Robotics – Wikipedia

Design, construction, operation, and application of robots

Robotics is an interdisciplinary research area at the interface of computer science and engineering.[1] Robotics involves design, construction, operation, and use of robots. The goal of robotics is to design intelligent machines that can help and assist humans in their day-to-day lives and keep everyone safe. Robotics draws on the achievement of information engineering, computer engineering, mechanical engineering, electronic engineering and others.

Robotics develops machines that can substitute for humans and replicate human actions. Robots can be used in many situations and for many purposes, but today many are used in dangerous environments (including inspection of radioactive materials, bomb detection and deactivation), manufacturing processes, or where humans cannot survive (e.g. in space, underwater, in high heat, and clean up and containment of hazardous materials and radiation). Robots can take on any form but some are made to resemble humans in appearance. This is said to help in the acceptance of a robot in certain replicative behaviors usually performed by people. Such robots attempt to replicate walking, lifting, speech, cognition, or any other human activity. Many of today's robots are inspired by nature, contributing to the field of bio-inspired robotics.

The concept of creating machines that can operate autonomously dates back to classical times, but research into the functionality and potential uses of robots did not grow substantially until the 20th century. Throughout history, it has been frequently assumed by various scholars, inventors, engineers, and technicians that robots will one day be able to mimic human behavior and manage tasks in a human-like fashion. Today, robotics is a rapidly growing field, as technological advances continue; researching, designing, and building new robots serve various practical purposes, whether domestically, commercially, or militarily. Many robots are built to do jobs that are hazardous to people, such as defusing bombs, finding survivors in unstable ruins, and exploring mines and shipwrecks. Robotics is also used in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) as a teaching aid.[2]

Robotics is a branch of engineering that involves the conception, design, manufacture, and operation of robots. This field overlaps with computer engineering, computer science (especially artificial intelligence), electronics, mechatronics, mechanical, nanotechnology and bioengineering.[3]

The word robotics was derived from the word robot, which was introduced to the public by Czech writer Karel apek in his play R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots), which was published in 1920.[4] The word robot comes from the Slavic word robota, which means slave/servant. The play begins in a factory that makes artificial people called robots, creatures who can be mistaken for humans very similar to the modern ideas of androids. Karel apek himself did not coin the word. He wrote a short letter in reference to an etymology in the Oxford English Dictionary in which he named his brother Josef apek as its actual originator.[4]

According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word robotics was first used in print by Isaac Asimov, in his science fiction short story "Liar!", published in May 1941 in Astounding Science Fiction. Asimov was unaware that he was coining the term; since the science and technology of electrical devices is electronics, he assumed robotics already referred to the science and technology of robots. In some of Asimov's other works, he states that the first use of the word robotics was in his short story Runaround (Astounding Science Fiction, March 1942),[5][6] where he introduced his concept of The Three Laws of Robotics. However, the original publication of "Liar!" predates that of "Runaround" by ten months, so the former is generally cited as the word's origin.

In 1948, Norbert Wiener formulated the principles of cybernetics, the basis of practical robotics.

Fully autonomous only appeared in the second half of the 20th century. The first digitally operated and programmable robot, the Unimate, was installed in 1961 to lift hot pieces of metal from a die casting machine and stack them. Commercial and industrial robots are widespread today and used to perform jobs more cheaply, more accurately and more reliably, than humans. They are also employed in some jobs which are too dirty, dangerous, or dull to be suitable for humans. Robots are widely used in manufacturing, assembly, packing and packaging, mining, transport, earth and space exploration, surgery,[7] weaponry, laboratory research, safety, and the mass production of consumer and industrial goods.[8]

There are many types of robots; they are used in many different environments and for many different uses. Although being very diverse in application and form, they all share three basic similarities when it comes to their construction:

As more and more robots are designed for specific tasks this method of classification becomes more relevant. For example, many robots are designed for assembly work, which may not be readily adaptable for other applications. They are termed as "assembly robots". For seam welding, some suppliers provide complete welding systems with the robot i.e. the welding equipment along with other material handling facilities like turntables, etc. as an integrated unit. Such an integrated robotic system is called a "welding robot" even though its discrete manipulator unit could be adapted to a variety of tasks. Some robots are specifically designed for heavy load manipulation, and are labeled as "heavy-duty robots".[23]

Current and potential applications include:

At present, mostly (leadacid) batteries are used as a power source. Many different types of batteries can be used as a power source for robots. They range from leadacid batteries, which are safe and have relatively long shelf lives but are rather heavy compared to silvercadmium batteries that are much smaller in volume and are currently much more expensive. Designing a battery-powered robot needs to take into account factors such as safety, cycle lifetime and weight. Generators, often some type of internal combustion engine, can also be used. However, such designs are often mechanically complex and need a fuel, require heat dissipation and are relatively heavy. A tether connecting the robot to a power supply would remove the power supply from the robot entirely. This has the advantage of saving weight and space by moving all power generation and storage components elsewhere. However, this design does come with the drawback of constantly having a cable connected to the robot, which can be difficult to manage.[36] Potential power sources could be:

Actuators are the "muscles" of a robot, the parts which convert stored energy into movement.[37] By far the most popular actuators are electric motors that rotate a wheel or gear, and linear actuators that control industrial robots in factories. There are some recent advances in alternative types of actuators, powered by electricity, chemicals, or compressed air.

The vast majority of robots use electric motors, often brushed and brushless DC motors in portable robots or AC motors in industrial robots and CNC machines. These motors are often preferred in systems with lighter loads, and where the predominant form of motion is rotational.

Various types of linear actuators move in and out instead of by spinning, and often have quicker direction changes, particularly when very large forces are needed such as with industrial robotics. They are typically powered by compressed and oxidized air (pneumatic actuator) or an oil (hydraulic actuator) Linear actuators can also be powered by electricity which usually consists of a motor and a leadscrew. Another common type is a mechanical linear actuator that is turned by hand, such as a rack and pinion on a car.

A flexure is designed as part of the motor actuator, to improve safety and provide robust force control, energy efficiency, shock absorption (mechanical filtering) while reducing excessive wear on the transmission and other mechanical components. The resultant lower reflected inertia can improve safety when a robot is interacting with humans or during collisions. It has been used in various robots, particularly advanced manufacturing robots [38] and walking humanoid robots.[39][40]

Pneumatic artificial muscles, also known as air muscles, are special tubes that expand(typically up to 40%) when air is forced inside them. They are used in some robot applications.[41][42][43]

Muscle wire, also known as shape memory alloy, Nitinol or Flexinol wire, is a material which contracts (under 5%) when electricity is applied. They have been used for some small robot applications.[44][45]

EAPs or EPAMs are a plastic material that can contract substantially (up to 380% activation strain) from electricity, and have been used in facial muscles and arms of humanoid robots,[46] and to enable new robots to float,[47] fly, swim or walk.[48]

Recent alternatives to DC motors are piezo motors or ultrasonic motors. These work on a fundamentally different principle, whereby tiny piezoceramic elements, vibrating many thousands of times per second, cause linear or rotary motion. There are different mechanisms of operation; one type uses the vibration of the piezo elements to step the motor in a circle or a straight line.[49] Another type uses the piezo elements to cause a nut to vibrate or to drive a screw. The advantages of these motors are nanometer resolution, speed, and available force for their size.[50] These motors are already available commercially, and being used on some robots.[51][52]

Elastic nanotubes are a promising artificial muscle technology in early-stage experimental development. The absence of defects in carbon nanotubes enables these filaments to deform elastically by several percent, with energy storage levels of perhaps 10J/cm3 for metal nanotubes. Human biceps could be replaced with an 8mm diameter wire of this material. Such compact "muscle" might allow future robots to outrun and outjump humans.[53]

Sensors allow robots to receive information about a certain measurement of the environment, or internal components. This is essential for robots to perform their tasks, and act upon any changes in the environment to calculate the appropriate response. They are used for various forms of measurements, to give the robots warnings about safety or malfunctions, and to provide real-time information of the task it is performing.

Current robotic and prosthetic hands receive far less tactile information than the human hand. Recent research has developed a tactile sensor array that mimics the mechanical properties and touch receptors of human fingertips.[54][55] The sensor array is constructed as a rigid core surrounded by conductive fluid contained by an elastomeric skin. Electrodes are mounted on the surface of the rigid core and are connected to an impedance-measuring device within the core. When the artificial skin touches an object the fluid path around the electrodes is deformed, producing impedance changes that map the forces received from the object. The researchers expect that an important function of such artificial fingertips will be adjusting robotic grip on held objects.

Scientists from several European countries and Israel developed a prosthetic hand in 2009, called SmartHand, which functions like a real oneallowing patients to write with it, type on a keyboard, play piano and perform other fine movements. The prosthesis has sensors which enable the patient to sense real feeling in its fingertips.[56]

Computer vision is the science and technology of machines that see. As a scientific discipline, computer vision is concerned with the theory behind artificial systems that extract information from images. The image data can take many forms, such as video sequences and views from cameras.

In most practical computer vision applications, the computers are pre-programmed to solve a particular task, but methods based on learning are now becoming increasingly common.

Computer vision systems rely on image sensors which detect electromagnetic radiation which is typically in the form of either visible light or infra-red light. The sensors are designed using solid-state physics. The process by which light propagates and reflects off surfaces is explained using optics. Sophisticated image sensors even require quantum mechanics to provide a complete understanding of the image formation process. Robots can also be equipped with multiple vision sensors to be better able to compute the sense of depth in the environment. Like human eyes, robots' "eyes" must also be able to focus on a particular area of interest, and also adjust to variations in light intensities.

There is a subfield within computer vision where artificial systems are designed to mimic the processing and behavior of biological system, at different levels of complexity. Also, some of the learning-based methods developed within computer vision have their background in biology.

Other common forms of sensing in robotics use lidar, radar, and sonar.[57] Lidar measures distance to a target by illuminating the target with laser light and measuring the reflected light with a sensor. Radar uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects. Sonar uses sound propagation to navigate, communicate with or detect objects on or under the surface of the water.

A definition of robotic manipulation has been provided by Matt Mason as: "manipulation refers to an agents control of its environment through selective contact.[58]

Robots need to manipulate objects; pick up, modify, destroy, or otherwise have an effect. Thus the functional end of a robot arm intended to make the effect (whether a hand, or tool) are often referred to as end effectors,[59] while the "arm" is referred to as a manipulator.[60] Most robot arms have replaceable end-effectors, each allowing them to perform some small range of tasks. Some have a fixed manipulator which cannot be replaced, while a few have one very general purpose manipulator, for example, a humanoid hand.[61]

One of the most common types of end-effectors are "grippers". In its simplest manifestation, it consists of just two fingers which can open and close to pick up and let go of a range of small objects. Fingers can for example, be made of a chain with a metal wire run through it.[62] Hands that resemble and work more like a human hand include the Shadow Hand and the Robonaut hand.[63] Hands that are of a mid-level complexity include the Delft hand.[64][65] Mechanical grippers can come in various types, including friction and encompassing jaws. Friction jaws use all the force of the gripper to hold the object in place using friction. Encompassing jaws cradle the object in place, using less friction.

Suction end-effectors, powered by vacuum generators, are very simple astrictive[66] devices that can hold very large loads provided the prehension surface is smooth enough to ensure suction.

Pick and place robots for electronic components and for large objects like car windscreens, often use very simple vacuum end-effectors.

Suction is a highly used type of end-effector in industry, in part because the natural compliance of soft suction end-effectors can enable a robot to be more robust in the presence of imperfect robotic perception. As an example: consider the case of a robot vision system estimates the position of a water bottle, but has 1 centimeter of error. While this may cause a rigid mechanical gripper to puncture the water bottle, the soft suction end-effector may just bend slightly and conform to the shape of the water bottle surface.

Some advanced robots are beginning to use fully humanoid hands, like the Shadow Hand, MANUS,[67] and the Schunk hand.[68] These are highly dexterous manipulators, with as many as 20 degrees of freedom and hundreds of tactile sensors.[69]

For simplicity, most mobile robots have four wheels or a number of continuous tracks. Some researchers have tried to create more complex wheeled robots with only one or two wheels. These can have certain advantages such as greater efficiency and reduced parts, as well as allowing a robot to navigate in confined places that a four-wheeled robot would not be able to.

Balancing robots generally use a gyroscope to detect how much a robot is falling and then drive the wheels proportionally in the same direction, to counterbalance the fall at hundreds of times per second, based on the dynamics of an inverted pendulum.[70] Many different balancing robots have been designed.[71] While the Segway is not commonly thought of as a robot, it can be thought of as a component of a robot, when used as such Segway refer to them as RMP (Robotic Mobility Platform). An example of this use has been as NASA's Robonaut that has been mounted on a Segway.[72]

A one-wheeled balancing robot is an extension of a two-wheeled balancing robot so that it can move in any 2D direction using a round ball as its only wheel. Several one-wheeled balancing robots have been designed recently, such as Carnegie Mellon University's "Ballbot" that is the approximate height and width of a person, and Tohoku Gakuin University's "BallIP".[73] Because of the long, thin shape and ability to maneuver in tight spaces, they have the potential to function better than other robots in environments with people.[74]

Several attempts have been made in robots that are completely inside a spherical ball, either by spinning a weight inside the ball,[75][76] or by rotating the outer shells of the sphere.[77][78] These have also been referred to as an orb bot[79] or a ball bot.[80][81]

Using six wheels instead of four wheels can give better traction or grip in outdoor terrain such as on rocky dirt or grass.

Tank tracks provide even more traction than a six-wheeled robot. Tracked wheels behave as if they were made of hundreds of wheels, therefore are very common for outdoor and military robots, where the robot must drive on very rough terrain. However, they are difficult to use indoors such as on carpets and smooth floors. Examples include NASA's Urban Robot "Urbie".[82]

Walking is a difficult and dynamic problem to solve. Several robots have been made which can walk reliably on two legs, however, none have yet been made which are as robust as a human. There has been much study on human inspired walking, such as AMBER lab which was established in 2008 by the Mechanical Engineering Department at Texas A&M University.[83] Many other robots have been built that walk on more than two legs, due to these robots being significantly easier to construct.[84][85] Walking robots can be used for uneven terrains, which would provide better mobility and energy efficiency than other locomotion methods. Typically, robots on two legs can walk well on flat floors and can occasionally walk up stairs. None can walk over rocky, uneven terrain. Some of the methods which have been tried are:

The zero moment point (ZMP) is the algorithm used by robots such as Honda's ASIMO. The robot's onboard computer tries to keep the total inertial forces (the combination of Earth's gravity and the acceleration and deceleration of walking), exactly opposed by the floor reaction force (the force of the floor pushing back on the robot's foot). In this way, the two forces cancel out, leaving no moment (force causing the robot to rotate and fall over).[86] However, this is not exactly how a human walks, and the difference is obvious to human observers, some of whom have pointed out that ASIMO walks as if it needs the lavatory.[87][88][89] ASIMO's walking algorithm is not static, and some dynamic balancing is used (see below). However, it still requires a smooth surface to walk on.

Several robots, built in the 1980s by Marc Raibert at the MIT Leg Laboratory, successfully demonstrated very dynamic walking. Initially, a robot with only one leg, and a very small foot could stay upright simply by hopping. The movement is the same as that of a person on a pogo stick. As the robot falls to one side, it would jump slightly in that direction, in order to catch itself.[90] Soon, the algorithm was generalised to two and four legs. A bipedal robot was demonstrated running and even performing somersaults.[91] A quadruped was also demonstrated which could trot, run, pace, and bound.[92] For a full list of these robots, see the MIT Leg Lab Robots page.[93]

A more advanced way for a robot to walk is by using a dynamic balancing algorithm, which is potentially more robust than the Zero Moment Point technique, as it constantly monitors the robot's motion, and places the feet in order to maintain stability.[94] This technique was recently demonstrated by Anybots' Dexter Robot,[95] which is so stable, it can even jump.[96] Another example is the TU Delft Flame.

Perhaps the most promising approach utilizes passive dynamics where the momentum of swinging limbs is used for greater efficiency. It has been shown that totally unpowered humanoid mechanisms can walk down a gentle slope, using only gravity to propel themselves. Using this technique, a robot need only supply a small amount of motor power to walk along a flat surface or a little more to walk up a hill. This technique promises to make walking robots at least ten times more efficient than ZMP walkers, like ASIMO.[97][98]

A modern passenger airliner is essentially a flying robot, with two humans to manage it. The autopilot can control the plane for each stage of the journey, including takeoff, normal flight, and even landing.[99] Other flying robots are uninhabited and are known as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). They can be smaller and lighter without a human pilot on board, and fly into dangerous territory for military surveillance missions. Some can even fire on targets under command. UAVs are also being developed which can fire on targets automatically, without the need for a command from a human. Other flying robots include cruise missiles, the Entomopter, and the Epson micro helicopter robot. Robots such as the Air Penguin, Air Ray, and Air Jelly have lighter-than-air bodies, propelled by paddles, and guided by sonar.

Several snake robots have been successfully developed. Mimicking the way real snakes move, these robots can navigate very confined spaces, meaning they may one day be used to search for people trapped in collapsed buildings.[100] The Japanese ACM-R5 snake robot[101] can even navigate both on land and in water.[102]

A small number of skating robots have been developed, one of which is a multi-mode walking and skating device. It has four legs, with unpowered wheels, which can either step or roll.[103] Another robot, Plen, can use a miniature skateboard or roller-skates, and skate across a desktop.[104]

Several different approaches have been used to develop robots that have the ability to climb vertical surfaces. One approach mimics the movements of a human climber on a wall with protrusions; adjusting the center of mass and moving each limb in turn to gain leverage. An example of this is Capuchin,[105] built by Dr. Ruixiang Zhang at Stanford University, California. Another approach uses the specialized toe pad method of wall-climbing geckoes, which can run on smooth surfaces such as vertical glass. Examples of this approach include Wallbot[106] and Stickybot.[107]

China's Technology Daily reported on 15 November 2008, that Dr. Li Hiu Yeung and his research group of New Concept Aircraft (Zhuhai) Co., Ltd. had successfully developed a bionic gecko robot named "Speedy Freelander". According to Dr. Yeung, the gecko robot could rapidly climb up and down a variety of building walls, navigate through ground and wall fissures, and walk upside-down on the ceiling. It was also able to adapt to the surfaces of smooth glass, rough, sticky or dusty walls as well as various types of metallic materials. It could also identify and circumvent obstacles automatically. Its flexibility and speed were comparable to a natural gecko. A third approach is to mimic the motion of a snake climbing a pole.[57]

It is calculated that when swimming some fish can achieve a propulsive efficiency greater than 90%.[108] Furthermore, they can accelerate and maneuver far better than any man-made boat or submarine, and produce less noise and water disturbance. Therefore, many researchers studying underwater robots would like to copy this type of locomotion.[109] Notable examples are the Essex University Computer Science Robotic Fish G9,[110] and the Robot Tuna built by the Institute of Field Robotics, to analyze and mathematically model thunniform motion.[111] The Aqua Penguin,[112] designed and built by Festo of Germany, copies the streamlined shape and propulsion by front "flippers" of penguins. Festo have also built the Aqua Ray and Aqua Jelly, which emulate the locomotion of manta ray, and jellyfish, respectively.

In 2014 iSplash-II was developed by PhD student Richard James Clapham and Prof. Huosheng Hu at Essex University. It was the first robotic fish capable of outperforming real carangiform fish in terms of average maximum velocity (measured in body lengths/ second) and endurance, the duration that top speed is maintained.[113] This build attained swimming speeds of 11.6BL/s (i.e. 3.7m/s).[114] The first build, iSplash-I (2014) was the first robotic platform to apply a full-body length carangiform swimming motion which was found to increase swimming speed by 27% over the traditional approach of a posterior confined waveform.[115]

Sailboat robots have also been developed in order to make measurements at the surface of the ocean. A typical sailboat robot is Vaimos[116] built by IFREMER and ENSTA-Bretagne. Since the propulsion of sailboat robots uses the wind, the energy of the batteries is only used for the computer, for the communication and for the actuators (to tune the rudder and the sail). If the robot is equipped with solar panels, the robot could theoretically navigate forever. The two main competitions of sailboat robots are WRSC, which takes place every year in Europe, and Sailbot.

Though a significant percentage of robots in commission today are either human controlled or operate in a static environment, there is an increasing interest in robots that can operate autonomously in a dynamic environment. These robots require some combination of navigation hardware and software in order to traverse their environment. In particular, unforeseen events (e.g. people and other obstacles that are not stationary) can cause problems or collisions. Some highly advanced robots such as ASIMO and Mein robot have particularly good robot navigation hardware and software. Also, self-controlled cars, Ernst Dickmanns' driverless car, and the entries in the DARPA Grand Challenge, are capable of sensing the environment well and subsequently making navigational decisions based on this information, including by a swarm of autonomous robots.[35] Most of these robots employ a GPS navigation device with waypoints, along with radar, sometimes combined with other sensory data such as lidar, video cameras, and inertial guidance systems for better navigation between waypoints.

The state of the art in sensory intelligence for robots will have to progress through several orders of magnitude if we want the robots working in our homes to go beyond vacuum-cleaning the floors. If robots are to work effectively in homes and other non-industrial environments, the way they are instructed to perform their jobs, and especially how they will be told to stop will be of critical importance. The people who interact with them may have little or no training in robotics, and so any interface will need to be extremely intuitive. Science fiction authors also typically assume that robots will eventually be capable of communicating with humans through speech, gestures, and facial expressions, rather than a command-line interface. Although speech would be the most natural way for the human to communicate, it is unnatural for the robot. It will probably be a long time before robots interact as naturally as the fictional C-3PO, or Data of Star Trek, Next Generation.

Interpreting the continuous flow of sounds coming from a human, in real time, is a difficult task for a computer, mostly because of the great variability of speech.[117] The same word, spoken by the same person may sound different depending on local acoustics, volume, the previous word, whether or not the speaker has a cold, etc.. It becomes even harder when the speaker has a different accent.[118] Nevertheless, great strides have been made in the field since Davis, Biddulph, and Balashek designed the first "voice input system" which recognized "ten digits spoken by a single user with 100% accuracy" in 1952.[119] Currently, the best systems can recognize continuous, natural speech, up to 160 words per minute, with an accuracy of 95%.[120] With the help of artificial intelligence, machines nowadays can use people's voice to identify their emotions such as satisfied or angry[121]

Other hurdles exist when allowing the robot to use voice for interacting with humans. For social reasons, synthetic voice proves suboptimal as a communication medium,[122] making it necessary to develop the emotional component of robotic voice through various techniques.[123][124] An advantage of diphonic branching is the emotion that the robot is programmed to project, can be carried on the voice tape, or phoneme, already pre-programmed onto the voice media. One of the earliest examples is a teaching robot named leachim developed in 1974 by Michael J. Freeman.[125][126] Leachim was able to convert digital memory to rudimentary verbal speech on pre-recorded computer discs.[127] It was programmed to teach students in The Bronx, New York.[127]

One can imagine, in the future, explaining to a robot chef how to make a pastry, or asking directions from a robot police officer. In both of these cases, making hand gestures would aid the verbal descriptions. In the first case, the robot would be recognizing gestures made by the human, and perhaps repeating them for confirmation. In the second case, the robot police officer would gesture to indicate "down the road, then turn right". It is likely that gestures will make up a part of the interaction between humans and robots.[128] A great many systems have been developed to recognize human hand gestures.[129]

Facial expressions can provide rapid feedback on the progress of a dialog between two humans, and soon may be able to do the same for humans and robots. Robotic faces have been constructed by Hanson Robotics using their elastic polymer called Frubber, allowing a large number of facial expressions due to the elasticity of the rubber facial coating and embedded subsurface motors (servos).[130] The coating and servos are built on a metal skull. A robot should know how to approach a human, judging by their facial expression and body language. Whether the person is happy, frightened, or crazy-looking affects the type of interaction expected of the robot. Likewise, robots like Kismet and the more recent addition, Nexi[131] can produce a range of facial expressions, allowing it to have meaningful social exchanges with humans.[132]

Artificial emotions can also be generated, composed of a sequence of facial expressions and/or gestures. As can be seen from the movie Final Fantasy: The Spirits Within, the programming of these artificial emotions is complex and requires a large amount of human observation. To simplify this programming in the movie, presets were created together with a special software program. This decreased the amount of time needed to make the film. These presets could possibly be transferred for use in real-life robots.

Many of the robots of science fiction have a personality, something which may or may not be desirable in the commercial robots of the future.[133] Nevertheless, researchers are trying to create robots which appear to have a personality:[134][135] i.e. they use sounds, facial expressions, and body language to try to convey an internal state, which may be joy, sadness, or fear. One commercial example is Pleo, a toy robot dinosaur, which can exhibit several apparent emotions.[136]

The Socially Intelligent Machines Lab of the Georgia Institute of Technology researches new concepts of guided teaching interaction with robots. The aim of the projects is a social robot that learns task and goals from human demonstrations without prior knowledge of high-level concepts. These new concepts are grounded from low-level continuous sensor data through unsupervised learning, and task goals are subsequently learned using a Bayesian approach. These concepts can be used to transfer knowledge to future tasks, resulting in faster learning of those tasks. The results are demonstrated by the robot Curi who can scoop some pasta from a pot onto a plate and serve the sauce on top.[137]

The mechanical structure of a robot must be controlled to perform tasks. The control of a robot involves three distinct phases perception, processing, and action (robotic paradigms). Sensors give information about the environment or the robot itself (e.g. the position of its joints or its end effector). This information is then processed to be stored or transmitted and to calculate the appropriate signals to the actuators (motors) which move the mechanical.

The processing phase can range in complexity. At a reactive level, it may translate raw sensor information directly into actuator commands. Sensor fusion may first be used to estimate parameters of interest (e.g. the position of the robot's gripper) from noisy sensor data. An immediate task (such as moving the gripper in a certain direction) is inferred from these estimates. Techniques from control theory convert the task into commands that drive the actuators.

At longer time scales or with more sophisticated tasks, the robot may need to build and reason with a "cognitive" model. Cognitive models try to represent the robot, the world, and how they interact. Pattern recognition and computer vision can be used to track objects. Mapping techniques can be used to build maps of the world. Finally, motion planning and other artificial intelligence techniques may be used to figure out how to act. For example, a planner may figure out how to achieve a task without hitting obstacles, falling over, etc.

Control systems may also have varying levels of autonomy.

Another classification takes into account the interaction between human control and the machine motions.

Much of the research in robotics focuses not on specific industrial tasks, but on investigations into new types of robots, alternative ways to think about or design robots, and new ways to manufacture them. Other investigations, such as MIT's cyberflora project, are almost wholly academic.

A first particular new innovation in robot design is the open sourcing of robot-projects. To describe the level of advancement of a robot, the term "Generation Robots" can be used. This term is coined by Professor Hans Moravec, Principal Research Scientist at the Carnegie Mellon University Robotics Institute in describing the near future evolution of robot technology. First generation robots, Moravec predicted in 1997, should have an intellectual capacity comparable to perhaps a lizard and should become available by 2010. Because the first generation robot would be incapable of learning, however, Moravec predicts that the second generation robot would be an improvement over the first and become available by 2020, with the intelligence maybe comparable to that of a mouse. The third generation robot should have the intelligence comparable to that of a monkey. Though fourth generation robots, robots with human intelligence, professor Moravec predicts, would become possible, he does not predict this happening before around 2040 or 2050.[140]

The second is evolutionary robots. This is a methodology that uses evolutionary computation to help design robots, especially the body form, or motion and behavior controllers. In a similar way to natural evolution, a large population of robots is allowed to compete in some way, or their ability to perform a task is measured using a fitness function. Those that perform worst are removed from the population and replaced by a new set, which have new behaviors based on those of the winners. Over time the population improves, and eventually a satisfactory robot may appear. This happens without any direct programming of the robots by the researchers. Researchers use this method both to create better robots,[141] and to explore the nature of evolution.[142] Because the process often requires many generations of robots to be simulated,[143] this technique may be run entirely or mostly in simulation, using a robot simulator software package, then tested on real robots once the evolved algorithms are good enough.[144] Currently, there are about 10 million industrial robots toiling around the world, and Japan is the top country having high density of utilizing robots in its manufacturing industry.[citation needed]

The study of motion can be divided into kinematics and dynamics.[145] Direct kinematics or forward kinematics refers to the calculation of end effector position, orientation, velocity, and acceleration when the corresponding joint values are known. Inverse kinematics refers to the opposite case in which required joint values are calculated for given end effector values, as done in path planning. Some special aspects of kinematics include handling of redundancy (different possibilities of performing the same movement), collision avoidance, and singularity avoidance. Once all relevant positions, velocities, and accelerations have been calculated using kinematics, methods from the field of dynamics are used to study the effect of forces upon these movements. Direct dynamics refers to the calculation of accelerations in the robot once the applied forces are known. Direct dynamics is used in computer simulations of the robot. Inverse dynamics refers to the calculation of the actuator forces necessary to create a prescribed end-effector acceleration. This information can be used to improve the control algorithms of a robot.

In each area mentioned above, researchers strive to develop new concepts and strategies, improve existing ones, and improve the interaction between these areas. To do this, criteria for "optimal" performance and ways to optimize design, structure, and control of robots must be developed and implemented.

Bionics and biomimetics apply the physiology and methods of locomotion of animals to the design of robots. For example, the design of BionicKangaroo was based on the way kangaroos jump.

There has been some research into whether robotics algorithms can be run more quickly on quantum computers than they can be run on digital computers. This area has been referred to as quantum robotics.[146]

Robotics engineers design robots, maintain them, develop new applications for them, and conduct research to expand the potential of robotics.[147] Robots have become a popular educational tool in some middle and high schools, particularly in parts of the USA,[148] as well as in numerous youth summer camps, raising interest in programming, artificial intelligence, and robotics among students.

Universities like Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) offer bachelors, masters, and doctoral degrees in the field of robotics.[149] Vocational schools offer robotics training aimed at careers in robotics.

The Robotics Certification Standards Alliance (RCSA) is an international robotics certification authority that confers various industry- and educational-related robotics certifications.

Several national summer camp programs include robotics as part of their core curriculum. In addition, youth summer robotics programs are frequently offered by celebrated museums and institutions.

There are many competitions around the globe. The SeaPerch curriculum is aimed as students of all ages. This is a short list of competition examples; for a more complete list see Robot competition.

The FIRST organization offers the FIRST Lego League Jr. competitions for younger children. This competition's goal is to offer younger children an opportunity to start learning about science and technology. Children in this competition build Lego models and have the option of using the Lego WeDo robotics kit.

One of the most important competitions is the FLL or FIRST Lego League. The idea of this specific competition is that kids start developing knowledge and getting into robotics while playing with Lego since they are nine years old. This competition is associated with National Instruments. Children use Lego Mindstorms to solve autonomous robotics challenges in this competition.

The FIRST Tech Challenge is designed for intermediate students, as a transition from the FIRST Lego League to the FIRST Robotics Competition.

The FIRST Robotics Competition focuses more on mechanical design, with a specific game being played each year. Robots are built specifically for that year's game. In match play, the robot moves autonomously during the first 15 seconds of the game (although certain years such as 2019's Deep Space change this rule), and is manually operated for the rest of the match.

The various RoboCup competitions include teams of teenagers and university students. These competitions focus on soccer competitions with different types of robots, dance competitions, and urban search and rescue competitions. All of the robots in these competitions must be autonomous. Some of these competitions focus on simulated robots.

AUVSI runs competitions for flying robots, robot boats, and underwater robots.

The Student AUV Competition Europe [150] (SAUC-E) mainly attracts undergraduate and graduate student teams. As in the AUVSI competitions, the robots must be fully autonomous while they are participating in the competition.

The Microtransat Challenge is a competition to sail a boat across the Atlantic Ocean.

RoboGames is open to anyone wishing to compete in their over 50 categories of robot competitions.

Federation of International Robot-soccer Association holds the FIRA World Cup competitions. There are flying robot competitions, robot soccer competitions, and other challenges, including weightlifting barbells made from dowels and CDs.

Many schools across the country are beginning to add robotics programs to their after school curriculum. Some major programs for afterschool robotics include FIRST Robotics Competition, Botball and B.E.S.T. Robotics.[151] Robotics competitions often include aspects of business and marketing as well as engineering and design.

The Lego company began a program for children to learn and get excited about robotics at a young age.[152]

Robotics is an essential component in many modern manufacturing environments. As factories increase their use of robots, the number of roboticsrelated jobs grow and have been observed to be steadily rising.[153] The employment of robots in industries has increased productivity and efficiency savings and is typically seen as a long term investment for benefactors. A paper by Michael Osborne andCarl Benedikt Freyfound that 47 per cent of US jobs are at risk to automation "over some unspecified number of years".[154] These claims have been criticized on the ground that social policy, not AI, causes unemployment.[155] In a 2016 article in The Guardian, Stephen Hawking stated "The automation of factories has already decimated jobs in traditional manufacturing, and the rise of artificial intelligence is likely to extend this job destruction deep into the middle classes, with only the most caring, creative or supervisory roles remaining".[156]

A discussion paper drawn up by EU-OSHA highlights how the spread of robotics presents both opportunities and challenges for occupational safety and health (OSH).[157]

The greatest OSH benefits stemming from the wider use of robotics should be substitution for people working in unhealthy or dangerous environments. In space, defence, security, or the nuclear industry, but also in logistics, maintenance, and inspection, autonomous robots are particularly useful in replacing human workers performing dirty, dull or unsafe tasks, thus avoiding workers' exposures to hazardous agents and conditions and reducing physical, ergonomic and psychosocial risks. For example, robots are already used to perform repetitive and monotonous tasks, to handle radioactive material or to work in explosive atmospheres. In the future, many other highly repetitive, risky or unpleasant tasks will be performed by robots in a variety of sectors like agriculture, construction, transport, healthcare, firefighting or cleaning services.[158]

Despite these advances, there are certain skills to which humans will be better suited than machines for some time to come and the question is how to achieve the best combination of human and robot skills. The advantages of robotics include heavy-duty jobs with precision and repeatability, whereas the advantages of humans include creativity, decision-making, flexibility, and adaptability. This need to combine optimal skills has resulted in collaborative robots and humans sharing a common workspace more closely and led to the development of new approaches and standards to guarantee the safety of the "man-robot merger". Some European countries are including robotics in their national programmes and trying to promote a safe and flexible co-operation between robots and operators to achieve better productivity. For example, the German Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (BAuA) organises annual workshops on the topic "human-robot collaboration".

In the future, co-operation between robots and humans will be diversified, with robots increasing their autonomy and human-robot collaboration reaching completely new forms. Current approaches and technical standards[159][160] aiming to protect employees from the risk of working with collaborative robots will have to be revised.

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Robotics - Wikipedia

Robotics – an overview | ScienceDirect Topics

10.3 Robotic surgery experience

Robotics overcomes many of the disadvantages of open surgery as well as those still present with laparoscopy. In a way, it embodies the natural progression in the path to MIS. The advantages include: 3D optics, wrist-like motion, tremor filtering, motion scaling, better ergonomics, and less fatigue. This translates into a lower conversion rate, decreased length of stay, easier learning curve, and the ability to operate in constricted spaces. Conversion from MIS to open has a deleterious impact on numerous patient factors, including increased transfusion rate (11.5% vs 1.9%), wound infection rate (23% vs 12%), complication rate (44% vs 21%), length of stay (+6 days vs base), and 5-year disease-free survival rate (40.2% vs 70.7%) [2426]. Recent analyses of the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) database comparing thousands of patients who underwent laparoscopic or robotic colorectal surgery found significantly lower conversion rates for robotics and lower length of hospital stay for both abdominal and pelvic robotic cases. There was no difference in postoperative complications when comparing the two groups and a significantly shorter length of stay for robotic procedures [27,28]. Other large database studies comparing the two groups with propensity score matching demonstrated reduced 30-day postoperative septic complications (2.3% vs 4%), hospital stay (mean: 4.8 vs 6.3 days), and discharge to another facility (3.5% vs 5.8%) in favor of robotic colectomy [29]. Analysis of the Michigan Surgical Quality Collaborative database comparing laparoscopic, hand-assisted laparoscopic, and robotic colon and rectal operations found significantly lower conversion rates for robotics in rectal resections (21.2% vs 7.8%), and approaching significance for colon resections (16.9% vs 9%) [30]. Conversion to open resulted in significantly longer length of stay for robotic (1.3 days) and laparoscopic procedures (1.7 days).

Studies have shown that the learning curve for robotic colorectal surgery ranges from 15 to 25 cases. Obtaining a learning curve which is half of that required for laparoscopy requires the surgeon to master three unique concepts of robotic surgery as outlined by Bokhari et al. [18]: (1) substituting visual cues with regard to tension and manipulation of tissues in place of tactile feedback, (2) grasping the spatial orientation of robotic instruments outside the visual field of view to maneuver safely without direct visualization, and (3) envisioning the alignment of the robotic arms and cart while operating remotely at the console, thereby minimizing external collisions [18]. A more recent study has examined whether physician factors (including time since graduation, fellowship status, and number of procedures performed) were associated with hospital stay and complications following common robotic surgery procedures in the State of New York among 1670 patients. Hospital-level factors were also analyzed, including urban versus rural setting, teaching status, hospital size, and the presence of a fellowship. After evaluating all factors in multivariable regression models and adjusting for covariates such as patients characteristics and comorbidities, neither physician- not hospital-related factors were significantly related to length of stay or complications [31]. Robotic surgery may eliminate the differences between hospitals and physicians, making outcomes independent of surgeon volume and experience.

The benefits of intracorporeal anastomosis and off-midline specimen extraction have already been demonstrated with laparoscopic colorectal surgery. This is made even easier with robotic assistance, limiting excessive handing of bowel that leads to ileus, improper orientation, and avoiding a midline extraction site. Past studies comparing laparoscopic right hemicolectomy with intracorporeal versus extracorporeal anastomosis showed decreased postoperative complications (18.7% vs 35%), infection rate (4.4% vs 14%), length of stay (mean: 5.9 vs 6.9 days), and incisional hernia rate (2.2% vs 17%) [32]. A large study examining extraction site location and incisional hernias after laparoscopic colorectal surgery has shown twice the rate of incisional hernia with midline extraction compared to off-midline (8.9% vs 2.3%4.8%) [33]. A recent multicenter retrospective study compared robotic right colectomy with intracorporeal anastomosis (RRCIA) to laparoscopic right colectomy with extracorporeal (LRCEA) and intracorporeal (LRCIA) anastomosis among 236 patients. RRCIA offers significantly better perioperative recovery outcomes compared to LRCEA, with a substantial reduction in the length of stay (4 vs 7 days). Compared with the LRCIA, the RRCIA had a shorter time to first flatus but offered no advantages in terms of the length of stay. Once again, the conversion rate was much lower for RRCIA (3.9%) versus LRCEA (8.5%) versus LRCIA (15%) [34]. This study reinforces the benefits of an intracorporeal anastomosis and the fact that it is much easier to perform robotically, leading to a decreased conversion rate.

Multiple studies have demonstrated the safety and feasibility of robotic colorectal resection with regards to short-term oncologic outcomes [35,36]. A recent retrospective study comprised of 732 patients analyzing long-term oncologic outcomes using propensity score matching showed comparable survival between robotic and laparoscopic TME. In multivariate analysis, robotic surgery was a significant prognostic factor for overall survival and cancer-specific survival [37]. The latest and largest randomized clinical trial of robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery for patients with rectal adenocarcinoma (ROLARR) demonstrated comparable oncologic outcomes to previously published large randomized trials. The positive circumferential resection margin rate (5.7%) was lower than previous trials studying conventional laparoscopy (ACOSOG Z6051, 12.1%; ALaCaRT, 7%). Pathological grading of intact mesorectum (75.3%) was comparable to ACOSOG Z6051 (72.9%). Surprisingly, there was no statistically significant difference in the rate of conversion to open laparotomy for robotic compared with laparoscopic surgery (8.1% vs 12.2%) [38]. The authors attributed this to surgeons having varying robotic experience as compared to the expert laparoscopic group. The fact that less experienced robotic surgeons had the same conversion rate as expert laparoscopists supports the previously mentioned study by Altieri et al. which did not find surgeon robotic experience tied to outcomes or length of stay, in contrast to laparoscopy [31].

Disadvantages of robotic surgery include: increased operative time, lack of haptic feedback, surgeons remote location away from the operating room table, inability to perform multiquadrant abdominal surgery, and the cost of technology [3841]. Several metaanalyses and a most recent ACS NSQIP database analysis have compared operative times for robotic versus laparoscopic colorectal resections with a mean operative time of approximately 40minutes longer for robotic colorectal resection when compared to laparoscopic [28,42,43]. Longer operative times have been shown to improve with surgeon experience, some single-surgeon studies demonstrating a statistically significant decrease in mean operative time from 267 to 224minutes [44]. However, larger randomized studies analyzing surgeons with varying robotic experience still showed prolonged operating time when compared to laparoscopy [38]. With experience, visual cues substitute for haptic feedback, thus avoiding excessive tissue manipulation and injury. Numerous studies, previously discussed, have shown the safety and feasibility of robotic surgery with equivalent or decreased complications compared to laparoscopic surgery, thus making the lack haptic feedback a nonsafety issue. One can postulate that with haptic feedback operative time may be reduced but this will require implementation and further study of such technology. Seasoned first assists and a well-trained robotics team can provide confidence and feedback at the bedside for the surgeon while he or she is at the console, minimizing the issue of not being at the patient bedside. It behooves the surgeon to train his or her team and have an action plan in case of emergency bleeding or need to convert to open laparotomy.

Finally, the cost of new technology is offset with increased case volume, instrument use optimization, and previously touted clinical benefits. However, this remains a controversial issue since acquiring the latest robotic system costs $1.85$2.3 million and does not include ongoing instrument and maintenance costs, which can range from $0.08 to $0.17 million/year. The ROLARR randomized clinical trial comparing robotic to laparoscopic rectal surgery suggested that robotic surgery for rectal cancer is unlikely to be cost-saving. The mean difference per operation, excluding the acquisition and maintenance costs, was $1132 driven by longer operating room time and increased cost for robotic instruments [38,45]. In contrast, a recent study examining surgeons with higher experience in robotic and laparoscopic colorectal procedures (30 or more robotic procedures per year) showed no statistically significant difference in total direct cost. When comparing supply costs, robotic surgery was more expensive than laparoscopic surgery (mean: $764) due to increased costs associated with robotic reusable instruments. The total direct costs were comprised of supplies, hospital stay, and operating room costs and showed no difference ($24,473 vs $24,343) likely due to reduced length of stay and lower conversion rate [46]. Cheaper cost can be attained by decreasing operative time, limiting superfluous robotic instrument use, and improving utilization of the robotic system.

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Robotics - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics

What Is Robotics? Types Of Robots | Built In

Robotics is quickly infiltrating every aspect our lives, including at home.Manufacturing

The manufacturing industry is probably the oldest and most well-known user of robots. These robots and co-bots (bots that work alongside humans) work to efficiently test and assemble products, like cars and industrial equipment. Its estimated that there are more than three million industrial robots in use right now.

Shipping, handling and quality control robots are becoming a must-have for most retailers and logistics companies. Because we now expectour packages arriving at blazing speeds, logistics companies employ robots inwarehouses, and even on the road, to help maximize time efficiency. Right now, there are robots taking your items off the shelves, transporting them across the warehouse floor and packaging them. Additionally, a rise in last-mile robots (robots that will autonomously deliver your package to your door) ensure that youll have a face-to-metal-face encounter with a logistics bot in the near future.

Its not science fiction anymore. Robots can be seen all over our homes, helping with chores, reminding us of our schedules and even entertaining our kids. The most well-known example of home robots is the autonomous vacuum cleanerRoomba. Additionally, robots have now evolved to do everything from autonomously mowing grass to cleaning pools.

Is there anything more science fiction-like than autonomous vehicles? These self-driving cars are no longer just imagination. A combination of data science and robotics, self-driving vehicles are taking the world by storm. Automakers, like Tesla, Ford, Waymo, Volkswagen and BMW are all working on the next wave of travel that will let us sit back, relax and enjoy the ride. Rideshare companies Uber and Lyft are also developing autonomous rideshare vehicles that dont require humans to operate the vehicle.

Robots have made enormous strides in the healthcare industry. These mechanical marvels have use in just about every aspect of healthcare, from robot-assisted surgeries to bots that help humans recover from injury in physical therapy. Examples of robots at work in healthcare areToyotas healthcare assistants, which help people regain the ability to walk, and TUG, a robot designed to autonomously stroll throughout a hospital and deliver everything from medicines to clean linens.

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What Is Robotics? Types Of Robots | Built In

Top 5 Robotics ETFs – ETFdb.com

This is a list of all Robotics ETFs traded in the USA which are currently tagged by ETF Database. Please note that the list may not contain newly issued ETFs. If youre looking for a more simplified way to browse and compare ETFs, you may want to visit our ETFdb Categories, which categorize every ETF in a single best fit category.

This page includes historical return information for all Robotics ETFs listed on U.S. exchanges that are currently tracked by ETF Database.

The table below includes fund flow data for all U.S. listed Robotics ETFs. Total fund flow is the capital inflow into an ETF minus the capital outflow from the ETF for a particular time period.

Fund Flows in millions of U.S. Dollars.

The following table includes expense data and other descriptive information for all Robotics ETFs listed on U.S. exchanges that are currently tracked by ETF Database. In addition to expense ratio and issuer information, this table displays platforms that offer commission-free trading for certain ETFs.

Clicking on any of the links in the table below will provide additional descriptive and quantitative information on Robotics ETFs.

The following table includes ESG Scores and other descriptive information for all Robotics ETFs listed on U.S. exchanges that are currently tracked by ETF Database. Easily browse and evaluate ETFs by visiting our Responsible Investing themes section and find ETFs that map to various environmental, social and governance themes.

This page includes historical dividend information for all Robotics listed on U.S. exchanges that are currently tracked by ETF Database. Note that certain ETFs may not make dividend payments, and as such some of the information below may not be meaningful.

The table below includes basic holdings data for all U.S. listed Robotics ETFs that are currently tagged by ETF Database. The table below includes the number of holdings for each ETF and the percentage of assets that the top ten assets make up, if applicable. For more detailed holdings information for any ETF, click on the link in the right column.

The following table includes certain tax information for all Robotics ETFs listed on U.S. exchanges that are currently tracked by ETF Database, including applicable short-term and long-term capital gains rates and the tax form on which gains or losses in each ETF will be reported.

This page contains certain technical information for all Robotics ETFs that are listed on U.S. exchanges and tracked by ETF Database. Note that the table below only includes limited technical indicators; click on the View link in the far right column for each ETF to see an expanded display of the products technicals.

This page provides links to various analyses for all Robotics ETFs that are listed on U.S. exchanges and tracked by ETF Database. The links in the table below will guide you to various analytical resources for the relevant ETF, including an X-ray of holdings, official fund fact sheet, or objective analyst report.

This page provides ETFdb Ratings for all Robotics ETFs that are listed on U.S. exchanges and tracked by ETF Database. The ETFdb Ratings are transparent, quant-based evaluations of ETFs relative to other products in the same ETFdb.com Category. As such, it should be noted that this page may include ETFs from multiple ETFdb.com Categories.

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Top 5 Robotics ETFs - ETFdb.com

7 Reasons Grocers Should Invest in Robotics Right Now – Progressive Grocer

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The so-called six-foot economy named for the practice that keeps shoppers socially distant to prevent infection is here for the foreseeable future, and food retailers are working double-time to maintain business as usual during these highly unusual times.

The COVID-19 pandemic has added a significant layer of operational complexity to already existing industry-wide challenges. Expectations of cleanliness are at an all-time high among shoppers. With significant inventory turnover, its a struggle to keep shelves consistently stocked. Added to retails long-standing labor shortage, its no wonder this new reality is causing a growing number of grocers and other retailers to evaluate how automation and robots can bring greater efficiency, flexibility, and sanitation to their in-store operations.

Enter the latest wave of autonomous mobile robots (AMRs) intelligent machines that can safely navigate crowded public spaces while taking care of mission-critical tasks. From robotic floor scrubbers and vacuum sweepers to self-driving shelf scanners and in-store delivery tugs, AMRs can be deployed quickly and easily, require no costly or complicated infrastructure, and show too much value for grocers to ignore. Many top U.S. retailers, including Walmart, Kroger, and Giant Eagle, have already made the leap and are seeing huge dividends.

Every food retail business today should be assessing the value of robotics as a part of its retail operations. Why? Here are seven reasons:

As the world adjusts to the new normal, food retailers must prepare for the next normal. Investing in a long-term robotics strategy to bring greater efficiency, safety, accountability, and cost management to in-store operations is one of the first steps. While AMRs are not a panacea for all of the challenges grocers face, they do address the most critical ones: labor shortages, employee safety, consumer experience, and sanitation.

Chris Wright is vice president of sales at Brain Corp,a San Diego-based technology company specializing in the development of intelligent, autonomous navigation systems for everyday machines. Read More

Future of food retailing requires increased vigilance around food safety andsanitation to deliver a next-generation store experience

Recruitment, retention, training and diversity at the forefront

Shelf-scanning robots coming to 650 more U.S. stores by the end of the summer

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7 Reasons Grocers Should Invest in Robotics Right Now - Progressive Grocer

Restaurant Robots Used to Be About Labor, Now They’re About Hygiene – The Spoon

During our Articulate food robotics summit last year, the common refrain from the restaurant operators in attendance was about the labor crunch. Restaurants couldn't find and retain enough workers, especially when potential hires would prefer to drive Ubers on their own schedule.

But that was then, and this is now. More specifically, this is now during a global pandemic and the conversation has shifted. With so many restaurants closed, and record amounts of unemployment, restaurants are less worried about hiring people, and more interested in how robots can create a more hygienic experience for diners (and workers).

This was one of the takeaways from our virtual fireside chat on The State of Restaurant Robotics yesterday. Linda Poulliot, CEO of Dischcraft Robotics, and Clatyon Wood, CEO of Picnic, were our guests, and they shared their insights about what their customers are looking for with automation right now.

At the moment, restaurants, cafeterias and other food service establishments are looking for safety and hygiene, something that robots can definitely help with in a few ways.

For example, Picnics pizza assembling robot can top 200 pizzas in an hour without human hands ever touching them. The stretched dough runs on a conveyor belt where robotic nodes dispense the proper amount of toppings consistently. Not only does this reduce the number of people touching food, it also helps in small kitchens where there isnt enough room for workers to socially distance.

For its part, Dishcraft offers dishes as a service to cafeterias, restaurants and more. Dirty dishes are picked up from a restaurant and brought to a Discrafts facility where the robot cleans and inspects them better and more environmentally friendly than a human can. The company recently branched out into offering reuseable containers so restaurants can cut down on all the packaging waste that comes with takeout and delivery.

These were just a couple of topics we touched on during our exclusive Spoon Plus event. Spoon Plus subscribers can check out the full video from the event below.

If youd like to see the full event video, future events and premium reports, interviews and exclusive research, become a member today!


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Restaurant Robots Used to Be About Labor, Now They're About Hygiene - The Spoon

Artist Pindar Van Arman develops ST Robotics’ collaborative robot into the world’s most evocative painting robot – Robotics Tomorrow

Pindar van Arman has developed a unique application for an ST robot for painting portraits using AI the system works the same way a human artist would- painting a part of the portrait - stepping back, comparing the painting with the subject then going back to add more or change something.

ST Robotics proudly announces that one of its robots has been integrated by artist and roboticist Pindar Van Arman to autonomously create expressive art.

Pindar is delving deep into artonomous' ability to create emotionally evocative portraits. Toward this goal, he and the robot have teamed up with portrait photographer Kitty Simpson in an interspecific collaboration. They plan to paint hundreds of faces using a creative feedback loop, while continually refining artonomous' creative process.

The ST R17 HS robot, mounted with a camera on its arm and a paint brush in its gripper, uses its array of more than two dozen artificial intelligence algorithms to paint sets of curated portraits. The finished paintings are then critiqued by the robot, Kitty, and Pindar. Based on the critique, Kitty adjusts how she takes the next set of portraits. artonomous then retrains its own neural networks to better understand faces, and Pindar modifies the robot's A.I. and hardware. This process is repeated as the body of work is formed.

Of his progress, Pindar Van Arman says, "I developed the ST robots into much more than simple assistants. My robots are now effectively augmenting my creativity, and even achieving their own form of creativity."

The trio's evolving work can be seen at https://artonomo.us where they have already completed the first 32 portraits. Kitty and Pindar project that hundreds and possibly thousands of portraits will be needed for artonomous to improve its creative process to learn the subtleties of fine portraiture.

About ST RoboticsST Robotics, widely known for robotics within reach', has offices in Princeton, New Jersey and Cambridge, England, as well as in Asia. One of the first manufacturers of bench-top robotic arms, ST Robotics has been providing the lowest-priced, easy-to-program boxed robots across industries for the past 30 years. ST's robots are utilized the world over by companies and institutions such as Lockheed-Martin, Motorola, Honeywell, MIT, NASA, HP, Sony, IBM and NXP. The numerous applications for ST's robots benefit the manufacturing, nuclear, pharmaceutical, laboratory and semiconductor industries.

For additional information on ST Robotics, contact:sales1@strobotics.com(609) 584 7522www.strobotics.com

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Artist Pindar Van Arman develops ST Robotics' collaborative robot into the world's most evocative painting robot - Robotics Tomorrow

Coatings and Application Technologies for Robotics Market Next Big Thing | Major Giants Akzo Nobel, Axalta Coating Systems, Bernardo Ecenarro – Cole…

HTF MIpublished a new industry research that focuses on Coatings and Application Technologies for Robotics market and delivers in-depth market analysis andfuture outlook of Global Coatings and Application Technologies for Robotics market. The study covers significant data which makes the research document a handy resource for managers, analysts, industry experts and other key people get ready-to-access and self-analyzed study along with graphs and tables to help understand market trends, drivers and market challenges. The study is segmented by Application/ end users [Healthcare, Agriculture, Mining, Manufacturing & Construction], products type [, Solvent Borne, Water Borne, UV Cure & Powder] and profiled players such as Akzo Nobel N.V., Axalta Coating Systems, PPG Industries, The Sherwin Williams Company, HMG Paints Limited, The Lubrizol Corporation, Yashm Paint & Resin Industries, U.S. Paint Corporation, Kansai Paint Co. Ltd., Bernardo Ecenarro SA, Nippon Paint Holdings Co., Ltd., Sheboygan Paint Company, Beckers Group, NOROO Paint & Coatings Co., Ltd., Reichhold LLC & Tikkurila].

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This report researches the worldwide Coatings and Application Technologies for Robotics market size (value, capacity, production and consumption) in key regions like United States, Europe, Asia Pacific (China, Japan) and other regions.This study categorizes the global Coatings and Application Technologies for Robotics breakdown data by manufacturers, region, type and application, also analyzes the market status, market share, growth rate, future trends, market drivers, opportunities and challenges, risks and entry barriers, sales channels, distributors and Porters Five Forces Analysis.

The research covers the currentmarket size of the Global Coatings and Application Technologies for Roboticsmarket and its growth rates based on 5 year history data along with company profile of key players/manufacturers. The in-depth information by segments of Coatings and Application Technologies for Robotics market helps monitor future profitability & to make critical decisions for growth. The information on trends and developments, focuses on markets and materials, capacities, technologies, CAPEX cycle and the changing structure of theGlobal Coatings and Application Technologies for RoboticsMarket.

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The study provides company profiling, product picture and specifications, sales, market share and contact information of key manufacturers of Global Coatings and Application Technologies for Robotics Market, some of them listed here areAkzo Nobel N.V., Axalta Coating Systems, PPG Industries, The Sherwin Williams Company, HMG Paints Limited, The Lubrizol Corporation, Yashm Paint & Resin Industries, U.S. Paint Corporation, Kansai Paint Co. Ltd., Bernardo Ecenarro SA, Nippon Paint Holdings Co., Ltd., Sheboygan Paint Company, Beckers Group, NOROO Paint & Coatings Co., Ltd., Reichhold LLC & Tikkurila. The market is growing at a very rapid pace and with rise in technological innovation, competition and M&A activities in the industry many local and regional vendors are offering specific application products for varied end-users. The new manufacturer entrants in the market are finding it hard to compete with the international vendors based on quality, reliability, and innovations in technology.

Global Coatings and Application Technologies for Robotics (Thousands Units) and Revenue (Million USD) Market Split by Product Type such as , Solvent Borne, Water Borne, UV Cure & Powder. Further the research study is segmented by Application such as Healthcare, Agriculture, Mining, Manufacturing & Construction with historical and projected market share and compounded annual growth rate.Geographically, this report is segmented into several key Regions, with production, consumption, revenue (million USD), and market share and growth rate of Coatings and Application Technologies for Robotics in these regions, from 2014 to 2025 (forecast), covering United States, Europe, China, Japan & Other Regions and its Share (%) and CAGR for the forecasted period 2019 to 2025.

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Following would be the Chapters to display the Global Coatings and Application Technologies for Robotics market.

Chapter 1, to describe Definition, Specifications and Classification of Coatings and Application Technologies for Robotics, Applications of Coatings and Application Technologies for Robotics, Market Segment by Regions;Chapter 2, to analyze the Manufacturing Cost Structure, Raw Material and Suppliers, Manufacturing Process, Industry Chain Structure;Chapter 3, to display the Technical Data and Manufacturing Plants Analysis of Coatings and Application Technologies for Robotics, Capacity and Commercial Production Date, Manufacturing Plants Distribution, R&D Status and Technology Source, Raw Materials Sources Analysis;Chapter 4, to show the Overall Market Analysis, Capacity Analysis (Company Segment), Sales Analysis (Company Segment), Sales Price Analysis (Company Segment);Chapter 5 and 6, to show the Regional Market Analysis that includes United States, Europe, China, Japan & Other Regions, Coatings and Application Technologies for Robotics Segment Market Analysis (by Type);Chapter 7 and 8, to analyze the Coatings and Application Technologies for Robotics Segment Market Analysis (by Application) Major Manufacturers Analysis of Coatings and Application Technologies for Robotics;Chapter 9, Market Trend Analysis, Regional Market Trend, Market Trend by Product Type [, Solvent Borne, Water Borne, UV Cure & Powder], Market Trend by Application [Healthcare, Agriculture, Mining, Manufacturing & Construction];Chapter 10, Regional Marketing Type Analysis, International Trade Type Analysis, Supply Chain Analysis;Chapter 11, to analyze the Consumers Analysis of Global Coatings and Application Technologies for Robotics;Chapter 12,13, 14 and 15, to describe Coatings and Application Technologies for Robotics sales channel, distributors, traders, dealers, Research Findings and Conclusion, appendix and data source.

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Reasons for Buying this ReportThis report provides pin-point analysis for changing competitive dynamicsIt provides a forward looking perspective on different factors driving or restraining market growthIt provides a six-year forecast assessed on the basis of how the market is predicted to growIt helps in understanding the key product segments and their futureIt provides pin point analysis of changing competition dynamics and keeps you ahead of competitorsIt helps in making informed business decisions by having complete insights of market and by making in-depth analysis of market segments

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Coatings and Application Technologies for Robotics Market Next Big Thing | Major Giants Akzo Nobel, Axalta Coating Systems, Bernardo Ecenarro - Cole...

Advancing the Future of Robotics and IoT Systems: Eclipse Cyclone DDS now a Tier 1 ROS Middleware – Robotics Tomorrow

With the latest ROS 2 Foxy Fitzroy release, ADLINK, Rover Robotics, Box Robotics and an entire community of contributors helped move industrial robotics development forward.

*Eclipse Cyclone DDS, an Eclipse Foundation IoT community project that ADLINK, Rover Robotics, Box Robotics, OpenADx and others have poured heavy engineering hours into is now a Tier 1 ROS 2 middleware

*Foxy Fitzroy is a major milestone toward a wider adoption of Cyclone DDS in robotics, autonomous vehicles and mobility markets, as well other mission-critical IoT systems making development faster, safer and more interoperable

ADLINK Technology Inc., a global leader in edge computing with a mission to affect positive change in society and industry by connecting people, places and things with AI, has lead Eclipse Cyclone DDS to become a tier one ROS 2 middleware with the Eclipse Foundation IoT community, OpenADx Working Group and ROS 2 Technical Steering Committee. With the latest ROS 2 release, Foxy Fitzroy (foxy), robotics and autonomous vehicle development is now easier, faster, more secure and reliable.

Eclipse Cyclone DDS is the next generation implementation of the Object Management Group's (OMG) Data Distribution Service (DDS) standard that leverages ADLINK's experience working and innovating DDS from its early days. ADLINK is working with the community to establish the DDS of reference in terms of features, usability, performance and reliability within robotics, autonomous vehicles, healthcare, aerospace and defense, and Industrial IoT.

"Box Robotics is rebuilding the AGV perception stack with human-like spatial awareness for higher speed driving, uncompromising safety and lifelong autonomy," said Tom Panzarella, co-founder and CEO, Box Robotics. "We are building our software on top of the latest advances in long-range 3D digital LiDAR. Processing this data in real-time on high-speed vehicles requires a robust foundation to build upon. This is why we have chosen ROS 2 Foxy Fitzroy and Eclipse Cyclone DDS as our middleware platform. The LTS of ROS 2 foxy and the highly tunable DDS implementation allows us to write the lowest latency point cloud processing pipelines in support of our application requirements."

Foxy is the first ever three-year long term support (LTS) version of ROS and includes significant performance and stability enhancements with Eclipse Cyclone DDS as a tier 1 underlying data sharing backbone of its RMW (ROS Middleware) layer. Eclipse Cyclone DDS offers a platform for sharing data consistently and coherently with a keen focus on system success metrics including performance, robustness, security, safety and interoperability.

"ROS 2 foxy is a major milestone toward establishing the reference platform for a large class of robotics and autonomous vehicles applications," said Angelo Corsaro PhD, CTO, ADLINK Technology. "We are strongly committed to supporting the ROS 2 community and ecosystem with an outstanding open source DDS implementation."

Hosted and supported by the Eclipse Foundation, Eclipse Cyclone DDS is now the fastest growing open source implementation of the OMG DDS standard. ADLINK offers professional services, industrial-grade versions to support DDS development and deployment. To get started with Eclipse Cyclone DDS visit GitHub.

About ADLINK TechnologyADLINK Technology Inc. is a global leader in edge computing. Our mission is to affect positive change in society and industry by connecting people, places and things with AI. The company offerings include robust boards, real-time data acquisition solutions and application enablement for AIoT. ADLINK serves vertical markets including manufacturing, communications, healthcare, aerospace, defense, energy, infotainment and transportation. ADLINK is a Premier Member of the Intel Internet of Things Solutions Alliance, a partner of NVIDIA, and a contributor to standards initiatives such as Eclipse, OCP, OMG and ROS2 TSC. ADLINK is ISO-9001, ISO-14001, ISO-13485 and TL9000 certified and is publicly traded on TAIEX (Stock Code: 6166). Learn more at http://www.adlinktech.com.

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Advancing the Future of Robotics and IoT Systems: Eclipse Cyclone DDS now a Tier 1 ROS Middleware - Robotics Tomorrow

Global Surgical Robotics Market Report 2020 Pandemic Situation to Boost Growth Top companies Intuitive Surgical, Stryker, Mazor Robotics, Medtech S.A,…

Global Surgical Robotics Market analysis 2015-2027, is a research report that has been compiled by studying and understanding all the factors that impact the market in a positive as well as negative manner. Some of the prime factors taken into consideration are: various rudiments driving the market, future opportunities, restraints, regional analysis, various types & applications, Covid-19 impact analysis and key market players of the Surgical Robotics market. nicolas.shaw@cognitivemarketresearch.com or call us on +1-312-376-8303.

Download Report from: https://cognitivemarketresearch.com/medical-devicesconsumables/surgical-robotics-market-report

Global Surgical Robotics Market: Product analysis: Laparoscopy, Orthopedics, Others

Global Surgical Robotics Market: Application analysis: Open Surgery, Minimal Invasive

Major Market Players with an in-depth analysis: Intuitive Surgical, Stryker, Mazor Robotics, Medtech S.A, THINK Surgical, Restoration Robotics, Medrobotics, TransEnterix

The research is presented in such a way that it consists of all the graphical representations, pie charts and various other diagrammatic representations of all the factors that are used for the research. Surgical Robotics market research report also provides information on how the industry is anticipated to provide a highly competitive analysis globally, revenues generated by the industry and increased competitiveness and expansions among various market players/companies.

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The Surgical Robotics industry is projected in assembling information regarding dynamic approximations and also listings of a profitable progression rate annually in the expected duration according to a recent & latest study. The latest Coronavirus pandemic impact along with graphical presentations and recovery analysis is included in the Surgical Robotics research report. The research report also consists of all the latest innovations, technologies and systems implemented in the Surgical Robotics industries.

Various factors with all the necessary limitations, expenditure/cost figures, consumer behaviour, supply chain, government policies and all the information related to the market have been included in the Surgical Robotics Market report. The research report also provides light on various companies & their competitors, market size & share, revenue, forecast analysis and all the information regarding the Surgical Robotics Market.

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Surgical Robotics Market research report provides an in-depth analysis of the entire market scenario starting from the basics which is the market introduction till the industry functioning and its position in the market as well as all the projects and latest introductions & implementations of various products. The research study has been assembled by understanding and combining various analysis of regions globally & companies and all necessary graphs and tables that bring the theory into an exact representation through numerical values and standard tables.

The global estimations of the market value, market information/definition, classifications of all the types & applications, overall threats & dips that can be assumed and many other factors which consist the overall market scenario and its happening globally along with the forthcoming years are compiled in the Surgical Robotics market research report. Hence this report can serve as a handbook/model for the enterprises/players interested in the Surgical Robotics Market as it consists all the information regarding the Surgical Robotics market.

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Global Surgical Robotics Market Report 2020 Pandemic Situation to Boost Growth Top companies Intuitive Surgical, Stryker, Mazor Robotics, Medtech S.A,...

Robotic scientists will ‘speed up discovery’ – BBC News

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Scientists at the University of Liverpool have unveiled a robotic colleague that has been working non-stop in their lab throughout lockdown.

The 100,000 programmable researcher learns from its results to refine its experiments.

"It can work autonomously, so I can run experiments from home," explained Benjamin Burger, one of the developers.

Such technology could make scientific discovery "a thousand times faster", scientists say.

A new report by the Royal Society of Chemistry lays out a "post-Covid national research strategy", using robotics, artificial intelligence and advanced computing as part of a suite of technologies that "must be urgently embraced" to help socially distancing scientists continue their search for solutions to global challenges.

As its developers describe in a paper in the journal Nature, the robotic scientist is currently embarking on a series of tests to find a catalyst that could speed up the reaction that takes place inside solar cells.

But it could, according to Prof Andy Cooper, the materials scientist who has put the robot to work in his lab, be used in the fight against Covid-19.

"We've had a lot of interest [in the robot] from labs that are doing Covid research," he told BBC News.

"Covid, climate change - there are lots of problems that really need international co-operation. So our vision is we might have robots like this all across the world connected by a centralised brain which can be anywhere. We haven't done that yet - this is the first example - but that's absolutely what we'd like to do."

Today, in a world where scientists also need to limit their time in the lab and maintain social distance from each other, the robo-scientist has come into its own.

"It doesn't get bored, doesn't get tired, works around the clock and doesn't need holidays," Dr Burger joked.

On a more serious note, he said that the robot had transformed the speed at which he could carry out research. "It can easily go through thousands of samples," he said, "so it frees up my time to focus on innovation and new solutions."

Like robotics designed for research in Space, machines like this could also take on riskier experiments - in harsher laboratory environments or using more toxic substances.

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That, according to Deirdre Black, head of research and innovation at the Royal Society of Chemistry, is why UK science needs to build new technologies into its infrastructure.

"This is about human beings harnessing all of these digital technologies, so that they can go faster - discover and innovate faster and explore bigger and more complex problems, like decarbonisation, preventing and treating disease, and making our air cleaner," she told BBC News.

So does this mean that while many scientists have been in lockdown, the machines have come to take their jobs?

"Absolutely not," said Dr Black. "Science will always need people".

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Robotic scientists will 'speed up discovery' - BBC News

Global Surgical Robotics Market 2019 Produced CAGR Value in Demand By 2033 – 3rd Watch News

The global Surgical Robotics Marketplace gives detailed Evaluation about all of the important aspects related to the marketplace. The analysis on global Surgical Robotics market, offers profound insights about the Surgical Robotics market covering all of the crucial characteristics of the market. Moreover, the report provides historical information with prospective prediction over the forecast period. Various important aspects like market trends, revenue development patterns market shares and supply and demand are included in almost all the market research report for every single business. Some of the vital aspects analyzed in the report includes market share, production, key regions, revenue rate as well as key players.

The study of different sections of the global market are also Covered in the research report. Along with that, for the prediction periods conclusion of variables such as market size and the competitive landscape of this sector is assessed in the report. On account of the rising globalization and digitization, there are new tendencies coming to the marketplace daily. The research report provides the in-depth analysis of all of these tendencies.

Get PDF Sample Copy of this Report to understand the structure of the complete report: (Including Full TOC, List of Tables & Figures, Chart) @ https://www.researchmoz.com/enquiry.php?type=S&repid=2638656&source=atm

In addition, the Surgical Robotics market report also supplies the Latest tendencies in the international Surgical Robotics market with the assistance of primary as well as secondary research methods. Also, the analysis report on Surgical Robotics marketplace gives a wide evaluation of the market which includes market review, manufacturing, manufacturers, dimensions, price, value, growth rate, income, deals, export, consumption, and sales revenue of this global Surgical Robotics market. On the other hand, the Surgical Robotics market report also studies the industry standing for the prediction period. Nevertheless, this can help to increase the advertising opportunities throughout the world in addition to major market providers.

Segment by Type, the Surgical Robotics market is segmented intoLaparoscopyOrthopedicsOthers

Segment by Application, the Surgical Robotics market is segmented intoOpen SurgeryMinimal Invasive

Regional and Country-level AnalysisThe Surgical Robotics market is analysed and market size information is provided by regions (countries).The key regions covered in the Surgical Robotics market report are North America, Europe, China and Japan. It also covers key regions (countries), viz, the U.S., Canada, Germany, France, U.K., Italy, Russia, China, Japan, South Korea, India, Australia, Taiwan, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, Philippines, Vietnam, Mexico, Brazil, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, UAE, etc.The report includes country-wise and region-wise market size for the period 2015-2026. It also includes market size and forecast by Type, and by Application segment in terms of production capacity, price and revenue for the period 2015-2026.Competitive Landscape and Surgical Robotics Market Share Analysis

Surgical Robotics market competitive landscape provides details and data information by manufacturers. The report offers comprehensive analysis and accurate statistics on production capacity, price, revenue of Surgical Robotics by the player for the period 2015-2020. It also offers detailed analysis supported by reliable statistics on production, revenue (global and regional level) by players for the period 2015-2020. Details included are company description, major business, company total revenue, and the production capacity, price, revenue generated in Surgical Robotics business, the date to enter into the Surgical Robotics market, Surgical Robotics product introduction, recent developments, etc.The major vendors covered:Intuitive SurgicalStrykerMazor RoboticsMedtech S.ATHINK SurgicalRestoration RoboticsMedrobotics

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The Surgical Robotics market report provides helpful insights for Every established and advanced players across the world. Additionally the Surgical Robotics marketplace report provides accurate analysis for the shifting competitive dynamics. This study report includes a whole analysis of future growth concerning the evaluation of this mentioned prediction interval. The Surgical Robotics marketplace report provides a thorough study of the technological growth outlook over time to be aware of the industry growth rates. The Surgical Robotics market report also includes innovative analysis of the massive number of unique factors that are fostering or operating as well as regulating the Surgical Robotics marketplace development.

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Global Surgical Robotics Market 2019 Produced CAGR Value in Demand By 2033 - 3rd Watch News

In a time of social distancing, robots could be just what the doctor ordered – Seattle Times

TOKYO -As the coronavirus pandemic rewrites the rules of human interaction, it also has inspired new thinking about how robots and other machines might step in.

The stuff of the bot world early factory-line automation up to todays artificial intelligence has been a growing fact of life for decades. The worldwide health crisis has added urgency to the question of how to bring robotics into the public-health equation.

Nowhere is that truer than in Japan, a country with a long fascination with robots, from android assistants to robot receptionists. Since the virus arrived, robots have offered their services as bartenders, security guards and deliverymen.

But they dont necessarily need to supplant humans, researchers say. They can also bridge the gap between people mindful of social distance now or when the next major contagion hits.

Want to drop in on your elderly parents but are afraid of passing on a coronavirus infection? Maybe youre missing your grandchildren, and finding Zoom chats a little limiting?

Ideas are brewing.

The newme robot developed by Japanese company Avatarin is basically a tablet computer on a stand, with wheels. The user controls the avatar from a laptop or tablet, and his or her face shows on the avatars screen.

Its really like teleporting your consciousness, founder and CEO Akira Fukabori said. You are really present.

Already available commercially, Avatarins robots have been used by doctors to interact with patients in a Japanese coronavirus ward; by university students in Tokyo to attend a graduation ceremony; and by fans of the Yomiuri Giants baseball team to remotely interview their favorite players after games held in empty stadiums.

There are even avatar robots that have just arrived in the International Space Station.

But its the way the robot is already being used by families separated by the coronavirus that really underscores the heart of the technology starting with the family of the companys chief operating officer, Kevin Kajitani, whose parents live in Seattle.

His parents cant always come and visit their grandson, Fukabori said. But they always access the avatar and can even chase their grandson. And the grandson really hugs the robot.

Avatarin is part of Japans ANA airline group, and the company has joined with the X Prize Foundation to launch a $10 million, four-year contest for companies to create more complex robots that could further develop the avatar concept.

You need to move, Fukabori said. This is really important, because we forget the freedom of this mobility. You can just walk around, and people will talk to you about really, really natural things. That creates human trust. That isnt as easy in WebEx or Zoom, where if you dont know each other its really hard to keep talking.

Work is underway on prototypes that allow users to control a remote robot through virtual-reality headsets and gloves that allow the wearer to pick up, hold, touch and feel an object with a distant robotic hand, with potential uses ranging from space exploration to disaster relief or elderly care.

But Fukabori said the cheaper, lightweight avatars offer more immediate and affordable uses. What sets this project apart from existing avatar robots, the company says, is the ability for users to access the robots easily from a laptop, by renting them out rather than having to buy them.

Avatarin hopes to install the avatars in more hospitals and in elderly-care centers, shops, museums, zoos and aquariums. The company also aims to have 1,000 in place for next years Tokyo Olympics.

In Tokyo, robotics lab ZMP has been developing three small robots to help compensate for Japans shrinking labor force, employing the same technology as self-driving cars.

A delivery robot aims to transport goods ordered online from local warehouses to customers doors; a patrol robot, with six cameras, does the job of a security guard; a self-driving wheelchair can be programed to take users to specific destinations. The wheelchair is already available and approved for use on Tokyo streets. The others still await official permission to venture out alone in public.

Now, the patrol robot has been adapted so it can also disinfect surfaces as it patrols, and is attracting interest from Tokyos Metro stations as well as other businesses.

In May, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe noted surging demand for unmanned deliveries and pledged to carry out tests to see if delivery robots were safe to use on roads and sidewalks by the end of the year.

Even the self-driving wheelchair can come into its own amid a coronavirus-filled world, the company said, potentially helping elderly people move around more independently without a helper who might be a vector for the virus.

Before corona, most customers wanted to reduce workers, ZMPs chief executive, Hisashi Taniguchi, said. But after corona, our customers changed drastically. Now, they want to accelerate unmanned systems.

Qbit Robotics, also in Tokyo, has programmed a robotic arm and hand to interact with customers and serve them coffee, mix cocktails or even serve a simple cup of instant pasta.

President and chief executive Hiroya Nakano said he aims not to replace human interaction but to supply robots that can communicate and entertain in a friendly way.

While robots can sometimes seem disturbing and alien to Westerners, they tend to be seen in a more welcoming light by many Japanese people, Nakano said.

Until now, expectations have been high for what robots can do in the future, but they havent been able to do what humans do, he said. But now we are living with the coronavirus, the idea of no contact or automation has become especially important. And I feel there is an extremely high expectation for robots to meet that demand.

In South Korea, a Chinese-made robot is already greeting children in Seouls schools as they reopen.

The Cruzr, with eyes that beam a neon-blue light and a video screen on its chest, takes kids temperatures and reminds them to follow anti-virus rules.

Please wear your mask properly, the robot told a student last week at Wooam Elementary School whose mask wasnt covering his nose.

Chinese robotmaker UBTech launched Cruzr in 2017 as a humanoid service robot for businesses, but the pandemic has given it added value as a personal assistant free from infection risks.

It is also being used by medical institutions for mass temperature screening, patient monitoring and medical record keeping, helping overwhelmed medical workers.

In June, Seouls Seocho district government deployed Cruzr robots to the districts 51 public schools, helping reduce the burden on overworked teachers.

Before the robot came to school, teachers had taken kids temperatures as they arrived, creating long lines and raising infection risks from human contact. Now, the robot checks the temperature of multiple students as they walk by and immediately sounds an alarm if anyone has a fever.

At first, students were ill at ease with the robot greeting them at the school gate, but in a matter of weeks, students have embraced it as part of the school community, said Yoo Jung-ho, head of Wooams science department.

At the school, students waved toward the robot at the gate as they walked into the school, and nodded in agreement when it reminded them about the mask rules.

The robot can also provide basic academic help and entertain students by teaching them simple dance moves.

Of course, robots cant replace teachers at classrooms yet, but there is significant and rising potential for contactless teaching with the pandemic, Yoo said.

Nine-year-old Lee Hye-rin says she befriended the robot after they danced together.

When I first saw the robot standing in place of our teachers greeting us at the entrance, I found it cold and disorienting, Lee said. But this robot is actually the same height as I am and also displays goofy dance moves, and I realized I can befriend him and share a fun time.

But Lee feels the robot is not so friendly when it orders her to wear her mask properly.

If I fail to follow the mask rule, my teachers warning will be followed with a smile telling me to behave better in the future, but the robot doesnt smile when it warns me about the mask, she said.

Continued here:

In a time of social distancing, robots could be just what the doctor ordered - Seattle Times

Robotics End-of-arm Tooling market is expected to pick up in healthy CAGR by 2020-2025 Top companies | SAS Automation , ATI Industrial Automation ,…

This is an excellent research study specially compiled to provide the latest insights into critical aspects of the Robotics End-of-arm Tooling Market. The report includes different market forecasts related to market size, production, revenue, consumption, CAGR, gross margin, price, and other key factors. It is prepared with the use of industry-best primary and secondary research methodologies and tools.

Each segment of the global Robotics End-of-arm Tooling Market is extensively evaluated in the research study. The segmental analysis offered within the report pinpoints key opportunities on the market within the Robotics End-of-arm Tooling market through leading segments. The regional study of the global Robotics End-of-arm Tooling market included in the report helps readers to gain a sound understanding of the development of different geographical markets in recent years and also going forth. It includes several research studies such as manufacturing cost analysis, absolute dollar opportunity, pricing analysis, company profiling, production and consumption analysis, and market dynamics.

The following Top manufacturers are assessed in this report: Applied Robotics, SAS Automation, ATI Industrial Automation, Robotiq, ASS End of Arm Tooling, Bastian Solutions, EMI, DESTACO, Vacucom, Robo-Tool, FIPA, Schunk, Festo, IPR Robotics, Pneubotics, Soft Robotics, Motion Control Robotics, & More.

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Product Type CoverageAssembly lineMaterial handlingWeldingInspectionPaintingLogisticsApplication Coverage AutomotiveSemiconductor and electronicsFood and beveragePharmaceuticalsIndustrial machinery

Regional Analysis For Robotics End-of-arm Tooling Market :North America (United States, Canada, and Mexico)Europe (Germany, France, UK, Russia, and Italy)Asia-Pacific (China, Japan, Korea, India, and Southeast Asia)South America (Brazil, Argentina, Colombia, etc.)Middle East and Africa (Saudi Arabia, UAE, Egypt, Nigeria, and South Africa)Research Methodology:

The information provided in this report is based on both primary and secondary research methodologies and assumptions.

Primary research methodology includes the interaction with suppliers, service providers, and industry professionals. Secondary research methodology consists of a meticulous search of relevant publications like company profiles, annual reports, financial reports, and selective databases.

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Key questions answered in the report include:

Q.1. What are some of the most promising, high-growth opportunities for the global marketQ.2. Which products segments will grow at a faster pace and why?Q.3. Which region will grow at a faster pace and why?Q.4. What are the key factors affecting market dynamics? What are the drivers, challenges, and business risks in this Robotics End-of-arm Tooling market?Q.5. What are the business risks and competitive threats in market?Q.6. What are the emerging trends in this Robotics End-of-arm Tooling market and reasons behind them?Q.7. What are some of the changing demands of customers in the Robotics End-of-arm Tooling market?Q.8. What are the new developments in the Robotics End-of-arm Tooling market and which companies are leading these developments?Q.9. Who are the major players in this Robotics End-of-arm Tooling market? What strategic initiatives are being taken by key companies for business growth?Q.10. What are some of the competing products in this Robotics End-of-arm Tooling market and how big of a threat do they pose for loss of market share by product substitution?Q.11. What M&A activity has occurred in the previous years in this Robotics End-of-arm Tooling market?

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To conclude, Robotics End-of-arm Tooling Industry report mentions the key geographies, market landscapes alongside the product price, revenue, volume, production, supply, demand, market growth rate, and forecast etc. This report also provides SWOT analysis, investment feasibility analysis, and investment return analysis.

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Robotics End-of-arm Tooling market is expected to pick up in healthy CAGR by 2020-2025 Top companies | SAS Automation , ATI Industrial Automation ,...

Orthopedics Robots Market: What Will Happen After COVID 19 Ends Intuitive Surgical, Stryker, Restoration Robotics – 3rd Watch News

Orthopedics Robots Market has witnessed continuous growth within the past few years and is projected to grow even more throughout the forecast period (2020 2027). The analysis presents a whole assessment of the market and contains Future trends, Current Growth Factors, attentive opinions, facts, historical information, and statistically supported and trade valid market information.

The report, titled Global Orthopedics Robots Market defines and briefs readers about its products, applications, and specifications. The research lists key companies operating in the global market and also highlights the key changing trends adopted by the companies to maintain their dominance. By using SWOT analysis and Porters five force analysis tools, the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of key companies are all mentioned in the report. All leading players in this global market are profiled with details such as product types, business overview, sales, manufacturing base, competitors, applications, and specifications.

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Intuitive Surgical, Stryker, Restoration Robotics, Medtech S.A, Mazor Robotics, THINK Surgical, Medrobotics, TransEnterix of the major organizations dominating the global market.(*Note: Other Players Can be Added per Request)

1. Industry outlookThis is where youll find the current state of the Orthopedics Robots industry overall and where its headed. Relevant industry metrics like size, trends, life cycle, and projected growth included here. This report comes prepared with the data to back up your business idea. On a regional basis, the Global Orthopedics Robots market has been segmented into Asia-Pacific, North America, Europe, Latin America, and the Middle East and Africa.

2. Target marketThis target market section of study includes the following:

User persona and characteristics: It includes demographics such as age, income, and location. It lets you know what their interests and buying habits are, as well as explain the best position to meet their needs.

Market size: How big is the potential Orthopedics Robots market for your business? It brings to light the consumption in the Orthopedics Robots industry by the type and application.

3. Competitive analysisDiscover your competitors. The report lets you know what youre up against, but it also lets you spot the competitions weaknesses. Are there customers that are underserved? What can you offer that similar businesses arent offering? The competitive analysis contains the following components:

Direct competitors: What other companies are offering similar products and services? Which companies are your true competitors?

Competitor strengths and weaknesses: What is your competition good at? Where do they fall behind? Get insights to spot opportunities to excel where others are falling short.

Barriers to entry: What are the potential pitfalls of entering the Orthopedics Robots market? Whats the cost of entry? Is it prohibitively high, or easy to enter?

The window of opportunity:Does your entry into the Orthopedics Robots industry rely on time-sensitive technology? Do you need to enter early to take advantage of an emerging market?

4. ProjectionsLikewise, We offered thoughtful, not hockey-stick forecasting.

Market share:We have given the consumption behavior of users. When you know how much can your future customers spend, then only youll understand how much of the Orthopedics Robots industry you have a chance to grab, and here we came up with real stats and numbers.

Impact Analysis of COVID-19:The complete version of the Report will include the impact of the COVID-19, and anticipated change on the future outlook of the industry, by taking into account the political, economic, social, and technological parameters.

Finally, It is one report that hasnt shied away from taking a critical look at the current status and future outlook for the consumption/sales of these products, by the end users and applications. Not forgetting the market share control and growth rate of the Orthopedics Robots Industry, per application. Most noteworthy, this market analysis will help you find market blind spots.

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Orthopedics Robots Market: What Will Happen After COVID 19 Ends Intuitive Surgical, Stryker, Restoration Robotics - 3rd Watch News

COVID19 Impact- Global Medical Exoskeleton Robots Market Recent Industry Developments and Growth Strategies Adopted by Top Key player Cyberdyne,…

Global Medical Exoskeleton Robots Market: Trends Estimates High Demand by 2027

Medical Exoskeleton Robots Market report 2020, discusses various factors driving or restraining the market, which will help the future market to grow with promising CAGR. The Medical Exoskeleton Robots Market research Reports offers an extensive collection of reports on different markets covering crucial details. The report studies the competitive environment of the Medical Exoskeleton Robots Market is based on company profiles and their efforts on increasing product value and production.

Medical Exoskeleton Robots research study involved the extensive usage of both primary and secondary data sources. The research process involved the study of various factors affecting the industry, including the government policy, market environment, competitive landscape, historical data, present trends in the market, technological innovation, upcoming technologies and the technical progress in related industry, and market risks, opportunities, market barriers, and challenges.

The final report will add the analysis of the Impact of Covid-19 in this report Medical Exoskeleton Robots industry.

Adapting to the recent novel COVID-19 pandemic, the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the global Medical Exoskeleton Robots market is included in the present report. The influence of the novel coronavirus pandemic on the growth of the Medical Exoskeleton Robots market is analyzed and depicted in the report.

Some of the companies competing in the Medical Exoskeleton Robots market are: Cyberdyne, Hocoma, ReWalk Robotics, Ekso Bionics, LockHeed Martin, Parker Hannifin, Interactive Motion Technologies, Panasonic, Myomo, B-TEMIA Inc., Alter G, and US Bionics

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The report scrutinizes different business approaches and frameworks that pave the way for success in businesses. The report used Porters five techniques for analyzing the Medical Exoskeleton Robots Market; it also offers the examination of the global market. To make the report more potent and easy to understand, it consists of info graphics and diagrams. Furthermore, it has different policies and development plans which are presented in summary. It analyzes the technical barriers, other issues, and cost-effectiveness affecting the market.

Global Medical Exoskeleton Robots Market Research Report 2020 carries in-depth case studies on the various countries which are involved in the Medical Exoskeleton Robots market. The report is segmented according to usage wherever applicable and the report offers all this information for all major countries and associations. It offers an analysis of the technical barriers, other issues, and cost-effectiveness affecting the market. Important contents analyzed and discussed in the report include market size, operation situation, and current & future development trends of the market, market segments, business development, and consumption tendencies. Moreover, the report includes the list of major companies/competitors and their competition data that helps the user to determine their current position in the market and take corrective measures to maintain or increase their share holds.

What questions does the Medical Exoskeleton Robots market report answer pertaining to the regional reach of the industry

The report claims to split the regional scope of the Medical Exoskeleton Robots market into North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, South America & Middle East and Africa. Which among these regions has been touted to amass the largest market share over the anticipated duration

How do the sales figures look at present How does the sales scenario look for the future

Considering the present scenario, how much revenue will each region attain by the end of the forecast period

How much is the market share that each of these regions has accumulated presently

How much is the growth rate that each topography will depict over the predicted timeline

The scope of the Report:

The report segments the global Medical Exoskeleton Robots market on the basis of application, type, service, technology, and region. Each chapter under this segmentation allows readers to grasp the nitty-gritties of the market. A magnified look at the segment-based analysis is aimed at giving the readers a closer look at the opportunities and threats in the market. It also address political scenarios that are expected to impact the market in both small and big ways.The report on the global Medical Exoskeleton Robots market examines changing regulatory scenario to make accurate projections about potential investments. It also evaluates the risk for new entrants and the intensity of the competitive rivalry.

Reasons for Read this Report

This report provides pin-point analysis for changing competitive dynamics

It provides a forward looking perspective on different factors driving or restraining market growth

It provides a six-year forecast assessed on the basis of how the market is predicted to grow

It helps in understanding the key product segments and their future

It provides pin point analysis of changing competition dynamics and keeps you ahead of competitors

It helps in making informed business decisions by having complete insights of market and by making in-depth analysis of market segments


Chapter 1: Medical Exoskeleton Robots Market Overview

Chapter 2: Global Economic Impact on Industry

Chapter 3: Medical Exoskeleton Robots Market Competition by Manufacturers

Chapter 4: Global Production, Revenue (Value) by Region

Chapter 5: Global Supply (Production), Consumption, Export, Import by Regions

Chapter 6: Global Production, Revenue (Value), Price Trend by Type

Chapter 7: Global Market Analysis by Application

Chapter 8: Manufacturing Cost Analysis

Chapter 9: Industrial Chain, Sourcing Strategy and Downstream Buyers

Chapter 10: Marketing Strategy Analysis, Distributors/Traders

Chapter 11: Medical Exoskeleton Robots Market Effect Factors Analysis

Chapter 12: Global Medical Exoskeleton Robots Market Forecast to 2027

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COVID19 Impact- Global Medical Exoskeleton Robots Market Recent Industry Developments and Growth Strategies Adopted by Top Key player Cyberdyne,...

Robotic Surgery Market 2026 Key Insights and COVID-19 Business Impact – Daily Research Chronicles

There has been a significant expansion in the application of robotics in the global healthcare sector. New-age healthcare services need to be highly efficient and provide services with absolute accuracy. In this scenario, hospitals and surgeons are more inclined towards the use of robotic surgery systems.

Currently, robotic surgery systems are most commonly used for applications such as general surgery, urology, cardiac surgery, thoracic surgery and neurosurgery. With technological advancements being inevitable in the near future, therobotic surgery system marketwill witness new applications by integrating advanced technologies, pushing global market revenue. Insights on this market are presented in a new research report by Persistence Market Research, which forecasts the robotic surgery system market to reach a valuation of US$ 6,400 Mn by the end of 2026. The market is anticipated to grow at a robust CAGR of 11.8% during the forecast period.

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Company Profiles

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Conventional Laproscopic Surgery Market to Witness a Downfall with the Boom in Adoption of Robotic Surgery Systems

New and advanced robotic surgery systems have improved clinical outcomes in a lot of ways. Robotic surgery is better than laproscopic surgery in a lot of ways, as laproscopic surgeries have a limited degree of flexibility, counterintuitive movements, low dexterity and chances of physical tremors. These issues have been addressed by robotic surgery systems quite well, and also include much better features with the integration of improved technology.

Surgeons are now provided with improved vision and precision. Further, patients experience shorter length of hospital stay and fewer pre-operative complications. Robotic surgery systems also ensure less human errors. These advantages are expected to further enhance the use of robotic surgery systems over conventional laproscopic surgery in the global market and provide more incremental opportunities for manufacturers of robotic surgery systems.

In many other ways, robotic surgery systems have been observed to be a more convenient option, which has proved to be efficient for patient health management. The procedure reduces chances of human errors, which is a significant factor that shapes the perception of patients regarding a particular treatment method. In retrospect, with the increasing healthcare expenditure across the globe, technological advancements and the growing procedural volumes of robotic surgeries, it is necessary for patients as well as doctors to reduce the cases of human errors.

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Robotic Surgery Systems to Dominate the Gynecology Application in Due Course

Among the two components involved in the scope of this study, robotic surgery systems is estimated to stay ahead of maintenance services in terms of revenue. The market is projected to reach a value of over US$ 4,400 Mn by the end of 2026. The application trends of robotic surgery systems is also being observed, and the results depict gynecology to emerge as the key application area.

The use of robotic surgery systems in the gynecology domain is expected to gain maximum traction in the coming years, and gynecology as an application area is forecasted to project growth at an astounding CAGR of 14% during the forecast period.

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Robotic Surgery Market 2026 Key Insights and COVID-19 Business Impact - Daily Research Chronicles

Food and Beverage Robotic System Integration Market by Opportunities and Influence Factors Analysis 2018-2026 – Daily Research Chronicles

Food and Beverage Robotic System Integration Market (2020)Report Provides an in-depth summary of Food and Beverage Robotic System Integration Market Status as well as Product Specification, Technology Development, and Key Manufacturers. The Report Gives Detail Analysis on Market concern Like Food and Beverage Robotic System Integration Market share, CAGR Status, Market demand and up to date Market Trends with key Market segments.

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Analysis tools such as SWOT analysis and Porters five force model have been inculcated in order to present a perfect in-depth knowledge about Food and Beverage Robotic System Integration Market. tables, charts are added to help have an accurate understanding of this Food and Beverage Robotic System Integration Market. The Food and Beverage Robotic System Integration Market is also been analyzed in terms of value chain analysis and regulatory analysis.

Key players in global Food and Beverage Robotic System Integration Market include:Blueprint Automation, Bradman Lake Group, EPIC Systems, Inc., Fallas Automation, Inc., Robert Bosch GmbH, Simplimatic Automation, JLS Automation, KLEENLine, Shuttleworth, LLC., Multivac, Stelram Engineering Ltd, RobotWorx, RightHand Robotics, Inc., PWR Pack Ltd., Bastian Solutions, Inc., iNova Microsystems Pte. Ltd., AMF Bakery Systems, and Gerhard Schubert GmbH

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Geographical Analysis:

The study details country-level aspects based on each segment and gives estimates in terms of market size. The key regional trends beneficial to the growth of the Food and Beverage Robotic System Integration market are discussed. Further, it analyzes the market potential for every nation. Geographic segmentation covered in the market report:

The study is a source of reliable data on:

What insights readers can gather from the Food and Beverage Robotic System Integration market report?

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The Food and Beverage Robotic System Integration market report answers the following queries:

In this study, the years considered to estimate the market size of Food and Beverage Robotic System Integration Market are as follows:

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Food and Beverage Robotic System Integration Market by Opportunities and Influence Factors Analysis 2018-2026 - Daily Research Chronicles

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Open Robotics

What’s the Difference Between Automation and Robotics?

Industrial automation, Robotic Process Automation, test automation What do the terms all mean!? Are robotics and automation the same thing?

A lot of people wonder if automation is right for them. Business owners are asking "Should I invest in automation?" and "Should I invest in robotics?"

But, what's the difference between the two? Is automation the same thing as robotics?

Automation is a hot topic in many industries right now. It can refer to several things, not just robotics. This article breaks down the differences betweenthe various terms.

First things first, if you are a business owner you are probably wondering whether automation or robotics is right for your business. The quick answer is: it really depends on your current business needs.

Consider these questions:

If you can think of even one or two tasks which are repetitive or cause a bottleneck, they may be a good candidate for automation. If they are physical tasks, industrial automation or robotics could be the answer. If they are virtual tasks, a form of software automation might work.

The basic difference between automation and robotics can be seen in their definitions:

There are obviously crossovers between the two. Robots are used to automate some physical tasks, such as in manufacturing. However, many types of automation have nothing to do with physical robots. Also, many branches of robotics have nothing to do with automation.

Make sense?

Let's look more closely at the different terminologies.

A lot of industries are talking about automation at the moment. Terms like Business Process Automation, Robotic Process Automation, adaptive automation and test automation are all over the place.

There are two basic types of automation: software automation and industrial automation.

Most of the information on automation that you can find online is about software automation. This involves using software to carry out tasks which humans usually do when they are using computer programs.

For example, GUI test automation is a way to test computer programs. It involves recording the actions of a human while they are using a graphical user interface. These actions are then replayed to autonomously test the program after changes have been made to the underlying software.

Other types of software automation include:

The difference between BPA and RPA is quite subtle. To use an analogy from robotic manufacturing, BPA is a bit like ripping out your entire human-operated production line and replacing it with a fully autonomous factory. RPA is like adding a collaborative robot to one workstation within the production line.

When we talk about "automation and robotics", we are usually referring to industrial automation.

Industrial automation is all about controlling physical processes. It involves using physical machines and control systems to automate tasks within an industrial process. A fully autonomous factory is the extreme example.

There are many types of machine within industrial automation. For example, CNC machines are common in manufacturing.

Robots are only one type of machine.

Let's start with the basics. Robots are programmable machines which are able to carry out a series of actions autonomously, or semi-autonomously. They interact with the physical world via sensors and actuators. Because they are reprogrammable, they are more flexible than single-function machines.

Robotics, therefore, refers to anything involving robots.

Within industrial automation, robots are used as a flexible way to automate a physical task or process. Collaborative robots are designed to carry out the task in the same way a human would. More traditional industrial robots tend to carry out the task more efficiently than a human would.

To make it a little more complex, some robots are "autonomous" (meaning that they operate without humans directly controlling them) but they are not used in automation. For example, a toy line-following robot can autonomously follow a line painted on the ground. However, it is not "automation" because it isn't performing a specific task. If instead the line-following robot were transporting medicines around a hospital, then it would be automation.

When deciding whether to invest in automation for your business, consider the following:

Do you have any queries about the differences between types of automation? Askus in the comments below or join the discussion on LinkedIn, Twitter, Facebook or the DoF professional robotics community.

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What's the Difference Between Automation and Robotics?