12345...1020...


Fifth Amendment | United States Constitution | Britannica.com

Fifth Amendment, amendment (1791) to the Constitution of the United States, part of the Bill of Rights, that articulates procedural safeguards designed to protect the rights of the criminally accused and to secure life, liberty, and property. For the text of the Fifth Amendment, see below.

Similar to the First Amendment, the Fifth Amendment is divided into five clauses, representing five distinct, yet related, rights. The first clause specifies that [n]o person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger. This grand jury provision requires a body to make a formal presentment or indictment of a person accused of committing a crime against the laws of the federal government. The proceeding is not a trial but rather an ex parte hearing (i.e., one in which only one party, the prosecution, presents evidence) to determine if the government has enough evidence to carry a case to trial. If the grand jury finds sufficient evidence that an offense was committed, it issues an indictment, which then permits a trial. The portion of the clause pertaining to exceptions in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia is a corollary to Article I, Section 8, which grants Congress the power [t]o make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and naval Forces. Combined, they justify the use of military courts for the armed forces, thus denying military personnel the same procedural rights afforded civilians.

The second section is commonly referred to as the double jeopardy clause, and it protects citizens against a second prosecution after an acquittal or a conviction, as well as against multiple punishments for the same offense. Caveats to this provision include permissions to try persons for civil and criminal aspects of an offense, conspiring to commit as well as to commit an offense, and separate trials for acts that violate laws of both the federal and state governments, although federal laws generally suppress prosecution by the national government if a person is convicted of the same crime in a state proceeding.

The third section is commonly referred to as the self-incrimination clause, and it protects persons accused of committing a crime from being forced to testify against themselves. In the U.S. judicial system a person is presumed innocent, and it is the responsibility of the state (or national government) to prove guilt. Like other pieces of evidence, once presented, words can be used powerfully against a person; however, words can be manipulated in a way that many other objects cannot. Consequently, information gained from sobriety tests, police lineups, voice samples, and the like is constitutionally permissible while evidence gained from compelled testimony is not. As such, persons accused of committing crimes are protected against themselves or, more accurately, how their words may be used against them. The clause, therefore, protects a key aspect of the system as well as the rights of the criminally accused.

The fourth section is commonly referred to as the due process clause. It protects life, liberty, and property from impairment by the federal government. (The Fourteenth Amendment, ratified in 1868, protects the same rights from infringement by the states.) Chiefly concerned with fairness and justice, the due process clause seeks to preserve and protect fundamental rights and ensure that any deprivation of life, liberty, or property occurs in accordance with procedural safeguards. As such, there are both substantive and procedural considerations associated with the due process clause, and this has influenced the development of two separate tracks of due process jurisprudence: procedural and substantive. Procedural due process pertains to the rules, elements, or methods of enforcementthat is, its procedural aspects. Consider the elements of a fair trial and related Sixth Amendment protections. As long as all relevant rights of the accused are adequately protectedas long as the rules of the game, so to speak, are followedthen the government may, in fact, deprive a person of his life, liberty, or property. But what if the rules are not fair? What if the law itselfregardless of how it is enforcedseemingly deprives rights? This raises the controversial spectre of substantive due process rights. It is not inconceivable that the content of the law, regardless of how it is enforced, is itself repugnant to the Constitution because it violates fundamental rights. Over time, the Supreme Court has had an on-again, off-again relationship with liberty-based due process challenges, but it has generally abided by the principle that certain rights are implicit in the concept of ordered liberty (Palko v. Connecticut [1937]), and as such they are afforded constitutional protection. This, in turn, has led to the expansion of the meaning of the term liberty. What arguably began as freedom from restraint has transformed into a virtual cornucopia of rights reasonably related to enumerated rights, without which neither liberty nor justice would exist. For example, the right to an abortion, established in Roe v. Wade (1973), grew from privacy rights, which emerged from the penumbras of the constitution.

The Fifth Amendment mentions property twice once in the due process clause and again as the amendments entire final clause, commonly known as the takings clause. The common denominator of property rights is the concept of fairness that applies to the authority of the federal government to acquire private property. At the time of ratification, property determined wealth and status. It entitled a person to participate in politics and government. It was cherished and keenly protected. Despite this, it was understood that individual rights must sometimes yield to societal rights and that representative governments must accordingly provide the greatest good for the greatest number. The growth and development of the United States ultimately would bring challenges to existing property lines, and it was necessary for an amendment to provide rules governing the acquisition of property. As such, the takings clause empowers the government to exercise eminent domain in order to take private property; however, such takings must be for public use and provide adequate compensation to landowners. Throughout most of American history this balance of individual and societal rights hinged on the governments fidelity to the cornerstone principles of public use and just compensation, and in many respects it still does. However, in 2005 Kelo v. City of New London brought a new twist to takings clause jurisprudence. Whereas prior to the Kelo ruling, the government would acquire property for public use directly, in the Kelo case the Supreme Court upheld the use of eminent domain to take private property for commercial development that was assumed to indirectly provide a positive impact for the public.

The full text of the amendment is:

No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use without just compensation.

Read this article:

Fifth Amendment | United States Constitution | Britannica.com

US Government for Kids: Fifth Amendment – Ducksters

“);}

From the Constitution

Here is the text of the Fifth Amendment from the Constitution:

“No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.”

The Grand Jury

The first part of the amendment talks about a grand jury. The grand jury is a jury that decides if a trial should be held. They look at all the evidence and then decide if a person should be charged with a crime. If they decide there is enough evidence, then they will issue an indictment and a regular trial will be held. The grand jury is only used in cases where the punishment for the crime is severe such as life in prison or the death sentence.

Double Jeopardy

The next section protects the person from being tried for the same crime more than once. This is called double jeopardy.

Perhaps the most famous part of the Fifth Amendment is the right to not testify against yourself during a trial. This is often called “taking the fifth.” The government must present witnesses and evidence to prove the crime and cannot force someone to testify against themselves.

You’ve probably heard the police on TV say something like “you have the right to remain silent, anything you say or do may be used against you in a court of law” when they arrest someone. This statement is called the Miranda Warning. Police are required to tell people this before they question them as part of the Fifth Amendment. It reminds citizens that they don’t have to testify against themselves.

The amendment also states that a person has a right to “due process of law.” Due process means that any citizen charged with a crime will be given a fair trial that follows a defined procedure through the judicial system.

The last section says that the government can’t take a person’s private property without paying them a fair price for it. This is called eminent domain. The government can take your property for public use, but they have to pay you a fair price for it.

View post:

US Government for Kids: Fifth Amendment – Ducksters

Fifth Amendment | Define Fifth Amendment at Dictionary.com

Fifth Amendment definition, an amendment to the U.S. Constitution, ratified in 1791 as part of the Bill of Rights, providing chiefly that no person be required to testify against himself or herself in a criminal case and that no person be subjected to a second trial for an offense for which he or she has been duly tried previously.

See original here:

Fifth Amendment | Define Fifth Amendment at Dictionary.com

Fifth Amendment | United States Constitution | Britannica.com

Fifth Amendment, amendment (1791) to the Constitution of the United States, part of the Bill of Rights, that articulates procedural safeguards designed to protect the rights of the criminally accused and to secure life, liberty, and property. For the text of the Fifth Amendment, see below.

Similar to the First Amendment, the Fifth Amendment is divided into five clauses, representing five distinct, yet related, rights. The first clause specifies that [n]o person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger. This grand jury provision requires a body to make a formal presentment or indictment of a person accused of committing a crime against the laws of the federal government. The proceeding is not a trial but rather an ex parte hearing (i.e., one in which only one party, the prosecution, presents evidence) to determine if the government has enough evidence to carry a case to trial. If the grand jury finds sufficient evidence that an offense was committed, it issues an indictment, which then permits a trial. The portion of the clause pertaining to exceptions in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia is a corollary to Article I, Section 8, which grants Congress the power [t]o make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and naval Forces. Combined, they justify the use of military courts for the armed forces, thus denying military personnel the same procedural rights afforded civilians.

The second section is commonly referred to as the double jeopardy clause, and it protects citizens against a second prosecution after an acquittal or a conviction, as well as against multiple punishments for the same offense. Caveats to this provision include permissions to try persons for civil and criminal aspects of an offense, conspiring to commit as well as to commit an offense, and separate trials for acts that violate laws of both the federal and state governments, although federal laws generally suppress prosecution by the national government if a person is convicted of the same crime in a state proceeding.

The third section is commonly referred to as the self-incrimination clause, and it protects persons accused of committing a crime from being forced to testify against themselves. In the U.S. judicial system a person is presumed innocent, and it is the responsibility of the state (or national government) to prove guilt. Like other pieces of evidence, once presented, words can be used powerfully against a person; however, words can be manipulated in a way that many other objects cannot. Consequently, information gained from sobriety tests, police lineups, voice samples, and the like is constitutionally permissible while evidence gained from compelled testimony is not. As such, persons accused of committing crimes are protected against themselves or, more accurately, how their words may be used against them. The clause, therefore, protects a key aspect of the system as well as the rights of the criminally accused.

The fourth section is commonly referred to as the due process clause. It protects life, liberty, and property from impairment by the federal government. (The Fourteenth Amendment, ratified in 1868, protects the same rights from infringement by the states.) Chiefly concerned with fairness and justice, the due process clause seeks to preserve and protect fundamental rights and ensure that any deprivation of life, liberty, or property occurs in accordance with procedural safeguards. As such, there are both substantive and procedural considerations associated with the due process clause, and this has influenced the development of two separate tracks of due process jurisprudence: procedural and substantive. Procedural due process pertains to the rules, elements, or methods of enforcementthat is, its procedural aspects. Consider the elements of a fair trial and related Sixth Amendment protections. As long as all relevant rights of the accused are adequately protectedas long as the rules of the game, so to speak, are followedthen the government may, in fact, deprive a person of his life, liberty, or property. But what if the rules are not fair? What if the law itselfregardless of how it is enforcedseemingly deprives rights? This raises the controversial spectre of substantive due process rights. It is not inconceivable that the content of the law, regardless of how it is enforced, is itself repugnant to the Constitution because it violates fundamental rights. Over time, the Supreme Court has had an on-again, off-again relationship with liberty-based due process challenges, but it has generally abided by the principle that certain rights are implicit in the concept of ordered liberty (Palko v. Connecticut [1937]), and as such they are afforded constitutional protection. This, in turn, has led to the expansion of the meaning of the term liberty. What arguably began as freedom from restraint has transformed into a virtual cornucopia of rights reasonably related to enumerated rights, without which neither liberty nor justice would exist. For example, the right to an abortion, established in Roe v. Wade (1973), grew from privacy rights, which emerged from the penumbras of the constitution.

The Fifth Amendment mentions property twice once in the due process clause and again as the amendments entire final clause, commonly known as the takings clause. The common denominator of property rights is the concept of fairness that applies to the authority of the federal government to acquire private property. At the time of ratification, property determined wealth and status. It entitled a person to participate in politics and government. It was cherished and keenly protected. Despite this, it was understood that individual rights must sometimes yield to societal rights and that representative governments must accordingly provide the greatest good for the greatest number. The growth and development of the United States ultimately would bring challenges to existing property lines, and it was necessary for an amendment to provide rules governing the acquisition of property. As such, the takings clause empowers the government to exercise eminent domain in order to take private property; however, such takings must be for public use and provide adequate compensation to landowners. Throughout most of American history this balance of individual and societal rights hinged on the governments fidelity to the cornerstone principles of public use and just compensation, and in many respects it still does. However, in 2005 Kelo v. City of New London brought a new twist to takings clause jurisprudence. Whereas prior to the Kelo ruling, the government would acquire property for public use directly, in the Kelo case the Supreme Court upheld the use of eminent domain to take private property for commercial development that was assumed to indirectly provide a positive impact for the public.

The full text of the amendment is:

No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use without just compensation.

Original post:

Fifth Amendment | United States Constitution | Britannica.com

US Government for Kids: Fifth Amendment – Ducksters

“);}

From the Constitution

Here is the text of the Fifth Amendment from the Constitution:

“No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.”

The Grand Jury

The first part of the amendment talks about a grand jury. The grand jury is a jury that decides if a trial should be held. They look at all the evidence and then decide if a person should be charged with a crime. If they decide there is enough evidence, then they will issue an indictment and a regular trial will be held. The grand jury is only used in cases where the punishment for the crime is severe such as life in prison or the death sentence.

Double Jeopardy

The next section protects the person from being tried for the same crime more than once. This is called double jeopardy.

Perhaps the most famous part of the Fifth Amendment is the right to not testify against yourself during a trial. This is often called “taking the fifth.” The government must present witnesses and evidence to prove the crime and cannot force someone to testify against themselves.

You’ve probably heard the police on TV say something like “you have the right to remain silent, anything you say or do may be used against you in a court of law” when they arrest someone. This statement is called the Miranda Warning. Police are required to tell people this before they question them as part of the Fifth Amendment. It reminds citizens that they don’t have to testify against themselves.

The amendment also states that a person has a right to “due process of law.” Due process means that any citizen charged with a crime will be given a fair trial that follows a defined procedure through the judicial system.

The last section says that the government can’t take a person’s private property without paying them a fair price for it. This is called eminent domain. The government can take your property for public use, but they have to pay you a fair price for it.

See more here:

US Government for Kids: Fifth Amendment – Ducksters

Fifth Amendment | Define Fifth Amendment at Dictionary.com

Fifth Amendment definition, an amendment to the U.S. Constitution, ratified in 1791 as part of the Bill of Rights, providing chiefly that no person be required to testify against himself or herself in a criminal case and that no person be subjected to a second trial for an offense for which he or she has been duly tried previously.

See the original post here:

Fifth Amendment | Define Fifth Amendment at Dictionary.com

Fifth Amendment | United States Constitution | Britannica.com

Fifth Amendment, amendment (1791) to the Constitution of the United States, part of the Bill of Rights, that articulates procedural safeguards designed to protect the rights of the criminally accused and to secure life, liberty, and property. For the text of the Fifth Amendment, see below.

Similar to the First Amendment, the Fifth Amendment is divided into five clauses, representing five distinct, yet related, rights. The first clause specifies that [n]o person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger. This grand jury provision requires a body to make a formal presentment or indictment of a person accused of committing a crime against the laws of the federal government. The proceeding is not a trial but rather an ex parte hearing (i.e., one in which only one party, the prosecution, presents evidence) to determine if the government has enough evidence to carry a case to trial. If the grand jury finds sufficient evidence that an offense was committed, it issues an indictment, which then permits a trial. The portion of the clause pertaining to exceptions in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia is a corollary to Article I, Section 8, which grants Congress the power [t]o make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and naval Forces. Combined, they justify the use of military courts for the armed forces, thus denying military personnel the same procedural rights afforded civilians.

The second section is commonly referred to as the double jeopardy clause, and it protects citizens against a second prosecution after an acquittal or a conviction, as well as against multiple punishments for the same offense. Caveats to this provision include permissions to try persons for civil and criminal aspects of an offense, conspiring to commit as well as to commit an offense, and separate trials for acts that violate laws of both the federal and state governments, although federal laws generally suppress prosecution by the national government if a person is convicted of the same crime in a state proceeding.

The third section is commonly referred to as the self-incrimination clause, and it protects persons accused of committing a crime from being forced to testify against themselves. In the U.S. judicial system a person is presumed innocent, and it is the responsibility of the state (or national government) to prove guilt. Like other pieces of evidence, once presented, words can be used powerfully against a person; however, words can be manipulated in a way that many other objects cannot. Consequently, information gained from sobriety tests, police lineups, voice samples, and the like is constitutionally permissible while evidence gained from compelled testimony is not. As such, persons accused of committing crimes are protected against themselves or, more accurately, how their words may be used against them. The clause, therefore, protects a key aspect of the system as well as the rights of the criminally accused.

The fourth section is commonly referred to as the due process clause. It protects life, liberty, and property from impairment by the federal government. (The Fourteenth Amendment, ratified in 1868, protects the same rights from infringement by the states.) Chiefly concerned with fairness and justice, the due process clause seeks to preserve and protect fundamental rights and ensure that any deprivation of life, liberty, or property occurs in accordance with procedural safeguards. As such, there are both substantive and procedural considerations associated with the due process clause, and this has influenced the development of two separate tracks of due process jurisprudence: procedural and substantive. Procedural due process pertains to the rules, elements, or methods of enforcementthat is, its procedural aspects. Consider the elements of a fair trial and related Sixth Amendment protections. As long as all relevant rights of the accused are adequately protectedas long as the rules of the game, so to speak, are followedthen the government may, in fact, deprive a person of his life, liberty, or property. But what if the rules are not fair? What if the law itselfregardless of how it is enforcedseemingly deprives rights? This raises the controversial spectre of substantive due process rights. It is not inconceivable that the content of the law, regardless of how it is enforced, is itself repugnant to the Constitution because it violates fundamental rights. Over time, the Supreme Court has had an on-again, off-again relationship with liberty-based due process challenges, but it has generally abided by the principle that certain rights are implicit in the concept of ordered liberty (Palko v. Connecticut [1937]), and as such they are afforded constitutional protection. This, in turn, has led to the expansion of the meaning of the term liberty. What arguably began as freedom from restraint has transformed into a virtual cornucopia of rights reasonably related to enumerated rights, without which neither liberty nor justice would exist. For example, the right to an abortion, established in Roe v. Wade (1973), grew from privacy rights, which emerged from the penumbras of the constitution.

The Fifth Amendment mentions property twice once in the due process clause and again as the amendments entire final clause, commonly known as the takings clause. The common denominator of property rights is the concept of fairness that applies to the authority of the federal government to acquire private property. At the time of ratification, property determined wealth and status. It entitled a person to participate in politics and government. It was cherished and keenly protected. Despite this, it was understood that individual rights must sometimes yield to societal rights and that representative governments must accordingly provide the greatest good for the greatest number. The growth and development of the United States ultimately would bring challenges to existing property lines, and it was necessary for an amendment to provide rules governing the acquisition of property. As such, the takings clause empowers the government to exercise eminent domain in order to take private property; however, such takings must be for public use and provide adequate compensation to landowners. Throughout most of American history this balance of individual and societal rights hinged on the governments fidelity to the cornerstone principles of public use and just compensation, and in many respects it still does. However, in 2005 Kelo v. City of New London brought a new twist to takings clause jurisprudence. Whereas prior to the Kelo ruling, the government would acquire property for public use directly, in the Kelo case the Supreme Court upheld the use of eminent domain to take private property for commercial development that was assumed to indirectly provide a positive impact for the public.

The full text of the amendment is:

No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use without just compensation.

More here:

Fifth Amendment | United States Constitution | Britannica.com

Fifth Amendment – definition of Fifth Amendment by The …

.

An amendment to the US Constitution that provides for due process of law where the government is seeking to deprive a person of life, liberty, or property; provides for Grand Jury proceedings for certain serious offenses; prohibits the government from trying a person again after that person has been acquitted; prohibits the government from forcing a defendant to testify against himself or herself; and prohibits government confiscation of private property for public use without just compensation to the property owner.

1. an amendment to the US Constitution stating that no person may be compelled to testify against himself and that no person may be tried for a second time on a charge for which he has already been acquitted

2. (Law) take the fifth take the fifth amendment US to refuse to answer a question on the grounds that it might incriminate oneself

an amendment to the U.S. Constitution, providing chiefly that no person be required to testify against himself or herself in a criminal case or be subjected to double jeopardy.

An amendment to the United States Constitution establishing that, among other things, no person can be compelled to testify against himself or herself.

ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend:

Read the rest here:

Fifth Amendment – definition of Fifth Amendment by The …

US Government for Kids: Fifth Amendment – Ducksters

“);}

From the Constitution

Here is the text of the Fifth Amendment from the Constitution:

“No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.”

The Grand Jury

The first part of the amendment talks about a grand jury. The grand jury is a jury that decides if a trial should be held. They look at all the evidence and then decide if a person should be charged with a crime. If they decide there is enough evidence, then they will issue an indictment and a regular trial will be held. The grand jury is only used in cases where the punishment for the crime is severe such as life in prison or the death sentence.

Double Jeopardy

The next section protects the person from being tried for the same crime more than once. This is called double jeopardy.

Perhaps the most famous part of the Fifth Amendment is the right to not testify against yourself during a trial. This is often called “taking the fifth.” The government must present witnesses and evidence to prove the crime and cannot force someone to testify against themselves.

You’ve probably heard the police on TV say something like “you have the right to remain silent, anything you say or do may be used against you in a court of law” when they arrest someone. This statement is called the Miranda Warning. Police are required to tell people this before they question them as part of the Fifth Amendment. It reminds citizens that they don’t have to testify against themselves.

The amendment also states that a person has a right to “due process of law.” Due process means that any citizen charged with a crime will be given a fair trial that follows a defined procedure through the judicial system.

The last section says that the government can’t take a person’s private property without paying them a fair price for it. This is called eminent domain. The government can take your property for public use, but they have to pay you a fair price for it.

Read more:

US Government for Kids: Fifth Amendment – Ducksters

Fifth Amendment | Define Fifth Amendment at Dictionary.com

Fifth Amendment definition, an amendment to the U.S. Constitution, ratified in 1791 as part of the Bill of Rights, providing chiefly that no person be required to testify against himself or herself in a criminal case and that no person be subjected to a second trial for an offense for which he or she has been duly tried previously.

Link:

Fifth Amendment | Define Fifth Amendment at Dictionary.com

Fifth Amendment | United States Constitution | Britannica.com

Fifth Amendment, amendment (1791) to the Constitution of the United States, part of the Bill of Rights, that articulates procedural safeguards designed to protect the rights of the criminally accused and to secure life, liberty, and property. For the text of the Fifth Amendment, see below.

Similar to the First Amendment, the Fifth Amendment is divided into five clauses, representing five distinct, yet related, rights. The first clause specifies that [n]o person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger. This grand jury provision requires a body to make a formal presentment or indictment of a person accused of committing a crime against the laws of the federal government. The proceeding is not a trial but rather an ex parte hearing (i.e., one in which only one party, the prosecution, presents evidence) to determine if the government has enough evidence to carry a case to trial. If the grand jury finds sufficient evidence that an offense was committed, it issues an indictment, which then permits a trial. The portion of the clause pertaining to exceptions in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia is a corollary to Article I, Section 8, which grants Congress the power [t]o make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and naval Forces. Combined, they justify the use of military courts for the armed forces, thus denying military personnel the same procedural rights afforded civilians.

The second section is commonly referred to as the double jeopardy clause, and it protects citizens against a second prosecution after an acquittal or a conviction, as well as against multiple punishments for the same offense. Caveats to this provision include permissions to try persons for civil and criminal aspects of an offense, conspiring to commit as well as to commit an offense, and separate trials for acts that violate laws of both the federal and state governments, although federal laws generally suppress prosecution by the national government if a person is convicted of the same crime in a state proceeding.

The third section is commonly referred to as the self-incrimination clause, and it protects persons accused of committing a crime from being forced to testify against themselves. In the U.S. judicial system a person is presumed innocent, and it is the responsibility of the state (or national government) to prove guilt. Like other pieces of evidence, once presented, words can be used powerfully against a person; however, words can be manipulated in a way that many other objects cannot. Consequently, information gained from sobriety tests, police lineups, voice samples, and the like is constitutionally permissible while evidence gained from compelled testimony is not. As such, persons accused of committing crimes are protected against themselves or, more accurately, how their words may be used against them. The clause, therefore, protects a key aspect of the system as well as the rights of the criminally accused.

The fourth section is commonly referred to as the due process clause. It protects life, liberty, and property from impairment by the federal government. (The Fourteenth Amendment, ratified in 1868, protects the same rights from infringement by the states.) Chiefly concerned with fairness and justice, the due process clause seeks to preserve and protect fundamental rights and ensure that any deprivation of life, liberty, or property occurs in accordance with procedural safeguards. As such, there are both substantive and procedural considerations associated with the due process clause, and this has influenced the development of two separate tracks of due process jurisprudence: procedural and substantive. Procedural due process pertains to the rules, elements, or methods of enforcementthat is, its procedural aspects. Consider the elements of a fair trial and related Sixth Amendment protections. As long as all relevant rights of the accused are adequately protectedas long as the rules of the game, so to speak, are followedthen the government may, in fact, deprive a person of his life, liberty, or property. But what if the rules are not fair? What if the law itselfregardless of how it is enforcedseemingly deprives rights? This raises the controversial spectre of substantive due process rights. It is not inconceivable that the content of the law, regardless of how it is enforced, is itself repugnant to the Constitution because it violates fundamental rights. Over time, the Supreme Court has had an on-again, off-again relationship with liberty-based due process challenges, but it has generally abided by the principle that certain rights are implicit in the concept of ordered liberty (Palko v. Connecticut [1937]), and as such they are afforded constitutional protection. This, in turn, has led to the expansion of the meaning of the term liberty. What arguably began as freedom from restraint has transformed into a virtual cornucopia of rights reasonably related to enumerated rights, without which neither liberty nor justice would exist. For example, the right to an abortion, established in Roe v. Wade (1973), grew from privacy rights, which emerged from the penumbras of the constitution.

The Fifth Amendment mentions property twice once in the due process clause and again as the amendments entire final clause, commonly known as the takings clause. The common denominator of property rights is the concept of fairness that applies to the authority of the federal government to acquire private property. At the time of ratification, property determined wealth and status. It entitled a person to participate in politics and government. It was cherished and keenly protected. Despite this, it was understood that individual rights must sometimes yield to societal rights and that representative governments must accordingly provide the greatest good for the greatest number. The growth and development of the United States ultimately would bring challenges to existing property lines, and it was necessary for an amendment to provide rules governing the acquisition of property. As such, the takings clause empowers the government to exercise eminent domain in order to take private property; however, such takings must be for public use and provide adequate compensation to landowners. Throughout most of American history this balance of individual and societal rights hinged on the governments fidelity to the cornerstone principles of public use and just compensation, and in many respects it still does. However, in 2005 Kelo v. City of New London brought a new twist to takings clause jurisprudence. Whereas prior to the Kelo ruling, the government would acquire property for public use directly, in the Kelo case the Supreme Court upheld the use of eminent domain to take private property for commercial development that was assumed to indirectly provide a positive impact for the public.

The full text of the amendment is:

No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use without just compensation.

View post:

Fifth Amendment | United States Constitution | Britannica.com

Fifth Amendment – definition of Fifth Amendment by The …

.

An amendment to the US Constitution that provides for due process of law where the government is seeking to deprive a person of life, liberty, or property; provides for Grand Jury proceedings for certain serious offenses; prohibits the government from trying a person again after that person has been acquitted; prohibits the government from forcing a defendant to testify against himself or herself; and prohibits government confiscation of private property for public use without just compensation to the property owner.

1. an amendment to the US Constitution stating that no person may be compelled to testify against himself and that no person may be tried for a second time on a charge for which he has already been acquitted

2. (Law) take the fifth take the fifth amendment US to refuse to answer a question on the grounds that it might incriminate oneself

an amendment to the U.S. Constitution, providing chiefly that no person be required to testify against himself or herself in a criminal case or be subjected to double jeopardy.

An amendment to the United States Constitution establishing that, among other things, no person can be compelled to testify against himself or herself.

ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend:

More here:

Fifth Amendment – definition of Fifth Amendment by The …

US Government for Kids: Fifth Amendment – Ducksters

“);}

From the Constitution

Here is the text of the Fifth Amendment from the Constitution:

“No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.”

The Grand Jury

The first part of the amendment talks about a grand jury. The grand jury is a jury that decides if a trial should be held. They look at all the evidence and then decide if a person should be charged with a crime. If they decide there is enough evidence, then they will issue an indictment and a regular trial will be held. The grand jury is only used in cases where the punishment for the crime is severe such as life in prison or the death sentence.

Double Jeopardy

The next section protects the person from being tried for the same crime more than once. This is called double jeopardy.

Perhaps the most famous part of the Fifth Amendment is the right to not testify against yourself during a trial. This is often called “taking the fifth.” The government must present witnesses and evidence to prove the crime and cannot force someone to testify against themselves.

You’ve probably heard the police on TV say something like “you have the right to remain silent, anything you say or do may be used against you in a court of law” when they arrest someone. This statement is called the Miranda Warning. Police are required to tell people this before they question them as part of the Fifth Amendment. It reminds citizens that they don’t have to testify against themselves.

The amendment also states that a person has a right to “due process of law.” Due process means that any citizen charged with a crime will be given a fair trial that follows a defined procedure through the judicial system.

The last section says that the government can’t take a person’s private property without paying them a fair price for it. This is called eminent domain. The government can take your property for public use, but they have to pay you a fair price for it.

Go here to read the rest:

US Government for Kids: Fifth Amendment – Ducksters

Twenty-fifth Amendment | United States Constitution …

Twenty-fifth Amendment, amendment (1967) to the Constitution of the United States that set forth succession rules relating to vacancies and disabilities of the office of the president and of the vice president. It was proposed by the U.S. Congress on July 6, 1965, and it was ratified on Feb. 10, 1967.

While the first section of the Twenty-fifth Amendment codified the traditionally observed process of succession in the event of the death of the presidentthat the vice president would succeed to the officeit also introduced a change regarding the ascent of the vice president to president should the latter resign from office. In the event of resignation, the vice president would assume the title and position of presidentnot acting presidenteffectively prohibiting the departing president from returning to office.

The second section of the amendment addresses vacancies in the office of the vice president. Traditionally, when the office of vice president was vacant, usually through the vice presidents succession to the presidency following the death of the president, the office of vice president stood vacant until the next election. Through the Twenty-fifth Amendment, the president would nominate a vice president, who would be subject to confirmation by the U.S. Congress. Only a few years after the amendments ratification, this section was put into effect. In 1973 Spiro Agnew resigned as Pres. Richard M. Nixons vice president, and Nixon subsequently selected Gerald R. Ford, who was then serving as minority leader in the House of Representatives, to serve as vice president. Despite the fact that Nixon and Ford were Republicans and the Democrats retained majorities in both the House and the Senate, Ford was easily confirmed, which indicated that the process would focus less on policy positions than a general fitness for office. Ford assumed the duties of vice president on Dec. 6, 1973, and upon Nixons resignation from office to avoid impeachment, Ford became the first president to accede to office according to the Twenty-fifth Amendment on Aug. 9, 1974. Had the Twenty-fifth Amendment not been in effect, Nixon would not have been able to replace Agnew, and it remains speculative whether Nixon would have resigned prior to impeachment and a trial and thus enabled the Democratic speaker of the House of Representatives to become president under the Presidential Succession Act of 1947.

The third section of the amendment set forth the formal process for determining the capacity of the president to discharge the powers and duties of office. It assumes that the president has the presence of mind and physical ability to produce a written statement formally notifying the president pro tempore of the Senate and the speaker of the House of such circumstances, which would result in the vice presidents temporarily serving as acting president. In the event that a president may be unable to declare his inability to discharge the powers and duties of office, the fourth section of the amendment requires such determinations to be made jointly by the vice president and the cabinet, with the vice president immediately assuming the position of acting president.

Prior to the passage of the amendment, nine presidentsWilliam Henry Harrison, Zachary Taylor, Abraham Lincoln, James Garfield, William McKinley, Woodrow Wilson, Warren G. Harding, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Dwight D. Eisenhowerexperienced health crises that left them temporarily incapacitated, with death resulting in six cases (Harrison, Taylor, Lincoln, Garfield, McKinley, and Harding). After the passage of the amendment, Pres. Ronald Reagan was incapacitated for some 24 hours while undergoing surgery for a gunshot wound resulting from a failed assassination attempt, though no official designation of presidential responsibility was ever made. Indeed, this portion of the Twenty-fifth Amendment has never been invoked.

The full text of the amendment is:

Section 1In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President.

Section 2Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, the President shall nominate a Vice President who shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote of both Houses of Congress.

Section 3Whenever the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until he transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice President as Acting President.

Section 4Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting President.

Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that no inability exists, he shall resume the powers and duties of his office unless the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive department or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit within four days to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. Thereupon Congress shall decide the issue, assembling within forty-eight hours for that purpose if not in session. If the Congress, within twenty-one days after receipt of the latter written declaration, or, if Congress is not in session, within twenty-one days after Congress is required to assemble, determines by two-thirds vote of both Houses that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall continue to discharge the same as Acting President; otherwise, the President shall resume the powers and duties of his office.

See original here:

Twenty-fifth Amendment | United States Constitution …

US Government for Kids: Fifth Amendment – Ducksters

“);}

From the Constitution

Here is the text of the Fifth Amendment from the Constitution:

“No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.”

The Grand Jury

The first part of the amendment talks about a grand jury. The grand jury is a jury that decides if a trial should be held. They look at all the evidence and then decide if a person should be charged with a crime. If they decide there is enough evidence, then they will issue an indictment and a regular trial will be held. The grand jury is only used in cases where the punishment for the crime is severe such as life in prison or the death sentence.

Double Jeopardy

The next section protects the person from being tried for the same crime more than once. This is called double jeopardy.

Perhaps the most famous part of the Fifth Amendment is the right to not testify against yourself during a trial. This is often called “taking the fifth.” The government must present witnesses and evidence to prove the crime and cannot force someone to testify against themselves.

You’ve probably heard the police on TV say something like “you have the right to remain silent, anything you say or do may be used against you in a court of law” when they arrest someone. This statement is called the Miranda Warning. Police are required to tell people this before they question them as part of the Fifth Amendment. It reminds citizens that they don’t have to testify against themselves.

The amendment also states that a person has a right to “due process of law.” Due process means that any citizen charged with a crime will be given a fair trial that follows a defined procedure through the judicial system.

The last section says that the government can’t take a person’s private property without paying them a fair price for it. This is called eminent domain. The government can take your property for public use, but they have to pay you a fair price for it.

See the article here:

US Government for Kids: Fifth Amendment – Ducksters

Fifth Amendment | United States Constitution | Britannica.com

Fifth Amendment, amendment (1791) to the Constitution of the United States, part of the Bill of Rights, that articulates procedural safeguards designed to protect the rights of the criminally accused and to secure life, liberty, and property. For the text of the Fifth Amendment, see below.

Similar to the First Amendment, the Fifth Amendment is divided into five clauses, representing five distinct, yet related, rights. The first clause specifies that [n]o person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger. This grand jury provision requires a body to make a formal presentment or indictment of a person accused of committing a crime against the laws of the federal government. The proceeding is not a trial but rather an ex parte hearing (i.e., one in which only one party, the prosecution, presents evidence) to determine if the government has enough evidence to carry a case to trial. If the grand jury finds sufficient evidence that an offense was committed, it issues an indictment, which then permits a trial. The portion of the clause pertaining to exceptions in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia is a corollary to Article I, Section 8, which grants Congress the power [t]o make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and naval Forces. Combined, they justify the use of military courts for the armed forces, thus denying military personnel the same procedural rights afforded civilians.

The second section is commonly referred to as the double jeopardy clause, and it protects citizens against a second prosecution after an acquittal or a conviction, as well as against multiple punishments for the same offense. Caveats to this provision include permissions to try persons for civil and criminal aspects of an offense, conspiring to commit as well as to commit an offense, and separate trials for acts that violate laws of both the federal and state governments, although federal laws generally suppress prosecution by the national government if a person is convicted of the same crime in a state proceeding.

The third section is commonly referred to as the self-incrimination clause, and it protects persons accused of committing a crime from being forced to testify against themselves. In the U.S. judicial system a person is presumed innocent, and it is the responsibility of the state (or national government) to prove guilt. Like other pieces of evidence, once presented, words can be used powerfully against a person; however, words can be manipulated in a way that many other objects cannot. Consequently, information gained from sobriety tests, police lineups, voice samples, and the like is constitutionally permissible while evidence gained from compelled testimony is not. As such, persons accused of committing crimes are protected against themselves or, more accurately, how their words may be used against them. The clause, therefore, protects a key aspect of the system as well as the rights of the criminally accused.

The fourth section is commonly referred to as the due process clause. It protects life, liberty, and property from impairment by the federal government. (The Fourteenth Amendment, ratified in 1868, protects the same rights from infringement by the states.) Chiefly concerned with fairness and justice, the due process clause seeks to preserve and protect fundamental rights and ensure that any deprivation of life, liberty, or property occurs in accordance with procedural safeguards. As such, there are both substantive and procedural considerations associated with the due process clause, and this has influenced the development of two separate tracks of due process jurisprudence: procedural and substantive. Procedural due process pertains to the rules, elements, or methods of enforcementthat is, its procedural aspects. Consider the elements of a fair trial and related Sixth Amendment protections. As long as all relevant rights of the accused are adequately protectedas long as the rules of the game, so to speak, are followedthen the government may, in fact, deprive a person of his life, liberty, or property. But what if the rules are not fair? What if the law itselfregardless of how it is enforcedseemingly deprives rights? This raises the controversial spectre of substantive due process rights. It is not inconceivable that the content of the law, regardless of how it is enforced, is itself repugnant to the Constitution because it violates fundamental rights. Over time, the Supreme Court has had an on-again, off-again relationship with liberty-based due process challenges, but it has generally abided by the principle that certain rights are implicit in the concept of ordered liberty (Palko v. Connecticut [1937]), and as such they are afforded constitutional protection. This, in turn, has led to the expansion of the meaning of the term liberty. What arguably began as freedom from restraint has transformed into a virtual cornucopia of rights reasonably related to enumerated rights, without which neither liberty nor justice would exist. For example, the right to an abortion, established in Roe v. Wade (1973), grew from privacy rights, which emerged from the penumbras of the constitution.

The Fifth Amendment mentions property twice once in the due process clause and again as the amendments entire final clause, commonly known as the takings clause. The common denominator of property rights is the concept of fairness that applies to the authority of the federal government to acquire private property. At the time of ratification, property determined wealth and status. It entitled a person to participate in politics and government. It was cherished and keenly protected. Despite this, it was understood that individual rights must sometimes yield to societal rights and that representative governments must accordingly provide the greatest good for the greatest number. The growth and development of the United States ultimately would bring challenges to existing property lines, and it was necessary for an amendment to provide rules governing the acquisition of property. As such, the takings clause empowers the government to exercise eminent domain in order to take private property; however, such takings must be for public use and provide adequate compensation to landowners. Throughout most of American history this balance of individual and societal rights hinged on the governments fidelity to the cornerstone principles of public use and just compensation, and in many respects it still does. However, in 2005 Kelo v. City of New London brought a new twist to takings clause jurisprudence. Whereas prior to the Kelo ruling, the government would acquire property for public use directly, in the Kelo case the Supreme Court upheld the use of eminent domain to take private property for commercial development that was assumed to indirectly provide a positive impact for the public.

The full text of the amendment is:

No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use without just compensation.

More:

Fifth Amendment | United States Constitution | Britannica.com

Twenty-fifth Amendment | United States Constitution …

Twenty-fifth Amendment, amendment (1967) to the Constitution of the United States that set forth succession rules relating to vacancies and disabilities of the office of the president and of the vice president. It was proposed by the U.S. Congress on July 6, 1965, and it was ratified on Feb. 10, 1967.

While the first section of the Twenty-fifth Amendment codified the traditionally observed process of succession in the event of the death of the presidentthat the vice president would succeed to the officeit also introduced a change regarding the ascent of the vice president to president should the latter resign from office. In the event of resignation, the vice president would assume the title and position of presidentnot acting presidenteffectively prohibiting the departing president from returning to office.

The second section of the amendment addresses vacancies in the office of the vice president. Traditionally, when the office of vice president was vacant, usually through the vice presidents succession to the presidency following the death of the president, the office of vice president stood vacant until the next election. Through the Twenty-fifth Amendment, the president would nominate a vice president, who would be subject to confirmation by the U.S. Congress. Only a few years after the amendments ratification, this section was put into effect. In 1973 Spiro Agnew resigned as Pres. Richard M. Nixons vice president, and Nixon subsequently selected Gerald R. Ford, who was then serving as minority leader in the House of Representatives, to serve as vice president. Despite the fact that Nixon and Ford were Republicans and the Democrats retained majorities in both the House and the Senate, Ford was easily confirmed, which indicated that the process would focus less on policy positions than a general fitness for office. Ford assumed the duties of vice president on Dec. 6, 1973, and upon Nixons resignation from office to avoid impeachment, Ford became the first president to accede to office according to the Twenty-fifth Amendment on Aug. 9, 1974. Had the Twenty-fifth Amendment not been in effect, Nixon would not have been able to replace Agnew, and it remains speculative whether Nixon would have resigned prior to impeachment and a trial and thus enabled the Democratic speaker of the House of Representatives to become president under the Presidential Succession Act of 1947.

The third section of the amendment set forth the formal process for determining the capacity of the president to discharge the powers and duties of office. It assumes that the president has the presence of mind and physical ability to produce a written statement formally notifying the president pro tempore of the Senate and the speaker of the House of such circumstances, which would result in the vice presidents temporarily serving as acting president. In the event that a president may be unable to declare his inability to discharge the powers and duties of office, the fourth section of the amendment requires such determinations to be made jointly by the vice president and the cabinet, with the vice president immediately assuming the position of acting president.

Prior to the passage of the amendment, nine presidentsWilliam Henry Harrison, Zachary Taylor, Abraham Lincoln, James Garfield, William McKinley, Woodrow Wilson, Warren G. Harding, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Dwight D. Eisenhowerexperienced health crises that left them temporarily incapacitated, with death resulting in six cases (Harrison, Taylor, Lincoln, Garfield, McKinley, and Harding). After the passage of the amendment, Pres. Ronald Reagan was incapacitated for some 24 hours while undergoing surgery for a gunshot wound resulting from a failed assassination attempt, though no official designation of presidential responsibility was ever made. Indeed, this portion of the Twenty-fifth Amendment has never been invoked.

The full text of the amendment is:

Section 1In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President.

Section 2Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, the President shall nominate a Vice President who shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote of both Houses of Congress.

Section 3Whenever the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until he transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice President as Acting President.

Section 4Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting President.

Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that no inability exists, he shall resume the powers and duties of his office unless the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive department or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit within four days to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. Thereupon Congress shall decide the issue, assembling within forty-eight hours for that purpose if not in session. If the Congress, within twenty-one days after receipt of the latter written declaration, or, if Congress is not in session, within twenty-one days after Congress is required to assemble, determines by two-thirds vote of both Houses that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall continue to discharge the same as Acting President; otherwise, the President shall resume the powers and duties of his office.

Excerpt from:

Twenty-fifth Amendment | United States Constitution …

Fifth Amendment – definition of Fifth Amendment by The …

.

An amendment to the US Constitution that provides for due process of law where the government is seeking to deprive a person of life, liberty, or property; provides for Grand Jury proceedings for certain serious offenses; prohibits the government from trying a person again after that person has been acquitted; prohibits the government from forcing a defendant to testify against himself or herself; and prohibits government confiscation of private property for public use without just compensation to the property owner.

1. an amendment to the US Constitution stating that no person may be compelled to testify against himself and that no person may be tried for a second time on a charge for which he has already been acquitted

2. (Law) take the fifth take the fifth amendment US to refuse to answer a question on the grounds that it might incriminate oneself

an amendment to the U.S. Constitution, providing chiefly that no person be required to testify against himself or herself in a criminal case or be subjected to double jeopardy.

An amendment to the United States Constitution establishing that, among other things, no person can be compelled to testify against himself or herself.

ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend:

Read the original post:

Fifth Amendment – definition of Fifth Amendment by The …

US Government for Kids: Fifth Amendment – Ducksters

“);}

From the Constitution

Here is the text of the Fifth Amendment from the Constitution:

“No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.”

The Grand Jury

The first part of the amendment talks about a grand jury. The grand jury is a jury that decides if a trial should be held. They look at all the evidence and then decide if a person should be charged with a crime. If they decide there is enough evidence, then they will issue an indictment and a regular trial will be held. The grand jury is only used in cases where the punishment for the crime is severe such as life in prison or the death sentence.

Double Jeopardy

The next section protects the person from being tried for the same crime more than once. This is called double jeopardy.

Perhaps the most famous part of the Fifth Amendment is the right to not testify against yourself during a trial. This is often called “taking the fifth.” The government must present witnesses and evidence to prove the crime and cannot force someone to testify against themselves.

You’ve probably heard the police on TV say something like “you have the right to remain silent, anything you say or do may be used against you in a court of law” when they arrest someone. This statement is called the Miranda Warning. Police are required to tell people this before they question them as part of the Fifth Amendment. It reminds citizens that they don’t have to testify against themselves.

The amendment also states that a person has a right to “due process of law.” Due process means that any citizen charged with a crime will be given a fair trial that follows a defined procedure through the judicial system.

The last section says that the government can’t take a person’s private property without paying them a fair price for it. This is called eminent domain. The government can take your property for public use, but they have to pay you a fair price for it.

See more here:

US Government for Kids: Fifth Amendment – Ducksters

Fifth Amendment | United States Constitution | Britannica.com

Fifth Amendment, amendment (1791) to the Constitution of the United States, part of the Bill of Rights, that articulates procedural safeguards designed to protect the rights of the criminally accused and to secure life, liberty, and property. For the text of the Fifth Amendment, see below.

Similar to the First Amendment, the Fifth Amendment is divided into five clauses, representing five distinct, yet related, rights. The first clause specifies that [n]o person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger. This grand jury provision requires a body to make a formal presentment or indictment of a person accused of committing a crime against the laws of the federal government. The proceeding is not a trial but rather an ex parte hearing (i.e., one in which only one party, the prosecution, presents evidence) to determine if the government has enough evidence to carry a case to trial. If the grand jury finds sufficient evidence that an offense was committed, it issues an indictment, which then permits a trial. The portion of the clause pertaining to exceptions in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia is a corollary to Article I, Section 8, which grants Congress the power [t]o make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and naval Forces. Combined, they justify the use of military courts for the armed forces, thus denying military personnel the same procedural rights afforded civilians.

The second section is commonly referred to as the double jeopardy clause, and it protects citizens against a second prosecution after an acquittal or a conviction, as well as against multiple punishments for the same offense. Caveats to this provision include permissions to try persons for civil and criminal aspects of an offense, conspiring to commit as well as to commit an offense, and separate trials for acts that violate laws of both the federal and state governments, although federal laws generally suppress prosecution by the national government if a person is convicted of the same crime in a state proceeding.

The third section is commonly referred to as the self-incrimination clause, and it protects persons accused of committing a crime from being forced to testify against themselves. In the U.S. judicial system a person is presumed innocent, and it is the responsibility of the state (or national government) to prove guilt. Like other pieces of evidence, once presented, words can be used powerfully against a person; however, words can be manipulated in a way that many other objects cannot. Consequently, information gained from sobriety tests, police lineups, voice samples, and the like is constitutionally permissible while evidence gained from compelled testimony is not. As such, persons accused of committing crimes are protected against themselves or, more accurately, how their words may be used against them. The clause, therefore, protects a key aspect of the system as well as the rights of the criminally accused.

The fourth section is commonly referred to as the due process clause. It protects life, liberty, and property from impairment by the federal government. (The Fourteenth Amendment, ratified in 1868, protects the same rights from infringement by the states.) Chiefly concerned with fairness and justice, the due process clause seeks to preserve and protect fundamental rights and ensure that any deprivation of life, liberty, or property occurs in accordance with procedural safeguards. As such, there are both substantive and procedural considerations associated with the due process clause, and this has influenced the development of two separate tracks of due process jurisprudence: procedural and substantive. Procedural due process pertains to the rules, elements, or methods of enforcementthat is, its procedural aspects. Consider the elements of a fair trial and related Sixth Amendment protections. As long as all relevant rights of the accused are adequately protectedas long as the rules of the game, so to speak, are followedthen the government may, in fact, deprive a person of his life, liberty, or property. But what if the rules are not fair? What if the law itselfregardless of how it is enforcedseemingly deprives rights? This raises the controversial spectre of substantive due process rights. It is not inconceivable that the content of the law, regardless of how it is enforced, is itself repugnant to the Constitution because it violates fundamental rights. Over time, the Supreme Court has had an on-again, off-again relationship with liberty-based due process challenges, but it has generally abided by the principle that certain rights are implicit in the concept of ordered liberty (Palko v. Connecticut [1937]), and as such they are afforded constitutional protection. This, in turn, has led to the expansion of the meaning of the term liberty. What arguably began as freedom from restraint has transformed into a virtual cornucopia of rights reasonably related to enumerated rights, without which neither liberty nor justice would exist. For example, the right to an abortion, established in Roe v. Wade (1973), grew from privacy rights, which emerged from the penumbras of the constitution.

The Fifth Amendment mentions property twice once in the due process clause and again as the amendments entire final clause, commonly known as the takings clause. The common denominator of property rights is the concept of fairness that applies to the authority of the federal government to acquire private property. At the time of ratification, property determined wealth and status. It entitled a person to participate in politics and government. It was cherished and keenly protected. Despite this, it was understood that individual rights must sometimes yield to societal rights and that representative governments must accordingly provide the greatest good for the greatest number. The growth and development of the United States ultimately would bring challenges to existing property lines, and it was necessary for an amendment to provide rules governing the acquisition of property. As such, the takings clause empowers the government to exercise eminent domain in order to take private property; however, such takings must be for public use and provide adequate compensation to landowners. Throughout most of American history this balance of individual and societal rights hinged on the governments fidelity to the cornerstone principles of public use and just compensation, and in many respects it still does. However, in 2005 Kelo v. City of New London brought a new twist to takings clause jurisprudence. Whereas prior to the Kelo ruling, the government would acquire property for public use directly, in the Kelo case the Supreme Court upheld the use of eminent domain to take private property for commercial development that was assumed to indirectly provide a positive impact for the public.

The full text of the amendment is:

No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use without just compensation.

More here:

Fifth Amendment | United States Constitution | Britannica.com


12345...1020...