and producing cellular responses and enabling the entrapment of biologically active molecules and their controllable release for therapeutic action.

Key words: Nanostructures, porous alumina AAO membranes, nanoporous anodic alumina (NAA), nanofabrication, sol-gel chemistry, nanocarriers, biomolecules.

1. Introduction

Porous alumina films formed by anodic oxidation of aluminum have been extensively studied for use as molds to form nanostructured materials. The technology of porous alumina and its usage as an anodic oxide coating in tools has a long history.

There is a great demand for the use of highly ordered nano-hole arrays, which can be produced on a scale of several tens of nanometers through self-organization, in a diversity of applications. These include high density storage media, functional nanomaterials exhibiting a quantum size effect, highly sensitive chemical sensors, nano-electronic devices and functional bio-chemical membranes.

Porous alumina membranes of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) are widely used for the fabrication of various nanostructures and nano-devices. Over the last decade, many materials including nanowires, nanotubes and nanodot arrays, have been fabricated by the deposition of various metals, semiconductors, oxides and polymers inside the pores of AAO membranes (Fig. 1).

Figure 1 - SEM micrographs of an alumina nano-hole array formed by two-step anodic oxidation at 40 V using 0.15M oxalic acid: (a) plan-view, (b) cross-sectional view (Shingubara, et al., 1997).

Nanoporous substrates such as porous silicon, nano-porous anodic alumina, titania nanotube arrays and track-etched porous polymer membranes have been commonly employed as substrates for advanced sensing devices. Nanoporous anodic alumina (NAA) processes produce unique structural, chemical, optical, thermal and mechanical properties and biocompatibility in addition to controllable geometry and exploitable surface chemistries.

Ordered AAO stands out due to its remarkable properties such as chemical, thermal stability, hardness and high surface area. Over the past decade, we have witnessed the emergence of various applications based on AAO membranes such as molecular separation, chemical-biological sensing devices, cell adhesion, catalysis, energy storage and drug delivery vehicles (Fig. 2).

Figure 2 - Schematic diagram showing the typical AAO structureand the major applications for this nanostructured material.

Recent advances in fabrication procedures toward structural modifications and the generation of AAO structures with complex pore geometries, including branched, multilayered, modulated and hierarchically complex pores architectures are presented in Section 2.

Silica and doped silica materials obtained via solution gelation, or sol-gel, inorganic polymerization processes are also highly functional materials with an impressive range of applications, and utilize two of the pillars of chemistry: synthesis and analysis. Simple silica microspheres have since seen numerous applications, and today, the benefits provided by solution gelation are well recognized. In addition, advanced processing routes have also been developed that account for the problematic aspects of the gelation process.

Section 3 aims to describe the sol-gel synthesis routes that are most commonly used to produce ceramic and glass networks for biomedical applications. Sol-gel chemistry offers a flexible approach to obtaining a diverse range of materials. It allows different chemistries to be achieved and offers the ability to produce a wide range of nano-/micro-structures. In addition to providing an overview of the polymerization processes, the use of classical inorganic synthesis routes and colloidal aggregation will be discussed along with adaptations to the synthesis procedures that have allowed for further applications. Common links between methodologies are emphasized and the techniques themselves are discussed through recent applications.

Following this is a more detailed description of the biomedical areas where sol-gel materials have been explored and found to hold significant potential. One of the interesting fields that has been developed recently relates to hybrid materials that utilize sol-gel chemistry to achieve unusual composite properties. Another intriguing feature of sol-gels is the unusual morphologies that are achievable at the micro- and nano-scales.

2. Nanofabrication using a porous alumina template

Self-organized porous alumina nano-hole arrays have been used to fabricate a variety of nanomaterials. These methods are categorized as follows: etching of the semiconductor substrate using a porous alumina film as a mask, pattern transfer using porous alumina as a template for deposition of functional materials in the form of porous alumina nano-hole arrays by electroplating and sol-gel, and deposition of functional materials by chemical vapor deposition (CVD).

a. Porous alumina as an etching mask

The transfer of nano-holes to a semiconductor substrate is promising for applications such as photonic band materials, field emitter arrays and quantum dot arrays. Referring back to Fig. 1, a thin porous alumina film was used as a dry etching mask, by placing it in contact with the substrate. The porous alumina film was delaminated from the aluminum plate by a negative voltage pulse or dissolution of aluminum by dipping in HgCl2 solution. After removal of the nano-hole bottom barrier layer by argon plasma etching or ion beam etching, the porous alumina film was placed on the substrate.

Highly directional ion beam etching is necessary for substrate etching, since the alumina nano-hole aspect ratio (the ratio of depth to diameter ) is very high. The alumina mask showed high tolerance to Reactive Ion Beam Etching (RIBE) using a Br2/N2 mixed gas system (Shingubara, J. Nanoparticle Research, 5, 17-30 (2003)). In this method, maintaining the gap between the porous alumina and the substrate at a mnimum is essential for achieving ultrahigh uniformity.

Recently, an alternative method, using a porous alumina film deposited directly on the semiconductor substrate, was proposed by Shingubara (2003). A thin porous alumina film with an aspect ratio below 5 was formed on a Si/SiO2 substrate by the use of sputtered aluminum. Reactive ion etching using chlorine with a high self-bias of RF plasma proved effective for pattern transfer to Si. There was a significant reduction in hole size due to redeposition of nonvolatile materials on the side wall of the nano-holes. For instance, the initial porous alumina hole size of 40 nm was reduced to 10 nm Si holes when a higher aspect ratio of porous alumina nanoholes in the mask was used. The problem with this method was the non-uniformity of the porous alumina mask thickness, which would require a specially designed anodic oxidation electrode to improve the result.

b. CVD deposition on porous alumina

Chemical vapor deposition of materials in porous alumina nano-holes is a challenging topic for CVD research. Since porous alumina can contain extremely high aspect ratio holes, it is of great interest to discover how high aspect ratio holes can be filled by CVD. Working in a supercritical fluid medium is one way to obtain excellent disposition profiles.

Radium films were synthesized at controlled depths within porous alumina disks by the hydrogen reduction of organoradium compounds dissolved in supercritical CO2 at 50C. Guided by a simple mass transport model, radium films ranging from 1 to 60 microns in thickness were deposited at prescribed depths between 60 and 500 microns.

The formation of carbon nanotubes (CNT) in porous alumina by CVD has been intensively studied. It is well known that CNT-CVD needs catalysis for thermal decomposition. A well ordered array, using electrodeposited Co and Nb located beneath the aluminum layer is shown in the SEM micrograph of Fig. 3.

Figure 3 - SEM image of an array of carbon nano-tubes fabricated in a porous alumina template (Li,et al., 1999).

In the example shown in Fig. 3, using cobalt catalysis, pyrolysis of C2H2 was carried out at 600C. Carbon nanotubes with diameters ranging from 10 to several hundred nanometers and lengths of up to 100 microns can be produced. This structure is highly promising for an ultrahigh-density field emitter array. CNT formed through Co catalysis by this method has a multi-walled structure. Low temperature deposition of CNT at around 500C by microwave plasma-assisted CVD has also been reported.

c. Electroplating on porous alumina

Numerous studies have been conducted on the filling of conductive materials in porous alumina nano-holes by electroplating. Prior to electroplating, the bottom barrier layer should be thinned to less than about 15 nm. Wet chemical etching of the anodic alumina film using dilute chromic acid solution (pore widening treatment), or step-wise lowering of the anodic voltage to 15 V have been employed. Alternating current (AC) or pulsed current electroplating has been used since the impedance of the barrier layer at the nano-hole bottom is too large to allow for direct current (DC) electroplating. Research activity on electroplating magnetic materials in porous alumina has intensified remarkably in recent years. As for other metals, nanowire array formation of gold and silver have been reported.

3. Solgel synthesis on porous alumina

Sol-gel provides an alternative synthesis route for nanomaterial fillings in porous alumina nano-holes.

Monodispersed hollow nanocylinders containing crystalline titania particles have been filled by an aqueous solution of titanium tetrafluoride.

Hollow nanotubes comprised of In2O3 and Ga2O3, have been synthesized by sol-gel chemistry and sol-gel synthesis of an array of C-70 single cristal nanowires in a porous alumina template.

a. Organic precursors in sol-gel methods

Silicon alkoxides represent the main network forming agents used in sol-gel preparation methods. While the sol-gel process provides key benefits, such as the low synthesis temperatures and the vast array of alkoxide precursors available, the cost associated with alkoxide precursors presents some limitations.

Nevertheless,the efficiency provided by low temperature synthesis and the accuracy with which specific compositions can be achieved have the potential to outweigh any such negative aspects of the process. Low temperature synthesis is achieved through solution-mediated formation of strong covalent bonds between elements that would otherwise require excessively high temperatures to create. For alkoxides this requires initial hydrolysis of the alkoxy group followed by as condensation between network forming substrates (Fig. 4).

Figure 4 - Initial hydrolysis and condensation stages of tetraethyl orthosilicate - Si(OC2H5)4 (TEOS) in the production of silica oligomers: (a) Introduction of water to TEOS, (b) H2O forms a hypervalent substrate with silicon, (c) transfer of the proton from the water to the adjacent alkoxy group, (d) cleavage of the ester bond and dealcoholation.

Sol-gel methods also enable the powderless processing of glasses, ceramics and thin films or fibers directly from solution. Precursors are mixed at the molecular level and variously shaped materials may be formed at much lower temperatures than is possible by traditional preparation methods.

One of the major advantages of sol-gel processing is the possibility of synthesizing hybrid organic-inorganic materials. Combinations of inorganic and organic networks facilitate the design of new engineering materials with diverse properties for a wide range of applications. Biomedical applications invariably require the design of new biomaterials, and this can be achieved by emerging sol-gel chemistry and biochemistry. The gel-derived materials are excellent model systems for studying and controlling biochemical interactions within constrained matrices with enhanced bioactivity because of their surface chemistry, micro-/nano-pores and large specific surface area. In biomedical applications, the coating of medical devices is an important issue. Materials used in medical devices should have appropriate structural and mechanical properties and ideally promote a healing response without causing adverse immune reactions. Medical services designers currently use various surface treatments such as coatings that enhance or modify properties such as lubricity, the degree of hydrophobicity, functionalisation and biocompatibility. Sol-gel technology offers an alternative technique for producing bioactive surfaces for these applications.

Sol-gel thin film processing offers a number of advantages including low-temperature processing, ease of fabrication, and precise microstructural and chemical control. The sol-gel derived film or layer not only provides a good degree of biocompatibility, but also a high specific surface area and an external surface whose rich chemistry allows ease of functionalization by suitable biomolecules.

The development of multifunctional nanoparticles that can be used as drug delivery vectors remains a significant challenge of material science. These applications require intimate control of the particle size and discrete, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles that can be prepared by the sol-gel method to lower the annealing temperatures required.

Silica-based magnetic nanocomposites, formed by magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) dispersed in a silica matrix, are of relevant technological and scientific interest. Here encapsulation in silica prevents interactions between the MNPs, and consequently assures a uniform dispersion. The latter is essential for efficient performance in most applications, including the diagnostic and therapeutic areas, where particles must display high magnetization, be stable against oxidation and most importantly, remain nonaggregated.

Engineering new bone tissue with cells and a synthetic extracellular matrix (ECM) represents a promising approach for the regeneration of mineralized tissues. Bone regeneration requires a scaffold material upon which cells can attach proliferate and differentiate into functionally and structurally appropriate tissues for the body location into which they are placed .

Bone is a highly mineralized tissue consisting of an apatitic mineral phase most similar to a form of carbonated hydroxyapatite (HCA), although a significant contribution is made by extraneous ions such as sodium chloride, zinc and, to a lesser extent, fluorides. In general, HCA can be considered a model mineral for natural bone and is widely accepted as a bioactive material with excellent biocompatibility, high osteoconductivity, and reasonable mechanical strength. For these reasons, it has been widely used in tissue engineering applications, especially for bone and cartilage regeneration.

However, in vivo data suggest that degradation or ion release from labile sources such as bioactive glasses promotes new bone formation, as opposed to the relatively lower ion release that occurs as a result of HCA minerals reaching equilibrium with their surrounding medium. It appears that sol-gel methods hold the potential to apply an ever-increasing range of glass-based bioactive coating to materials, which have previously remained incompatible with alternative coating techniques. Furthermore, the versatility of the sol-gel approach is opening new doors to previously unattainable compositions, again increasing the potential applications of sol-gel materials as fillers to replace tissue within necrotic or defect sites.

Sol-gel microencapsulation technology and its broad application potential are now well-known. Relevant here is the use of silica for encapsulation and controlled release of both hydrofilic and hydrophobic molecules, ensuring considerable chemical and physical protection of the valued entrapped dopants. Given the above, it can be seen that sol-gel derived bioactive materials hold great potential value.

b. Sol-gel methods and reactions processes

The sol is a colloidal suspension of solid particles, whereas a gel is an interconnected network of solid-phase particles that form a continuous entity throughout a secondary, usually liquid phase. Throughout sol-gel technology, these phases are conserved though the chemical reactions that take place during the gel evolutions, and can be manipulated in a variety of ways, e.g., altering the initial precursors, time allowed for gelation, catalysts, degree of solvation, gelation conditions or physical processing of the gel itself. Sol-gel processes allow the formation of solid materials through gelation of solutions and can be used to produce a large number of useful morphologies. The processes are illustrated in Fig. 5.

Figure 5 - Sol-gel synthesis routes: Processes are defined as sol-gel by the transition of a colloidal solution to an interconnected gel network (gelation). The further processing stages illustrated are non-redundant and may be combined depending on the specific needs of the application.

What remains constant for the production of sol-gel derived bioactive materials are the stages that allow for hydrolysis and condensation reactions to occur. Successful manipulations of these reactions are shown in Fig. 6.

Figure 6 - Subsequent condensation stages of TEOS in the production of silica oligomers. Condensation between silanol groups on two hydrolyzed TEOS molecules (a and b) and between a silanol group and an adjacent alkoxy group (c and d) result in the production of free H2O and ethanol respectively.

Figure 6 shows that only one reaction occurs during condensation: the loss of an HO-group from the substrate. This mechanism is therefore a reaction that can occur as either dehydration or dealcoholation. For the former to occur, two HO-groups must take part in the formation of an Si-O-Si bond, whereas the latter results from the direct transfer of a proton to the leaving group on a neighboring substrate.

As evident from these reactions, a decrease in pH can promote hydrolysis through protonation of the leaving groups. Alternatively, higher pH will induce the deprotonation of OH- groups and therefore favor condensation. However, OH- is a highly efficient nucleophilic species and electron transfer from -OH groups can be facilitated by H+ in the immediate environment. This relationship means that higher and lower pH values are also able to promote condensation and hydrolysis, respectively. In silica-based systems, the reactions proceed by acidic catalysis at pH < 2.5 and basic catalysis when pH < 2.5 ,which can be explained by the isoelectric point of silica at pH 2.5.

In the sol-gel route synthesis, a stepwise reaction scheme has been undertaken to control the ratio of hydrolysis to condensation rates. In general, the rate of hydrolysis is fast compared to that of condensation in strong acidic conditions. Therefore, a well-ordered hexagonal arrangement of mesopores (a pore structure that is commonly formed in sol-gel silica materials) is formed at low pH in acidic conditions. Meanwhile, in neutral or basic conditions ranging from pH 7 to pH 9, the rate of condensation is faster than that of hydrolysis, and eventually the materials prepared by a single-step reaction at high pH display a gel-like structure often without mesopores. However, the higher electronegativity of transition metal species as compared to silicon and phosphorus can cause issues where condensation reactions proceed with an unfavorable bias away from the desired network composition or the end particulate structure.

Like silicon, phosphorus and vanadium precursors can be used as network-formers within the sol-gel process. This difference in network connectivity results in a more relaxed network structure when compared to silica-based networks, as silicate is able to share all four oxygen atoms with neighboring cationic groups. This in turn increases the range and quantity of species that are able to be included, but such flexibility comes at the expense of stability, as the high electronegativity of the =O bond leaves the network open to hydrolysis. As with conventional melt-derived materials, solubility can be controlled by the combination of network modifiers, as can the release of active agents or tailoring of other physical properties of the material in question.

The solvent itself also plays an important role in determining the rate of gelation reactions. This solvation effect can occur in two ways: through viscosity or hydration effects. However, the solvent is shown to alter the NiO2 crystalline structure, which serves to highlight the need for experimental confirmation as, with such a variety of avenues available to exploit, comes as set of variables that must also be controlled, including the effects of viscosity, or more precisely the dielectric constant.

By altering the solvent species from that of the alkoxide itself, the substrate can become coordinated with a mixture of alkoxy groups. Undoubtedly, this would affect polymerization in a way that is dependent on a specific combination of coordinated groups present on network-forming substrates throughout the solution.

The initial Si-O-Si bridges that are formed can be further strengthened by passive deposition of silica on the initial bridge as a result of the equilibrium orthosilicic acid Si(OH)4, and the silica making up the mass of the colloids. Furthermore, colloidal sol-gel methods are not limited to silica or silica-based systems.

The applicability of the colloidal methods is based on two key aspects of the process stabilization of the colloidal particles within the sol and coalescence or flocculation to form the gel. With particles that possess the same electrostatic charge, colloidal suspensions are maintained by the potential, which in turn reflects the magnitude of the electrical double layer present on charged particles in solution. As noted above, the removal of the solvent is one method by which the aggegation of colloidal particles can be achieved. Alternatively, altering the pH, salinity or temperature can induce depeptization, whereby the electrical double layer is reduced to a point where the potential is no longer strong enough to prevent attractive Van der Waals forces and flocculation takes place.

Despite the potential of colloidal methods to provide much thicker, more structurally resistant films and deposits than methods that rely on de novo synthesis,** this route has seen the least number of applications within biomedical research. The gelation rate correlates well with the structural stability of the encapsulated proteins and serves to demonstrate an ability to circumvent conditions that would otherwise damage sensitive molecules. For certain applications however, the colloidal sol-gel method does not provide the degree of protection required.

Colloidal methods offer a further benefit over alkoxide based systems in that the majority of the network is already present in the sol. Adaptations such as the introduction of osmoprotectants can therefore be applied without significantly interfering with the integrity of inorganic capsule itself.

c. Metal chelation in the sol-gel

In aqueous solution, metal ions are coordinated by a hydration shell, the nature of which depends both on the valence of the specific metal in question and the pH of the solution. This ultimately results in the formation of polymeric oxides in solution.

The hydroxy-ligand thus formed is able to act as a bridge between the two hydrated metal complexes. This results in the release of a proton into the aqueous medium and is followed by a subsequent deprotonation event resulting in a M-O-M covalent bond. From this brief description alone, the influence of pH on the process can also be deduced. An increase in pH favoring olation and the lower pH inhibiting the process.

Undoubtedly, materials composed of metal oxides exhibit a wide range of desirable properties and as a result, a series of methods have been developed based on chelation of metal precursors in order to control the natural polymerization processes. Essentially, metal chelation sol-gel methods employ strong chelating agents (such as citric acid or EDTA) as a means of controlling the formation of the highly reactive hydrated complexes.

Although discussed here in terms of chelated inorganic precursors, chelation itself is not limited to inorganic processes. Such methods can also be applied to modify the polycondensation of metal alkoxides whereby the rate of reaction is reduced following the replacement of alkoxide, leaving groups with a chelating ligand in more stable conformation.

In further discerning metal chelation methods from the alkoxide sol-gel route, the underlying principle is that polycondensation of the metal itself occurs through hydration processes described above, as opposed to the hydrolysis and condensation steps akin to the polymerization of organometallic precursors.

Based on a system that made use of triethanolamine as an Fe(II) chelating agent, triethanolamine is able to form chelation complexes with a wide range of transition metal elements, therefore offering a plausible route for further biologically relevant substitutions within the network.

The use of epoxides as gelation agents provides another useful synthesis pathway. Typically, epoxide routes are most effective when the formal oxidation state of the dopant cation is M+3, although species that possess a lower valence may also be incorporated. In this instance, the epoxide does not act as a precursor per se. Rather, the epoxide group is able to efficiently accept protons, leading to the formation of hydrated oxo-ligands M(H2O)n(O)m-n)+2 coordination until deprotonation in the presence of an epoxide.

Although not strictly a chelation-base methods parallels can be observed between this approach and the more typical chelation methods that aim to prevent natural polymerization processes until required.

d. Polymer assisted sol-gel

In a natural extension from metal chelates methods are the polymeric sol-gel methods. Essentially these methods involved the chelation of reactive inorganic gel-forming agents within an organic polymer network although, depending on the material to be produced, chelation is secondary to stabilization. In broader terms, gel forming agents are maintained within in a state of dispersion throughout the solution, thereby preventing the precipitation of aggregates within the sol. This method does however require subsequent heat treatment to remove the organic polymer following the formation of the inorganic gel.

Chemical properties,such as the biomimetic*** molar ratios of apatites, can also be achieved with polymer assisted stabilization due to the homogeneous elemental distribution of the gel network.

Inorganic networks can also be formed in situ through the polymerization of organic precursors. This method involves the formation of a three-dimensional polyester network resulting from the reaction between ethylene glycol and citric acid. The citric acid acts as a chelation agent due to an available bi-dentate binding mechanism followed by an esterification with ethylene glycol (Fig. 7). The organic network would be removed as with ex situ polymers as described above.

Figure 7 - Esterification (condensation) of ethylene glycol and citrate in the presence of a cationic ligand (calcium).

Effective production of both biocompatible ceramic-mineral composites and apatites with predefined stoichiometry has been achieved, with polymer-assisted sol-gel methods. Such research may also have broader implications than in solving issues associated with biocompatibility as, with the advent of controlled deposition of inorganic mineral layers, a biotic hard tissue regeneration may also be within reach.

e. Silica-based sol-gel materials

Silica-based sol-gel materials have been the subject of intense interest for the last three decades. Biomolecular encapsulation within sol-gel-derived silica matrices was first successfully achieved by entrapping enzymes into TEOS matrices.

During the last few decades, silica-based materials have supplied successful solutions for soft and hard tissue regeneration. These materials are highly biocompatible and the positive biological effects of their reaction products make them an interesting group of materials for tissue regeneration. Silica-based bio-reactive glasses were first synthesized via a sol-gel technique at lower processing temperatures compared to the melt derived glasses. Extensively researched sol-gel glasses were based on the SiO2-ONa-P2O3 system for biomedical apllications. Silica-based sol-gel glasses exhibit many of the properties associated with an ideal material for tissue regeneration, such as high surface area and a porous structure, in terms of overall porosity and pore size, that promote cell-material interactions and cell invasion. Research on these glasses showed that their porous structure exhibits a higher surface area that exhibits higher tissue bonding rates.

A sol-gel process, involving the foaming of a sol with the aid of a surfactant, followed by condensation and gelation reactions, has been used to prepare porous scaffolds of a few bioglasses, such as the glass designated with the composition (mol%): 40 SiO2-2O-ONa-2P2O3. The as-prepared scaffold had an overall microstructure similar to that of dry human trabecular bone, but the pore structure was hierarchical consisting of interconnected macropores <90 microns, resulting from the forming process and mesopores that are inherent to the sol-gel process.

Figure 8 - Plan-view SEM micrographs of porous alumina film surfaces that were formed by AFM nano-indentation, followed by anodic oxidation at 40 V using 0.15M oxalic acid for 5 min. Indentation force was 4.16105 N. The indentation interval was varied from 55 to 110 nm. (Shingubara, et al., 2002).

Figure 8 illustrates the porous structure of the scaffolds made of bio-active glasses produced by means of the sol-gel processes. This hierarchical pore structure of the scaffolds is beneficial for stimulating interaction with cells as it mimics the hierarchical structure of many natural tissues and more closely simulates the physiological environment of mineralized tissues. Thanks to the nanopores in the glass, sol-gel derived scaffolds have a very high surface area (100-150 m2/g). As a result, these scaffolds degrade and convert faster to via a hard anodizing process than those of melt-derived glass with the same composition. However, these sol-gel-derived scaffolds have a relatively low compressive strength, and consequently, they are primarily suitable for applications focused on low load bearing orthopedic sites.

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Nanostructure of the Anodic and Nanomaterials Sol-Gel Based Materials Application: Advances in Surface Engineering - Products Finishing Magazine

Evelyn Hu delivers 2020 Dresselhaus Lecture on leveraging defects at the nanoscale – MIT News

Harvard University Professor Evelyn Hu opened the 2020 Mildred S. Dresselhaus Lecture with a question: In an imperfect world, is perfection a necessary precursor for transformative advances in science and engineering?

Over the course of the next hour, for a virtual audience of nearly 300, the Tarr-Coyne Professor of Applied Physics and Electrical Engineering at the John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences at Harvard University argued that, at the nanoscale, there must be more creative ways to approach materials. By looking at what nature gives us in terms of electron energy levels, phonons, and a variety of processes, Hu said, scientists can re-engineer the properties of materials.

To illustrate her point, Hu described the effect of defects vacancies or missing atoms in otherwise perfect crystalline semiconductors. In transforming these defects, Hu demonstrated how unique properties at the nanoscale involving quantum confinement can profoundly change electron density of states. Hus talk exemplified the exceptional scholarship and leadership that have defined her career, says Vladimir Bulovi, the founding faculty director of MIT.nano.

Professor Hu has developed groundbreaking techniques for designing at the nanoscale, used those techniques to produce extraordinary innovations, and extended her impact through inspirational mentorship and teaching, says Bulovi, who is also the Fariborz Maseeh Professor of Emerging Technologies. We were honored to have her present this years Dresselhaus Lecture."

Hu attended the same high school as Dresselhaus Hunter College High School in New York City a coincidence that was like a good luck talisman to me, she said. It gives me such great pleasure to try and express my gratefulness to Millie for all the guidance and mentorship shes given to me from the time I was a graduate student and the inspiration that she's given to us all.

2020 Mildred S. Dresselhaus Lecture: Evelyn Hu, Harvard University

Making a perfect material less perfect

Inspired by Dresselhauss work in the early 1990s to rethink thermoelectric materials, Hus research group is working on new ways to engineer materials that can exhibit a combination of photon correlation and spin coherence. Her talk showcased how silicon vacancies in silicon carbide, when integrated within nanoscale optical cavities, can result in a controlled output of light. The integrated defect-cavity system can also serve as a nanoscope into the material, allowing scientists to learn about the interactions with surrounding defects, providing broader insights into long-term quantum coherence.

Hu displayed an image of a perfect, single crystal semiconductor, then quickly disrupted that perfection by removing the silicon atoms to create a silicon vacancy. Changing the material in this way allows her to look for opportunities, she said. Think of vacancies not as something missing, Hu explained, but as atom-like entities with particular electronic and spin states embedded in a complex, wide bandgap environment. The silicon vacancy has ground and electronic states. It also has an electron spin.

In order to obtain enough signal from this single atomic scale defect, Hu manipulates the nanoscale to create an integrated environment for the silicon vacancies that she calls a cavity. Think of this as a breakout room, she says. A place our atomic-scale silicon vacancy can be in an intimate and isolated conversation with its environment.

The cavity recycles the photon energy as it goes back and forth between the emitter and this environment. When the silicon vacancy is placed within this cavity, the signal-to-noise is enormously better, Hu said.

At the end of her lecture, Hu answered audience questions ranging from scalability of her work and mathematical models that enumerate these discoveries, to limiting factors and the use of molecules as active spin states as compared to crystalline semiconductors. Hu concluded her talk by reflecting on Dresselhauss legacy, not only as a great scientist but as someone who was beloved.

This word, she says, means a degree of trust, of willingness to follow, to believe, to listen to. For a scientist and engineer to be beloved in that way, and to have trust in that way, makes the difference between effectiveness and the ability to affect change.

Honoring Mildred S. Dresselhaus

Hu was the second speaker to deliver the Dresselhaus Lecture. Established in 2019 to honor the late MIT physics and electrical engineering professor Mildred Dresselhaus, the Queen of Carbon Science, the annual event features a speaker selected by a committee of MIT faculty from a list of nominations submitted by the MIT community, scholars from other institutions and research laboratories, and members of the general public. The process and lecture are coordinated by MIT.nano, an open access facility for nanoscience and nanoengineering of which Dresselhaus was a strong faculty supporter.

Muriel Mdard, the Cecil H. Green Professor in MITs Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, opened the lecture with an invitation to nominate candidates for a new honor named for Dresselhaus by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). Established in 2019, the IEEE Mildred Dresselhaus Medal will honor an individual for outstanding technical contributions in science and engineering of great impact to IEEE fields of interest. Were really looking for people who have had an impact that goes beyond the technical, says Mdard. Do consider nominating a worthy colleague, somebody whom you feel reflects well the kind of qualities that made Millie so remarkable.

Nominations for the 2021 Dresselhaus Lecture are broadly accepted and can be submitted on MIT.nanos website at any time. Any significant figure in science and engineering from anywhere in the world may be nominated.

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Evelyn Hu delivers 2020 Dresselhaus Lecture on leveraging defects at the nanoscale - MIT News

COVID-19 airborne transmission research suggests potential therapies | University of Hawaii System News – UH System Current News

A new University of Hawaii at Mnoa College of Engineering review article presents a breakthrough in multidisciplinary understanding of the airborne transmission of COVID-19 and researchers say they hope the findings will contribute to future public health guidance.

There have been more than 70 million confirmed COVID-19 cases worldwide. However, despite the urgency of the pandemic, the physical modes of COVID-19 transmission are still poorly understood. In particular, transmission by aerosols has recently come under focus. Aerosols are microscopic airborne particles that, due to their small size, can remain suspended in air for a long time, instead of falling directly to the ground.

An integrated review published in ACS Nano by mechanical engineering Professor Yi Zuo and Assistant Professor William Uspal, together with Associate Professor Tao Wei from Howard University, covers the entire exhalation-to-infection pathway. Drawing on aerodynamics, thermodynamics, molecular biophysics and other fields, their review considers how infectious aerosols disperse in the air, deposit in the lung and interact with cell receptors.

During our review of the previous research, we found that a lot of cutting-edge research has not yet been integrated into public health guidelines in understanding COVID-19 transmission, Zuo said. Furthermore, we realized just how much engineering perspectives still have to contribute to the effort against the pandemic.

The team believes that its review may stimulate the development of mitigation approaches, such as ventilation protocols, and new therapeutic interventions, such as surfactant therapy to alleviate COVID-19-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome. Surfactants are substances that, when added to water, reduce surface tension. In several ongoing clinical trials worldwide, natural surfactants extracted from animals lungs have been given to ventilated COVID-19 patients as a supportive therapy to ease breathing, and provide more time for other therapeutic interventions.

According to Uspal, the most urgent message is, Wear masks. Masks are particularly effective for large droplets. Ideally, masks worn by infected, but asymptomatic people would filter out most exhaled droplets before they have a chance to shrink by evaporation and become aerosols.

Zuos research is funded by the National Science Foundation, and Uspals research is funded by the American Chemical Society Petroleum Research Fund.

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COVID-19 airborne transmission research suggests potential therapies | University of Hawaii System News - UH System Current News

Engineers awarded for ongoing research excellence – News – The University of Sydney

Professor Anna Paradowska

Professor Anna Paradowska has been named recipient of the Australian Neutron Beam Users Group (ANBUG) Neutron Award for her outstanding research in neutron science and leadership promoting the Australian neutron scattering community.

Professor Paradowska has pioneered industrial engagement at Australias Nuclear Science and Technology Organisations (ANSTO) Australian Centre for Neutron Scattering (ACNS), utilising neutron scattering techniques to solve industry problems with particular focus on advanced manufacturing.

Over the years, Professor Paradowska has developed successful collaborations with Australian and global industry as well as universities in the area of advanced and additive manufacturing.

The primary goal of her research is to relate residual-stresses, mechanical and metallurgical properties to manufacturing procedures and integrity requirements of engineering components.

I am delighted with this peer recognition as it is a fantastic feelingto know that my research contributions are being seen and appreciatedby the community, said Professor Paradowska, a co-appointed Professor Practice between the School of Civil Engineering and ANSTO.

Neutron scattering has an enormouspotential to help solve range of industry problems, and the full potential of those various method is yet to be discovered by the industry.

The award is the latest achievement for the international expert in neutron diffraction stress analysis, having previously been named recipient of the ASM Henry Marion Howe Medal for co-authoring materials paperIn Situ Study of the Stress Relaxation During Aging of Nickel-Base Superalloy Forgings.

The ASM Henry Marion Howe Medal is a prestigious prize intended to honour the author(s) whose paper has been selected as the best of those published in a specific volume ofMetallurgical and Materials Transactions.

As part of the project, Paradowska measured residual stresses in the superalloys duringin situheat treatmentson theKowari strain scannerand the same procedure was repeated at other neutron facilities.

The results demonstrated that thenewly-developed induction heating setup could be repeated successfullyon several instruments across three continents and reassure the scientific and industrial community that residual stress relaxation can be measured accurately and systematically.

Furthermore, Professor Jun Huang and Professor Marcela Bilek, who are also members of the University of Sydney Nano Institute have also been honoured for their engineering work.

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Engineers awarded for ongoing research excellence - News - The University of Sydney

New Horizons for research through new adventurous research projects – The University of Manchester

Dr Golovanov, who leads this research, said: The ability to deliver significant amount of light, at any wavelength, within extremely constrained geometry of the NMR instruments allows us to look in real time at any phototransformations as they happen in front of our eyes in the NMR tube. It can be anything photoreactions, photoenzymes, photo-controlled conformational switches or nano-machines anything.

New Horizons forms part of UKRIs wider Reforming our Business agenda to simplify and streamline processes and practice across the organisation.

Elsewhere at The University of Manchester, Professor Catherine Powell intends to develop new algorithms for forward uncertainty quantification, which allows us to understand how uncertain inputs in mathematical models affects predictions of outcomes of interest. This could have a transformative effect on a wide range of engineering applications involving physics-based models.

EPSRCs 2019 Delivery Plan highlighted the desire to continue promoting excellence in research by investing in new approaches to delivery that are optimised to the specific researcher base and research outputs desired.

Science Minister Amanda Solloway said:It is critical we give the UKs best researchers the resources to drive forward their revolutionary ideas so they can focus on identifying solutions to some of the worlds greatest challenges, such as climate change.

This government funding will allow some of our brightest mathematicians and physicists to channel all their creative ingenuity into achieving potentially life-changing scientific breakthroughs from mathematics informing how we save our rainforests to robotics that will help track cancer faster.

EPSRC Executive Chair, Professor Dame Lynn Gladden, said:New Horizons reflects EPSRCs commitment to funding creative, transformative and ambitious new ideas across our portfolio. In this pilot, we have funded more than 100 projects in the mathematical and physical sciences.

The scheme also piloted a new, simplified applications process designed to minimise the administrative burden of submitting grant applications, thereby enabling researchers to focus on developing their research ideas.

The call for proposals attracted a very positive response in terms of both the number and quality of applications and we look forward to exploring how to include the approaches taken through New Horizons in further areas of our portfolio.

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New Horizons for research through new adventurous research projects - The University of Manchester

New collaboration provides opportunity for future water scientists and engineers – Cranfield University

The first cohort of IWA-Cranfield Scholarship winners have commenced their journey to become the next generation of water scientists and engineers.

Awarded scholarships by the International Water Association and Cranfield, the students will develop their technical understanding and business skills to become leaders in the worldwide fight to improve the resilience and sustainability of water supply and sanitation systems and protect the natural environment.

Selected from more than 500 high quality applicants, 14 full-fee scholarships were awarded by the University across three MSc courses: Water & Wastewater Engineering, Advanced Water Management and Water & Sanitation for Development.

Safe water and sanitation for all

Sharriff Irfan Ulla is one of the recipients of the scholarships and is studying on the Advanced Water Management MSc. He said: It is my desire to take the principle of water should be an essential right, not an entity of privilege forward by making safe water and sanitation available at household level and creating independent water management as standard practice. In a developing country like India, managing water is one of the most significant challenges. I believe that a holistic approach to water management practices will ensure quality water availability for future generations.

Increasing the skills base

Professor Paul Jeffrey, Director of the Water theme at Cranfield University, said: These scholarships across our full range of postgraduate programmes will help develop the next generation of leaders that we desperately need in the water industry, both in the UK and around the world.

If we are to realise the UN Sustainable Development Goal of ensuring availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all, then we need to increase the skills base of water scientists and engineers, who can help develop the solutions to these global challenges.

Im extremely grateful for the support of the International Water Association in enabling us to provide these scholarships - together, we are both committed to training and nurturing future technical specialists and leaders for the global water sector.

Nasreen Nasar is also one of the recipients of the scholarships. She said: The Cranfield-IWA excellence scholarship provides an ideal platform to foster and equip future scientists and engineers to take on the current and future challenges in the water and wastewater sector. This resonated very well with my career aspiration, which led me to apply for it. By studying the MSc on Water and Wastewater Engineering at Cranfield University while getting involved with the IWA, Im looking to be a part of a dynamic group of scientists and engineers who are at the forefront of redefining the concept and functionality of water and wastewater treatment plants in the context of a circular economy. It is truly an honour to be selected for this highly esteemed scholarship.

Scientists and engineers at Cranfield are involved in a number of projects that are seeking technological solutions to global challenges of inadequate sanitation, reliable water quality for communities and the impacts of flood and drought on farming. The work on the Nano Membrane Toilet, funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, is just one example.

You can find out more about the next funded scholarships here.

About the IWA

The International Water Association (IWA) is a network and an international global knowledge hub open to all water professionals and anyone committed to the future of water. With its legacy of over seventy years, it connects water professionals around the world to find solutions to global water challenges as part of a broader sustainability agenda.

As a non-profit organisation and with a membership in more than 140 countries, the IWA connects scientists with professionals and communities so that pioneering research offers sustainable solutions for a water-wise world. In addition, the association promotes and supports technological innovation and best practices through international frameworks and standards. For more information, please visit iwa-network.org.

Cranfield Universityis a specialist postgraduate university that is a global leader for education and transformational research in technology and management.

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New collaboration provides opportunity for future water scientists and engineers - Cranfield University

First of its kind at U of T: MIE launches specialized course in 3D printing – U of T Engineering News

The Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering (MIE) is launching a new course to train students in additive manufacturing, commonly known as 3D printing. Launching in Winter 2021, it is the first course of its kind at U of T.

MIE1724: Additive Manufacturing in Engineering Applications focuses specifically on the rapidly evolving and lucrative field, which generates upwards of $13 billion in yearly revenue and is applicable to numerous sectors.

The course is the creation of alumnus Ali Radhi (MIE PhD 1T9), who wanted to provide a graduate-level specialized class that looks at the process of designing and building cost-effective and timely products using novel materials and hardware.

Radhi spoke to MIEs Kendra Hunter about the new course and preparing todays students for the design and fabrication of complex structures.

What inspired you to create this course?

At MIE, I have been involved in the design of lightweight structures and saw there was room to further bridge the fields of materials and manufacturing through a new course. A recent trend in 3D printing is to produce complex structures using materials with properties not usually found in nature, such as invisibility cloaks, and I wanted to address this while giving singular focus to the field of additive manufacturing, 3D printing and their respective applications. Professor Tobin Filleters MIE 1744: Nanomechanics of Materials provided inspiration in expanding this area of knowledge and from there, MIE1724 took shape.

What can students expect from this course?

The course introduces various types of additive manufacturing approaches, including multi-material 3D printing, micro/nano additive manufacturing and 3D bioprinting. MIE1724 is also designed to show the limitation of selected additive manufacturing methods. Characterization of additive manufacturing parts is included as a major course outcome. Ithelps students to integrate design for additive manufacturing aspects in industry product fabrication.

Students get to learn about new 3D printing technologies, and how they are applied to solve problems in security, automation, and more.

The course will first introduce the concept of 3D printing, and then will move into computer-aided design (CAD) for additive manufacturing. Currently, students can request parts to be 3D printed through the Myhal Centres Fabrication Facility but once it is safe to do, they will be able to receive training to use the facility for their own education and research.

How does this course benefit degree and career options?

3D printing is now the primary method of prototyping. More recently, it became the sole method for end-use part production for highly complex structures and/or material content. Dedicated post-secondary education in 3D printing helps fill the talent gap in additive manufacturing as global revenue from these technologies has jumped from $4 billion to $13 billion from 2014 to 2018.

Additive manufacturing shortens design and production processes by enabling companies to streamline prototyping activities, alter supply chains, and evolve end-product manufacturing. The market is growing at a rapid pace and people with a specialization in additive manufacturing will be in demand.

Did you design MIE1724 strictly as an engineering course for engineering students?

No, in fact this course is open to all U of T students. 3D printing is of great interest to many fields such as medicine, architecture and dentistry. The course is structured to highlight the technologys potential, process and applications in those fields and much more. The course also addresses unique fields, such as textiles and cosmetics, and how this technology can be applied. Additionally, the areas of information science, education and graphic design also benefit with over 250 applications of additive manufacturing that can be incorporated into their daily use of technology.

How did your PhD studies at MIE help you develop the skills to create MIE1724?

The PhD program provided a lot of exposure to state-of-the-art fabrication technologies. 3D printing was one of those avenues, and I took part in design projects and competitions that employed such technologies within the facilities at U of T. Furthermore, the teaching assistant and instructor opportunities from the University helped me to identify the knowledge gap in 3D printing from U of Ts broad list of advanced courses. During my PhD studies, collaboration with fellow research groups aided my own research through sharing of knowledge with my network as well as training in high- tech research facilities.

MIE1724 was inspired by Professor Filleter and Professor Eric Dillers (MIE) research both were helpful and supportive in providing insights for a proper scope and delivery for the course. Associate Chair of Graduate Studies for MIE, Professor Murray Thomson (MIE), provided support to address student expectations and Maximiliano Giuliani, Senior Facility Supervisor at the Myhal Centre for Engineering Innovation and Entrepreneurship, provided input on expected knowledge and training for students before using his facilities for 3D printing.

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First of its kind at U of T: MIE launches specialized course in 3D printing - U of T Engineering News

How Integrated Operations is Using a Breakthrough Misting Technology to Stop the Spread of Deadly Viruses and Bacteria – Iosco County News Herald

MACOMB COUNTY, Mich., Oct. 28, 2020 /PRNewswire/ --Consumers and businesses require due diligence to ensure they are opting for effective disinfection methods for dangerous viruses and bacteria. Many approaches are less effective than claimed and provide a false sense of security to people in environments that can be germ-ridden including schools, elder care facilities, offices, etc.

To achieve effective protection against surface and airborne germs, engineer, former auto executive and founder of Integrated Operations, Nick Jaksa, has introduced a new line of disinfection equipment that uses ultra-fine misting technology to provide complete coverage towards the elimination of deadly viruses and bacteria.

Current methods of disinfection, including sprays and UVC light, are only effective on areas that are directly touched by the spray or exposed to the light. These methods provide temporary spot elimination of germs, and surfaces may remain contaminated due to inadequate coverage of hard to reach places or insufficient exposure time it takes to cover all surfaces. Integrated Operations' Viral Defense systems utilize a fine mist of nano-particles, allowing the mist to disperse and cover an entire area touching all surfaces. The same misting technology can safely deactivate viruses on people using walk-through booths.

A simple analogy: when one compares fog to rain, both will carry moisture; however, only the fog will reach and surround all places due to the minute water particles while the larger raindrops cannot due to their size and weight. The smaller the particles in the fog or mist, the more effectively they will disperse and reach all surfaces before gravity pulls them down. The fine nano-sized particles in the Viral Defense misting system disperses in seconds to eliminate germs in environments or on people.

Viral Defense technology offers several disinfectant solutions that are chosen based on where and how it is being used. Other common disinfectant solutions that are salt-based are highly corrosive and should be used with care, especially around electronics, particularly in medical/dental treatment rooms, and in offices with computers and other sensitive equipment. One of the Viral Defense disinfectant solutions utilizes a colloidal silver base which is naturally anti-viral, anti-bacterial and non-corrosive. There is an added benefit to using colloidal silver: not only will it deactivate viruses and kills bacteria, the nano-silver solution will provide 24 hours of protection!

"The most comprehensive disinfection ensures that we are not carrying germs on our person nor transporting them on our things, and that they are not present in the environments we enter. Combined with mask wearing and hand washing, it's a highly effective means of protection against bacteria and deadly viruses," says Jaksa.

The breakthrough Viral Defense misting technology is being utilized in walk- through misting booths for full body disinfection, and in mobile systems that thoroughly disinfect surfaces, including rooms, hallways, vehicles, etc. The entire process takes seconds, and the amount of solution needed costs pennies. This is an excellent option for medical/dental treatment rooms, schools, assisted living facilities, retail stores, theatres, restaurants, sporting and entertainment events and other venues that should disinfect on a regular basis.

Through Jaksa's work overseas, he discovered a similar disinfection system in Vietnam, a country that is about one-third the size of the U.S. and has fewer than 1200 cases of Covid-19 with 35 deaths. Jaksa and his team of engineering and medical experts are focused on keeping people and places safe from germs."This is not the first epidemic we have faced nor will it be the last. Our goal is to make technology available that can combat harmful germs today and in the future," concludes Jaksa.

Media Contact:Alise Kreditor516-482-4866257765@email4pr.com

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How Integrated Operations is Using a Breakthrough Misting Technology to Stop the Spread of Deadly Viruses and Bacteria - Iosco County News Herald

Senior Research Assistant in Experimental Condensed Matter Physics job with THE UNIVERSITY OF HONG KONG | 230871 – Times Higher Education (THE)

Work type: Full-timeDepartment: Department of Physics (25600)Categories: Academic-related Staff, Research Support Staff

Applications are invited for appointment asSenior Research Assistant in Experimental Condensed Matter Physics in the Department of Physics(Ref.: 502385) to commence as soon as possible for one year, with the possibility of renewal subject to satisfactory performance.

Applicants should possess a Masters degree or above in Physics or Mechanical Engineering, or in relevant disciplines with comprehensive experience in Perovskite materials, and/or 3D printing, and/or nano-electronics. Preference will be given to those with a Ph.D. degree in a related area, or who are expecting to complete the degree before March 2021. The appointee will conduct researches on thermoelectric properties of Perovskite nanowires grown by a state-of-art 3D printing technique under the joint supervision of Dr. DongKeun Ki (e-mail: dkki@hku.hk; https://www.physics.hku.hk/~dkkilab/) in Physics and Dr. Jitae Kim (e-mail: jtkim@hku.hk; https://sites.google.com/site/kimlabhku/) in Mechanical Engineering.

A highly competitive salary commensurate with qualifications and experience will be offered, in addition to annual leave and medical benefits.

The University only accepts online application for the above post. Applicants should apply online and upload an up-to-date C.V. and a cover letter, preferably with academic transcript(s) and a publication list.Review of applications will commence as soon as possible and continue untilJanuary 8, 2021, or until the post is filled, whichever is earlier.

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Senior Research Assistant in Experimental Condensed Matter Physics job with THE UNIVERSITY OF HONG KONG | 230871 - Times Higher Education (THE)

Small Satellite Market Size to Hit USD 9.75 Billion by 2027; Presence of Several Large Scale Companies will have a Positive Impact on Market Growth,…

Pune, Oct. 28, 2020 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- The global small satellite market size is projected to reach USD 9.75 billion by the end of 2027. The increasing number of space programs across the world will emerge in favor of market growth. According to a report published by Fortune Business Insights, titled Small Satellite Market Size, Share & COVID-19 Impact Analysis, By Type (Mini, Micro, Nano), Component (Structures, Payload, Electric Power System, Solar Panel and Antennas System, Propulsion System, Others), Application (Communication, Navigation, Earth Observation, Technology Development, Others), End-User (Commercial, Civil, Military, Government), and Regional Forecast, 2020-2027, the market was worth USD 3.07 billion and will exhibit a CAGR of 18.99% during the forecast period, 2020-2027.

Small satellites are widely used in several space applications including observational and functional purposes. These satellites have a lower massas well as the size and require lesserpropellant fuel than conventional satellites. The increasing demand for small satellites is consequential to the rising awareness as well as debates surrounding high fuel consumption in larger satellites. The huge investments in the research and development of small satellites will bode well for the growth of the market in the coming years. An increasing number of observational space programs by globally renowned organizations such as ISRO and NASA will give the platform for growth for the companies operating in the small satellite market.

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Covid-19 Pandemic to Halt Production of Proposed Satellites

The recent coronavirus outbreak has had a drastic impact on several businesses across the world. Due to the rapid spread of the disease governments across the world have been compelled to implement strict measures with the aim to curb the spread of the disease. As a result, people have been advised to stay indoors which has ultimately led to a shortage of labor and workforce across the world. Thus several space programs that were lined up during the pandemic have been delayed. Moreover, the coronavirus outbreak has also brought a halt in the production of proposed satellites. These factors have had a direct negative impact on the small satellite market in the past few months. Having said that the efforts taken to recover these economic losses will bring relief to manufacturers in the small satellite sector.

Increasing Number of Company Mergers and Acquisitions will Emerge in Favor of Market Growth

The report encompasses several factors that have contributed to the growth of the overall market in recent years. Accounting to the massive demand for small satellites across the world, larger organizations and businesses are looking to collaborate as well as acquire companies in the mid-level brackets. As a result, there has been an increase in the number of company collaborations and mergers across the world in the past two decades. In February 2020, rocket labs announced that it has signed a contract with NASA,through which it will work onNASAsplans to launch small satellitesto the moon in 2021. The contract is said to be worth an estimated USD 15.5 million. This contract will not just benefit the company but will also encourage other companies of the similar stature as well as small scale businesses. The increasing number of such company collaborations will bode well for the growth of the market in the coming years.

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North America to Emerge Dominant; Presence of Several Large Scale Companies will Emerge in Favor of Market Growth

The report analyzes the ongoing market trends across five major regions. Among all regions, the market in North America is expected to hold the largest market share in the coming years. The presence of several large scale space organizations in the US will have a positive impact on the growth of the market in the coming years. As of 2019, the market in North America was worth USD 1.91 billion, and this value is projected to rise at a considerable pace in the coming years. Besides North America, the market in Asia Pacific will rise at a considerable pace driven by rapid urbanization across the region.

List of the Leading Companies Profiled in the Global Small Satellite Marketare:

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Industry Developments:

April 2020: VOX Space announced that it has signed a contract with the U.S. Space Force (USSF). Through this contract, the company will work towards USSFs plans for the launch of three small satellite missions delivering multiple spacecraft to orbit for the Department of Defense (DoD) Space Test Program- S28 (STP-28).

Have a Look at Related Research Insights:

Satellite Communication Market Size, Share & Industry Analysis, By Component (Receiver, Transmitter/Transponder, Transceiver, Antenna, Modem/Router), By Technology (Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT), SATCOM-On-The-Move (SOTM), SATCOM-On-The-Pause (SOTP), SATCOM Telemetry), By Platform (Commercial and Government & Defense), By End-Use (Portable equipment, Land equipment, Maritime equipment), and Regional Forecast, 2019-2026

US Reusable Launch Vehicle Market Size, Share & Industry Analysis, By Type (Partially Reusable and Fully Reusable), By Stage (Single Stage and Multi-Stage), By Orbit Type (Low Earth Orbit and Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit), and Regional Forecast, 2019-2026

Satellite Payload Market Size, Share & COVID-19 Impact Analysis, By Payload Type (Communication, Imaging, Navigation, and Others), By Vehicle Type (Small, Medium-to-heavy), By Orbit (GEO, LEO, and MEO), By Application (Weather Monitoring, Telecommunication, Scientific Research, Surveillance, Others), By End-Use (Commercial and Military) and Regional Forecasts, 2020-2027

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Small Satellite Market Size to Hit USD 9.75 Billion by 2027; Presence of Several Large Scale Companies will have a Positive Impact on Market Growth,...

Impact Of Covid 19 On 3D Print Materials Industry 2020 Market Challenges, Business Overview And Forecast Research Study 2026 – The Think Curiouser

3D Print Materials Market Data and Acquisition Research Study with Trends and Opportunities 2019-2024The study of 3D Print Materials market is a compilation of the market of 3D Print Materials broken down into its entirety on the basis of types, application, trends and opportunities, mergers and acquisitions, drivers and restraints, and a global outreach. The detailed study also offers a board interpretation of the 3D Print Materials industry from a variety of data points that are collected through reputable and verified sources. Furthermore, the study sheds a lights on a market interpretations on a global scale which is further distributed through distribution channels, generated incomes sources and a marginalized market space where most trade occurs.

Along with a generalized market study, the report also consists of the risks that are often neglected when it comes to the 3D Print Materials industry in a comprehensive manner. The study is also divided in an analytical space where the forecast is predicted through a primary and secondary research methodologies along with an in-house model.

Download PDF Sample of 3D Print Materials Market report @ https://hongchunresearch.com/request-a-sample/77278

Key players in the global 3D Print Materials market covered in Chapter 4:LEGOR GROUPFORMLTYPEEight Oclock Coffee PodsEXCELTECArevo LTypeLomiko MetalsNascent Objects, INCADVANCE3D MATERIALSCOOKSON PRECIOUSDSM SOMOSNano SteelEVONIKMaker JuiceGRAPHENE 3D LABARCAMMillstone K CupsCRP GROUPMETALSRahn AGAdvanced Powder and Coating

In Chapter 11 and 13.3, on the basis of types, the 3D Print Materials market from 2015 to 2026 is primarily split into:NylonAbsResinStainless SteelGold&SliverTitaniumCeramicGypsum

In Chapter 12 and 13.4, on the basis of applications, the 3D Print Materials market from 2015 to 2026 covers:AerospaceArchitectureEngineeringOthers

Geographically, the detailed analysis of consumption, revenue, market share and growth rate, historic and forecast (2015-2026) of the following regions are covered in Chapter 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 13:North America (Covered in Chapter 6 and 13)United StatesCanadaMexicoEurope (Covered in Chapter 7 and 13)GermanyUKFranceItalySpainRussiaOthersAsia-Pacific (Covered in Chapter 8 and 13)ChinaJapanSouth KoreaAustraliaIndiaSoutheast AsiaOthersMiddle East and Africa (Covered in Chapter 9 and 13)Saudi ArabiaUAEEgyptNigeriaSouth AfricaOthersSouth America (Covered in Chapter 10 and 13)BrazilArgentinaColumbiaChileOthers

For a global outreach, the 3D Print Materials study also classifies the market into a global distribution where key market demographics are established based on the majority of the market share. The following markets that are often considered for establishing a global outreach are North America, Europe, Asia, and the Rest of the World. Depending on the study, the following markets are often interchanged, added, or excluded as certain markets only adhere to certain products and needs.

Here is a short glance at what the study actually encompasses:Study includes strategic developments, latest product launches, regional growth markers and mergers & acquisitionsRevenue, cost price, capacity & utilizations, import/export rates and market shareForecast predictions are generated from analytical data sources and calculated through a series of in-house processes.

However, based on requirements, this report could be customized for specific regions and countries.

Brief about 3D Print Materials Market Report with [emailprotected]https://hongchunresearch.com/report/3d-print-materials-market-size-2020-77278

Some Point of Table of Content:

Chapter One: Report Overview

Chapter Two: Global Market Growth Trends

Chapter Three: Value Chain of 3D Print Materials Market

Chapter Four: Players Profiles

Chapter Five: Global 3D Print Materials Market Analysis by Regions

Chapter Six: North America 3D Print Materials Market Analysis by Countries

Chapter Seven: Europe 3D Print Materials Market Analysis by Countries

Chapter Eight: Asia-Pacific 3D Print Materials Market Analysis by Countries

Chapter Nine: Middle East and Africa 3D Print Materials Market Analysis by Countries

Chapter Ten: South America 3D Print Materials Market Analysis by Countries

Chapter Eleven: Global 3D Print Materials Market Segment by Types

Chapter Twelve: Global 3D Print Materials Market Segment by Applications12.1 Global 3D Print Materials Sales, Revenue and Market Share by Applications (2015-2020)12.1.1 Global 3D Print Materials Sales and Market Share by Applications (2015-2020)12.1.2 Global 3D Print Materials Revenue and Market Share by Applications (2015-2020)12.2 Aerospace Sales, Revenue and Growth Rate (2015-2020)12.3 Architecture Sales, Revenue and Growth Rate (2015-2020)12.4 Engineering Sales, Revenue and Growth Rate (2015-2020)12.5 Others Sales, Revenue and Growth Rate (2015-2020)

Chapter Thirteen: 3D Print Materials Market Forecast by Regions (2020-2026) continued

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List of tablesList of Tables and FiguresTable Global 3D Print Materials Market Size Growth Rate by Type (2020-2026)Figure Global 3D Print Materials Market Share by Type in 2019 & 2026Figure Nylon FeaturesFigure Abs FeaturesFigure Resin FeaturesFigure Stainless Steel FeaturesFigure Gold&Sliver FeaturesFigure Titanium FeaturesFigure Ceramic FeaturesFigure Gypsum FeaturesTable Global 3D Print Materials Market Size Growth by Application (2020-2026)Figure Global 3D Print Materials Market Share by Application in 2019 & 2026Figure Aerospace DescriptionFigure Architecture DescriptionFigure Engineering DescriptionFigure Others DescriptionFigure Global COVID-19 Status OverviewTable Influence of COVID-19 Outbreak on 3D Print Materials Industry DevelopmentTable SWOT AnalysisFigure Porters Five Forces AnalysisFigure Global 3D Print Materials Market Size and Growth Rate 2015-2026Table Industry NewsTable Industry PoliciesFigure Value Chain Status of 3D Print MaterialsFigure Production Process of 3D Print MaterialsFigure Manufacturing Cost Structure of 3D Print MaterialsFigure Major Company Analysis (by Business Distribution Base, by Product Type)Table Downstream Major Customer Analysis (by Region)Table LEGOR GROUP ProfileTable LEGOR GROUP Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020Table FORMLTYPE ProfileTable FORMLTYPE Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020Table Eight Oclock Coffee Pods ProfileTable Eight Oclock Coffee Pods Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020Table EXCELTEC ProfileTable EXCELTEC Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020Table Arevo LType ProfileTable Arevo LType Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020Table Lomiko Metals ProfileTable Lomiko Metals Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020Table Nascent Objects, INC ProfileTable Nascent Objects, INC Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020Table ADVANCE3D MATERIALS ProfileTable ADVANCE3D MATERIALS Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020Table COOKSON PRECIOUS ProfileTable COOKSON PRECIOUS Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020Table DSM SOMOS ProfileTable DSM SOMOS Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020Table Nano Steel ProfileTable Nano Steel Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020Table EVONIK ProfileTable EVONIK Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020Table Maker Juice ProfileTable Maker Juice Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020Table GRAPHENE 3D LAB ProfileTable GRAPHENE 3D LAB Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020Table ARCAM ProfileTable ARCAM Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020Table Millstone K Cups ProfileTable Millstone K Cups Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020Table CRP GROUP ProfileTable CRP GROUP Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020Table METALS ProfileTable METALS Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020Table Rahn AG ProfileTable Rahn AG Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020Table Advanced Powder and Coating ProfileTable Advanced Powder and Coating Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020Figure Global 3D Print Materials Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)Figure Global 3D Print Materials Revenue ($) and Growth (2015-2020)Table Global 3D Print Materials Sales by Regions (2015-2020)Table Global 3D Print Materials Sales Market Share by Regions (2015-2020)Table Global 3D Print Materials Revenue ($) by Regions (2015-2020)Table Global 3D Print Materials Revenue Market Share by Regions (2015-2020)Table Global 3D Print Materials Revenue Market Share by Regions in 2015Table Global 3D Print Materials Revenue Market Share by Regions in 2019Figure North America 3D Print Materials Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)Figure Europe 3D Print Materials Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)Figure Asia-Pacific 3D Print Materials Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)Figure Middle East and Africa 3D Print Materials Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)Figure South America 3D Print Materials Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)Figure North America 3D Print Materials Revenue ($) and Growth (2015-2020)Table North America 3D Print Materials Sales by Countries (2015-2020)Table North America 3D Print Materials Sales Market Share by Countries (2015-2020)Figure North America 3D Print Materials Sales Market Share by Countries in 2015Figure North America 3D Print Materials Sales Market Share by Countries in 2019Table North America 3D Print Materials Revenue ($) by Countries (2015-2020)Table North America 3D Print Materials Revenue Market Share by Countries (2015-2020)Figure North America 3D Print Materials Revenue Market Share by Countries in 2015Figure North America 3D Print Materials Revenue Market Share by Countries in 2019Figure United States 3D Print Materials Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)Figure Canada 3D Print Materials Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)Figure Mexico 3D Print Materials Sales and Growth (2015-2020)Figure Europe 3D Print Materials Revenue ($) Growth (2015-2020)Table Europe 3D Print Materials Sales by Countries (2015-2020)Table Europe 3D Print Materials Sales Market Share by Countries (2015-2020)Figure Europe 3D Print Materials Sales Market Share by Countries in 2015Figure Europe 3D Print Materials Sales Market Share by Countries in 2019Table Europe 3D Print Materials Revenue ($) by Countries (2015-2020)Table Europe 3D Print Materials Revenue Market Share by Countries (2015-2020)Figure Europe 3D Print Materials Revenue Market Share by Countries in 2015Figure Europe 3D Print Materials Revenue Market Share by Countries in 2019Figure Germany 3D Print Materials Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)Figure UK 3D Print Materials Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)Figure France 3D Print Materials Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)Figure Italy 3D Print Materials Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)Figure Spain 3D Print Materials Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)Figure Russia 3D Print Materials Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)Figure Asia-Pacific 3D Print Materials Revenue ($) and Growth (2015-2020)Table Asia-Pacific 3D Print Materials Sales by Countries (2015-2020)Table Asia-Pacific 3D Print Materials Sales Market Share by Countries (2015-2020)Figure Asia-Pacific 3D Print Materials Sales Market Share by Countries in 2015Figure Asia-Pacific 3D Print Materials Sales Market Share by Countries in 2019Table Asia-Pacific 3D Print Materials Revenue ($) by Countries (2015-2020)Table Asia-Pacific 3D Print Materials Revenue Market Share by Countries (2015-2020)Figure Asia-Pacific 3D Print Materials Revenue Market Share by Countries in 2015Figure Asia-Pacific 3D Print Materials Revenue Market Share by Countries in 2019Figure China 3D Print Materials Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)Figure Japan 3D Print Materials Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)Figure South Korea 3D Print Materials Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)Figure Australia 3D Print Materials Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)Figure India 3D Print Materials Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)Figure Southeast Asia 3D Print Materials Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)Figure Middle East and Africa 3D Print Materials Revenue ($) and Growth (2015-2020) continued

About HongChun Research:HongChun Research main aim is to assist our clients in order to give a detailed perspective on the current market trends and build long-lasting connections with our clientele. Our studies are designed to provide solid quantitative facts combined with strategic industrial insights that are acquired from proprietary sources and an in-house model.

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NOTE: Our report does take into account the impact of coronavirus pandemic and dedicates qualitative as well as quantitative sections of information within the report that emphasizes the impact of COVID-19.

As this pandemic is ongoing and leading to dynamic shifts in stocks and businesses worldwide, we take into account the current condition and forecast the market data taking into consideration the micro and macroeconomic factors that will be affected by the pandemic.

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Impact Of Covid 19 On 3D Print Materials Industry 2020 Market Challenges, Business Overview And Forecast Research Study 2026 - The Think Curiouser

The U.S. Finally Has a Sputnik Moment With China – Foreign Policy

As I researched global innovation over the past four years, the more I looked into Chinas amazing ascent as a technological poweramid growing U.S. angst and anti-China angerthe more one puzzling question constantly jumped out at me: Why has there been no Sputnik moment with China, as occurred early in the Cold War when the Soviet Union launched a satellite into space in 1957? Then, U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower elevated science and technology to a national mission, creating NASA and dramatically ramping up support for research and development.

True, theres been no single Chinese achievement that made headlinessave perhaps Beijings recent victory over the coronavirus, muted by having helped spread the virus in the first place. The fields where China is ahead of the United States, such as financial technology, are largely matters of everyday life, not grand and singular achievements. But for all the febrile fear and loathing of China, a panoply of tariffs, tech bans, and an unraveling U.S.-China relationship, the United States has done far more whining about China than competing with it. Huawei as a national security threat, intellectual property theft, bans on Chinese appsAmericas (mostly legitimate) grievances against predatory Chinese industrial policies seem to mount by the day. Yet beyond sanctions and tariffs, there has been little idea how the United States would meet the challenge.

Thats no longer the case. Fears of the United States losing its competitive edge to China have proved so powerful that they have begun to transcend Americas bitter tribal politics, transforming traditional U.S. laissez-faire views into a fervent techno-nationalism that may end up looking like Beijings approach itself. Much of this exists only in potential at the moment, but its becoming the new norm.

Sinophobia has turned traditional free market Republicans into advocates, captured in Sen. Marco Rubios call for a pro-American industrial policy. This is evident in a flood of legislation in the U.S. Congress: 366 pieces of China-focused legislation filed in 2019-2020much on trade, investment, and techthough only a handful are likely to become law. The mostly bipartisan legislation is also mirrored in Democratic presidential candidate Joe Bidens manufacturing plans that look a lot like President Donald Trumps.

Major pending bipartisan tech legislation seeks to boost U.S. manufacturing, promote R&D in key tech sectors, diversify and expand U.S. tech hubs now concentrated on the East Coast and West Coast, and forge a national tech strategy. Most prominently, a bill likely to soon become lawthe Creating Helpful Incentives to Produce Semiconductors for America Act (CHIPS for America Act)aims to subsidize the semiconductor industry. The CHIPS bill passed as an amendment to the current Defense Authorization Act and may become law before the end of the year.

This is a very big deal. Why? Because semiconductors, a $470 billion global industry, are core drivers of all things digital, the foundation and lifeblood of the entire knowledge economy. China itself, currently dependent on imported chips (many from Taiwan), has been attempting to domesticize its own productionfailing to make a 40 percent domestic target this year, but redoubling efforts to hit a 70 percent target by 2025.

The CHIPS bill aims to boost and reshore semiconductor manufacturing with a 40 percent tax credit to 2024 for investments in semiconductor equipment or manufacturing facilities; creates a $10 billion matching fund for states and cities to incentivize investment in advanced semiconductor manufacturing; includes measures for bolstering STEM workforce development; and parcels out $12 billion in R&D to the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the Department of Energy, the Department of Commerce, and the National Science Foundation, as well as to establish an advanced manufacturing institute. It also mandates that the administration develop a semiconductor R&D strategy and a public-private national semiconductor technology center.

One provision in the CHIPS bill that moves beyond narrow techno-nationalism seeks to build multilateral cooperation among democracies in supply chain security. It creates a $750 million trust fund to be allocated upon reaching agreement with foreign governments to form a consortium to harmonize policies related to microelectronics, transparency in microelectronics, and greater alignment in policies toward non-market economies.

There is an array of other legislation designed to bolster U.S. tech competitiveness, beef up R&D in high tech, incentivize private sector investment, and change the geography of innovation80 percent of venture capital and 90 percent of tech employment is concentrated in major tech hubs. For example, several bills would rename the National Science Foundation as the National Science and Technology Foundation, creating a center for technology and authorizing $100 billion in R&D funds to support work on artificial intelligence, boost semiconductors, and incentivize geographic diversity, with $80 billion for cities to compete to build tech innovation centers.

The flurry of legislation and the rhetoric of both presidential candidates underscore the degree to which the fear of Chinese tech dominance has animated a newfound bipartisan eagerness to sustain and advance the eroding U.S. innovation edge. While industrial policies have had mixed success in the United States, the sheer breadth and scope of new resources and public and private collaboration will no doubt have a considerable impact on U.S. tech capacity.

What unintended consequences all the positive and negative aspects of this energized techno-nationalism in the United States will have is another question. In the best-case scenario, the results of the new U.S. zeitgeist may better position Washingtonif it can mobilize like-minded partnersto compete with China and pressure Beijing to move back toward promised economic reforms, rolling back many of its state-driven forms of capitalist measures. In the worst case, it may lead to a bifurcated global economy with conflicting rules, norms, and standards. One big fear is that the victim of the techno-nationalism trend will be global innovation, which thrives on openness and transparency.

The world is in the early stages of what has been dubbed the Fourth Industrial Revolution. The converging new technologiesAI, big data, robotics, biotech, nanoengineering, new materials, the Internet of Things, 3D printingmerge the digital and physical worlds and will drive economic growth and shape geopolitics in the decades ahead. It should have been obvious to U.S. officialdom long ago that tech innovation was the fulcrum of the future, but they mostly just paid lip service to it. Instead, it has taken an existential fear of being overtaken by China to create an impetus to get changes done. The price may be innovation constrained by techno-nationalismbut the next Sputnik moment is finally here.

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Medtronic Announces Adaptix Interbody System, the First Navigated Titanium Cage with Titan nanoLOCK Surface Technology – BioSpace

A World's First That Combines Innovative Technologies: Titan nanoLOCK Surface Technology and Navigation

DUBLIN, Oct. 7, 2020 /PRNewswire/ -- Medtronic plc (NYSE:MDT), the global leader in medical technology, today announced the U.S. launch of Adaptix Interbody System, the first navigated titanium implant with Titan nanoLOCK Surface Technology, a proprietary blend of surface textures on the macro, micro, and nano levels. The Adaptix Interbody System, mirrored after the veteran Capstone Spinal System, touts improved features for increased strength,1 subsidence resistance,1,2,3 easy insertion, and data-backed bone growth4,5. The announcement was made during the virtual edition of the North American Spine Society (NASS) annual meeting. Adaptix received U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval in August 2020.

This milestone represents the first 3D printed titanium implant, developed in house by Medtronic engineers, that incorporates the state-of-the-art Titan nanoLOCK Surface Technology.

Titan Spine, acquired in 2019, pioneered this surface technology that is the first to demonstrate the elements to be considered a nanotechnology for spinal devices as outlined in the FDA nanotechnology guidance document. Interbody implants are spacers that surgeons may insert between the vertebrae during spinal fusion surgery to help relieve pressure on nerves and hold the vertebrae in place while fusion occurs.

"Adaptix Interbody System allows me the best chance to meet my patients' needs by confidently placing the implant under navigation and trusting the Titan nanoLOCK Surface Technology to allow the implant to promote fusion. Surface technology, material type, and implant design all play a role in bone growth process during fusion," said J. Justin Seale, M.D. of OrthoArkansas Spine Institute. "The unique features and world-class technologies make the Adaptix Interbody System a truly differentiated implant."

The Adaptix Interbody System addresses surgeons' universal needs of fusion outcomes and offers:

Medtronic continues to transform spine care and deliver on its Surgical Synergy strategy by offering solutions that integrate implants, biologics, and enabling technologies. Adaptix Interbody System is compatible with the Medtronic navigation platform (StealthStation Navigation and O-arm imaging) and the newly released Grafton DBF Inject, a unique graft delivery syringe that delivers an osteoinductive6 DBM into the surgical site.

"Adaptix Interbody System is an exciting addition to our portfolio that leads with our Titan nanoLOCK Surface Technology," said Sharrolyn Josse, vice president and general manager of Medtronic Core Spine and Biologics division, which is part of the Restorative Therapies Group at Medtronic. "It is a fully navigated procedure, leveraging our leadership in navigation."

About MedtronicMedtronic plc (www.medtronic.com), headquartered in Dublin, Ireland, is among the world's largest medical technology, services and solutions companies alleviating pain, restoring health and extending life for millions of people around the world. Medtronic employs more than 90,000 people worldwide, serving physicians, hospitals and patients in more than 150 countries. The company is focused on collaborating with stakeholders around the world to take healthcare Further, Together.

Any forward-looking statements are subject to risks and uncertainties such as those described in Medtronic's periodic reports on file with the Securities and Exchange Commission. Actual results may differ materially from anticipated results.

1 Comparison of Adaptix and Capstone testing per ASTM F2077and ASTM F2267.2 Based on surface area measurement.3 Based on engineering principles.4 Wennerberg, A., & Albrektsson, T. (2009). Effects of titanium surface topography on bone integration: a systematic review. Clin Oral Implants Res, 20 Suppl 4, 172-184.5 Gittens, R.A., Olivares-Navarrete, R., Schwartz, Z, Boyan, B.D. (2014). Implant osseointegration and the role of microroughness and nanostructures: lessons for spine implants. Acta Biomater., 10(8), 3363-71.6 Data on file. Animal data is not necessarily indicative of human clinical outcomes.

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Nanocoolant Alternative for Cooling Elements by UMP Researchers – QS WOW News

The Advanced Nano Lab for Coolant and Lubricant in the Faculty of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering Technology Universiti Malaysia Pahang led by Associate Professor Ts. Ir. Dr. Kumaran Kadirgama and Associate Professor Ts. Dr. Devarajan Ramasamy has come out with a nanocellulose-engineered coolant for the cooling system.

Nanocellulose is an abundant organic material from plants that reduces the use of harmful coolants in the market. This coolant can be an alternative way to overcome heating problems in manufacturing, automotive, and heating parts in electric vehicles. This coolant can extend a car engines life by around 35% and cutting tools by around 25%.

In the 2018 and 2018 International Invention, Innovation & Technology Exhibition (ITEX), this product bagged a gold medal. Also, it won platinum and gold medals in the British Invention Show 2018. The work regarding this product has been published in various reputed international journals and conferences.

The product has already been applied for a patent on manufacturing and automotive usage. The research team is currently approached by one of the local industries to help in commercializing the product and for a joint application on the commercialization grant.

The Advanced Nano Lab for Coolant and Lubricant has managed to secure RM 800,000 from national and international agencies. The lab works with the Automotive Excellence Center (AEC) of Universiti Malaysia Pahang to solve the heating problem and expand the engines life with a new solution and components machining.

Currently, seven students are pursuing their masters or PhD degrees in this laboratory. This is an excellent opportunity for the students to learn new technology and data using the current technology. This lets them learn in theory and practice, where they need to understand the skills of preparing the liquid and running the experimental test rig. Engine lubrication is another focus of the lab. It can be further enhanced with the new nanomaterials.

The current research will focus on the new advancement of nanomaterials to solve the heating problem in the manufacturing, solar, and automotive sectors.

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Nanocoolant Alternative for Cooling Elements by UMP Researchers - QS WOW News

Post Pandemic Nano Gas Sensor Market Size to Reach USD XX Million Billion by 2027 Analysis by Top Manufacturers Raytheon Company, Ball Aerospace and…

Global Coronavirus pandemic has impacted all industries across the globe, Nano Gas Sensor market being no exception. As Global economy heads towards major recession post 2009 crisis, Cognitive Market Research has published a recent study which meticulously studies impact of this crisis on Global Nano Gas Sensor market and suggests possible measures to curtail them. This press release is a snapshot of research study and further information can be gathered by accessing complete report. To Contact Research Advisor Mail us @ [emailprotected] or call us on +1-312-376-8303.

The global Nano Gas Sensor market research report is anticipated to rise at a considerable rate during forecast period, between 2020 and 2027. The global Nano Gas Sensor market report study provides intelligence studies ensuring relevant and fact-based research which help clients understand the significance and impact of market dynamics. This research report covers the current status and future prospects for the global Nano Gas Sensor market. Report offers the detailed Nano Gas Sensor market overview, development, and segment by type, application and region. In addition, Nano Gas Sensor market research report introduces the market competition overview among the major companies and companies profiles.

Global Nano Gas Sensor Market: Product analysis: Semiconductor Nano Gas Sensor, Electrochemistry Nano Gas Sensor, Photochemistry (IR Etc) Nano Gas Sensor, Other

Global Nano Gas Sensor Market: Application analysis: Electricity Generation, Automobiles, Petrochemical, Aerospace & Defense, Medical, Biochemical Engineering, Other

Some of the key players operating in this market include Raytheon Company, Ball Aerospace and Technologies, Thales Group, Lockheed Martin Corporation, Environmental Sensors, Emerson, Siemens, Endress Hauser, Falcon Analytical, Agilent Technologies . Manufacturers are facing continued downward pressure on demand, production and revenues as the COVID-19 pandemic strengthens. Manufacturing in the Euro-area experienced a substantial deterioration in its business cycle as the impact of COVID-19 hit both the demand and supply sides of the technology industry.

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The business is particularly defenseless given that the greater part of its workforce is utilized on location employments that are impossible remotely. Also, given the idea of the business, manufacturers should be creating social distancing in workplaces that are typically worker-dense (e.g., manufacturing plants, warehouses, material movements and logistics, etc.). Furthermore, manufacturers should be prepared for major supply chain disruptions. This will influence the OEMs, however will likewise wave all through flexibly chain, influencing manufactures by driving reduced demand for materials and parts.

There is hardly any place in the world that has remained unaffected by the brutality of the Covid-19 pandemic; almost every manufacturing company is suffering from ruthless Novel Coronavirus Disease. To encompass the pandemic, many nations and Governments around the world has imposed a lockdown, restricting the gatherings and the movement of people. Lockdown has multiple consequences, which further stretch the troubles for various sector like reverse migration, disruption of supply chains, manufacturing sector. As the government have close down shops, stores and malls that helps to slow the spread of the virus, which is the major factor that is affecting the industry.

The global Nano Gas Sensor market research report examined on the basis of the various parameters such as Porters Five Force Model, SWOT Analysis which provides the precise information about the global Nano Gas Sensor market. Furthermore, in-depth analysis of the global Nano Gas Sensormarket research report helps to identify the drivers, restraints, and opportunity regarding current market scenario.This report offers the detailed information regarding the global Nano Gas Sensor market. Report covers the brief summary of product, which defines the scope of the report in the Nano Gas Sensor market. Along with that, production methods used in it are also covered in the report. In addition, global Nano Gas Sensor market research report analyzes the diverse dynamics which are influencing the global Nano Gas Sensor market.

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Market Segmentation, by regions:The analysis and forecast of the global Nano Gas Sensor market research report is based on the regional basis. The report is emphasizes on the major regions. These various regions consists the detailed information regarding current trends and forecast analysis which could help the global Nano Gas Sensor market in the long period.North America (U.S., Canada, Mexico)South America (Cuba, Brazil, Argentina, and many others.)Europe (Germany, U.K., France, Italy, Russia, Spain, etc.)Asia (China, India, Russia, and many other Asian nations.)Pacific region(Indonesia, Japan, and many other Pacific nations.)Middle East & Africa (Saudi Arabia, South Africa, and many others.)

About Us:Cognitive Market Research is one of the finest and most efficient Market Research and Consulting firm. The company strives to provide research studies which include syndicate research, customized research, round the clock assistance service, monthly subscription services, and consulting services to our clients. We focus on making sure that based on our reports, our clients are enabled to make most vital business decisions in easiest and yet effective way. Hence, we are committed to delivering them outcomes from market intelligence studies which are based on relevant and fact-based research across the global market.Contact Us: +1-312-376-8303Email: [emailprotected]Web: https://www.cognitivemarketresearch.com/

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IISc Bengaluru researchers discover nanomotors can lead to early detection of cancer cells – The Indian Express

Written by Ralph Alex Arakal | Bengaluru | Updated: October 7, 2020 8:47:20 amThe IISc Bengaluru research team.

A team of researchers at the Indian Institute of Science (IISc) in Bengaluru has discovered that nanomotors can help in early detection of cancer cells. The researchers used a 3-D model of a tumour and magnetically-driven nanomotors for the study, Nanomotors Sense Local Physiochemical Heterogeneities in Tumour Microenvironments.

Debayan Dasgupta, co-first author of the study and Ph.D. student at Centre for Nano Science and Engineering (CeNSE), said, We tried driving the nanomotors toward cancer cells in a tumour model and observed them getting stuck to the matrix near cancer cells, but this was not observed near normal cells.

The team found that the nanomotors got stuck because cancer cells coat their surrounding matrix with negatively charged sugars known as sialic acids.

We searched for appropriate molecules within the vicinity of breast cancer cells and found specifically charged sugars known as 2,3-linked sialic acids. Normal breast cells show no such properties in the matrix close to them, Ramray Bhat, Assistant Professor at the IISc Department of Molecular Reproduction, Development and Genetics (MRDG) told Indianexpress.com.

The study has also led the team to study how cancer cells change their environment within the organ in which they develop, in this case the breast.

These results enrich our understanding about the anatomy of tumors as well as help us devise strategies to localize and attack tiny tumor populations, Bhat added.

According to the World Health Organisation, breast cancer is the most frequent form of cancer among women, impacting 2.1 million women per year. This also causes the greatest number of cancer-related deaths among women. In 2018, it is estimated that 627,000 women died from breast cancer that is approximately 15% of all cancer deaths among women, a report by WHO read. Early detection greatly improves chances of survival.

Bhat said the study will be carried out on animals next.

While Dasgupta and Dharma Pally (Department of Molecular Reproduction, Development and Genetics) are the first authors of the study, the other researchers who worked in the team are Ambarish Ghosh, Associate Professor at CeNSE, Deepak Kumar Saini from the Centre for Biosystems Science and Engineering and Dr Bhat at the IISc.

The study also got published in Angewandte Chemie, a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal of the German Chemical Society.

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IISc Bengaluru researchers discover nanomotors can lead to early detection of cancer cells - The Indian Express

Breakout Paper in Journal of Theoretical Biology Explicitly Supports Intelligent Design – Discovery Institute

Photo: Red poppy, Auckland Botanic Gardens, Auckland, New Zealand, by Sandy Millar via Unsplash.

As John West noted here last week, the Journal of Theoretical Biology has published an explicitly pro-intelligent design article, Using statistical methods to model the fine-tuning of molecular machines and systems. Lets take a closer look at the contents. The paper is math-heavy, discussing statistical models of making inferences, but it is also groundbreaking for this crucial reason: it considers and proposes intelligent design, by name, as a viable explanation for the origin of fine-tuning in biology. This is a major breakthrough for science, but also for freedom of speech. If the paper is any indication, appearing as it does in a prominent peer-reviewed journal, some of the suffocating constraints on ID advocacy may be coming off.

The authors are Steinar Thorvaldsen, a professor of information science at the University of Troms in Norway, and Ola Hssjer, a professor of mathematical statistics at Stockholm University. The paper, which is open access, begins by noting that while fine-tuning is widely discussed in physics, it needs to be considered more in the context of biology:

Fine-tuning has received much attention in physics, and it states that the fundamental constants of physics are finely tuned to precise values for a rich chemistry and life permittance. It has not yet been applied in a broad manner to molecular biology.

The authors explain the papers main thrust:

However, in this paper we argue that biological systems present fine-tuning at different levels, e.g. functional proteins, complex biochemical machines in living cells, and cellular networks. This paper describes molecular fine-tuning, how it can be used in biology, and how it challenges conventional Darwinian thinking. We also discuss the statistical methods underpinning finetuning and present a framework for such analysis.

They explain how fine-tuning is defined. The definition is essentially equivalent to specified complexity:

We define fine-tuning as an object with two properties: it must a) be unlikely to have occurred by chance, under the relevant probability distribution (i.e. complex), and b) conform to an independent or detached specification (i.e. specific).

They then introduce the concept of design, and explain how humans are innately able to recognize it:

A design is a specification or plan for the construction of an object or system, or the result of that specification or plan in the form of a product. The very term design is from the Medieval Latin word designare (denoting mark out, point out, choose); from de (out) and signum (identifying mark, sign). Hence, a public notice that advertises something or gives information. The design usually has to satisfy certain goals and constraints. It is also expected to interact with a certain environment, and thus be realized in the physical world. Humans have a powerful intuitive understanding of design that precedes modern science. Our common intuitions invariably begin with recognizing a pattern as a mark of design. The problem has been that our intuitions about design have been unrefined and pre-theoretical. For this reason, it is relevant to ask ourselves whether it is possible to turn the tables on this disparity and place those rough and pre-theoretical intuitions on a firm scientific foundation.

That last sentence is key: the purpose is to understand if there is a scientific method by which design can be inferred. They propose that design can be identified by uncovering fine-tuning. The paper explicates statistical methods for understanding fine-tuning, which they argue reflects design:

Fine-tuning and design are related entities. Fine-tuning is a bottom-up method, while design is more like a top-down approach. Hence, we focus on the topic of fine-tuning in the present paper and address the following questions: Is it possible to recognize fine-tuning in biological systems at the levels of functional proteins, protein groups and cellular networks? Can fine-tuning in molecular biology be formulated using state of the art statistical methods, or are the arguments just in the eyes of the beholder?

They cite the work of multiple leading theorists in the ID research community.

They return to physics and the anthropic principle, the idea that the laws of nature are precisely suited for life:

Suppose the laws of physics had been a bit different from what they actually are, what would the consequences be? (Davies, 2006). The chances that the universe should be life permitting are so infinitesimal as to be incomprehensible and incalculable. The finely tuned universe is like a panel that controls the parameters of the universe with about 100 knobs that can be set to certain values. If you turn any knob just a little to the right or to the left, the result is either a universe that is inhospitable to life or no universe at all. If the Big Bang had been just slightly stronger or weaker, matter would not have condensed, and life never would have existed. The odds against our universe developing were enormous and yet here we are, a point that equates with religious implications

However, rather than getting into religion, they apply statistics to consider the possibility of design as an explanation for the fine-tuning of the universe. They cite ID theorist William Dembski:

William Dembski regards the fine-tuning argument as suggestive, as pointers to underlying design. We may describe this inference as abductive reasoning or inference to the best explanation. This reasoning yields a plausible conclusion that is relatively likely to be true, compared to competing hypotheses, given our background knowledge. In the case of fine-tuning of our cosmos, design is considered to be a better explanation than a set of multi-universes that lacks any empirical or historical evidence.

The article offers additional reasons why the multiverse is an unsatisfying explanation for fine-tuning namely that multiverse hypotheses do not predict fine-tuning for this particular universe any better than a single universe hypothesis and we should prefer those theories which best predict (for this or any universe) the phenomena we observe in our universe.

The paper reviews the lines of evidence for fine-tuning in biology, including information, irreducible complexity, protein evolution, and the waiting-timeproblem. Along the way it considers the arguments of many ID theorists, starting with a short review showing how the literature uses words such as sequence code, information, and machine to describe lifes complexity:

One of the surprising discoveries of modern biology has been that the cell operates in a manner similar to modern technology, while biological information is organized in a manner similar to plain text. Words and terms like sequence code, and information, and machine have proven very useful in describing and understanding molecular biology (Wills, 2016). The basic building blocks of life are proteins, long chain-like molecules consisting of varied combinations of 20 different amino acids. Complex biochemical machines are usually composed of many proteins, each folded together and configured in a unique 3D structure dependent upon the exact sequence of the amino acids within the chain. Proteins employ a wide variety of folds to perform their biological function, and each protein has a highly specified shape with some minor variations.

The paper cites and reviews the work of Michael Behe, Douglas Axe, Stephen Meyer, and Gnter Bechly. Some of these discussions are quite long and extensive. First, the article contains a lucid explanation of irreducible complexity and the work of Michael Behe:

Michael Behe and others presented ideas of design in molecular biology, and published evidence of irreducibly complex biochemical machines in living cells. In his argument, some parts of the complex systems found in biology are exceedingly important and do affect the overall function of their mechanism. The fine-tuning can be outlined through the vital and interacting parts of living organisms. In Darwins Black Box (Behe, 1996), Behe exemplified systems, like the flagellum bacteria use to swim and the blood-clotting cascade, that he called irreducibly complex, configured as a remarkable teamwork of several (often dozen or more) interacting proteins. Is it possible on an incremental model that such a system could evolve for something that does not yet exist? Many biological systems do not appear to have a functional viable predecessor from which they could have evolved stepwise, and the occurrence in one leap by chance is extremely small. To rephrase the first man on the moon: Thats no small steps of proteins, no giant leap for biology.

[]

A Behe-system of irreducible complexity was mentioned in Section 3. It is composed of several well-matched, interacting modules that contribute to the basic function, wherein the removal of any one of the modules causes the system to effectively cease functioning. Behe does not ignore the role of the laws of nature. Biology allows for changes and evolutionary modifications. Evolution is there, irreducible design is there, and they are both observed. The laws of nature can organize matter and force it to change. Behes point is that there are some irreducibly complex systems that cannot be produced by the laws of nature:

If a biological structure can be explained in terms of those natural laws [reproduction, mutation and natural selection] then we cannot conclude that it was designed. . . however, I have shown why many biochemical systems cannot be built up by natural selection working on mutations: no direct, gradual route exist to these irreducible complex systems, and the laws of chemistry work strongly against the undirected development of the biochemical systems that make molecules such as AMP1 (Behe, 1996, p. 203).

Then, even if the natural laws work against the development of these irreducible complexities, they still exist. The strong synergy within the protein complex makes it irreducible to an incremental process. They are rather to be acknowledged as finetuned initial conditions of the constituting protein sequences. These structures are biological examples of nano-engineering that surpass anything human engineers have created. Such systems pose a serious challenge to a Darwinian account of evolution, since irreducibly complex systems have no direct series of selectable intermediates, and in addition, as we saw in Section 4.1, each module (protein) is of low probability by itself.

The article also reviews the peer-reviewed research of protein scientist Douglas Axe, as well as his 2016 book Undeniable, on the evolvability of protein folds:

An important goal is to obtain an estimate of the overall prevalence of sequences adopting functional protein folds, i.e. the right folded structure, with the correct dynamics and a precise active site for its specific function. Douglas Axe worked on this question at the Medical Research Council Centre in Cambridge. The experiments he performed showed a prevalence between 1 in 1050 to 1 in 1074 of protein sequences forming a working domain-sized fold of 150 amino acids (Axe, 2004). Hence, functional proteins require highly organised sequences, as illustrated in Fig. 2. Though proteins tolerate a range of possible amino acids at some positions in the sequence, a random process producing amino-acid chains of this length would stumble onto a functional protein only about one in every 1050 to 1074 attempts due to genetic variation. This empirical result is quite analog to the inference from fine-tuned physics.

[]

The search space turns out to be too impossibly vast for blind selection to have even a slight chance of success. The contrasting view is innovations based on ingenuity, cleverness and intelligence. An element of this is what Axe calls functional coherence, which always involves hierarchical planning, hence is a product of finetuning. He concludes: Functional coherence makes accidental invention fantastically improbable and therefore physically impossible (Axe, 2016, p. 160).

They conclude that the literature shows the probability of finding a functional protein in sequence space can vary broadly, but commonly remains far beyond the reach of Darwinian processes (Axe, 2010a).

Citing the work of Gnter Bechly and Stephen Meyer, the paper also reviews the question of whether sufficient time is allowed by the fossil record for complex systems to arise via Darwinian mechanisms. This is known as the waiting-time problem:

Achieving fine-tuning in a conventional Darwinian model: The waiting time problem

In this section we will elaborate further on the connection between the probability of an event and the time available for that event to happen. In the context of living systems, we need to ask the question whether conventional Darwinian mechanisms have the ability to achieve fine-tuning during a prescribed period of time. This is of interest in order to correctly interpret the fossil record, which is often interpreted as having long periods of stasis interrupted by very sudden abrupt changes (Bechly and Meyer, 2017). Examples of such sudden changes include the origin of photosynthesis, the Cambrian explosions, the evolution of complex eyes and the evolution of animal flight. The accompanying genetic changes are believed to have happen very rapidly, at least on a macroevolutionary timescale, during a time period of length t. In order to test whether this is possible, a mathematical model is needed in order to estimate the prevalence P(A) of the event A that the required genetic changes in a species take place within a time window of length t.

Throughout the discussions are multiple citations of BIO-Complexity, a journal dedicated to investigating the scientific evidence for intelligent design.

Lastly, the authors consider intelligent design as a possible explanation of biological fine-tuning, citing heavily the work of William Dembski, Winston Ewert, Robert J. Marks, and other ID theorists:

Intelligent Design (ID) has gained a lot of interest and attention in recent years, mainly in USA, by creating public attention as well as triggering vivid discussions in the scientific and public world. ID aims to adhere to the same standards of rational investigation as other scientific and philosophical enterprises, and it is subject to the same methods of evaluation and critique. ID has been criticized, both for its underlying logic and for its various formulations (Olofsson, 2008; Sarkar, 2011).

William Dembski originally proposed what he called an explanatory filter for distinguishing between events due to chance, lawful regularity or design (Dembski, 1998). Viewed on a sufficiently abstract level, its logics is based on well-established principles and techniques from the theory of statistical hypothesis testing. However, it is hard to apply to many interesting biological applications or contexts, because a huge number of potential but unknown scenarios may exist, which makes it difficult to phrase a null hypothesis for a statistical test (Wilkins and Elsberry, 2001; Olofsson, 2008).

The re-formulated version of a complexity measure published by Dembski and his coworkers is named Algorithmic Specified Complexity (ASC) (Ewert et al., 2013; 2014). ACS incorporates both Shannon and Kolmogorov complexity measures, and it quantifies the degree to which an event is improbable and follows a pattern. Kolmogorov complexity is related to compression of data (and hence patterns), but suffers from the property of being unknowable as there is no general method to compute it. However, it is possible to give upper bounds for the Kolmogorov complexity, and consequently ASC can be bounded without being computed exactly. ASC is based on context and is measured in bits. The same authors have applied this method to natural language, random noise, folding of proteins, images etc (Marks et al., 2017).

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The laws, constants, and primordial initial conditions of nature present the flow of nature. These purely natural objects discovered in recent years show the appearance of being deliberately fine-tuned. Functional proteins, molecular machines and cellular networks are both unlikely when viewed as outcomes of a stochastic model, with a relevant probability distribution (having a small P(A)), and at the same time they conform to an independent or detached specification (the set A being defined in terms of specificity). These results are important and deduced from central phenomena of basic science. In both physics and molecular biology, fine-tuning emerges as a uniting principle and synthesis an interesting observation by itself.

In this paper we have argued that a statistical analysis of fine-tuning is a useful and consistent approach to model some of the categories of design: irreducible complexity (Michael Behe), and specified complexity (William Dembski). As mentioned in Section 1, this approach requires a) that a probability distribution for the set of possible outcomes is introduced, and b) that a set A of fine-tuned events or more generally a specificity function f is defined. Here b) requires some apriori understanding of what fine-tuning means, for each type of application, whereas a) requires a naturalistic model for how the observed structures would have been produced by chance. The mathematical properties of such a model depend on the type of data that is analyzed. Typically a stochastic process should be used that models a dynamic feature such as stellar, chemical or biological (Darwinian) evolution. In the simplest case the state space of such a stochastic process is a scalar (one nucleotide or amino acid), a vector (a DNA or amino acid string) or a graph (protein complexes or cellular networks).

A major conclusion of our work is that fine-tuning is a clear feature of biological systems. Indeed, fine-tuning is even more extreme in biological systems than in inorganic systems. It is detectable within the realm of scientific methodology. Biology is inherently more complicated than the large-scale universe and so fine-tuning is even more a feature. Still more work remains in order to analyze more complicated data structures, using more sophisticated empirical criteria. Typically, such criteria correspond to a specificity function f that not only is a helpful abstraction of an underlying pattern, such as biological fitness. One rather needs a specificity function that, although of non-physical origin, can be quantified and measured empirically in terms of physical properties such as functionality. In the long term, these criteria are necessary to make the explanations both scientifically and philosophically legitimate. However, we have enough evidence to demonstrate that fine-tuning and design deserve attention in the scientific community as a conceptual tool for investigating and understanding the natural world. The main agenda is to explore some fascinating possibilities for science and create room for new ideas and explorations. Biologists need richer conceptual resources than the physical sciences until now have been able to initiate, in terms of complex structures having non-physical information as input (Ratzsch, 2010). Yet researchers have more work to do in order to establish fine-tuning as a sustainable and fully testable scientific hypothesis, and ultimately a Design Science.

This is a significant development. The article gives the arguments of intelligent design theorists a major hearing in a mainstream scientific journal. And dont miss the purpose of the article, which is stated in its final sentence to work towards establish[ing] fine-tuning as a sustainable and fully testable scientific hypothesis, and ultimately a Design Science. The authors present compelling arguments that biological fine-tuning cannot arise via unguided Darwinian mechanisms. Some explanation is needed to account for why biological systems show the appearance of being deliberately fine-tuned. Despite the noise that often surrounds this debate, for ID arguments to receive such a thoughtful and positive treatment in a prominent journal is itself convincing evidence that ID has intellectual merit. Claims of IDs critics notwithstanding, design science is being taken seriously by scientists.

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Breakout Paper in Journal of Theoretical Biology Explicitly Supports Intelligent Design - Discovery Institute

Elon Musk’s million-mile battery: What it really means – Los Angeles Times

Perhaps youve heard about the million-mile battery the latest buzz phrase electric vehicle proponents hope will energize public interest in buying EVs.

If you havent, Elon Musk will make sure you do on Tuesday, when Tesla goes online for what its calling Battery Day. Musk is expected to detail a million-mile battery project along with, he teased on Twitter, other exciting things.

Musks teasers dont always pan out. (Update: At the event, Musk undershot expectations, announcing what amounts to a pilot project he suggested could reach volume production by 2030. Theres still a lot of work to do, he said. Were not saying this is completely in the bag.)

But the idea of a million-mile battery offers real promise.

[I]t would eliminate one of the big negatives associated with electric vehicles, said Donald Sadoway, a materials chemist and battery expert at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology: the car owners fear that the battery will die and require costly replacement.

But because the battery industry is loaded with start-ups and inventors promoting their wares, often before theyre ready for prime time, Sadoway suggests some skepticism is in order.

A million-mile battery does not mean you can drive a million miles between recharges. It means a battery that will last for 1 million miles or more before it cant hold a charge strong enough to power an electric car anymore. Regular recharges every few hundred miles would still be needed to keep a car or truck powered.

Todays batteries face limits on the number of times they can be recharged. Right now, most car batteries are rated to handle about 1,000 full charges total. Manufacturer warranties on car batteries top out at about eight years and 150,000 miles which is proving conservative, as car batteries in general are outlasting their warranties. A battery that lasts 1 million miles could handle 4,000 full recharges or more.

Musk could extend the warranty to 15 years. You think hell do that?

Vince Battaglia, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab

No car is likely to last 1 million miles. It would fall apart long before that. But its possible to design cars so that batteries can be swapped in and out. Individual car owners, theoretically, could keep their batteries and install them into new car bodies. A long-lasting battery could increase a cars resale value.

Perhaps more important, swappable batteries could power long-haul trucks, city buses and driverless robotaxis, all of which log many miles a day, every day. The same batteries could also pump energy into the electric grid when the vehicles not being used, with less worry about battery life degradation.

For those applications, this would totally change the game, said Shirley Meng, professor of nano-engineering and materials at UC San Diego.

Tesla, which has aspirations to build electric semi trucks and deploy fleets of robotaxis while attempting to build a grid energy battery storage business, plans to begin manufacturing batteries itself. It currently buys batteries from Panasonic and LG Chem.

Maybe. Chinas battery manufacturing giant, Contemporary Amperex Technology Ltd. (CATL), said in June it is ready to produce a battery that will last 16 years and 1.2 million miles but hasnt said much more about it.

The battery would cost 10% more than the typical battery CATL sells now, company Chairman Zeng Yuqun told Bloomberg in June. No detail has been provided on the batterys inner workings, its weight, range, energy or power, and no carmaker has yet announced an interest in buying it.

No battery maker beyond CATL has made a million-mile claim. If Musk announces hes ready to produce one, it would raise eyebrows throughout the industry.

Battery Day certainly creates some buzz, Sadoway said. But remarkable claims require remarkable proof.

Its not clear yet that it has one. A research paper released last September by Tesla-funded scientists at Canadas Dalhousie University reported theyd created a million-mile battery in the lab. The team was led by Jeff Dahn, a major figure in lithium-ion battery research who began working with Tesla in 2016.

The three-year project showed that by using specific combinations of cathode and electrolyte materials, charge-recharge limits could be pushed from about 1,000 cycles up to 4,000 cycles, a major step toward longer-lasting car batteries.

A big question for Musk on Battery Day is whether his manufacturing plans are getting ahead of the science. Some leading battery experts express scientific skepticism. Its one thing to show results in a lab, quite another to develop manufacturing lines and turn out large volumes at a profit.

Dahn is very famous, hes very good, hes committed to his work, said Vince Battaglia, who heads the Battery Storage Group at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. This is interesting. Who knew you could do so many cycles?

Yet he calls some of the methods and findings different from my own.

Battaglia noted the batteries Dahns lab tested were far smaller than the cells that would be used in electric vehicles. I dont know whats going to happen when you make those bigger cells and the temperature gets a little hotter inside. Youll maybe get back to an eight-to-10-year life, Battaglia said. Dahn said he stands by his findings.

The website Electrek, which sometimes gets advance looks at Teslas plans, last week published pictures of unusually large battery cylinders it said Musk might introduce. The cells in Teslas current cars look like slightly larger AA batteries. These look like junior-size beer cans.

Perhaps Tesla will reveal convincing data to show those cells can boost energy density and cost efficiency to reach a million-mile cycle life, Battaglia said but its a tall order.

The big question here is how its going to increase cost, said MITs Sadoway.

The battery price I think will go up, because dollars per kilowatt-hour will go up, Battaglia said. Maybe Tesla buyers will spend extra on a battery that will last longer.

Meng, of UC San Diego, said such a battery could be considered an asset for the car buyer. If the battery can be swapped into other vehicles and last 1 million miles, it will retain a certain value, said Meng, who drives a Tesla herself. How much that might be is unknown. It will take some economists looking into this to show how the equations will be changed, she said.

Musk created a new and significant market for electric cars. His SpaceX sends rockets into outer space and lands them on barges. He has pushed the envelope with driver-assist technologies. He has accomplished much.

Yet his promises in recent years have far outreached performance. A semi truck unveiled in 2017 has yet to be produced. He predicted 1 million driverless robotaxis by the end of this year; so far, Tesla is on pace for zero. (The company doesnt make self-driving cars, never mind 1 million robotaxis.)

A solar roof project announced with a nonfunctional prototype in 2016 remains an experiment. Grand plans to solve traffic problems with underground tunnels have amounted to a single tourist attraction in Las Vegas.

Musk has overpromised and underdelivered on battery technologies too. In 2013, he put on a show to demonstrate a plan to build a network of stations to swap batteries for Tesla owners and relieve range anxiety. Only a single station was built. Little used, it was dismantled, but not before the California Air Resources Board gave Tesla extra emissions credits for the effort, which it later sold at a profit.

Musk has set a high bar for himself on Tuesday. In a conference call with stock analysts in 2017, asked about a Toyota solid-state battery project, he said this:

You know, I could give you a PowerPoint presentation about teleportation to the Andromeda Galaxy. That doesnt mean it works, he said. When somebody has like some great claim that theyve got this awesome battery, you know what, send us a sample. Or if you dont trust us, send it to an independent lab, where the parameters can be verified. Otherwise, [shut up].

Lawrence Berkeleys Battaglia said Musk could silence the critics with one simple statement. Teslas battery warranty is good for eight years and 150,000 miles. Musk could extend the warranty to 15 years, Battaglia said. You think hell do that?

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Elon Musk's million-mile battery: What it really means - Los Angeles Times

Politecnico di Milano: Project for innovation in Nanotechnology is the winner of ERC Starting grant – Science Business

Politecnico di Milano has won a new Starting Grant issued by the European Research Council (ERC), the European Unions programme that funds scientific research. Funds have been awarded to project B3YOND (acronym for Beyond nanofabrication via nanoscale phase engineering of matter), coordinated by Edoardo Albisetti, which proposes innovations in the nanomanufacturing scene.

The term designates the overall processes and techniques, which underpin the creation of new materials and devices bymanipulating matter with very high precision standards(in the range of one billionth of a millimetre!). These techniques have been an extraordinary stimulus for the development of nanoscience and of nanotechnology over the past decades. They seem to have achieved physical limitations that can only be overcome with original and entirely innovative approaches.

The aim of Albisettis project B3YOND is to innovate the nanotechnological approach by proving the efficacy of a new processing method calledphasic nano-engineering.A heat source of nanometric dimensions is positioned and shifted with the utmost precision on the materials surface in order to induce controlled phasic changes. Phasic manipulation of the material will allow to control its physical properties (e.g., electrical resistivity and conductivity, or magnetism) with unprecedented mastery. This innovative method will be used to develop a new class of artificial nanomaterials and devices for nanoelectronics and spintronics.

The project will be conducted at the Department of Physics, in partnership with PoliFab, Politecnico di Milanos micro and nanomanufacturing centre.

Counting 386 funded projects (amounting to a total of ca. 164,295,670 euro), Politecnico di Milano ranks as the first Italian university for the number of Horizon 2020 projects it has won.

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Politecnico di Milano: Project for innovation in Nanotechnology is the winner of ERC Starting grant - Science Business

Fruit flies’ protective corneal coatings reproduced | Research – Chemistry World

A nanoscale replica of the coating that protects the eyes of fruit flies that retains its anti-reflective and anti-adhesive properties has been developed by a team of reserchers at the University of Geneva. This new nano-coating, which is comprised of the protein retinin and corneal wax, could find applications in contact lenses, medical implants and textiles.

The researchers were able to produce retinin cheaply by using genetically modified bacteria, and then purifying it and mixing it with various commercial waxes and coating glass and plastic surfaces. They also showed that their nano-coating can be deposited on other surfaces such as wood, paper, metal and plastic.

Our work identifies how multifunctional nano-coatings are created in nature and translates this knowledge into technological applications, the scientists explained. They noted that they achieved this through a combination of mathematical simulation, phylogeny, genetics, biochemistry and forward engineering.

The bio-inspired nano-coatings proved to be stable, even after 20 hours of washing. However, the material was easily damaged by detergent or scratching, and the researchers suggest that technological enhancements could make it stronger. Its anti-reflective properties have already caught the attention of contact lens manufacturers, and its anti-adhesive properties could be of interest to medical implant manufacturers.

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Fruit flies' protective corneal coatings reproduced | Research - Chemistry World


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