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GamCare – the UK’s national organisation for gambling …

Is problem gambling affecting you, or those close to you?

GamCare is the leading national provider of information, advice, support and free counselling for the prevention and treatment of problem gambling. Our expert services are confidential andnon-judgemental.

We apologise for any inconvenience, however our Chatrooms are temporarily unable to run due to a fault with our software.

GamCare offers free, impartial and confidential advice and support about a gambling problem. Our advisers are available to talk from 8am to midnight every day of the year. Whether you are struggling with the effects of gambling issues of your own, or of someone close to you, we are here for you.

One of the most common results of a gambling problem is debt, and yet debt is also used by many gamblers as a reason for their continued gambling. It plays a complex and contradictory role at the heart of the gambling experience for many of the people that we speak to. If debt has become a problem for you as a result of your gambling.

GamCare counselling provides a safe, confidential way for you to talk about your situation, either in person or online. It offers an opportunity to explore the causes of your gambling behaviour and the effects gambling has on your life, and helps put it in context of your life experiences.

Read the original post:

GamCare – the UK’s national organisation for gambling …

GamCare – the UK’s national organisation for gambling …

Is problem gambling affecting you, or those close to you?

GamCare is the leading national provider of information, advice, support and free counselling for the prevention and treatment of problem gambling. Our expert services are confidential andnon-judgemental.

We apologise for any inconvenince, however our Chatrooms are temporarily unable to run due to a fault with our software.

GamCare offers free, impartial and confidential advice and support about a gambling problem. Our advisers are available to talk from 8am to midnight every day of the year. Whether you are struggling with the effects of gambling issues of your own, or of someone close to you, we are here for you.

One of the most common results of a gambling problem is debt, and yet debt is also used by many gamblers as a reason for their continued gambling. It plays a complex and contradictory role at the heart of the gambling experience for many of the people that we speak to. If debt has become a problem for you as a result of your gambling.

GamCare counselling provides a safe, confidential way for you to talk about your situation, either in person or online. It offers an opportunity to explore the causes of your gambling behaviour and the effects gambling has on your life, and helps put it in context of your life experiences.

More here:

GamCare – the UK’s national organisation for gambling …

OnlineGambling.com > #1 Online Gambling Sites Guide 2018

Gamble Anywhere Using Your Mobile

Mobile gambling has become one of the most exciting ways to gamble around, giving you the power to have a spin at a slot machine, or play a hand of poker, wherever you happen to be. Most online casinos and other gambling sites are now offering a mobile version of their sites to their players, and many are also coming up with innovative and intuitive apps. These applications enhance the playing experience on the smartphone even further.

But how can you find great mobile casinos, poker rooms and sportsbooks? The answer is simple: take a look through the reviews weve compiled of each one. Well let you know just how good the apps and mobile sites are, plus well also tell you about the selection of mobile games offered by a site, as well as the range of bonuses they have for mobile players. Once youve finished reading, you should have no problem selecting the best mobile gambling site for your own needs.

Our editorial team are constantly seeking out the latest scoops and insider stories. Benefit from our network of industry contacts to keep you updated with the latest tournaments, exciting competitions and exclusive bonuses.

Follow this link:

OnlineGambling.com > #1 Online Gambling Sites Guide 2018

Office of Problem Gambling

The Office of Problem Gambling (OPG) is dedicated to promoting awareness and prevention of gambling disorder and making treatment available to those negatively impacted by problem gambling behavior.

OPG provides training related to the treatment of gambling disorder for counselors throughout the state. OPGs prevention program is comprised of a helpline, training and technical assistance, public awareness campaigns and research.

If you or someone you love is affected by gambling disorder, there is no-cost, confidential help available.

Click the banner below for moreinformation andresources.

Excerpt from:

Office of Problem Gambling

Gambling Control Division – GCD – Montana Department of …

Through the Gambling Control Division, the Department of Justice regulates all forms of gambling in Montana, except for the Montana Lottery and horse racing. The legislature has charged the Division with maintaining a uniform regulatory climate that is fair and free of corrupt influences. The division is also responsible for collecting gambling revenue for state and local governments. Under Montana law, businesses must have a liquor license before they can conduct certain gambling activities, i.e., live card games, sports tab games, and video gambling machines. The Division also serves as a point of contact for many liquor licensees and applicants.

Montana law mandates strict regulation. Division staff seek to balance this requirement with providing responsive service to the businesses and citizens we regulate.

March is Problem Gambling Awareness Month! Look for our coasters, visit MT Council on Problem Gamblingand help us build awareness of problem gambling across the state.

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Gambling Control Division – GCD – Montana Department of …

How Are Gambling Winnings Taxed? | The TurboTax Blog

Most people dont think about taxes on their way to a race track or casino,but what might seem like nothing more than the chance to win some extra moneyactually carries significant tax implications. As is often the case, federal and state governments single out casino winnings for unique taxes of their own. Here is what you need to know about reporting gambling winnings:

Gamblers are lucky in that casino taxes are not progressive like income taxes are. That is, you will owe the same percentage to the IRS on a $100,000 jackpot as a $10,000 one. Yet, its important to know the thresholds that require reporting. Winnings in the following amounts must be reported:

All of these require giving the payer your Social Security number, as well as filling out IRS Form W2-G to report the full amount won. In most cases, the casino will take 25 percent off your winnings for the IRS before even paying you.

Not all gambling winnings in the amounts above are subject to IRS Form W2-G. W2-G forms are not required for winnings from table games such as blackjack, craps, baccarat, and roulette, regardless of the amount.Note that this does not mean you are exempt from paying taxes or reporting the winnings. Any and all gambling winnings must be reported to the IRS. It only means that you do not have to fill out Form W2-G for these particular table-based games.

Even if you do not win as much as the amounts above, you are still legally obligated to report. You also need to report any awards or prize money you won during the year in question. Yes, even if you only win $10, you still technically have to report it (even if the casino didnt). Gambling income plus your job income (and any other income) equals your total income.

Fortunately, you do not necessarily have to pay taxes on all your winnings. Instead, if you itemize, you can claim your losses up to the amount of your winnings.

In addition to federal taxes payable to the IRS, many state governments tax gambling income as well. Each state has their own unique formulas and rules for gambling income, and some levy no gambling taxes at all. Others charge a flat percentage, while still others ramp up the percentage owed depending on how much you won.

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How Are Gambling Winnings Taxed? | The TurboTax Blog

Gambling – definition of gambling by The Free Dictionary

When a farmer once got into the habit of going to Cutter, it was like gambling or the lottery; in an hour of discouragement he went back.Or a gambling hell,” said his brother reflectively.That was another thing, the men said–all the saloon-keepers had to be “Indians,” and to put up on demand, otherwise they could not do business on Sundays, nor have any gambling at all.The priests opposed both my fire and life in- surance, on the ground that it was an insolent attempt to hinder the decrees of God; and if you pointed out that they did not hinder the decrees in the least, but only modified the hard consequences of them if you took out policies and had luck, they retorted that that was gambling against the decrees of God, and was just as bad.He brought back one or two new habits with him, one of which he rather openly practiced–tippling–but concealed another, which was gambling.He was a doctor in the neighbourhood when he married her, and a man, I surmised, of some parts and promise, but, moving to town, he had fallen into loose ways, taken to drinking and gambling, and had finally deserted her for another woman–at the very moment when their first child was born.Your mother’s eyes are bad again; and your brother Berkeley has been gambling, and seems to think I ought to pay his debts for him.Your worship must know that this gentleman has just now won more than a thousand reals in that gambling house opposite, and God knows how.This young man was the nephew of one of the Nob Hill magnates, who run the San Francisco Stock Exchange, much as more humble adventurers, in the corner of some public park at home, may be seen to perform the simple artifice of pea and thimble: for their own profit, that is to say, and the discouragement of public gambling.In fact, I have no intention of going there again, since every one is for gambling, and for nothing but gambling.The only excesses indulged in by this temperate and exemplary people, appear to be gambling and horseracing.I asked, being in an idle mood, because, if an obvious ship’s officer, I was not, as a matter of fact, down at the docks to “look for a berth,” an occupation as engrossing as gambling, and as little favourable to the free exchange of ideas, besides being destructive of the kindly temper needed for casual intercourse with one’s fellow-creatures.

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Gambling – definition of gambling by The Free Dictionary

OnlineGambling.com > #1 Online Gambling Sites Guide 2018

Gamble Anywhere Using Your Mobile

Mobile gambling has become one of the most exciting ways to gamble around, giving you the power to have a spin at a slot machine, or play a hand of poker, wherever you happen to be. Most online casinos and other gambling sites are now offering a mobile version of their sites to their players, and many are also coming up with innovative and intuitive apps. These applications enhance the playing experience on the smartphone even further.

But how can you find great mobile casinos, poker rooms and sportsbooks? The answer is simple: take a look through the reviews weve compiled of each one. Well let you know just how good the apps and mobile sites are, plus well also tell you about the selection of mobile games offered by a site, as well as the range of bonuses they have for mobile players. Once youve finished reading, you should have no problem selecting the best mobile gambling site for your own needs.

Our editorial team are constantly seeking out the latest scoops and insider stories. Benefit from our network of industry contacts to keep you updated with the latest tournaments, exciting competitions and exclusive bonuses.

See the original post:

OnlineGambling.com > #1 Online Gambling Sites Guide 2018

GamCare – the UK’s national organisation for gambling …

Is problem gambling affecting you, or those close to you?

GamCare is the leading national provider of information, advice, support and free counselling for the prevention and treatment of problem gambling. Our expert services are confidential andnon-judgemental.

We apologise for any inconvenince, however our Chatrooms are temporarily unable to run due to a fault with our software.

GamCare offers free, impartial and confidential advice and support about a gambling problem. Our advisers are available to talk from 8am to midnight every day of the year. Whether you are struggling with the effects of gambling issues of your own, or of someone close to you, we are here for you.

One of the most common results of a gambling problem is debt, and yet debt is also used by many gamblers as a reason for their continued gambling. It plays a complex and contradictory role at the heart of the gambling experience for many of the people that we speak to. If debt has become a problem for you as a result of your gambling.

GamCare counselling provides a safe, confidential way for you to talk about your situation, either in person or online. It offers an opportunity to explore the causes of your gambling behaviour and the effects gambling has on your life, and helps put it in context of your life experiences.

Go here to see the original:

GamCare – the UK’s national organisation for gambling …

Office of Problem Gambling

The Office of Problem Gambling (OPG) is dedicated to promoting awareness and prevention of gambling disorder and making treatment available to those negatively impacted by problem gambling behavior.

OPG provides training related to the treatment of gambling disorder for counselors throughout the state. OPGs prevention program is comprised of a helpline, training and technical assistance, public awareness campaigns and research.

See the article here:

Office of Problem Gambling

OnlineGambling.com > #1 Online Gambling Sites Guide 2018

Gamble Anywhere Using Your Mobile

Mobile gambling has become one of the most exciting ways to gamble around, giving you the power to have a spin at a slot machine, or play a hand of poker, wherever you happen to be. Most online casinos and other gambling sites are now offering a mobile version of their sites to their players, and many are also coming up with innovative and intuitive apps. These applications enhance the playing experience on the smartphone even further.

But how can you find great mobile casinos, poker rooms and sportsbooks? The answer is simple: take a look through the reviews weve compiled of each one. Well let you know just how good the apps and mobile sites are, plus well also tell you about the selection of mobile games offered by a site, as well as the range of bonuses they have for mobile players. Once youve finished reading, you should have no problem selecting the best mobile gambling site for your own needs.

Our editorial team are constantly seeking out the latest scoops and insider stories. Benefit from our network of industry contacts to keep you updated with the latest tournaments, exciting competitions and exclusive bonuses.

Read the original post:

OnlineGambling.com > #1 Online Gambling Sites Guide 2018

Las Vegas Casinos & Gambling | Vegas.com

Gambling’s what this place is known for. If you come to town and don’t pull an arm, hold some cards or toss some dice, we have to question if you really lived it up at all. And it’s OK. If you’re new to the scene, we have some tips for you.

Bet you didn’t know this. When things got ugly during the Great Depression (mining was petering out, and people were leaving the state like barflies when the lights flicker), Nevada had a brilliant idea. They said: “Dudes. Stay. As of now gambling is legal. And guess what? So is divorce!” With two gems like that, who needed silver? Suddenly and forever after, Las Vegas was the promised land. Still today, you can gamble to your heart’s content. And get divorced (and married) whenever you want too.

Follow this link:

Las Vegas Casinos & Gambling | Vegas.com

800-Gambler – Gambling Problem Hotline

If you or a loved one struggle with a gambling problem, there is hope. Whether you cannot seem to stop casino gambling in Atlantic City or betting on fantasy sports from the comfort of your home, treatment and support are readily available. The Council on Compulsive Gambling of New Jersey (CCGNJ) has helped countless people recover from disordered gambling since its inception. By facilitating access to various programs, services, and other resources, we work to educate the public about this disorder and provide aid to anyone who needs it.

Our free hotline 800-GAMBLER gives disordered gamblers and their loved ones confidential assistance 24/7. If you call or text this number, know that you will be treated with compassion and understanding. Reaching out for help signifies bravery and strength not weakness. If you or a loved one struggle with problem gambling, we offer support, treatment, and hope.

When someone contacts our hotline, we present them with several treatment and rehabilitation options that NJ residents can easily access.

Gamblers Anonymous

Our hotline can help people find local Gamblers Anonymous meetings near Freehold, Monmouth, Marlboro Township, or anywhere else in the state. Gamblers Anonymous meetings in New Jersey allow people to develop a supportive network of peers that have all committed to recovery from disordered gambling. Through this 12-step program, problem gamblers share strategies on how to resist their urges while celebrating each others success. Participating in Gamblers Anonymous greatly improves the chance of recovery.

In most cases, a disordered gamblers closest family members experience some emotional turmoil or trauma, as well. These people are also welcome to attend Gam-Anon meetings. By doing so, they often gain an enhanced understanding of disordered gambling and, in the process, become a better ally in their loved ones recovery.

Treatment Providers and In-Patient Facilities

Through our hotline, disordered gamblers can also find professional counselors that can help them stop their problematic behavior. Through therapy, people with this disorder can better understand the underlying factors or motivations that may have led them to behavior like excessive sports gambling in Atlantic City in the first place. Cognitive behavioral therapy techniques also help these individuals become more mindful of their thought patterns, giving them more control over their own behavior.

Sometimes, disordered gamblers may feel that they need a serious intervention. In those cases, in-patient facilities can give them the intensive treatment that they require. The patient would live at the facility as they receive structured care and therapy.

Text or Chat Options

Anyone who wants to learn how to stop gambling but would rather not call the hotline can text 800-GAMBLER or chat with a representative online, as well. Whatever your unique needs might be, we seek to accommodate you we only wish to provide help for gambling disorders (sometimes referred to as gambling addiction) in New Jersey to anyone who needs it.

As a private, non-profit organization 501(c)(3), we have dedicated ourselves to helping problem gamblers all throughout NJ. We focus on educating the general public, training professionals throughout the state, referring disordered gamblers and their families to appropriate treatment options, and advocating for increased services to help combat the rate of disordered gambling in the state.

The Council on Compulsive Gambling of New Jersey also advises the New Jersey Department of Human Services and the Division of Mental Health and Addiction Services, provides the executive and legislative branches of the state government with relevant data concerning disordered gambling, and offers assistance to private or public agencies in the state per request. The CCGNJ neither opposes nor endorses legalized gambling; however, we may take positions on various issues when they have an impact on the people we are trying to help.

Whether you live in Atlantic City, Freehold, Marlboro Township, Monmouth, or anywhere else in the state, we can help you recover from disordered gambling. Call or text our hotline, 800-GAMBLER, today.

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800-Gambler – Gambling Problem Hotline

Gambling – definition of gambling by The Free Dictionary

When a farmer once got into the habit of going to Cutter, it was like gambling or the lottery; in an hour of discouragement he went back.Or a gambling hell,” said his brother reflectively.That was another thing, the men said–all the saloon-keepers had to be “Indians,” and to put up on demand, otherwise they could not do business on Sundays, nor have any gambling at all.The priests opposed both my fire and life in- surance, on the ground that it was an insolent attempt to hinder the decrees of God; and if you pointed out that they did not hinder the decrees in the least, but only modified the hard consequences of them if you took out policies and had luck, they retorted that that was gambling against the decrees of God, and was just as bad.He brought back one or two new habits with him, one of which he rather openly practiced–tippling–but concealed another, which was gambling.He was a doctor in the neighbourhood when he married her, and a man, I surmised, of some parts and promise, but, moving to town, he had fallen into loose ways, taken to drinking and gambling, and had finally deserted her for another woman–at the very moment when their first child was born.Your mother’s eyes are bad again; and your brother Berkeley has been gambling, and seems to think I ought to pay his debts for him.Your worship must know that this gentleman has just now won more than a thousand reals in that gambling house opposite, and God knows how.This young man was the nephew of one of the Nob Hill magnates, who run the San Francisco Stock Exchange, much as more humble adventurers, in the corner of some public park at home, may be seen to perform the simple artifice of pea and thimble: for their own profit, that is to say, and the discouragement of public gambling.In fact, I have no intention of going there again, since every one is for gambling, and for nothing but gambling.The only excesses indulged in by this temperate and exemplary people, appear to be gambling and horseracing.I asked, being in an idle mood, because, if an obvious ship’s officer, I was not, as a matter of fact, down at the docks to “look for a berth,” an occupation as engrossing as gambling, and as little favourable to the free exchange of ideas, besides being destructive of the kindly temper needed for casual intercourse with one’s fellow-creatures.

Read more:

Gambling – definition of gambling by The Free Dictionary

Gambling | Britannica.com

Gambling, the betting or staking of something of value, with consciousness of risk and hope of gain, on the outcome of a game, a contest, or an uncertain event whose result may be determined by chance or accident or have an unexpected result by reason of the bettors miscalculation.

The outcomes of gambling games may be determined by chance alone, as in the purely random activity of a tossed pair of dice or of the ball on a roulette wheel, or by physical skill, training, or prowess in athletic contests, or by a combination of strategy and chance. The rules by which gambling games are played sometimes serve to confuse the relationship between the components of the game, which depend on skill and chance, so that some players may be able to manipulate the game to serve their own interests. Thus, knowledge of the game is useful for playing poker or betting on horse racing but is of very little use for purchasing lottery tickets or playing slot machines.

A gambler may participate in the game itself while betting on its outcome (card games, craps), or he may be prevented from any active participation in an event in which he has a stake (professional athletics, lotteries). Some games are dull or nearly meaningless without the accompanying betting activity and are rarely played unless wagering occurs (coin tossing, poker, dice games, lotteries). In other games betting is not intrinsically part of the game, and the association is merely conventional and not necessary to the performance of the game itself (horse racing, football pools). Commercial establishments such as casinos and racetracks may organize gambling when a portion of the money wagered by patrons can be easily acquired by participation as a favoured party in the game, by rental of space, or by withdrawing a portion of the betting pool. Some activities of very large scale (horse racing, lotteries) usually require commercial and professional organizations to present and maintain them efficiently.

A rough estimate of the amount of money legally wagered annually in the world is about $10 trillion (illegal gambling may exceed even this figure). In terms of total turnover, lotteries are the leading form of gambling worldwide. State-licensed or state-operated lotteries expanded rapidly in Europe and the United States during the late 20th century and are widely distributed throughout most of the world. Organized football (soccer) pools can be found in nearly all European countries, several South American countries, Australia, and a few African and Asian countries. Most of these countries also offer either state-organized or state-licensed wagering on other sporting events.

Betting on horse racing is a leading form of gambling in English-speaking countries and in France. It also exists in many other countries. Wherever horse racing is popular, it has usually become a major business, with its own newspapers and other periodicals, extensive statistical services, self-styled experts who sell advice on how to bet, and sophisticated communication networks that furnish information to betting centres, bookmakers and their employees, and workers involved with the care and breeding of horses. The same is true, to a smaller extent, of dog racing. The emergence of satellite broadcasting technology has led to the creation of so-called off-track betting facilities, in which bettors watch live telecasts at locations away from the racetrack.

Casinos or gambling houses have existed at least since the 17th century. In the 20th century they became commonplace and assumed almost a uniform character throughout the world. In Europe and South America they are permitted at many or most holiday resorts but not always in cities. In the United States casinos were for many years legal only in Nevada and New Jersey and, by special license, in Puerto Rico, but most other states now allow casino gambling, and betting facilities operate clandestinely throughout the country, often through corruption of political authorities. Roulette is one of the principal gambling games in casinos throughout France and Monaco and is popular throughout the world. Craps is the principal dice game at most American casinos. Slot and video poker machines are a mainstay of casinos in the United States and Europe and also are found in thousands of private clubs, restaurants, and other establishments; they are also common in Australia. Among the card games played at casinos, baccarat, in its popular form chemin de fer, has remained a principal gambling game in Great Britain and in the continental casinos most often patronized by the English at Deauville, Biarritz, and the Riviera resorts. Faro, at one time the principal gambling game in the United States, has become obsolete. Blackjack is the principal card game in American casinos. The French card game trente et quarante (or rouge et noir) is played at Monte-Carlo and a few other continental casinos. Many other games may also be found in some casinosfor example, sic bo, fan-tan, and pai-gow poker in Asia and local games such as boule, banca francesa, and kalooki in Europe.

At the start of the 21st century, poker exploded in popularity, principally through the high visibility of poker tournaments broadcast on television and the proliferation of Internet playing venues. Another growing form of Internet gambling is the so-called betting exchangesInternet Web sites on which players make wagers with one another, with the Web site taking a small cut of each wager in exchange for organizing and handling the transaction.

In a wide sense of the word, stock markets may also be considered a form of gambling, albeit one in which skill and knowledge on the part of the bettors play a considerable part. This also goes for insurance; paying the premium on ones life insurance is, in effect, a bet that one will die within a specified time. If one wins (dies), the win is paid out to ones relatives, and if one loses (survives the specified time), the wager (premium) is kept by the insurance company, which acts as a bookmaker and sets the odds (payout ratios) according to actuarial data. These two forms of gambling are considered beneficial to society, the former acquiring venture capital and the latter spreading statistical risks.

Events or outcomes that are equally probable have an equal chance of occurring in each instance. In games of pure chance, each instance is a completely independent one; that is, each play has the same probability as each of the others of producing a given outcome. Probability statements apply in practice to a long series of events but not to individual ones. The law of large numbers is an expression of the fact that the ratios predicted by probability statements are increasingly accurate as the number of events increases, but the absolute number of outcomes of a particular type departs from expectation with increasing frequency as the number of repetitions increases. It is the ratios that are accurately predictable, not the individual events or precise totals.

The probability of a favourable outcome among all possibilities can be expressed: probability (p) equals the total number of favourable outcomes (f) divided by the total number of possibilities (t), or p = f/t. But this holds only in situations governed by chance alone. In a game of tossing two dice, for example, the total number of possible outcomes is 36 (each of six sides of one die combined with each of six sides of the other), and the number of ways to make, say, a seven is six (made by throwing 1 and 6, 2 and 5, 3 and 4, 4 and 3, 5 and 2, or 6 and 1); therefore, the probability of throwing a seven is 6/36, or 1/6.

In most gambling games it is customary to express the idea of probability in terms of odds against winning. This is simply the ratio of the unfavourable possibilities to the favourable ones. Because the probability of throwing a seven is 1/6, on average one throw in six would be favourable and five would not; the odds against throwing a seven are therefore 5 to 1. The probability of getting heads in a toss of a coin is 1/2; the odds are 1 to 1, called even. Care must be used in interpreting the phrase on average, which applies most accurately to a large number of cases and is not useful in individual instances. A common gamblers fallacy, called the doctrine of the maturity of the chances (or the Monte-Carlo fallacy), falsely assumes that each play in a game of chance is dependent on the others and that a series of outcomes of one sort should be balanced in the short run by the other possibilities. A number of systems have been invented by gamblers largely on the basis of this fallacy; casino operators are happy to encourage the use of such systems and to exploit any gamblers neglect of the strict rules of probability and independent plays. An interesting example of a game where each play is dependent on previous plays, however, is blackjack, where cards already dealt from the dealing shoe affect the composition of the remaining cards; for example, if all of the aces (worth 1 or 11 points) have been dealt, it is no longer possible to achieve a natural (a 21 with two cards). This fact forms the basis for some systems where it is possible to overcome the house advantage.

In some games an advantage may go to the dealer, the banker (the individual who collects and redistributes the stakes), or some other participant. Therefore, not all players have equal chances to win or equal payoffs. This inequality may be corrected by rotating the players among the positions in the game. Commercial gambling operators, however, usually make their profits by regularly occupying an advantaged position as the dealer, or they may charge money for the opportunity to play or subtract a proportion of money from the wagers on each play. In the dice game of crapswhich is among the major casino games offering the gambler the most favourable oddsthe casino returns to winners from 3/5 of 1 percent to 27 percent less than the fair odds, depending on the type of bet made. Depending on the bet, the house advantage (vigorish) for roulette in American casinos varies from about 5.26 to 7.89 percent, and in European casinos it varies from 1.35 to 2.7 percent. The house must always win in the long run. Some casinos also add rules that enhance their profits, especially rules that limit the amounts that may be staked under certain circumstances.

Many gambling games include elements of physical skill or strategy as well as of chance. The game of poker, like most other card games, is a mixture of chance and strategy that also involves a considerable amount of psychology. Betting on horse racing or athletic contests involves the assessment of a contestants physical capacity and the use of other evaluative skills. In order to ensure that chance is allowed to play a major role in determining the outcomes of such games, weights, handicaps, or other correctives may be introduced in certain cases to give the contestants approximately equal opportunities to win, and adjustments may be made in the payoffs so that the probabilities of success and the magnitudes of the payoffs are put in inverse proportion to each other. Pari-mutuel pools in horse-race betting, for example, reflect the chances of various horses to win as anticipated by the players. The individual payoffs are large for those bettors whose winning horses are backed by relatively few bettors and small if the winners are backed by a relatively large proportion of the bettors; the more popular the choice, the lower the individual payoff. The same holds true for betting with bookmakers on athletic contests (illegal in most of the United States but legal in England). Bookmakers ordinarily accept bets on the outcome of what is regarded as an uneven match by requiring the side more likely to win to score more than a simple majority of points; this procedure is known as setting a point spread. In a game of American or Canadian football, for example, the more highly regarded team would have to win by, say, more than 10 points to yield an even payoff to its backers.

Unhappily, these procedures for maintaining the influence of chance can be interfered with; cheating is possible and reasonably easy in most gambling games. Much of the stigma attached to gambling has resulted from the dishonesty of some of its promoters and players, and a large proportion of modern gambling legislation is written to control cheating. More laws have been oriented to efforts by governments to derive tax revenues from gambling than to control cheating, however.

Gambling is one of mankinds oldest activities, as evidenced by writings and equipment found in tombs and other places. It was regulated, which as a rule meant severely curtailed, in the laws of ancient China and Rome as well as in the Jewish Talmud and by Islam and Buddhism, and in ancient Egypt inveterate gamblers could be sentenced to forced labour in the quarries. The origin of gambling is considered to be divinatory: by casting marked sticks and other objects and interpreting the outcome, man sought knowledge of the future and the intentions of the gods. From this it was a very short step to betting on the outcome of the throws. The Bible contains many references to the casting of lots to divide property. One well-known instance is the casting of lots by Roman guards (which in all likelihood meant that they threw knucklebones) for the garment of Jesus during the Crucifixion. This is mentioned in all four of the Gospels and has been used for centuries as a warning example by antigambling crusaders. However, in ancient times casting lots was not considered to be gambling in the modern sense but instead was connected with inevitable destiny, or fate. Anthropologists have also pointed to the fact that gambling is more prevalent in societies where there is a widespread belief in gods and spirits whose benevolence may be sought. The casting of lots, not infrequently dice, has been used in many cultures to dispense justice and point out criminals at trialsin Sweden as late as 1803. The Greek word for justice, dike, comes from a word that means to throw, in the sense of throwing dice.

European history is riddled with edicts, decrees, and encyclicals banning and condemning gambling, which indirectly testify to its popularity in all strata of society. Organized gambling on a larger scale and sanctioned by governments and other authorities in order to raise money began in the 15th century with lotteriesand centuries earlier in China with keno. With the advent of legal gambling houses in the 17th century, mathematicians began to take a serious interest in games with randomizing equipment (such as dice and cards), out of which grew the field of probability theory.

Apart from forerunners in ancient Rome and Greece, organized sanctioned sports betting dates back to the late 18th century. About that time there began a gradual, albeit irregular, shift in the official attitude toward gambling, from considering it a sin to considering it a vice and a human weakness and, finally, to seeing it as a mostly harmless and even entertaining activity. Additionally, the Internet has made many forms of gambling accessible on an unheard-of scale. By the beginning of the 21st century, approximately four out of five people in Western nations gambled at least occasionally. The swelling number of gamblers in the 20th century highlighted the personal and social problem of pathological gambling, in which individuals are unable to control or limit their gambling. During the 1980s and 90s, pathological gambling was recognized by medical authorities in several countries as a cognitive disorder that afflicts slightly more than 1 percent of the population, and various treatment and therapy programs were developed to deal with the problem.

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Gambling | Britannica.com


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