12345...10...


Ron Paul

Everyone is surely aware by now that all of our digital communications are being sent to government databases for storage. If our American ancestors could see it, they wouldnt believe their eyes. We still, however, have the ability to use

Continue reading

Russiagate has jumped the shark. So says Robert Parry, investigative journalist and founder of ConsortiumNews.com, Parry joins todays Liberty Report to discuss the current state of the mainstream media and the ongoing allegations of Russian interference in American political and

Continue reading

President Trump vehemently denied an NBC report that he called for a ten-fold increase in US nuclear weapons at a meeting this summer. Calling it fake news, the president reportedly threatened NBCs broadcast license. Is this really fake news? Or

Continue reading

The CIA has been forced to declassify nearly 300 documents about a secret torture site in Afghanistan where CIA psychologists devised some of the most cruel and inhuman ways of torturing. Some were killed. The psychologists made millions of dollars.

Continue reading

The White House has rolled out the Presidents 70 point plan to reform the immigration system. Will building a wall, hiring more officers and prosecutors, mandating E-Verify, and other enforcement measures help solve the problem? Or is there a better

Continue reading

More here:

Ron Paul

Ron Paul – Wikipedia

Ron PaulMember of the U.S. House of Representativesfrom Texas’s 14th districtIn officeJanuary 3, 1997 January 3, 2013Preceded byGreg LaughlinSucceeded byRandy WeberMember of the U.S. House of Representativesfrom Texas’s 22nd districtIn officeJanuary 3, 1979 January 3, 1985Preceded byBob GammageSucceeded byTom DeLayIn officeApril 3, 1976 January 3, 1977Preceded byBob CaseySucceeded byBob GammagePersonal detailsBornRonald Ernest Paul (1935-08-20) August 20, 1935 (age83)Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.Political partyLibertarian (19871996, 2015present)Other politicalaffiliationsRepublican (Before 1987, 19962015)Spouse(s)Children5, including RandEducationGettysburg College (B.S.)Duke University (M.D.)SignatureWebsiteOfficial websiteMilitary serviceAllegianceUnited StatesService/branchUnited States Air ForceYears of service1963196519651968Rank Captain[1]UnitAir National Guard Texas Air National Guard

Ronald Ernest Paul (born August 20, 1935) is an American author, physician, and retired politician who served as the U.S. Representative for Texas’s 22nd congressional district from 1976 to 1977 and again from 1979 to 1985, and for Texas’s 14th congressional district from 1997 to 2013. On three occasions, he sought the presidency of the United States: as the Libertarian Party nominee in 1988 and as a candidate in the Republican primaries of 2008 and 2012. Paul is a critic of the federal government’s fiscal policies, especially the existence of the Federal Reserve and the tax policy, as well as the militaryindustrial complex, and the War on Drugs. He has also been a vocal critic of mass surveillance policies such as the USA PATRIOT Act and the NSA surveillance programs. He was the first chairman of the conservative PAC Citizens for a Sound Economy[2] and has been characterized as the “intellectual godfather” of the Tea Party movement.[3][4]

Paul served as a flight surgeon in the U.S. Air Force from 1963 to 1968, and worked as an obstetrician-gynecologist from the 1960s to the 1980s.[5] He became the first Representative in history to serve concurrently with a son or daughter in the Senate when his son, Rand Paul, was elected to the U.S. Senate from Kentucky in 2010.[6] Paul is a Senior Fellow of the Mises Institute,[7] and has published a number of books and promoted the ideas of economists of the Austrian School such as Murray Rothbard and Ludwig von Mises during his political campaigns.

On July 12, 2011, Paul announced that he would forgo seeking another term in Congress in order to focus on his presidential bid.[8] On May 14, 2012, Paul announced that he would not be competing in any other presidential primaries but that he would still compete for delegates in states where the primary elections have already been held.[9] At the 2012 Republican National Convention, Paul received 190 delegate votes. In January 2013, Paul retired from Congress but still remains active on college campuses, giving speeches promoting his libertarian vision.[10][11] Paul received one electoral vote from a Texas faithless elector in the 2016 presidential election, making him the oldest person to receive an electoral vote, as well as the second registered Libertarian presidential candidate in history to receive an Electoral College vote after John Hospers.

Ronald Ernest Paul was born on August 20, 1935, in Pittsburgh,[12] the son of Howard Caspar Paul (19041997), who ran a small dairy company, and Margaret Paul (ne Dumont; 19082001). His paternal grandfather emigrated from Germany,[13] and his paternal grandmother, a devout Christian, was a first-generation German American.[14]

As a junior at suburban Dormont High School, he was the 200 meter dash state champion.[15] Paul went to Gettysburg College, where he was a member of the Lambda Chi Alpha fraternity.[16] He graduated with a B.S. degree in Biology in 1957.[15]

Paul earned a Doctor of Medicine degree from Duke University’s School of Medicine in 1961, and completed his medical internship at the Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit and his residency in obstetrics and gynecology at Magee-Womens Hospital in Pittsburgh.[17][18] Paul served as a flight surgeon in the United States Air Force from 1963 to 1965 and then in the United States Air National Guard from 1965 to 1968. Paul and his wife then relocated to Texas, where he began a private practice in obstetrics and gynecology.[18]

While a medical resident in the 1960s, Paul was influenced by Friedrich Hayek’s The Road to Serfdom, which caused him to read other publications by Ludwig von Mises and Ayn Rand. He came to know economists Hans Sennholz and Murray Rothbard well, and credits his interest in the study of economics to them.[19]

When President Richard Nixon “closed the gold window” by ending American participation in the Bretton Woods System, thus ending the U.S. dollar’s loose association with gold[19] on August 15, 1971, Paul decided to enter politics[20] and became a Republican candidate for the United States Congress.[21]

In 1974, incumbent Robert R. Casey defeated him for the 22nd district.[18] President Gerald Ford later appointed Casey to direct the Federal Maritime Commission, and Paul won an April 1976 special election to the vacant office after a runoff.[22][23][24] Paul lost the next regular election to Democrat Robert Gammage by fewer than 300votes (0.2%), but defeated Gammage in a 1978 rematch, and was reelected in 1980 and 1982.[25][26][27] Gammage underestimated Paul’s popularity among local mothers: “I had real difficulty down in Brazoria County, where he practiced, because he’d delivered half the babies in the county. There were only two obstetricians in the county, and the other one was his partner.”[28]

Paul served in Congress three different periods: first from 1976 to 1977, after he won a special election, then from 1979 to 1985, and finally from 1997 to 2013.[29]

In his early years, Paul served on the House Banking Committee, where he blamed the Federal Reserve for inflation and spoke against the banking mismanagement that resulted in the savings and loan crisis.[13][30] Paul argued for a return to the gold standard maintained by the US from 18731933, and with Senator Jesse Helms convinced the Congress to study the issue.[19] He spoke against the reinstatement of registration for the military draft in 1980, in opposition to President Jimmy Carter and the majority of his fellow Republican members of Congress.[31]

During his first term, Paul founded the Foundation for Rational Economics and Education (FREE), a non-profit think tank dedicated to promoting principles of limited government and free-market economics.[32][33] In 1984, Paul became the first chairman of the Citizens for a Sound Economy (CSE),[2] a conservative political group founded by Charles and David Koch “to fight for less government, lower taxes, and less regulation.” CSE started a Tea Party protest against high taxes in 2002.[34] In 2004, Citizens for a Sound Economy split into two new organizations, with Citizens for a Sound Economy being renamed as FreedomWorks, and Citizens for a Sound Economy Foundation becoming Americans for Prosperity. The two organizations would become key players in the Tea Party movement from 2009 onward.

Paul proposed term-limit legislation multiple times, while himself serving four terms in the House of Representatives.[31] In 1984, he decided to retire from the House in order to run for the U.S. Senate, complaining in his House farewell address that “Special interests have replaced the concern that the Founders had for general welfare… It’s difficult for one who loves true liberty and utterly detests the power of the state to come to Washington for a period of time and not leave a true cynic.”[35][36] Paul lost the Republican primary to Phil Gramm, who had switched parties the previous year from Democrat to Republican. Another candidate of the senatorial primary was Henry Grover, a conservative former state legislator who had lost the 1972 gubernatorial general election to the Democrat Dolph Briscoe, Jr.[37][38]

On Paul’s departure from the House, his seat was assumed by former state representative Tom DeLay, who would later become House Majority Leader.[39]

Following the loss of the 1984 senate race, Paul returned to his obstetrics practice and took part in a number of other business ventures.[13][40] Along with his former congressional chief of staff, Lew Rockwell, Paul founded a for-profit enterprise, Ron Paul & Associates, Inc. (RP&A) in 1984, with Paul serving as president, Rockwell as vice president, Paul’s wife Carol as secretary, and daughter Lori Pyeatt as treasurer.The company published a variety of political and investment-oriented newsletters, including Ron Paul Freedom Report and Ron Paul Survival Report,[41] and by 1993 was generating revenues in excess of $900,000.[42]

Paul also co-owned a mail-order coin dealership, Ron Paul Coins, for twelve years with Burt Blumert, who continued to operate the dealership after Paul resumed office in 1996.[43][44] Paul spoke multiple times at the American Numismatic Association’s 1988 convention.[43] He worked with his Foundation for Rational Economics and Education on such projects as establishing the National Endowment for Liberty, producing the At Issue public policy series that was broadcast on the Discovery Channel and CNBC,[32] and continuing publication of newsletters.

Paul left the Republican Party in 1987 and launched a bid for the presidency running on the Libertarian Party ticket. His candidacy was seen as problematic because of the party’s long support for freedom of choice on abortions. Native American activist Russell Means, Paul’s rival for the nomination, emphasized that he was pro-choice on the abortion issue.[45] In a forum held prior to the nomination, Means dismissed the greater funds raised by Paul’s campaign, commenting that Means was receiving “10 times more press” than the former Congressman and was therefore “100 times more effective”.[46]

In the 1988 presidential election, Paul was on the ballot in 46 states,[47] scoring third in the popular vote with 432,179votes (0.5%).[48] Paul was kept off the ballot in Missouri, due to what the St. Louis Post-Dispatch termed a “technicality,” and received votes there only when written in,[49] just as he did in North Carolina.[50]

According to Paul, his presidential campaign was about more than obtaining office; he sought to promote his libertarian ideas, often to school and university groups regardless of vote eligibility. He said, “We’re just as interested in the future generation as this election. These kids will vote eventually, and maybe, just maybe, they’ll go home and talk to their parents.”[47]

Paul considered campaigning for president in 1992,[51] but instead chose to endorse Pat Buchanan that year, and served as an adviser to Buchanan’s Republican presidential primary campaign against incumbent President George H. W. Bush.[52]

During 1996, Paul was re-elected to Congress after a difficult campaign. The Republican National Committee endorsed incumbent Greg Laughlin in the primary; Paul won with assistance from baseball pitcher, constituent, and friend Nolan Ryan, tax activist and publisher Steve Forbes[13] and conservative commentator Pat Buchanan (the latter two of whom had had presidential campaigns that year). Paul narrowly defeated Democratic attorney Charles “Lefty” Morris in the fall election, despite Morris’ criticism over controversial statements in several newsletters that Paul published.

In 1998 and 2000, Paul defeated Loy Sneary, a Democratic Bay City, Texas, rice farmer and former Matagorda County judge.[20]In the 2008 Republican primary,[53] he defeated Friendswood city councilman Chris Peden,[54] with over 70 percent of the vote[55] and ran unopposed in the general election.[56] In the 2010Republican primary, Paul defeated three opponents with 80percent of the vote.[57]

On July 12, 2011, Paul announced that he would not seek re-election to the House in order to pursue the 2012 presidential election.[58][59]

Of the 620 bills that Paul had sponsored through December 2011, over a period of more than 22 years in Congress, only one had been signed into law a lifetime success rate of less than 0.3%.[60] The sole measure authored by Paul that was ultimately enacted allowed for a federal customhouse to be sold to a local historic preservation society (H.R. 2121 in 2009).[60]

By amending other legislation, he has helped prohibit funding for national identification numbers, funding for federal teacher certification,[20] International Criminal Court jurisdiction over the U.S. military, American participation with any U.N. global tax, and surveillance of peaceful First Amendment activities by citizens.[61]

Paul was honorary chairman of, and is a member of the Republican Liberty Caucus, a political action committee that describes its goal as electing “liberty-minded, limited-government individuals”.[62] He is an initiating member of the Congressional Rural Caucus, which deals with agricultural and rural issues, and the 140-member Congressional Wildlife Refuge Caucus.[63]

Paul served on the following committees and subcommittees.[64]

With the election of the 112th Congress, and a resulting GOP majority in the House, Paul became the chairman of the Subcommittee on Domestic Monetary Policy and Technology starting in January 2011.[65]

Paul’s congressional career ended on January 3, 2013 with the swearing in of the 113th Congress.

Paul formally declared his candidacy for the 2008 Republican nomination on March 12, 2007, on C-SPAN.[66] Few major politicians endorsed him, and his campaign was largely ignored by traditional media.[67] However, he attracted an intensely loyal grassroots following,[68] interacting through internet social media.[69][70][71] In May 2007, shortly after the first televised primary debates, the blogs search engine site Technorati.com listed Paul’s name as the term most frequently searched for;[69] and Paul’s campaign claimed that Paul had more YouTube channel subscribers than Barack Obama or any other candidate for president.[72] For a candidate who had had relatively low national name recognition prior to entering the race, Paul did surprisingly well in fundraising, taking in more money than any other Republican candidate in the fourth quarter of 2007, as the primary season headed into the Iowa caucuses.[73][74]

Despite benefiting from large numbers of campaign contributions from individual donors,[75] and the efforts of tech-savvy supporters determined to keep his name a frequent topic of discussion on the internet,[69] over the course of the campaign Paul was unable to translate the enthusiasm of his core supporters into large enough numbers of actual primary votes to unseat his rivals.

Paul came in 5th place in both the January 4 Iowa caucuses (10% of votes cast)[76] and the January 8 New Hampshire primary (8%).[77] With the exception of the Nevada caucuses January 19, where he came in 2nd (14%) behind Romney (51%), he did little better through the rest of January: Michigan 4th (6%), South Carolina 5th (4%), Florida 5th (3%). On SuperTuesday, February 5, he placed 4th in almost every state, generally taking in a mere 36% of the votes although he did better in the northern states of North Dakota (21%, 3rd place) and Montana (25%, 2nd place).[78][79]

By March, front-runner John McCain had secured enough pledged delegates to guarantee that he would win the nomination, and Romney and Huckabee had both formally withdrawn from the race. Paul, who had won no state primaries, knew that it was now mathematically impossible for him to win the nomination, as he had captured only 20[80] 40 pledged delegates compared to more than 1,191 for McCain, yet he refused to concede the race and said that it was unlikely that he would ultimately endorse McCain.[81][82][83] Over the next few weeks, Paul’s supporters clashed with establishment Republicans at several county and state party conventions over state party rules, the party platforms, and selection of delegates for the national convention.[84][85][86] In one of the more dramatic moments, Nevada’s state party leaders, outmaneuvered by Paul supporters at the state nominating convention, resorted to the highly unusual measure of prematurely and abruptly shutting down the convention before selecting national delegates, with a plan to reconvene at a later date.[87][88]

On June 12, 2008, Paul finally withdrew his bid for the Republican nomination. He later said that one of the reasons he did not run in the general election as a third-party candidate, after losing the primaries, was that, as a concession to gain ballot access in certain states, he had signed legally binding agreements to not run a third-party campaign if he lost the primary.[89] Some of the $4 million remaining campaign contributions was invested into the new political action and advocacy group called Ron Paul’s Campaign for Liberty.[90]

At a September 10, 2008, press conference, Paul announced his general support of four third-party candidates: Cynthia McKinney (Green Party); Bob Barr (Libertarian Party); Chuck Baldwin (Constitution Party); and Ralph Nader (independent). He said that each of them had pledged to adhere to a policy of balancing budgets, bringing the troops home, defending privacy and personal liberties, and investigating the Federal Reserve. Paul also said that under no circumstances would he be endorsing either of the two main parties’ candidates (McCain Republican Party, or Obama Democratic Party) because there were no real differences between them, and because neither of them, if elected, would seek to make the fundamental changes in governance that were necessary. He urged instead that, rather than contribute to the “charade” that the two-party election system had become, the voters support the third-party candidates as a protest vote, to force change in the election process.[91][92] Later that same day, Paul gave a televised interview with Nader saying much the same again.[93]

Two weeks later, “shocked and disappointed” that Bob Barr (the Libertarian nominee) had pulled out of attending the press conference at the last minute and had admonished Paul for remaining neutral and failing to say which specific candidate Paul would vote for in the general election, Paul released a statement saying that he had decided to endorse Chuck Baldwin, the Constitution Party candidate, for president.[94]

Paul withdrew from active campaigning in the last weeks of the primary election period. He received 42,426 votes, or 0.03% of the total cast, in the general election.[95]

Paul won several early straw polls for the 2012 Republican presidential nomination[96] and in late April 2011, he formed an official exploratory committee.[97][98] He participated in the first Republican presidential debate on May 5, 2011[99] and on May 13, 2011, Paul formally announced his candidacy in an interview on ABC’s Good Morning America.[100] He placed second in the 2011 Ames Straw Poll, missing first by 0.9%.[101]

In December 2011, with Paul’s increased support, the controversy over racist and homophobic statements in several Ron Paul newsletters in the 1980s and early 1990s once again gained media attention.[102] During this time Paul supporters asserted that he was continually ignored by the media despite his significant support, citing examples of where television news shows would fail to mention Paul in discussions of the Republican presidential hopefuls even when he was polling second.[103][104][105]

Ron Paul’s presidential campaign managers Jesse Benton, John Tate and Demetri Kesari were all found guilty of paying former Iowa State Senator Kent Sorenson $73,000 to switch his support from Rep. Michele Bachmann to Paul.[106] In court papers filed in August 2014, Sorenson said that he had been paid by both presidential campaigns for his endorsement and plead guilty to criminal charges stemming from the incident.[107]

Paul came in third in the Iowa Republican Caucus held on January 3, 2012. Out of a turnout of 121,503 votes, Paul took 26,036 (21%) of the certified votes. Rick Santorum and Mitt Romney finished in a virtual tie for first place with 25% each,[108] although Ron Paul had ultimately won Iowa at the Republican National Convention gathering 22 delegates to Mitt Romney’s 5. In the New Hampshire Primary held on January 10, 2012, Paul received 23% of the votes and came in second after Romney’s 39%.[109]

Paul’s results then declined, despite the withdrawal of candidates Michele Bachmann, Jon Huntsman and Rick Perry. He had fourth-place finishes in the next two primaries, on January 21 in South Carolina (with 13% of the vote)[110] and on January 31 in Florida (where he received 7% of the vote).[111][112][113]

On February 4, Paul finished third in Nevada with 18.8% of the vote.[114] Three non-binding primaries were held on February 7; Paul took 3rd place in Colorado[115] and Missouri[116] with 13% and 12% of the vote respectively. He fared better in Minnesota[117] with 27%, finishing second to Rick Santorum.

On May 14, Paul’s campaign announced that due to lack of funds (though despite financial backing from financiers Peter Thiel and Mark Spitznagel)[118] he would no longer actively campaign for votes in the 11 remaining primary states, including Texas and California, that had not yet voted.[9][119] He would, however, continue to seek to win delegates for the national party convention in the states that had already voted.

In June, a group of 132 supporters of Paul, demanding the freedom as delegates to the upcoming Republican party national convention to cast votes for Paul, filed a lawsuit in U.S. District Court against the Republican National Committee and 55 state and territorial Republican party organizations for allegedly coercing delegates to choose Mitt Romney as the party’s presidential nominee.[120] The suit alleged that there had been “a systematic campaign of election fraud at state conventions,” employing rigging of voting machines, ballot stuffing, and falsification of ballot totals. The suit further pointed to incidents at state conventions, including acts of violence and changes in procedural rules, allegedly intended to deny participation of Paul supporters in the party decision-making and to prevent votes from being cast for Paul. An attorney representing the complainants said that Paul campaign advisor Doug Wead had voiced support for the legal action.[120] Paul himself told CNN that although the lawsuit was not a part of his campaign’s strategy and that he had not been advising his supporters to sue, he was not going to tell his supporters not to sue, if they had a legitimate argument. “If they’re not following the rules, you have a right to stand up for the rules. I think for the most part these winning caucuses that we’ve been involved in we have followed the rules. And the other side has at times not followed the rules.”[121]

Paul declined to speak at the Republican National Convention as a matter of principle, saying that the convention planners had demanded that his remarks be vetted by the Romney campaign and that he make an unqualified endorsement of Romney.[122] Paul had felt that “It wouldn’t be my speech… That would undo everything I’ve done in the last 30 years. I don’t fully endorse him for president.”[122] Many of Paul’s supporters and delegates walked out of the convention in protest over rules adopted by the convention that reduced their delegate count and that would make it harder for non-establishment candidates to win the party’s nomination in future elections.[123] Supporters and media commentators had noted that the delegations from states where Paul had had the most support were given the worst seats in the convention hall, while delegations from regions with no electoral votes, such as the Northern Mariana Islands, American Samoa, and Puerto Rico, were given prime seats at the front.[124][125]

As in 2008, in 2012 Paul ultimately refused to endorse the ticket selected by the Republican Party. He said that there was no essential difference between Romney and his Democratic opponent, President Obama, on the most critical policies: “I’ve been in this business a long time and believe me there is essentially no difference from one administration to another no matter what the platforms… The foreign policy stays the same, the monetary policy stays the same, there’s no proposal for any real cuts and both parties support it.”[126] Paul received 26,204 write-in votes, or 0.02% of the total cast in the election.[127]

Throughout his entire tenure in Congress, Paul has represented his district as a member of the Republican Party. However, he has frequently taken positions in direct opposition to the other members and the leadership of the party, and he has sometimes publicly questioned whether he really belonged in the party.

Paul voted for Dwight Eisenhower for president in 1956 when he was 21 years old.[128] He had been a lifelong supporter of the Republican Party by the time he entered politics in the mid-1970s.[128] He was one of the first elected officials in the nation to support Ronald Reagan’s presidential campaign,[129] and he actively campaigned for Reagan in 1976 and 1980.[130] After Reagan’s election in 1980, Paul quickly became disillusioned with the Reagan administration’s policies. He later recalled being the only Republican to vote against Reagan budget proposals in 1981,[131][132] aghast that “in 1977, Jimmy Carter proposed a budget with a $38 billion deficit, and every Republican in the House voted against it. In 1981, Reagan proposed a budget with a $45 billion deficit which turned out to be $113 billion and Republicans were cheering his great victory. They were living in a storybook land.”[129] He expressed his disgust with the political culture of both major parties in a speech delivered in 1984 upon resigning from the House of Representatives to prepare for a (failed) run for the Senate, and he eventually apologized to his libertarian friends for having supported Reagan.[131]

By 1987, Paul was ready to sever all ties to the Republican Party, as he explained in a blistering resignation letter: “Since [1981] Ronald Reagan and the Republican Party have given us skyrocketing deficits, and astoundingly a doubled national debt. How is it that the party of balanced budgets, with control of the White House and Senate, accumulated red ink greater than all previous administrations put together? There is no credibility left for the Republican Party as a force to reduce the size of government. That is the message of the Reagan years.”[128][130] A month later he announced he would seek the 1988 Libertarian Party nomination for president.

During the 1988 campaign, Paul called Reagan “a dramatic failure”[130] and complained that “Reagan’s record is disgraceful. He starts wars, breaks the law, supplies terrorists with guns made at taxpayers’ expense and lies about it to the American people.”[133] Paul predicted that “the Republicans are on their way out as a major party,”[131] and he said that, although registered as a Republican, he had always been a libertarian at heart.[131][132]

Paul returned to his private medical practice and managing several business ventures after losing the 1988 election; but by 1996, he was ready to return to politics, this time running on the Republican Party ticket again. He said that he had never read the entire Libertarian platform when he ran for president as a Libertarian in 1988, and that “I worked for the Libertarians on my terms, not theirs.”[134] He added that in terms of a political label he preferred to call himself “a constitutionalist. In Congress I took an oath to uphold the Constitution, not the (Republican) platform.”[134]

When he lost the Republican Party presidential primary election in 2008, Paul criticized the two major political parties, saying that there was no real difference between the parties and that neither of them truly intended to challenge the status quo. He refused to endorse the Republican Party’s nominee for president, John McCain, and lent his support to third-party candidates instead.[135][136]

In the 2012 presidential campaign, during which he acknowledged it was unlikely that he would win the Republican Party nomination,[137] Paul again asserted that he was participating in the Republican Party on his own terms, trying to persuade the rest of the party to move toward his positions rather than joining in with theirs.[138] He expressed doubt that he would support any of his rivals should they win the nomination, warning that, “If the policies of the Republican Party are the same as the Democrat Party and they don’t want to change anything on foreign policy, they don’t want to cut anything, they don’t want to audit the Fed and find out about monetary policy, they don’t want to have actual change in government, that is a problem for me.”[139] On that same theme he said in another interview, “I would be reluctant to jump on board and tell all of the supporters that have given me trust and money that all of a sudden, I’d say, [all] we’ve done is for naught. So, let’s support anybody at all even if they disagree with everything that we do.”[140]

Paul has been described as conservative and libertarian.[13] According to University of Georgia political scientist Keith Poole, Paul had the most conservative voting record of any member of Congress from 1937 to 2002,[141][142] and is the most conservative of the candidates that had sought the 2012 Republican nomination for president.[143] Other analyses have judged Paul much more moderate. The National Journal, for instance, rated Paul only the 145th most conservative member of the House of Representatives (out of 435) based on votes cast in 2010.[144][145] The National Journal’s analysis gave Paul a 2011 composite ideological rating of 54% liberal and 46% conservative.[146]

The foundation of Paul’s political philosophy is the conviction that “the proper role for government in America is to provide national defense, a court system for civil disputes, a criminal justice system for acts of force and fraud, and little else.”[147]He has been nicknamed “Dr. No,”[20] reflecting both his medical degree and his insistence that he will “never vote for legislation unless the proposed measure is expressly authorized by the Constitution.”[30]

Paul has advocated for a noninterventionist foreign policy.[148] He advocates withdrawal from the United Nations, and from the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, for reasons of maintaining strong national sovereignty.[149]

He voted for the Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Terrorists in response to the September 11 attacks, but suggested war alternatives such as authorizing the president to grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal targeting specific terrorists. An opponent of the Iraq War and potential war with Iran, he has also criticized neoconservatism and U.S. foreign policy in the Middle East, arguing that both inadvertently cause terrorist reprisals against Americans, such as the 9/11 attacks. Paul has stated that “Israel is our close friend” and that it is not the place of the United States to “dictate how Israel runs her affairs”.[150]

Paul endorses constitutional rights, such as the right to keep and bear arms, and habeas corpus for political detainees. He opposes the Patriot Act, federal use of torture, presidential autonomy, a national identification card, warrantless domestic surveillance, and the draft. Paul also believes that the notion of the separation of church and state is currently misused by the court system: “In case after case, the Supreme Court has used the infamous ‘separation of church and state’ metaphor to uphold court decisions that allow the federal government to intrude upon and deprive citizens of their religious liberty.”[151]

Sometime within the same month but much after the event of authorities executing a lock-down in sequence to the April 2013 Boston Marathon bombing, Paul commented on the tactics used by governing forces into a harsh criticism that he has written as a “military-style occupation of an American city”.[11]

Paul is a proponent of Austrian School economics; he has authored six books on the subject, and displays pictures of Austrian School economists Friedrich Hayek, Murray Rothbard, and Ludwig von Mises (as well as of President Grover Cleveland and Chicago School economist Milton Friedman)[152] on his office wall. He regularly votes against almost all proposals for new government spending, initiatives, or taxes;[153] he cast two thirds of all the lone negative votes in the House during a 19951997 period.[20]

He has pledged never to raise taxes[154] and states he has never voted to approve a budget deficit. Paul believes that the country could abolish the individual income tax by scaling back federal spending to its fiscal year 2000 levels;[155][156] financing government operations would be primarily by excise taxes and non-protectionist tariffs. He endorses eliminating most federal government agencies, terming them unnecessary bureaucracies.

On April 15, 2011, Paul was one of four Republican members of Congress to vote against Rep. Paul Ryan’s budget proposal, known as “The Path to Prosperity.”[157]

Paul has consistently warned of hyperinflation and called for the gold standard as far back as 1981.[158][159] Since 1999, he has introduced bills into each Congress seeking to eliminate the Federal Reserve System in a single year.[160][161][162]

He endorses free trade, rejecting membership in the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the World Trade Organization as “managed trade”.

As a free-market environmentalist, he asserts private property rights in relation to environmental protection and pollution prevention.[163] He called global warming a hoax in a 2009 Fox Business interview, saying, “You know, the greatest hoax I think that has been around in many, many years if not hundreds of years has been this hoax on the environment and global warming.”[164] He acknowledges there is clear evidence of rising temperatures in some parts of the globe, but says that temperatures are cooling in other parts.[165]

Paul has stated that “The government shouldn’t be in the medical business.” He pushes to eliminate federal involvement with and management of health care, which he argues would allow prices to decrease due to the fundamental dynamics of a free market.[166] He also opposes federal government influenza inoculation programs.[167]

Paul endorses increased border security and opposes welfare for illegal immigrants, birthright citizenship and amnesty;[168] he voted for the Secure Fence Act of 2006.

He is an outspoken proponent of increased ballot access for third-party candidates.[169] He has sought to repeal the National Voter Registration Act of 1993, also known as the Motor Voter law.[170]

Paul has stated that secession from the United States “is a deeply American principle” and that “If the possibility of secession is completely off the table there is nothing to stop the federal government from continuing to encroach on our liberties and no recourse for those who are sick and tired of it.”[171] Paul wrote the remarks in a post on his Congressional website in one of his final public statements as a member of Congress, noting that many petitions had been submitted to the White House calling for secession in the wake of the November 2012 election.[172]

He terms himself “strongly pro-life”,[173] “an unshakable foe of abortion”,[174] and believes regulation or ban[175] on medical decisions about maternal or fetal health is “best handled at the state level”.[176] His abortion-related legislation, such as the Sanctity of Life Act, is intended to negate Roe v. Wade and to get “the federal government completely out of the business of regulating state matters.”[177] Paul says his years as an obstetrician led him to believe life begins at conception.[178]

Paul opposes the federal War on Drugs,[179] and believes the states should decide whether to regulate or deregulate drugs such as medical marijuana.[180]

Citing the Ninth and Tenth Amendments, Paul advocates states’ rights to decide how to regulate social matters not cited directly by the Constitution. He opposes federal regulation of the death penalty[176] (although he opposes capital punishment),[181] of education,[182] and of marriage, and endorsed revising the military’s “don’t ask, don’t tell” policy to concern mainly disruptive sexual behavior (whether heterosexual or homosexual).[183]

Paul was critical of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, arguing that it sanctioned federal interference in the labor market and did not improve race relations. He once remarked: “The Civil Rights Act of 1964 not only violated the Constitution and reduced individual liberty; it also failed to achieve its stated goals of promoting racial harmony and a color-blind society”.[184] Paul opposes affirmative action.[185]

Beginning in 1978, for more than two decades Paul and his associates published a number of political and investment-oriented newsletters bearing his name (Dr. Ron Paul’s Freedom Report, The Ron Paul Survival Report, the Ron Paul Investment Letter, and the Ron Paul Political Report).[41]

A number of the newsletters, particularly in the period between 1988 and 1994 when Paul was no longer in Congress, contained material that later proved controversial. Topics included conspiracy theories, anti-government militia movements, and race wars.[186] During Paul’s 1996 congressional election campaign, and his 2008 and 2012 presidential primary campaigns, critics charged that some of the passages reflected racist, anti-Semitic, and homophobic bigotry.[20][187][188][189]

In a 1996 interview, Paul did not deny writing the newsletters and defended some of their contents, but specified that he opposes racism.[190][191][192] In March 2001, Paul said he did not write the commentaries, but stopped short of denying authorship in 1996 because his campaign advisers had thought it would be too confusing and that he had to live with the material published under his name.[193][194] Half a dozen libertarian activists, including some still closely associated with Paul, pointed to Lew Rockwell as the primary ghostwriter of the newsletters. Rockwell denied responsibility for the content.[41] In 2011, Paul’s spokesperson Jesse Benton said Paul had “taken moral responsibility because they appeared under his name and slipped through under his watch.”[195]

In April 2013, Paul founded the Ron Paul Institute for Peace and Prosperity, a foreign policy think tank that seeks to promote his non-interventionist views.[196] The institute is part of his larger foundation Foundation for Rational Economics and Education.

In the same month, he began to offer the Ron Paul Curriculum, a homeschool online curriculum developed by Gary North and taught from a “free market and Christian” perspective; it is free from grades kindergarten5 and available to paid members from 612.[197]

In June 2013, Paul criticized the NSA surveillance program and praised Edward Snowden for having performed a “great service to the American people by exposing the truth about what our government is doing in secret”.[198]

On March 28, 2017, Paul predicted the markets would lower during the year and said President Trump had taken a risk with crediting himself for the postelection market surge, reasoning Washington was still predominantly unchanged.[199]

Paul has been a critic of Donald Trump’s plans to increase the number of military personnel in Afghanistan. In August 2017, he said that Americans don’t see Afghanistan as a threat to their personal security and being aggressive in foreign policy only loses Trump some of his support base.[200] Paul has also called for Trump to bring American troops back from Syria in April 2018, on the grounds that the threat from ISIS has been eliminated.[201]

In 2013, Paul established the “Ron Paul Channel”, an Internet broadcast. Its slogan is “Turn Off Your TV. Turn On the Truth.”[202] Speaking about the channel, Paul said, “I was at a debate one time a couple years ago, where I didn’t think I got a fair shake. In a two-hour debate, I had 89 seconds. I thought, maybe there’s something wrong with the media. Maybe they’re not covering us fairly. I’m just using it as a pun, but there’s a bit of truth to this. We don’t get a fair shake. The people who believe in liberty and limited government don’t expect it from the ordinary media.” Speaking about his youth appeal, he noted, “They don’t sit and watch TV and turn the programs on at seven o’clock to watch us like that so I thought the technology was there. The country is ripe for the continuation of this revolution.”[203]

In May 2015, Ron Paul ended all relationships with the Voices of Liberty and the Ron Paul Channel to start a new internet broadcast called the Ron Paul Liberty Report. According to Paul himself, it will not cost a thing, unlike the previous Ron Paul Channel. In the announcement of the ended relationship, Paul said, “But the message I have always tried to deliver over the years has always been the same, and that is spreading the message of liberty. Right now I am very much engaged in doing that through the internet. But, I believe we can do better. Right now, the program has changed to the Ron Paul Liberty Report, and that is what we do, we report on liberty in context of what is going on in daily activity and what is going on in the news.” Paul went on to say that it will be more locally controlled, unlike the previous Ron Paul Channel. Paul continued to say it will be produced out of Texas, instead of California.[204]

In April 2015, Paul began appearing in infomercials warning about an upcoming financial meltdown as a result of the imminent crash of the world’s currencies.[205][206] He urges listeners to read America 2020: The Survival Blueprint, a book written by Porter Stansberry.[207]

Paul endorsed his son, Senator Rand Paul, in the Republican primary and campaigned for him in Iowa.[208] After his son dropped out, Paul had said that no Republican or Democratic candidate even came close to holding Libertarian views.[209] Paul was disappointed in the Libertarian Party for nominating Gary Johnson for President of the United States and told independent voters that Jill Stein was a better candidate for those who “lean towards progressivism and liberalism”.[210]

Paul received one electoral vote from a Texas faithless elector, South Texas College political science professor William Greene (who had been pledged to Donald Trump),[211] in the 2016 presidential election,[212][213] making Paul the oldest person ever to receive an electoral vote.

Paul has been married to Carol (Carolyn) Wells since 1957.[214] They met in 1952 when Wells asked Paul to be her escort to her 16th birthday party.[215][216] They have five children, who were baptized Episcopalian:[13] Ronald, Lori, Randal, Robert, and Joy. Paul’s son Randal is the junior United States senator from the state of Kentucky. Raised a Lutheran, Paul later became a Baptist.[217] Since 1995, Carol Paul has published the Ron Paul Family Cookbook, a collection of recipes she and her friends contributed, and which was sold in part to support Ron Paul’s political campaigns.[218] His life and career is the subject of the 2012 film Ron Paul Uprising.[219]

Paul and his wife currently reside in Lake Jackson, Texas.[220]

View post:

Ron Paul – Wikipedia

Ron Paul | American politician | Britannica.com

Ron Paul, byname of Ronald Ernest Paul, (born August 20, 1935, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.), American politician, who served as a Republican member of the U.S. House of Representatives (197677, 197985, 19972013) and who unsuccessfully ran as the 1988 Libertarian presidential candidate. He later sought the Republican nomination for president in 2008 and 2012.

Paul grew up on his familys dairy farm just outside Pittsburgh. He earned a bachelors degree in biology from Gettysburg College in 1957 and a medical degree from Duke University, in Durham, North Carolina, in 1961. He later served as a flight surgeon for the U.S. Air Force (196365) and the Air National Guard (196568). In 1968 Paul moved to Brazoria county, Texas, where he established a successful practice in obstetrics and gynecology.

Paul was inspired to enter politics in 1971 when Pres. Richard M. Nixon abolished the Bretton Woods exchange system. Paul believed that the abandonment of the last vestiges of the gold standard would lead to financial ruin for the United States. Though he was unsuccessful in his initial run for the U.S. House of Representatives in 1974, his opponent resigned before completing his term, and Paul won a special election to complete it. He lost the seat in the subsequent general election, only to regain it two years later. He chose not to seek reelection in 1984 and instead campaignedunsuccessfullyfor the Republican nomination for U.S. Senate. He broke from the Republican Party to run as a Libertarian in the 1988 presidential election, ultimately winning more than 430,000 votes. He returned to the U.S. House of Representatives as a Republican in 1997, though his votes were often at variance with the majority of his party; for example, in the early 2000s he voted against authorizing the Iraq War and the USA Patriot Act.

Pauls presidential campaign platform remained libertarian in spirit. It focused on free-market economics, a radical reduction in the size of government, increased privacy protections for individuals, and a reduction of U.S. participation in international organizations. Having claimed only a handful of delegates, he ended his bid for the White House in June 2008 and launched Campaign for Liberty, a political action committee. In April 2011 Paul, who was popular within the Tea Party movement, formed an exploratory committee to assess the viability of a third presidential run. The following month he formally announced his candidacy. In July 2011, in order to focus on his presidential campaign, Paul announced that he would not seek a 13th term in Congress. Although supported by a devoted and energized base, Paul was selective in the states where he actively campaigned. A second-place showing in New Hampshire was among his best performances in January 2012. He garnered a number of other second-place finishes before announcing in May that he would not campaign in the remaining states. Paul did not endorse the Republican nominee, Mitt Romney, and said on the night of the general election that he believed the only winner would be the status quo. He retired from the House in January 2013, at the age of 77.

Pauls views are outlined in Freedom Under Siege (1987), A Foreign Policy of Freedom (2007), and The Revolution: A Manifesto (2008).

More here:

Ron Paul | American politician | Britannica.com

Ron Paul: US is barreling towards a 50% or more stock …

Ron Paul believes the bond trading pits are giving investors a dire message about the state of the nation’s economy.

According to the former Republican congressman from Texas, the recent jump in Treasury bond yields suggest the U.S. is barreling toward a potential recession and market meltdown at a faster and faster pace.

And, he sees no way to prevent it.

“We’re getting awfully close. I’d be surprised if you don’t have everybody agreeing with what I’m saying next year some time,” he said Thursday on CNBC’s “Futures Now.”

His remarks came as the benchmark 10-Year Treasury yield, which moves inversely to its price, rallied to seven year highs, intensifying fears over rising inflation. It may be beneficial for personal savings accounts, but it could deliver irrevocable damage to those in adjustable mortgages, or for auto buyers looking to finance a new vehicle.

“It can be pretty well validated by looking at monetary history that when you inflate the currency, distort interest rates and live beyond your means and spend too much, there has to be an adjustment,” he said. “We have the biggest bubble in the history of mankind.”

Paul is a vocal libertarian known for an ardent grassroots fan base that propelled him to multiple presidential runs, as well as his grim warnings about the economy. Yet he has been warning investors for years that an epic drop of 50 percent or more will eventually hit the stock market. He predicted the February correction, but not in size and scope.

By spring, the correction was over, and the S&P 500 and Dow were hitting all-time highs again by August and September, respectively. The Dow registered its latest all-time high of 26,951.81 last Wednesday.

Paul acknowledges his prior calls for a downturn haven’t come to fruition. Yet, he points out it’s just a matter of time, based on the looseness of U.S. monetary policy since the 2008 financial crisis.

“I know it’s going to happen,” Paul said. “It will come, and the bubble is bigger than ever before.”

View post:

Ron Paul: US is barreling towards a 50% or more stock …

Ron Paul

Everyone is surely aware by now that all of our digital communications are being sent to government databases for storage. If our American ancestors could see it, they wouldnt believe their eyes. We still, however, have the ability to use

Continue reading

Russiagate has jumped the shark. So says Robert Parry, investigative journalist and founder of ConsortiumNews.com, Parry joins todays Liberty Report to discuss the current state of the mainstream media and the ongoing allegations of Russian interference in American political and

Continue reading

President Trump vehemently denied an NBC report that he called for a ten-fold increase in US nuclear weapons at a meeting this summer. Calling it fake news, the president reportedly threatened NBCs broadcast license. Is this really fake news? Or

Continue reading

The CIA has been forced to declassify nearly 300 documents about a secret torture site in Afghanistan where CIA psychologists devised some of the most cruel and inhuman ways of torturing. Some were killed. The psychologists made millions of dollars.

Continue reading

The White House has rolled out the Presidents 70 point plan to reform the immigration system. Will building a wall, hiring more officers and prosecutors, mandating E-Verify, and other enforcement measures help solve the problem? Or is there a better

Continue reading

Go here to see the original:

Ron Paul

Ron Paul – Wikipedia

Ron PaulMember of the U.S. House of Representativesfrom Texas’s 14th districtIn officeJanuary 3, 1997 January 3, 2013Preceded byGreg LaughlinSucceeded byRandy WeberMember of the U.S. House of Representativesfrom Texas’s 22nd districtIn officeJanuary 3, 1979 January 3, 1985Preceded byBob GammageSucceeded byTom DeLayIn officeApril 3, 1976 January 3, 1977Preceded byBob CaseySucceeded byBob GammagePersonal detailsBornRonald Ernest Paul (1935-08-20) August 20, 1935 (age83)Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.Political partyLibertarian (19871996, 2015present)Other politicalaffiliationsRepublican (Before 1987, 19962015)Spouse(s)Children5, including RandEducationGettysburg College (B.S.)Duke University (M.D.)SignatureWebsiteOfficial websiteMilitary serviceAllegianceUnited StatesService/branchUnited States Air ForceYears of service1963196519651968Rank Captain[1]UnitAir National Guard Texas Air National Guard

Ronald Ernest Paul (born August 20, 1935) is an American author, physician, and retired politician who served as the U.S. Representative for Texas’s 22nd congressional district from 1976 to 1977 and again from 1979 to 1985, and for Texas’s 14th congressional district from 1997 to 2013. On three occasions, he sought the presidency of the United States: as the Libertarian Party nominee in 1988 and as a candidate in the Republican primaries of 2008 and 2012. Paul is a critic of the federal government’s fiscal policies, especially the existence of the Federal Reserve and the tax policy, as well as the militaryindustrial complex, and the War on Drugs. He has also been a vocal critic of mass surveillance policies such as the USA PATRIOT Act and the NSA surveillance programs. He was the first chairman of the conservative PAC Citizens for a Sound Economy[2] and has been characterized as the “intellectual godfather” of the Tea Party movement.[3][4]

Paul served as a flight surgeon in the U.S. Air Force from 1963 to 1968, and worked as an obstetrician-gynecologist from the 1960s to the 1980s.[5] He became the first Representative in history to serve concurrently with a son or daughter in the Senate when his son, Rand Paul, was elected to the U.S. Senate from Kentucky in 2010.[6] Paul is a Senior Fellow of the Mises Institute,[7] and has published a number of books and promoted the ideas of economists of the Austrian School such as Murray Rothbard and Ludwig von Mises during his political campaigns.

On July 12, 2011, Paul announced that he would forgo seeking another term in Congress in order to focus on his presidential bid.[8] On May 14, 2012, Paul announced that he would not be competing in any other presidential primaries but that he would still compete for delegates in states where the primary elections have already been held.[9] At the 2012 Republican National Convention, Paul received 190 delegate votes. In January 2013, Paul retired from Congress but still remains active on college campuses, giving speeches promoting his libertarian vision.[10][11] Paul received one electoral vote from a Texas faithless elector in the 2016 presidential election, making him the oldest person to receive an electoral vote, as well as the second registered Libertarian presidential candidate in history to receive an Electoral College vote after John Hospers.

Ronald Ernest Paul was born on August 20, 1935, in Pittsburgh,[12] the son of Howard Caspar Paul (19041997), who ran a small dairy company, and Margaret Paul (ne Dumont; 19082001). His paternal grandfather emigrated from Germany,[13] and his paternal grandmother, a devout Christian, was a first-generation German American.[14]

As a junior at suburban Dormont High School, he was the 200 meter dash state champion.[15] Paul went to Gettysburg College, where he was a member of the Lambda Chi Alpha fraternity.[16] He graduated with a B.S. degree in Biology in 1957.[15]

Paul earned a Doctor of Medicine degree from Duke University’s School of Medicine in 1961, and completed his medical internship at the Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit and his residency in obstetrics and gynecology at Magee-Womens Hospital in Pittsburgh.[17][18] Paul served as a flight surgeon in the United States Air Force from 1963 to 1965 and then in the United States Air National Guard from 1965 to 1968. Paul and his wife then relocated to Texas, where he began a private practice in obstetrics and gynecology.[18]

While a medical resident in the 1960s, Paul was influenced by Friedrich Hayek’s The Road to Serfdom, which caused him to read other publications by Ludwig von Mises and Ayn Rand. He came to know economists Hans Sennholz and Murray Rothbard well, and credits his interest in the study of economics to them.[19]

When President Richard Nixon “closed the gold window” by ending American participation in the Bretton Woods System, thus ending the U.S. dollar’s loose association with gold[19] on August 15, 1971, Paul decided to enter politics[20] and became a Republican candidate for the United States Congress.[21]

In 1974, incumbent Robert R. Casey defeated him for the 22nd district.[18] President Gerald Ford later appointed Casey to direct the Federal Maritime Commission, and Paul won an April 1976 special election to the vacant office after a runoff.[22][23][24] Paul lost the next regular election to Democrat Robert Gammage by fewer than 300votes (0.2%), but defeated Gammage in a 1978 rematch, and was reelected in 1980 and 1982.[25][26][27] Gammage underestimated Paul’s popularity among local mothers: “I had real difficulty down in Brazoria County, where he practiced, because he’d delivered half the babies in the county. There were only two obstetricians in the county, and the other one was his partner.”[28]

Paul served in Congress three different periods: first from 1976 to 1977, after he won a special election, then from 1979 to 1985, and finally from 1997 to 2013.[29]

In his early years, Paul served on the House Banking Committee, where he blamed the Federal Reserve for inflation and spoke against the banking mismanagement that resulted in the savings and loan crisis.[13][30] Paul argued for a return to the gold standard maintained by the US from 18731933, and with Senator Jesse Helms convinced the Congress to study the issue.[19] He spoke against the reinstatement of registration for the military draft in 1980, in opposition to President Jimmy Carter and the majority of his fellow Republican members of Congress.[31]

During his first term, Paul founded the Foundation for Rational Economics and Education (FREE), a non-profit think tank dedicated to promoting principles of limited government and free-market economics.[32][33] In 1984, Paul became the first chairman of the Citizens for a Sound Economy (CSE),[2] a conservative political group founded by Charles and David Koch “to fight for less government, lower taxes, and less regulation.” CSE started a Tea Party protest against high taxes in 2002.[34] In 2004, Citizens for a Sound Economy split into two new organizations, with Citizens for a Sound Economy being renamed as FreedomWorks, and Citizens for a Sound Economy Foundation becoming Americans for Prosperity. The two organizations would become key players in the Tea Party movement from 2009 onward.

Paul proposed term-limit legislation multiple times, while himself serving four terms in the House of Representatives.[31] In 1984, he decided to retire from the House in order to run for the U.S. Senate, complaining in his House farewell address that “Special interests have replaced the concern that the Founders had for general welfare… It’s difficult for one who loves true liberty and utterly detests the power of the state to come to Washington for a period of time and not leave a true cynic.”[35][36] Paul lost the Republican primary to Phil Gramm, who had switched parties the previous year from Democrat to Republican. Another candidate of the senatorial primary was Henry Grover, a conservative former state legislator who had lost the 1972 gubernatorial general election to the Democrat Dolph Briscoe, Jr.[37][38]

On Paul’s departure from the House, his seat was assumed by former state representative Tom DeLay, who would later become House Majority Leader.[39]

Following the loss of the 1984 senate race, Paul returned to his obstetrics practice and took part in a number of other business ventures.[13][40] Along with his former congressional chief of staff, Lew Rockwell, Paul founded a for-profit enterprise, Ron Paul & Associates, Inc. (RP&A) in 1984, with Paul serving as president, Rockwell as vice president, Paul’s wife Carol as secretary, and daughter Lori Pyeatt as treasurer.The company published a variety of political and investment-oriented newsletters, including Ron Paul Freedom Report and Ron Paul Survival Report,[41] and by 1993 was generating revenues in excess of $900,000.[42]

Paul also co-owned a mail-order coin dealership, Ron Paul Coins, for twelve years with Burt Blumert, who continued to operate the dealership after Paul resumed office in 1996.[43][44] Paul spoke multiple times at the American Numismatic Association’s 1988 convention.[43] He worked with his Foundation for Rational Economics and Education on such projects as establishing the National Endowment for Liberty, producing the At Issue public policy series that was broadcast on the Discovery Channel and CNBC,[32] and continuing publication of newsletters.

Paul left the Republican Party in 1987 and launched a bid for the presidency running on the Libertarian Party ticket. His candidacy was seen as problematic because of the party’s long support for freedom of choice on abortions. Native American activist Russell Means, Paul’s rival for the nomination, emphasized that he was pro-choice on the abortion issue.[45] In a forum held prior to the nomination, Means dismissed the greater funds raised by Paul’s campaign, commenting that Means was receiving “10 times more press” than the former Congressman and was therefore “100 times more effective”.[46]

In the 1988 presidential election, Paul was on the ballot in 46 states,[47] scoring third in the popular vote with 432,179votes (0.5%).[48] Paul was kept off the ballot in Missouri, due to what the St. Louis Post-Dispatch termed a “technicality,” and received votes there only when written in,[49] just as he did in North Carolina.[50]

According to Paul, his presidential campaign was about more than obtaining office; he sought to promote his libertarian ideas, often to school and university groups regardless of vote eligibility. He said, “We’re just as interested in the future generation as this election. These kids will vote eventually, and maybe, just maybe, they’ll go home and talk to their parents.”[47]

Paul considered campaigning for president in 1992,[51] but instead chose to endorse Pat Buchanan that year, and served as an adviser to Buchanan’s Republican presidential primary campaign against incumbent President George H. W. Bush.[52]

During 1996, Paul was re-elected to Congress after a difficult campaign. The Republican National Committee endorsed incumbent Greg Laughlin in the primary; Paul won with assistance from baseball pitcher, constituent, and friend Nolan Ryan, tax activist and publisher Steve Forbes[13] and conservative commentator Pat Buchanan (the latter two of whom had had presidential campaigns that year). Paul narrowly defeated Democratic attorney Charles “Lefty” Morris in the fall election, despite Morris’ criticism over controversial statements in several newsletters that Paul published.

In 1998 and 2000, Paul defeated Loy Sneary, a Democratic Bay City, Texas, rice farmer and former Matagorda County judge.[20]In the 2008 Republican primary,[53] he defeated Friendswood city councilman Chris Peden,[54] with over 70 percent of the vote[55] and ran unopposed in the general election.[56] In the 2010Republican primary, Paul defeated three opponents with 80percent of the vote.[57]

On July 12, 2011, Paul announced that he would not seek re-election to the House in order to pursue the 2012 presidential election.[58][59]

Of the 620 bills that Paul had sponsored through December 2011, over a period of more than 22 years in Congress, only one had been signed into law a lifetime success rate of less than 0.3%.[60] The sole measure authored by Paul that was ultimately enacted allowed for a federal customhouse to be sold to a local historic preservation society (H.R. 2121 in 2009).[60]

By amending other legislation, he has helped prohibit funding for national identification numbers, funding for federal teacher certification,[20] International Criminal Court jurisdiction over the U.S. military, American participation with any U.N. global tax, and surveillance of peaceful First Amendment activities by citizens.[61]

Paul was honorary chairman of, and is a member of the Republican Liberty Caucus, a political action committee that describes its goal as electing “liberty-minded, limited-government individuals”.[62] He is an initiating member of the Congressional Rural Caucus, which deals with agricultural and rural issues, and the 140-member Congressional Wildlife Refuge Caucus.[63]

Paul served on the following committees and subcommittees.[64]

With the election of the 112th Congress, and a resulting GOP majority in the House, Paul became the chairman of the Subcommittee on Domestic Monetary Policy and Technology starting in January 2011.[65]

Paul’s congressional career ended on January 3, 2013 with the swearing in of the 113th Congress.

Paul formally declared his candidacy for the 2008 Republican nomination on March 12, 2007, on C-SPAN.[66] Few major politicians endorsed him, and his campaign was largely ignored by traditional media.[67] However, he attracted an intensely loyal grassroots following,[68] interacting through internet social media.[69][70][71] In May 2007, shortly after the first televised primary debates, the blogs search engine site Technorati.com listed Paul’s name as the term most frequently searched for;[69] and Paul’s campaign claimed that Paul had more YouTube channel subscribers than Barack Obama or any other candidate for president.[72] For a candidate who had had relatively low national name recognition prior to entering the race, Paul did surprisingly well in fundraising, taking in more money than any other Republican candidate in the fourth quarter of 2007, as the primary season headed into the Iowa caucuses.[73][74]

Despite benefiting from large numbers of campaign contributions from individual donors,[75] and the efforts of tech-savvy supporters determined to keep his name a frequent topic of discussion on the internet,[69] over the course of the campaign Paul was unable to translate the enthusiasm of his core supporters into large enough numbers of actual primary votes to unseat his rivals.

Paul came in 5th place in both the January 4 Iowa caucuses (10% of votes cast)[76] and the January 8 New Hampshire primary (8%).[77] With the exception of the Nevada caucuses January 19, where he came in 2nd (14%) behind Romney (51%), he did little better through the rest of January: Michigan 4th (6%), South Carolina 5th (4%), Florida 5th (3%). On SuperTuesday, February 5, he placed 4th in almost every state, generally taking in a mere 36% of the votes although he did better in the northern states of North Dakota (21%, 3rd place) and Montana (25%, 2nd place).[78][79]

By March, front-runner John McCain had secured enough pledged delegates to guarantee that he would win the nomination, and Romney and Huckabee had both formally withdrawn from the race. Paul, who had won no state primaries, knew that it was now mathematically impossible for him to win the nomination, as he had captured only 20[80] 40 pledged delegates compared to more than 1,191 for McCain, yet he refused to concede the race and said that it was unlikely that he would ultimately endorse McCain.[81][82][83] Over the next few weeks, Paul’s supporters clashed with establishment Republicans at several county and state party conventions over state party rules, the party platforms, and selection of delegates for the national convention.[84][85][86] In one of the more dramatic moments, Nevada’s state party leaders, outmaneuvered by Paul supporters at the state nominating convention, resorted to the highly unusual measure of prematurely and abruptly shutting down the convention before selecting national delegates, with a plan to reconvene at a later date.[87][88]

On June 12, 2008, Paul finally withdrew his bid for the Republican nomination. He later said that one of the reasons he did not run in the general election as a third-party candidate, after losing the primaries, was that, as a concession to gain ballot access in certain states, he had signed legally binding agreements to not run a third-party campaign if he lost the primary.[89] Some of the $4 million remaining campaign contributions was invested into the new political action and advocacy group called Ron Paul’s Campaign for Liberty.[90]

At a September 10, 2008, press conference, Paul announced his general support of four third-party candidates: Cynthia McKinney (Green Party); Bob Barr (Libertarian Party); Chuck Baldwin (Constitution Party); and Ralph Nader (independent). He said that each of them had pledged to adhere to a policy of balancing budgets, bringing the troops home, defending privacy and personal liberties, and investigating the Federal Reserve. Paul also said that under no circumstances would he be endorsing either of the two main parties’ candidates (McCain Republican Party, or Obama Democratic Party) because there were no real differences between them, and because neither of them, if elected, would seek to make the fundamental changes in governance that were necessary. He urged instead that, rather than contribute to the “charade” that the two-party election system had become, the voters support the third-party candidates as a protest vote, to force change in the election process.[91][92] Later that same day, Paul gave a televised interview with Nader saying much the same again.[93]

Two weeks later, “shocked and disappointed” that Bob Barr (the Libertarian nominee) had pulled out of attending the press conference at the last minute and had admonished Paul for remaining neutral and failing to say which specific candidate Paul would vote for in the general election, Paul released a statement saying that he had decided to endorse Chuck Baldwin, the Constitution Party candidate, for president.[94]

Paul withdrew from active campaigning in the last weeks of the primary election period. He received 42,426 votes, or 0.03% of the total cast, in the general election.[95]

Paul won several early straw polls for the 2012 Republican presidential nomination[96] and in late April 2011, he formed an official exploratory committee.[97][98] He participated in the first Republican presidential debate on May 5, 2011[99] and on May 13, 2011, Paul formally announced his candidacy in an interview on ABC’s Good Morning America.[100] He placed second in the 2011 Ames Straw Poll, missing first by 0.9%.[101]

In December 2011, with Paul’s increased support, the controversy over racist and homophobic statements in several Ron Paul newsletters in the 1980s and early 1990s once again gained media attention.[102] During this time Paul supporters asserted that he was continually ignored by the media despite his significant support, citing examples of where television news shows would fail to mention Paul in discussions of the Republican presidential hopefuls even when he was polling second.[103][104][105]

Ron Paul’s presidential campaign managers Jesse Benton, John Tate and Demetri Kesari were all found guilty of paying former Iowa State Senator Kent Sorenson $73,000 to switch his support from Rep. Michele Bachmann to Paul.[106] In court papers filed in August 2014, Sorenson said that he had been paid by both presidential campaigns for his endorsement and plead guilty to criminal charges stemming from the incident.[107]

Paul came in third in the Iowa Republican Caucus held on January 3, 2012. Out of a turnout of 121,503 votes, Paul took 26,036 (21%) of the certified votes. Rick Santorum and Mitt Romney finished in a virtual tie for first place with 25% each,[108] although Ron Paul had ultimately won Iowa at the Republican National Convention gathering 22 delegates to Mitt Romney’s 5. In the New Hampshire Primary held on January 10, 2012, Paul received 23% of the votes and came in second after Romney’s 39%.[109]

Paul’s results then declined, despite the withdrawal of candidates Michele Bachmann, Jon Huntsman and Rick Perry. He had fourth-place finishes in the next two primaries, on January 21 in South Carolina (with 13% of the vote)[110] and on January 31 in Florida (where he received 7% of the vote).[111][112][113]

On February 4, Paul finished third in Nevada with 18.8% of the vote.[114] Three non-binding primaries were held on February 7; Paul took 3rd place in Colorado[115] and Missouri[116] with 13% and 12% of the vote respectively. He fared better in Minnesota[117] with 27%, finishing second to Rick Santorum.

On May 14, Paul’s campaign announced that due to lack of funds (though despite financial backing from financiers Peter Thiel and Mark Spitznagel)[118] he would no longer actively campaign for votes in the 11 remaining primary states, including Texas and California, that had not yet voted.[9][119] He would, however, continue to seek to win delegates for the national party convention in the states that had already voted.

In June, a group of 132 supporters of Paul, demanding the freedom as delegates to the upcoming Republican party national convention to cast votes for Paul, filed a lawsuit in U.S. District Court against the Republican National Committee and 55 state and territorial Republican party organizations for allegedly coercing delegates to choose Mitt Romney as the party’s presidential nominee.[120] The suit alleged that there had been “a systematic campaign of election fraud at state conventions,” employing rigging of voting machines, ballot stuffing, and falsification of ballot totals. The suit further pointed to incidents at state conventions, including acts of violence and changes in procedural rules, allegedly intended to deny participation of Paul supporters in the party decision-making and to prevent votes from being cast for Paul. An attorney representing the complainants said that Paul campaign advisor Doug Wead had voiced support for the legal action.[120] Paul himself told CNN that although the lawsuit was not a part of his campaign’s strategy and that he had not been advising his supporters to sue, he was not going to tell his supporters not to sue, if they had a legitimate argument. “If they’re not following the rules, you have a right to stand up for the rules. I think for the most part these winning caucuses that we’ve been involved in we have followed the rules. And the other side has at times not followed the rules.”[121]

Paul declined to speak at the Republican National Convention as a matter of principle, saying that the convention planners had demanded that his remarks be vetted by the Romney campaign and that he make an unqualified endorsement of Romney.[122] Paul had felt that “It wouldn’t be my speech… That would undo everything I’ve done in the last 30 years. I don’t fully endorse him for president.”[122] Many of Paul’s supporters and delegates walked out of the convention in protest over rules adopted by the convention that reduced their delegate count and that would make it harder for non-establishment candidates to win the party’s nomination in future elections.[123] Supporters and media commentators had noted that the delegations from states where Paul had had the most support were given the worst seats in the convention hall, while delegations from regions with no electoral votes, such as the Northern Mariana Islands, American Samoa, and Puerto Rico, were given prime seats at the front.[124][125]

As in 2008, in 2012 Paul ultimately refused to endorse the ticket selected by the Republican Party. He said that there was no essential difference between Romney and his Democratic opponent, President Obama, on the most critical policies: “I’ve been in this business a long time and believe me there is essentially no difference from one administration to another no matter what the platforms… The foreign policy stays the same, the monetary policy stays the same, there’s no proposal for any real cuts and both parties support it.”[126] Paul received 26,204 write-in votes, or 0.02% of the total cast in the election.[127]

Throughout his entire tenure in Congress, Paul has represented his district as a member of the Republican Party. However, he has frequently taken positions in direct opposition to the other members and the leadership of the party, and he has sometimes publicly questioned whether he really belonged in the party.

Paul voted for Dwight Eisenhower for president in 1956 when he was 21 years old.[128] He had been a lifelong supporter of the Republican Party by the time he entered politics in the mid-1970s.[128] He was one of the first elected officials in the nation to support Ronald Reagan’s presidential campaign,[129] and he actively campaigned for Reagan in 1976 and 1980.[130] After Reagan’s election in 1980, Paul quickly became disillusioned with the Reagan administration’s policies. He later recalled being the only Republican to vote against Reagan budget proposals in 1981,[131][132] aghast that “in 1977, Jimmy Carter proposed a budget with a $38 billion deficit, and every Republican in the House voted against it. In 1981, Reagan proposed a budget with a $45 billion deficit which turned out to be $113 billion and Republicans were cheering his great victory. They were living in a storybook land.”[129] He expressed his disgust with the political culture of both major parties in a speech delivered in 1984 upon resigning from the House of Representatives to prepare for a (failed) run for the Senate, and he eventually apologized to his libertarian friends for having supported Reagan.[131]

By 1987, Paul was ready to sever all ties to the Republican Party, as he explained in a blistering resignation letter: “Since [1981] Ronald Reagan and the Republican Party have given us skyrocketing deficits, and astoundingly a doubled national debt. How is it that the party of balanced budgets, with control of the White House and Senate, accumulated red ink greater than all previous administrations put together? There is no credibility left for the Republican Party as a force to reduce the size of government. That is the message of the Reagan years.”[128][130] A month later he announced he would seek the 1988 Libertarian Party nomination for president.

During the 1988 campaign, Paul called Reagan “a dramatic failure”[130] and complained that “Reagan’s record is disgraceful. He starts wars, breaks the law, supplies terrorists with guns made at taxpayers’ expense and lies about it to the American people.”[133] Paul predicted that “the Republicans are on their way out as a major party,”[131] and he said that, although registered as a Republican, he had always been a libertarian at heart.[131][132]

Paul returned to his private medical practice and managing several business ventures after losing the 1988 election; but by 1996, he was ready to return to politics, this time running on the Republican Party ticket again. He said that he had never read the entire Libertarian platform when he ran for president as a Libertarian in 1988, and that “I worked for the Libertarians on my terms, not theirs.”[134] He added that in terms of a political label he preferred to call himself “a constitutionalist. In Congress I took an oath to uphold the Constitution, not the (Republican) platform.”[134]

When he lost the Republican Party presidential primary election in 2008, Paul criticized the two major political parties, saying that there was no real difference between the parties and that neither of them truly intended to challenge the status quo. He refused to endorse the Republican Party’s nominee for president, John McCain, and lent his support to third-party candidates instead.[135][136]

In the 2012 presidential campaign, during which he acknowledged it was unlikely that he would win the Republican Party nomination,[137] Paul again asserted that he was participating in the Republican Party on his own terms, trying to persuade the rest of the party to move toward his positions rather than joining in with theirs.[138] He expressed doubt that he would support any of his rivals should they win the nomination, warning that, “If the policies of the Republican Party are the same as the Democrat Party and they don’t want to change anything on foreign policy, they don’t want to cut anything, they don’t want to audit the Fed and find out about monetary policy, they don’t want to have actual change in government, that is a problem for me.”[139] On that same theme he said in another interview, “I would be reluctant to jump on board and tell all of the supporters that have given me trust and money that all of a sudden, I’d say, [all] we’ve done is for naught. So, let’s support anybody at all even if they disagree with everything that we do.”[140]

Paul has been described as conservative and libertarian.[13] According to University of Georgia political scientist Keith Poole, Paul had the most conservative voting record of any member of Congress from 1937 to 2002,[141][142] and is the most conservative of the candidates that had sought the 2012 Republican nomination for president.[143] Other analyses have judged Paul much more moderate. The National Journal, for instance, rated Paul only the 145th most conservative member of the House of Representatives (out of 435) based on votes cast in 2010.[144][145] The National Journal’s analysis gave Paul a 2011 composite ideological rating of 54% liberal and 46% conservative.[146]

The foundation of Paul’s political philosophy is the conviction that “the proper role for government in America is to provide national defense, a court system for civil disputes, a criminal justice system for acts of force and fraud, and little else.”[147]He has been nicknamed “Dr. No,”[20] reflecting both his medical degree and his insistence that he will “never vote for legislation unless the proposed measure is expressly authorized by the Constitution.”[30]

Paul has advocated for a noninterventionist foreign policy.[148] He advocates withdrawal from the United Nations, and from the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, for reasons of maintaining strong national sovereignty.[149]

He voted for the Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Terrorists in response to the September 11 attacks, but suggested war alternatives such as authorizing the president to grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal targeting specific terrorists. An opponent of the Iraq War and potential war with Iran, he has also criticized neoconservatism and U.S. foreign policy in the Middle East, arguing that both inadvertently cause terrorist reprisals against Americans, such as the 9/11 attacks. Paul has stated that “Israel is our close friend” and that it is not the place of the United States to “dictate how Israel runs her affairs”.[150]

Paul endorses constitutional rights, such as the right to keep and bear arms, and habeas corpus for political detainees. He opposes the Patriot Act, federal use of torture, presidential autonomy, a national identification card, warrantless domestic surveillance, and the draft. Paul also believes that the notion of the separation of church and state is currently misused by the court system: “In case after case, the Supreme Court has used the infamous ‘separation of church and state’ metaphor to uphold court decisions that allow the federal government to intrude upon and deprive citizens of their religious liberty.”[151]

Sometime within the same month but much after the event of authorities executing a lock-down in sequence to the April 2013 Boston Marathon bombing, Paul commented on the tactics used by governing forces into a harsh criticism that he has written as a “military-style occupation of an American city”.[11]

Paul is a proponent of Austrian School economics; he has authored six books on the subject, and displays pictures of Austrian School economists Friedrich Hayek, Murray Rothbard, and Ludwig von Mises (as well as of President Grover Cleveland and Chicago School economist Milton Friedman)[152] on his office wall. He regularly votes against almost all proposals for new government spending, initiatives, or taxes;[153] he cast two thirds of all the lone negative votes in the House during a 19951997 period.[20]

He has pledged never to raise taxes[154] and states he has never voted to approve a budget deficit. Paul believes that the country could abolish the individual income tax by scaling back federal spending to its fiscal year 2000 levels;[155][156] financing government operations would be primarily by excise taxes and non-protectionist tariffs. He endorses eliminating most federal government agencies, terming them unnecessary bureaucracies.

On April 15, 2011, Paul was one of four Republican members of Congress to vote against Rep. Paul Ryan’s budget proposal, known as “The Path to Prosperity.”[157]

Paul has consistently warned of hyperinflation and called for the gold standard as far back as 1981.[158][159] Since 1999, he has introduced bills into each Congress seeking to eliminate the Federal Reserve System in a single year.[160][161][162]

He endorses free trade, rejecting membership in the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the World Trade Organization as “managed trade”.

As a free-market environmentalist, he asserts private property rights in relation to environmental protection and pollution prevention.[163] He called global warming a hoax in a 2009 Fox Business interview, saying, “You know, the greatest hoax I think that has been around in many, many years if not hundreds of years has been this hoax on the environment and global warming.”[164] He acknowledges there is clear evidence of rising temperatures in some parts of the globe, but says that temperatures are cooling in other parts.[165]

Paul has stated that “The government shouldn’t be in the medical business.” He pushes to eliminate federal involvement with and management of health care, which he argues would allow prices to decrease due to the fundamental dynamics of a free market.[166] He also opposes federal government influenza inoculation programs.[167]

Paul endorses increased border security and opposes welfare for illegal immigrants, birthright citizenship and amnesty;[168] he voted for the Secure Fence Act of 2006.

He is an outspoken proponent of increased ballot access for third-party candidates.[169] He has sought to repeal the National Voter Registration Act of 1993, also known as the Motor Voter law.[170]

Paul has stated that secession from the United States “is a deeply American principle” and that “If the possibility of secession is completely off the table there is nothing to stop the federal government from continuing to encroach on our liberties and no recourse for those who are sick and tired of it.”[171] Paul wrote the remarks in a post on his Congressional website in one of his final public statements as a member of Congress, noting that many petitions had been submitted to the White House calling for secession in the wake of the November 2012 election.[172]

He terms himself “strongly pro-life”,[173] “an unshakable foe of abortion”,[174] and believes regulation or ban[175] on medical decisions about maternal or fetal health is “best handled at the state level”.[176] His abortion-related legislation, such as the Sanctity of Life Act, is intended to negate Roe v. Wade and to get “the federal government completely out of the business of regulating state matters.”[177] Paul says his years as an obstetrician led him to believe life begins at conception.[178]

Paul opposes the federal War on Drugs,[179] and believes the states should decide whether to regulate or deregulate drugs such as medical marijuana.[180]

Citing the Ninth and Tenth Amendments, Paul advocates states’ rights to decide how to regulate social matters not cited directly by the Constitution. He opposes federal regulation of the death penalty[176] (although he opposes capital punishment),[181] of education,[182] and of marriage, and endorsed revising the military’s “don’t ask, don’t tell” policy to concern mainly disruptive sexual behavior (whether heterosexual or homosexual).[183]

Paul was critical of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, arguing that it sanctioned federal interference in the labor market and did not improve race relations. He once remarked: “The Civil Rights Act of 1964 not only violated the Constitution and reduced individual liberty; it also failed to achieve its stated goals of promoting racial harmony and a color-blind society”.[184] Paul opposes affirmative action.[185]

Beginning in 1978, for more than two decades Paul and his associates published a number of political and investment-oriented newsletters bearing his name (Dr. Ron Paul’s Freedom Report, The Ron Paul Survival Report, the Ron Paul Investment Letter, and the Ron Paul Political Report).[41]

A number of the newsletters, particularly in the period between 1988 and 1994 when Paul was no longer in Congress, contained material that later proved controversial. Topics included conspiracy theories, anti-government militia movements, and race wars.[186] During Paul’s 1996 congressional election campaign, and his 2008 and 2012 presidential primary campaigns, critics charged that some of the passages reflected racist, anti-Semitic, and homophobic bigotry.[20][187][188][189]

In a 1996 interview, Paul did not deny writing the newsletters and defended some of their contents, but specified that he opposes racism.[190][191][192] In March 2001, Paul said he did not write the commentaries, but stopped short of denying authorship in 1996 because his campaign advisers had thought it would be too confusing and that he had to live with the material published under his name.[193][194] Half a dozen libertarian activists, including some still closely associated with Paul, pointed to Lew Rockwell as the primary ghostwriter of the newsletters. Rockwell denied responsibility for the content.[41] In 2011, Paul’s spokesperson Jesse Benton said Paul had “taken moral responsibility because they appeared under his name and slipped through under his watch.”[195]

In April 2013, Paul founded the Ron Paul Institute for Peace and Prosperity, a foreign policy think tank that seeks to promote his non-interventionist views.[196] The institute is part of his larger foundation Foundation for Rational Economics and Education.

In the same month, he began to offer the Ron Paul Curriculum, a homeschool online curriculum developed by Gary North and taught from a “free market and Christian” perspective; it is free from grades kindergarten5 and available to paid members from 612.[197]

In June 2013, Paul criticized the NSA surveillance program and praised Edward Snowden for having performed a “great service to the American people by exposing the truth about what our government is doing in secret”.[198]

On March 28, 2017, Paul predicted the markets would lower during the year and said President Trump had taken a risk with crediting himself for the postelection market surge, reasoning Washington was still predominantly unchanged.[199]

Paul has been a critic of Donald Trump’s plans to increase the number of military personnel in Afghanistan. In August 2017, he said that Americans don’t see Afghanistan as a threat to their personal security and being aggressive in foreign policy only loses Trump some of his support base.[200] Paul has also called for Trump to bring American troops back from Syria in April 2018, on the grounds that the threat from ISIS has been eliminated.[201]

In 2013, Paul established the “Ron Paul Channel”, an Internet broadcast. Its slogan is “Turn Off Your TV. Turn On the Truth.”[202] Speaking about the channel, Paul said, “I was at a debate one time a couple years ago, where I didn’t think I got a fair shake. In a two-hour debate, I had 89 seconds. I thought, maybe there’s something wrong with the media. Maybe they’re not covering us fairly. I’m just using it as a pun, but there’s a bit of truth to this. We don’t get a fair shake. The people who believe in liberty and limited government don’t expect it from the ordinary media.” Speaking about his youth appeal, he noted, “They don’t sit and watch TV and turn the programs on at seven o’clock to watch us like that so I thought the technology was there. The country is ripe for the continuation of this revolution.”[203]

In May 2015, Ron Paul ended all relationships with the Voices of Liberty and the Ron Paul Channel to start a new internet broadcast called the Ron Paul Liberty Report. According to Paul himself, it will not cost a thing, unlike the previous Ron Paul Channel. In the announcement of the ended relationship, Paul said, “But the message I have always tried to deliver over the years has always been the same, and that is spreading the message of liberty. Right now I am very much engaged in doing that through the internet. But, I believe we can do better. Right now, the program has changed to the Ron Paul Liberty Report, and that is what we do, we report on liberty in context of what is going on in daily activity and what is going on in the news.” Paul went on to say that it will be more locally controlled, unlike the previous Ron Paul Channel. Paul continued to say it will be produced out of Texas, instead of California.[204]

In April 2015, Paul began appearing in infomercials warning about an upcoming financial meltdown as a result of the imminent crash of the world’s currencies.[205][206] He urges listeners to read America 2020: The Survival Blueprint, a book written by Porter Stansberry.[207]

Paul endorsed his son, Senator Rand Paul, in the Republican primary and campaigned for him in Iowa.[208] After his son dropped out, Paul had said that no Republican or Democratic candidate even came close to holding Libertarian views.[209] Paul was disappointed in the Libertarian Party for nominating Gary Johnson for President of the United States and told independent voters that Jill Stein was a better candidate for those who “lean towards progressivism and liberalism”.[210]

Paul received one electoral vote from a Texas faithless elector, South Texas College political science professor William Greene (who had been pledged to Donald Trump),[211] in the 2016 presidential election,[212][213] making Paul the oldest person ever to receive an electoral vote.

Paul has been married to Carol (Carolyn) Wells since 1957.[214] They met in 1952 when Wells asked Paul to be her escort to her 16th birthday party.[215][216] They have five children, who were baptized Episcopalian:[13] Ronald, Lori, Randal, Robert, and Joy. Paul’s son Randal is the junior United States senator from the state of Kentucky. Raised a Lutheran, Paul later became a Baptist.[217] Since 1995, Carol Paul has published the Ron Paul Family Cookbook, a collection of recipes she and her friends contributed, and which was sold in part to support Ron Paul’s political campaigns.[218] His life and career is the subject of the 2012 film Ron Paul Uprising.[219]

Paul and his wife currently reside in Lake Jackson, Texas.[220]

View original post here:

Ron Paul – Wikipedia

Ron Paul Liberty Report

Its not often that US Government officials are honest when they talk about our foreign policy. The unprovoked 2003 attack on Iraq was called a liberation. The 2011 US-led destruction of Libya was a humanitarian intervention. And so on.

So, in a way, Secretary of State Mike Pompeo was refreshingly honest last week when, speaking about newly-imposed US sanctions, he told the BBC that the Iranian leadership has to make a decision that they want their people to eat.” It was an honest admission that new US sanctions are designed to starve Iranians unless the Iranian leadership accepts US demands.

Read the rest

Read the rest

Read the rest

Read the rest

Read the rest

While the average person is propagandized into thinking gold isn’t money, the elites know better. He who has the gold, makes the rules, and many nations are either repatriating gold, or buying it outright. Why now? Can they see the writing on the wall for the U.S. dollar?Streamed LIVE Nov. 9, 2018

Trump accepted the resignation of his Attorney General, Jeff Sessions, yesterday leading to an explosion of protest among the #Resistance anti-Trump people. Ironically, these are the very same people who have opposed Sessions for two years! Politics?Streamed LIVE Nov. 8, 2018

Conventional wisdom says the Republican loss of the House of Representatives be bad news for President Trump. More investigations? Endless Russiagate “revelations”? But what if it is actually a boon for the president? Contrarian analysis of the US mid-term elections in today’s Liberty Report.Streamed LIVE Nov. 7, 2018

Can anyone point out the major substantive areas of debate and difference between Republicans and Democrats as America (or at least part of it) goes to the voting booth? Do they disagree on the Fed? Spying? Civil liberties? War? What really is at stake in this midterm election? Anything?Streamed LIVE Nov. 6, 2018

With sanctions back on Iran, will US dollar hegemony be the first victim? How many civilians will suffer for the Trump Administration’s obsession with “regime change” for Iran?Today’s Liberty Report was recorded in front of a live audience from the Mises Institute Symposium on alternative media at Brazosport College on Nov. 5, 2018.Published Nov. 5, 2018

See more here:

Ron Paul Liberty Report

Ron Paul: US is barreling towards a 50% or more stock market drop

Ron Paul believes the bond trading pits are giving investors a dire message about the state of the nation’s economy.

According to the former Republican congressman from Texas, the recent jump in Treasury bond yields suggest the U.S. is barreling toward a potential recession and market meltdown at a faster and faster pace.

And, he sees no way to prevent it.

“We’re getting awfully close. I’d be surprised if you don’t have everybody agreeing with what I’m saying next year some time,” he said Thursday on CNBC’s “Futures Now.”

His remarks came as the benchmark 10-Year Treasury yield, which moves inversely to its price, rallied to seven year highs, intensifying fears over rising inflation. It may be beneficial for personal savings accounts, but it could deliver irrevocable damage to those in adjustable mortgages, or for auto buyers looking to finance a new vehicle.

“It can be pretty well validated by looking at monetary history that when you inflate the currency, distort interest rates and live beyond your means and spend too much, there has to be an adjustment,” he said. “We have the biggest bubble in the history of mankind.”

Paul is a vocal libertarian known for an ardent grassroots fan base that propelled him to multiple presidential runs, as well as his grim warnings about the economy. Yet he has been warning investors for years that an epic drop of 50 percent or more will eventually hit the stock market. He predicted the February correction, but not in size and scope.

By spring, the correction was over, and the S&P 500 and Dow were hitting all-time highs again by August and September, respectively. The Dow registered its latest all-time high of 26,951.81 last Wednesday.

Paul acknowledges his prior calls for a downturn haven’t come to fruition. Yet, he points out it’s just a matter of time, based on the looseness of U.S. monetary policy since the 2008 financial crisis.

“I know it’s going to happen,” Paul said. “It will come, and the bubble is bigger than ever before.”

Read the original:

Ron Paul: US is barreling towards a 50% or more stock market drop

Ron Paul Institute for Peace and Prosperity

nov 11, 2018 Three Ways the New Democratic House Majority May Investigate President Trump After Democrats attain the majority in the United States House of Representatives in January, their rivalry with President Donald Trump can be expected to extend beyond disagreements about legislation. In a new Fox News video commentary, Fox News Senior Judicial Analyst Andrew Napolitano details three areas where Democrats who will move into majority leadership positions in January may seek to investigate Trump in efforts that could lead to impeachment proceedings. read on…

nov 10, 2018 Five Minutes Five Issues: Marijuana Votes, Voting Libertarian, US Election, Marijuana Laws, Important Election A new episode of Five Minutes Five Issues is out. You can listen to it, and read a transcript, below. You can also find previous episodes of the show atStitcher,iTunes,YouTube, andSoundCloud. read on…

nov 9, 2018 Trump Administration Considers Declaring Yemens Houthis Terrorists Just weeks after promising to back a peace effort in Yemen, the Trump Administration is reportedly considering labeling the Shiite Houthi movement in northern Yemen,one of the principal forces, a terrorist organization. read on…

oct 29, 2018 Five Minutes Five Issues: Blackface, Julian Assange, Mexico Marijuana, GDP, Big Tech Companies A new episode of Five Minutes Five Issues is out. You can listen to it, and read a transcript, below. You can also find previous episodes of the show atStitcher,iTunes,YouTube, andSoundCloud. read on…

oct 26, 2018 This, in Part, is How Trump is Boosting GDP It’s all about catering to the military-industrial-complex. There is a big spender in the White House who loves the military. read on…

See the original post:

Ron Paul Institute for Peace and Prosperity

Ron Paul, Rising Political Star – CBS News

This column was written by Michael Crowley.A star had just been born when, a day after the May 15 Republican presidential debate in South Carolina, I met Texas Representative Ron Paul for lunch on Capitol Hill. The meeting had been scheduled for several days; but, as luck would have it, the previous night Paul had gone from an oddball obscurity to a major sensation in the political world when, answering a question about September 11, he seemed to suggest that the attacks were justified by an aggressive U.S. foreign policy in the Middle East. “They attack us because we’ve been over there. We’ve been bombing Iraq for ten years,” Paul explained. The ever-macho Rudy Giuliani was quick to pounce. “That’s an extraordinary statement,” he marveled. “And I would ask the congressman to withdraw that comment and tell us that he didn’t really mean that.” The crowd roared its approval. A previously flagging Giuliani suddenly enjoyed his best moment of the race.

But it was also, oddly enough, Paul’s best moment. The response to his comments was fast and furious: Angry Republicans, including the party chairman in Michigan, former Senate candidate Michael Steele, and unnamed South Carolina sources cited on Fox News, called for his exclusion from future debates. Sean Hannity couldn’t wait to bully Paul in a post-debate interview. John McCain even added a line to his stump speech bashing him. But the outrage was instructive: Suddenly, Republicans were taking seriously a quirky 71-year-old Texas libertarian whose national support has hovered in the zero-percent range.

Nor was the attention all negative. Far from it. Paul won several instant polls on the debate, including one at the conservative Newsmax.com and a Fox News text-message poll. Incredibly, Paul’s name began beating out “Paris Hilton” as the number-one query on the popular blog-searching website Technorati. (Granted, it’s possible that Paul’s fervent supporters are manipulating such online metrics.) The incident prompted a feisty exchange among the ladies of ABC’s “The View,” of all places. And, to top it off, within a day of the debate, Paul’s campaign had raised $100,000 about one-sixth of his entire haul for the first three months of 2007. Paul’s spokesman says the campaign headquarters has been “inundated with phone calls” ever since 80 percent of them supportive.

When Paul ambled through the door of a cheap Mexican joint on Capitol Hill last Wednesday, he hardly looked like a freshly-minted celebrity. His slight frame, elfin face, and reserved persona suggest the doctor he used to be, not a politician. But Paul turned heads all the same. As he approached his table, a man seated nearby extended his hand with a broad smile and a hearty “congratulations.” Paul explained that he had received a similar reception among his colleagues in the House. “I’ve had probably ten people come up to me and compliment me including people I thought were war hawks,” he said. “It was a tremendous boost to the campaign.”

Who would have expected it? At its outset, Paul’s campaign promised to be a curiosity. The nominee of the Libertarian Party in his previous run for the presidency (in 1988), Paul seemed likely to play a predictable gadfly role using his stage time to press hoary libertarian bugaboos like the abolition of Social Security, the legalization of drugs and prostitution, and Paul’s special obsession a return to the gold standard. Instead, thanks mainly to his adamant opposition to the Iraq war, he has assumed a far more serious role. In a Republican field that has marched in lockstep with George W. Bush on the war, Paul’s libertarian isolationism has exposed an intraparty fissure over foreign policy that is far wider than has been acknowledged, encompassing not only disgruntled libertarians but some paleocons and social conservatives, as well as such GOP lions as William F. Buckley, George Will, and Bob Novak. As populist-isolationist Pat Buchanan wrote in an op-ed last week, Paul was “speaking intolerable truths. Understandably, Republicans do not want him back, telling the country how the party blundered into this misbegotten war.”

Paul, for his part, thinks his view is commonsensical. “This is a very Republican position,” he told me. “I just think the Republicans can’t win unless they change their policy on Iraq.”

Before Paul became an antiwar hero, his support consisted largely of libertarian activists people like Michael Badnarik, the Libertarian Party’s 2004 presidential nominee. Badnarik refuses to get a driver’s license (even though, he conceded to me, “I have my car operational”) and warns against anyone who might try to force a smallpox or anthrax vaccination on him. (“You bring the syringe, I’ll bring my .45, and we’ll see who makes a bigger hole.”) Badnarik recounts rallying support for Paul at a recent conference of the Free State Project, a group of libertarians who have relocated to New Hampshire in the hope of concentrating their power and more or less taking over the state government. “I asked how many people would drive without a license and not pay income taxes, and three-quarters raised their hands,” Badnarik recalls. “I’m choking up. I’ve got my heart in my throat. And I said, ‘We need to do something and Ron Paul’s campaign is the shining star. We need to contribute the full two thousand dollars now. Tell all your friends.'”

More here:

Ron Paul, Rising Political Star – CBS News

Ron Paul: Tea Party 07

http://www.teaparty07.com

Ron Paul Tea Party ’07

On November 5th, 2007, we raised 4.38 million dollars for Ron Paul. It is the largest single-day online political donation in United States history. On December 16, 1773, the Boston Tea party marked the beginning of the American Revolution. On the anniversary of that fateful day, December 16, 2007, we will show our powerful support for Dr. Ron Paul again. Be a part of the Revolution. Please join us this December 16th for the largest one-day political donation even in history.

Digg this video!

http://digg.com/politics/Ron_Paul_Tea…

Ron Paul for President 2008

http://www.ronpaul2008.com

More:

Ron Paul: Tea Party 07

Ron Paul | American politician | Britannica.com

Ron Paul, byname of Ronald Ernest Paul, (born August 20, 1935, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.), American politician, who served as a Republican member of the U.S. House of Representatives (197677, 197985, 19972013) and who unsuccessfully ran as the 1988 Libertarian presidential candidate. He later sought the Republican nomination for president in 2008 and 2012.

Paul grew up on his familys dairy farm just outside Pittsburgh. He earned a bachelors degree in biology from Gettysburg College in 1957 and a medical degree from Duke University, in Durham, North Carolina, in 1961. He later served as a flight surgeon for the U.S. Air Force (196365) and the Air National Guard (196568). In 1968 Paul moved to Brazoria county, Texas, where he established a successful practice in obstetrics and gynecology.

Paul was inspired to enter politics in 1971 when Pres. Richard M. Nixon abolished the Bretton Woods exchange system. Paul believed that the abandonment of the last vestiges of the gold standard would lead to financial ruin for the United States. Though he was unsuccessful in his initial run for the U.S. House of Representatives in 1974, his opponent resigned before completing his term, and Paul won a special election to complete it. He lost the seat in the subsequent general election, only to regain it two years later. He chose not to seek reelection in 1984 and instead campaignedunsuccessfullyfor the Republican nomination for U.S. Senate. He broke from the Republican Party to run as a Libertarian in the 1988 presidential election, ultimately winning more than 430,000 votes. He returned to the U.S. House of Representatives as a Republican in 1997, though his votes were often at variance with the majority of his party; for example, in the early 2000s he voted against authorizing the Iraq War and the USA Patriot Act.

Pauls presidential campaign platform remained libertarian in spirit. It focused on free-market economics, a radical reduction in the size of government, increased privacy protections for individuals, and a reduction of U.S. participation in international organizations. Having claimed only a handful of delegates, he ended his bid for the White House in June 2008 and launched Campaign for Liberty, a political action committee. In April 2011 Paul, who was popular within the Tea Party movement, formed an exploratory committee to assess the viability of a third presidential run. The following month he formally announced his candidacy. In July 2011, in order to focus on his presidential campaign, Paul announced that he would not seek a 13th term in Congress. Although supported by a devoted and energized base, Paul was selective in the states where he actively campaigned. A second-place showing in New Hampshire was among his best performances in January 2012. He garnered a number of other second-place finishes before announcing in May that he would not campaign in the remaining states. Paul did not endorse the Republican nominee, Mitt Romney, and said on the night of the general election that he believed the only winner would be the status quo. He retired from the House in January 2013, at the age of 77.

Pauls views are outlined in Freedom Under Siege (1987), A Foreign Policy of Freedom (2007), and The Revolution: A Manifesto (2008).

Read the original post:

Ron Paul | American politician | Britannica.com

Ron Paul – Reckless Congress Declares War on Russia by Ron …

Reckless Congress Declares War on Russia by Ron Paul. Today the US House passed what I consider to be one of the worst pieces of legislation ever. H. Res. 758 was billed as a resolution strongly condemning the actions of the Russian Federation, under President Vladimir Putin, which has carried out a policy of aggression against neighboring countries aimed at political and economic …

Go here to see the original:

Ron Paul – Reckless Congress Declares War on Russia by Ron …

Nanoengineering – Wikipedia

Nanoengineering is the practice of engineering on the nanoscale. It derives its name from the nanometre, a unit of measurement equalling one billionth of a meter.

Nanoengineering is largely a synonym for nanotechnology, but emphasizes the engineering rather than the pure science aspects of the field.

The first nanoengineering program was started at the University of Toronto within the Engineering Science program as one of the options of study in the final years. In 2003, the Lund Institute of Technology started a program in Nanoengineering. In 2004, the College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering at SUNY Polytechnic Institute was established on the campus of the University at Albany. In 2005, the University of Waterloo established a unique program which offers a full degree in Nanotechnology Engineering. [1] Louisiana Tech University started the first program in the U.S. in 2005. In 2006 the University of Duisburg-Essen started a Bachelor and a Master program NanoEngineering. [2] Unlike early NanoEngineering programs, the first Nanoengineering Department in the world, offering both undergraduate and graduate degrees, was established by the University of California, San Diego in 2007.In 2009, the University of Toronto began offering all Options of study in Engineering Science as degrees, bringing the second nanoengineering degree to Canada. Rice University established in 2016 a Department of Materials Science and NanoEngineering (MSNE).DTU Nanotech – the Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology – is a department at the Technical University of Denmark established in 1990.

In 2013, Wayne State University began offering a Nanoengineering Undergraduate Certificate Program, which is funded by a Nanoengineering Undergraduate Education (NUE) grant from the National Science Foundation. The primary goal is to offer specialized undergraduate training in nanotechnology. Other goals are: 1) to teach emerging technologies at the undergraduate level, 2) to train a new adaptive workforce, and 3) to retrain working engineers and professionals.[3]

Continued here:

Nanoengineering – Wikipedia

Undergraduate Degree Programs | NanoEngineering

The Department of NanoEngineering offers undergraduate programs leading to theB.S. degreesinNanoengineeringandChemical Engineering. The Chemical Engineering and NanoEngineering undergraduate programs areaccredited by the Engineering Accreditation Commission of ABET. The undergraduate degree programs focus on integrating the various sciences and engineering disciplines necessary for successful careers in the evolving nanotechnology industry.These two degree programshave very different requirements and are described in separate sections.

B.S. NanoEngineering

TheNanoEngineering Undergraduate Program became effective Fall 2010.Thismajor focuses on nanoscale science, engineering, and technology that have the potential to make valuable advances in different areas that include, to name a few, new materials, biology and medicine, energy conversion, sensors, and environmental remediation. The program includes affiliated faculty from the Department of NanoEngineering, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, and the Department of Bioengineering. The NanoEngineering undergraduate program is tailored to provide breadth and flexibility by taking advantage of the strength of basic sciences and other engineering disciplines at UC San Diego. The intention is to graduate nanoengineers who are multidisciplinary and can work in a broad spectrum of industries.

B.S. Chemical Engineering

The Chemical Engineering undergraduate program is housed within the NanoEngineering Department. The program is made up of faculty from the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, the Department of Bioengineering and the Department of NanoEngineering. The curricula at both the undergraduate and graduate levels are designed to support and foster chemical engineering as a profession that interfaces engineering and all aspects of basic sciences (physics, chemistry, and biology). As of Fall 2008, the Department of NanoEngineering has taken over the administration of the B.S. degree in Chemical Engineering.

Academic Advising

Upon admission to the major, students should consult the catalog or NanoEngineering website for their program of study, and their undergraduate/graduate advisor if they have questions. Because some course and/or curricular changes may be made every year, it is imperative that students consult with the departments student affairs advisors on an annual basis.

Students can meet with the academic advisors during walk-in hours, schedule an appointment, or send messages through the Virtual Advising Center (VAC).

Program Alterations/Exceptions to Requirements

Variations from or exceptions to any program or course requirements are possible only if the Undergraduate Affairs Committee approves a petition before the courses in question are taken.

Independent Study

Students may take NANO 199 or CENG 199, Independent Study for Undergraduates, under the guidance of a NANO or CENG faculty member. This course is taken as an elective on a P/NP basis. Under very restrictive conditions, however, it may be used to satisfy upper-division Technical Elective or Nanoengineering Elective course requirements for the major. Students interested in this alternative must have completed at least 90 units and earned a UCSD cumulative GPA of 3.0 or better. Eligible students must identify a faculty member with whom they wish to work and propose a two-quarter research or study topic. Please visit the Student Affairs office for more information.

Read more:

Undergraduate Degree Programs | NanoEngineering

UC San Diego NanoEngineering Department

The NanoEngineering program has received accreditation by the Accreditation Commission of ABET, the global accreditor of college and university programs in applied and natural science, computing, engineering and engineering technology. UC San Diego’s NanoEngineering program is the first of its kind in the nation to receive this accreditation. Our NanoEngineering students can feel confident that their education meets global standards and that they will be prepared to enter the workforce worldwide.

ABET accreditation assures that programs meet standards to produce graduates ready to enter critical technical fields that are leading the way in innovation and emerging technologies, and anticipating the welfare and safety needs of the public. Please visit the ABET website for more information on why accreditation matters.

Congratulations to the NanoEngineering department and students!

Read the original post:

UC San Diego NanoEngineering Department

About the NANO-ENGINEERING FLAGSHIP

Turning the NaI concept into reality necessitates an extraordinary and long-term effort. This requires the integration of nanoelectronics, nanophotonics, nanophononics, nanospintronics, topological effects, as well as the physics and chemistry of materials. This also requires operations in an extremely broad range of science and technology, including Microwaves, Millimeter waves, TeraHertz, Infrared and Optics, and will exploit various excitations, such as surface waves, spin waves, phonons, electrons, photons, plasmons, and their hybrids, for sensing, information processing and storage. Integrating

This high level of integration, which goes beyond individual functionalities, components and devices and requires cooperation across a range of disciplines, makes the Nano Engineering Flagship unique in its approach. It will be crucial in tackling the 6 strategic challenges identified as:

See more here:

About the NANO-ENGINEERING FLAGSHIP

The NANO-ENGINEERING FLAGSHIP initiative

Nano-Engineering introduces a novel key-enabling non-invasive broadband technology, the Nano-engineered Interface (NaI), realising omni -connectivity and putting humans and their interactions at the center of the future digital society.Omni-connectivity encompasses real-time communication, sensing, monitoring, and data processing among humans, objects, and their environment. The vision of Omni-connectivity englobes people in a new sphere of extremely simplified, intuitive and natural communication.The Nano-engineered Interface (NaI) a non-invasive wireless ultraflat functional system will make this possible. NaI will be applicable to any surface on any physical item and thereby exponentially diversify and increase connections among humans, wearables, vehicles, and everyday objects. NaI will communicate with other NaI-networks from local up to satellites by using the whole frequency spectrum from microwave frequency to optics

Go here to see the original:

The NANO-ENGINEERING FLAGSHIP initiative

NETS – What are Nanoengineering and Nanotechnology?

is one billionth of a meter, or three to five atoms in width. It would take approximately 40,000 nanometers lined up in a row to equal the width of a human hair. NanoEngineering concerns itself with manipulating processes that occur on the scale of 1-100 nanometers.

The general term, nanotechnology, is sometimes used to refer to common products that have improved properties due to being fortified with nanoscale materials. One example is nano-improved tooth-colored enamel, as used by dentists for fillings. The general use of the term nanotechnology then differs from the more specific sciences that fall under its heading.

NanoEngineering is an interdisciplinary science that builds biochemical structures smaller than bacterium, which function like microscopic factories. This is possible by utilizing basic biochemical processes at the atomic or molecular level. In simple terms, molecules interact through natural processes, and NanoEngineering takes advantage of those processes by direct manipulation.

SOURCE:http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-nanoengineering.htm

More here:

NETS – What are Nanoengineering and Nanotechnology?


12345...10...