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Who Is Ayn Rand? – The Objective Standard

Ayn Rand (19051982) was an American novelist and philosopher, and the creator of Objectivism, which she called a philosophy for living on earth.

Rands most widely read novels are The Fountainhead, a story about an independent and uncompromising architect; and Atlas Shrugged, a story about the role of the mind in human life and about what happens to the world when the thinkers and producers mysteriously disappear. Her most popular nonfiction books are The Virtue of Selfishness, a series of essays about the foundations and principles of the morality of self-interest; and Capitalism: The Unknown Ideal, a series of essays about what capitalism is and why it is the only moral social system.

Rand was born in Russia, where she attended grade school and university; studied history, philosophy, and screenwriting; and witnessed the Bolshevik Revolution and the birth of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. In 1925, she left the burgeoning communist state, telling Soviet authorities she was going for a brief visit with relatives in America, and never returned.

She soon made her way to Hollywood, where she worked as a screenwriter, married actor Frank OConnor, and wrote her first novel, We The Living. She then moved to New York City, where she wrote Anthem (a novelette), The Fountainhead, Atlas Shrugged, numerous articles and essays, and several nonfiction books in which she defined and elaborated the principles of Objectivism.

Rands staunch advocacy of reason (as against faith and whim), self-interest (as against self-sacrifice), individualism and individual rights (as against collectivism and group rights), and capitalism (as against all forms of statism) make her both the most controversial and most important philosopher of the 20th century.

Describing Objectivism, Rand wrote: My philosophy, in essence, is the concept of man as a heroic being, with his own happiness as the moral purpose of his life, with productive achievement as his noblest activity, and reason as his only absolute.

For a good biography of Rand, see Jeffery Brittings Ayn Rand or Scott McConnells 100 Voices: An Oral History of Ayn Rand. For a brief presentation of the principles of Objectivism, see What is Objectivism? For the application of these principles to cultural and political issues of the day, subscribe to The Objective Standard, the preeminent source for commentary from an Objectivist perspective.

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Who Is Ayn Rand? - The Objective Standard

OPINION: Hateful, and then some | Cit – Independent Tribune

Nancy Pelosi says she doesnt hate anybody, and I have no reason to doubt her. She said so a few weeks ago in response to a reporter who asked why she hates Donald Trump. She cited her Catholicism for the conviction that hate has no place in human interactions. I am no longer a Catholic, but I am a liberal, so I think I understand how it works. I, too, if I am to maintain an honest self-awareness, do not hate the actual man so much as perceive what a grasping, transparently insecure, pathetic man-baby he is and always has been; but I hate every single thing he has done to my fellow citizens, and everything he seems poised to do. I not only want him out: I think he deserves prison.

If Im to talk honestly about my emotional and physiological response to the sight and sound of Donald Trump, it requires the airing of a long list of complaints encompassing not only what he does, but who he is; his projections of self upon our political and social landscape. I found I disliked him initially when he was just a bankrupt, two-bit showman and poseur with an unfathomable appeal to people who aspire to his level of vulgarity and ostentation. To me, hes a cartoon realization of what underprivileged people think a tycoon must be; an Ayn Rand captain of industry gone berserk.

My disrespect for the man is comprehensive. Im repelled by him for glibly mocking fellow humans at every turn, including all women, people with disabilities, anyone of non-European extraction, and any actual Europeans who fail to flatter him. I disdain him for his refusal or inability to learn, or to understand what he needs to learn; for his dismissal of science, his repeated attacks on the honest press, his frank racism and eagerness to inflame the worst racist hearts, his cruelty, his bottomless ignorance, his casual undermining of the very structure of democracy solely to enshrine himself as the biggest pig at the trough; for endangering the lives of desperate refugees; for sucking up to the worst dictators in the world; for lies and misrepresentation, at all times and about everything; for enriching himself and his entitled spawn at the expense of the American people; for dividing Americans at every opportunity; for false religiosity; for favoring the insatiable desires of billionaires over the needs of the people; for attacking public service; for open-faced corruption; for endangering our republic, spewing propaganda created by our adversaries, ballooning our debt and for his ridiculous haircut. All of it.

And most of all, I deplore him and every other member of the Republican Party for failing to rise to the most existential threat we have ever faced, an environmental catastrophe of our own making, a challenge for which they have not only failed to provide any leadership whatsoever, but have dedicated themselves to making things worse, sooner. That sort of ignorance deserves active and relentless derision. Trump and his Republicans have become insurgent outliers in American politics. They are ideologically extreme; scornful of compromise; unmoved by conventional understanding of facts, evidence and science; and dismissive of the legitimacy of their political opposition. The impending doom from the inaction of these institutionally obtuse Trumpites will be famine and drought, the collapse of the oceans, the deepening worldwide refugee crisis, looming wars over resources and territory, epidemics and spread of disease, and extinctions; and all of it sooner than we previously feared. All of it is on Trump, and on Republicans, every last feckless one of them.

Trump is a man so uneducated and, frankly, stupid that he either believes there is no crisis as long as he still has a bedroom thermostat, or he doesnt give a tinkers curse as long as hes still rich. His sole claim to respect comes from his Machiavellian self-preservation. But even this is in peril as Sen. Lisa Murkowski, and others, ask questions about the fairness of Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnells proposed approach to the impeachment trial. We cant impeach him for hatefulness or stupidity. We can, however, impeach him for corruption, for obstruction, for abuse of power all of it blatant and uncontested. In the pestilent cesspool of stupid that is the Republican defense of Donald J. Trump, the stupidest thing being said is that liberals are trying to undo his election because we hate him. If that actually did it for us, wed be the luckiest group of voters in the world.

Gerry Dionne is a writer, musician and coffee-table philosopher who moved to our area when he was 18. Hes in his 70s now, so yall give him a break.

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OPINION: Hateful, and then some | Cit - Independent Tribune

Bike about Vice City in GTA V with this mod – Rock Paper Shotgun

Theres always a man, a lighthouse, and a city. Sometimes, those cities are sucked from 2002 and splatted into modern videogames, like the Vice Cry: Remastered mod that takes the Grand Theft Auto: Vice City map and plops it into Grand Theft Auto V. Bet Ayn Rand didnt see that one coming.

The mods been floating about for years but only recently hit version 1.0. It started life as a makeover mod for the original Vice City, so in theory its a better version even before GTA Vs technobits.

Heres a trailer, which confusingly features remade cutscenes from Vice Citys singleplayer campaign that you cant play with the mod you only get to muck about with the map, and some homemade missions. GTA is obviously at its best when youre just larking about with trucks and drawbridges, so I wouldnt worry.

I say obviously, despite not having played any of Vice City. Six-year-old me was sadly deprived of gang violence. And these excellent fish.

The download page promises a full port of the original mod, plus modern enhancements I dont understand but would gladly sign up for. MLO interiors. Instanced Grass. Pour it all over me.

Youll need to faff around a tad with other, supporting mods, and faff a tad further if you want the cars to be authentically 80s.

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Bike about Vice City in GTA V with this mod - Rock Paper Shotgun

EDITORIAL: What next? – Washington Times

ANALYSIS/OPINION:

The beginning of a new year is a time to take stock in ourselves, to revise our goals and plans for the future, and to hope against hope the coming year will be better than the last. Frankly, there are lots of reasons for optimism. The economy is humming. The United States is as close to full employment as it is ever likely to get and, now that Federal Reserve Chairman Jay Powell has concluded things arent overheating and theres no need for a hike in interest rates to cool things off, growth and expansion should continue.

The beginning of a new decade, as this also is, presents an opportunity to take stock in the kind of nation we are and want to be in the future. Thats healthy, even as the rhetoric flies, reckless, hot, fast and furious out of our televisions and across our computer screens and smartphones. Theres a lot at stake. America is still, as Lincoln put it succinctly in his 1862 State of the Union message, the last, best hope of earth. We have to decide, all 300 million-plus of us, what kind of nation we want to be.

In that regard, there are warning signs many of us want to break significantly with the past. America was established as a place where the right of conscience was not only respected but protected, and not just in some ambiguous, amorphous way derived from traditions going back centuries as in England. Here, the founders took steps to ensure the right of conscience was enshrined in written law so that no man or woman could be forced to think as the government dictated.

That concept grew beyond the government to become a dominant theme in our common culture. As a nation, we are rightfully proud of what some call our free speech culture in which ordinary people can, as it was popularly put not all that long ago, speak truth to power without fear or reprisal.

That appears to be changing. The concept of victimization as embraced by the American left as a political organizing tool and path to power is an inherent assault on our individual right of conscience. All ideas are still said to be equal, as George Orwell might observe if he were writing today, but some ideas have become more equal than others. At Americas colleges and universities, there are countless examples of groupthink where debates over political, moral, and social issues have run freedom of expressed thought to ground, in many cases with the active assistance of university leaders.

Some might call that tyranny and, if it indeed is, be warned that it is spreading to all aspects of American life. Where no less a person than Hillary Rodham Clinton asserted during her husbands presidency that dissent was patriotic, thoughts deviating from so-called cultural norms expressed by the major and social media are now considered dangerous.

It is fair to ask now as we begin the decade in which the sester- or semiquincentennial of the American experiment will be celebrated what kind of a nation we want to be in the future. Do we still want the right of conscience to occupy its position of prominence atop the list of enumerated rights we enjoy? Do we expect or even want free men and women to still be able to think for themselves? Or are those intent on remaking the American system have it in mind to impose some kind of official or quasi-official standard against which the acceptability of thoughts expressed shall be measured? There are hints abundant that they do.

These questions matter as we debate seemingly mundane things like the responsibility of social media platforms for user-posted content and the requirement of non-for-profit groups engaged in issue advocacy to disclose their funding sources to the government. For most of its history, America has been a place where we have many times accepted that people have an intrinsic right to be wrong. There are a few notable exceptions none of us should forget that add fire to the arguments of those who would disagree with that premise. Yet we know from experience the government cannot make people virtuous. As people as varied as Hannah Arendt and Ayn Rand have observed, a government powerful enough to make people believe something is one with enough power to force people to believe, contrary to their personal knowledge and better judgment, that A is B.

We saw plenty of that in the last century. It always ended badly. Let us now, as we move into the future, be boundless in our optimism and continue to respect our traditions of decent respect for the various opinions of man and womankind. The right to be wrong may someday turn out to be the most important right we have.

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EDITORIAL: What next? - Washington Times

The notion of victory and other reasons people (politicians) tell lies | By Godwin Uche Uwadilachi – Qwenu!

People think that a liar gains a victory over his victim. What Ive learned is that a lie is an act of self-abdication, because it surrenders ones reality to the person to whom one lies, making that person ones master, condemning oneself from then on to faking the sort of reality that persons view requires to be faked. And if one gains the immediate purpose of the lie the price one pays is the destruction of what the gain was intended to serve (Ayn Rand, 1957 Atlas Shrugged).

I participated as an ad-hoc staff in the last Nigerian presidential general elections. It was one hell of an experience, one I never hoped to have acquired. Before arriving at our polling unit, my colleagues and I, I might have thought about some anomalies before, during or after the election, but I never imagined something so outrageous would happen to us.

When we arrived and had set up all we needed to run a smooth electoral process, a countless number of youths who seemed more like thugs invaded the vicinity ranting and sweating. With their bloodshot eyes, some were holding sticks, some had daggers tucked into the back of their trousers, some smoking nothing short of hemp and marijuana.

They swore that no election would hold, and no one was leaving that place. It was almost like a hostage situation, and much so, though we werent bonded with ropes nor chains and werent locked up in a dark, unventilated room. Their anger was tied to the previous failed promises of some political leaders: they had promised them money (this was their utmost priority), they had promised them jobs; a better life.

They had failed to honour those promises and now, they wanted their votes? Thats not happening! They lit a big fire at a close end to stress how seriously they meant to beat nonsense out of us and set us together with our materials on fire if we dared do anything without their permission. Truly, we had nothing to do with this, we were innocent, poor us that had just come to carry out our duties.

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But they felt they had to do something, they wanted to express themselves, to send a capital signal because they were hurt by the lies, the empty promises. And in their prejudiced thoughts, the only way they could get back at the government was by hurting us. After all, we were the governments children, we were corps members.

Lies have their ways of making the unimaginable happen. The tiniest lie that proves itself to not mater at the moment could wreak severe havoc sooner or later. It is on the foundation of lies that trust is broken, and of course, this is the commonest of all the upshots of telling lies. But before I dive into these effects, there are reasons people tell lies and these reasons one way or another are linked to the notion of victory. Ayn Rand (1957), says people think that is to say, if people think, it means also that the liar thinks the same victory. But the question is; what kind of victory?

Victory, regardless of how little is the aim of most people, if not all. It could be a major, minor and sometimes even an unconscious aim. But commonly, people want to gain the victory of being held with high esteem, of being accorded so much value even if they have to debunk the necessary sacrifices of attaining such position. People want to be loved, they love to be looked up to and hate being looked at as bad people, so they lie.

The government is for the people and has a responsibility of fostering equity, justice, peace and development. In Nigeria today, the quest for victory (power) this victory that is as sweet as honey on a little finger has turned the political ground into a city of war with weapons of lies, deceit and even bloodshed. It is almost common now that whatsoever that proceed out of the mouths of these people vying for places of authority are always false. They tell lies because they are desperate and of course they gain victory over those to whom they lie. Yes, they do. Almost all the time. Because we believe them, we do what they want: hate each other, curse each other, carry weapons, fight each other and later face disappointments.

Lies do not just eventually break trusts, they destroy nations. Nigeria is almost in chaos now because of the lies that have been told; parents lie to their children, religious leaders lie to their subjects, political leaders lie to the people they are sworn to protect. We have been brainwashed that we cannot coexist together, why? Because each of us in our sectionals has been misled into believing that the other is the enemy. Instead of protecting the present and watering the ground for the future, we dwell on the false pasts which compel us to destroy the present and even unpluck the future from coming into existence.

A nation without a future is doomed. And a nation in which people who are expected to uphold the truth guard it as sacred and pass it down to generations as a legacy do otherwise, has no hope. Regardless of what people want to achieve, regardless of whether or not they would be loved, regardless of whether or not they would be held with high esteem, the truth should always be the foundation on which they stand because the bitterest truth told is better than the sweetest of lies.

If this is so, what then is a victory gained on the basis of lies when in the end the price that is paid is destruction? It then means that truth is the orchestrator of actual victory, not lies.

A third term for President Buhari: an agenda taken too far by many | By Albert Igbebina

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The notion of victory and other reasons people (politicians) tell lies | By Godwin Uche Uwadilachi - Qwenu!

Ayn Rand – – Biography

Who Was Ayn Rand?

Born in Russia in 1905, Ayn Rand moved to the United States in 1926 and tried to establish herself in Hollywood. Her first novel, We the Living (1936), championed her rejection of collectivist values in favor of individual self interest, a belief that became more explicit with her subsequent novels The Fountainhead (1943) and Atlas Shrugged (1957). Following the immense success of the latter, Rand promoted her philosophy of Objectivism through courses, lectures and literature. She died in New York City on March 6, 1982.

Ayn Rand was born Alissa Zinovievna Rosenbaum on February 2, 1905, in St. Petersburg, Russia. The oldest daughter of Jewish parents (and eventually an avowed atheist), she spent her early years in comfort thanks to her dad's success as a pharmacist, proving a brilliant student.

In 1917, her father's shop was suddenly seized by Bolshevik soldiers, forcing the family to resume life in poverty in the Crimea. The situation profoundly impacted young Alissa, who developed strong feelings toward government intrusion into individual livelihood. She returned to her city of birth to attend the University of Petrograd, graduating in 1924, and then enrolled at the State Institute for Cinema Arts to study screenwriting.

Granted a visa to visit relatives in Chicago, Alissa left for the United States in early 1926, never to look back. She took on her soon-to-be-famous pen name and, after a few months in Chicago, moved to Hollywood to become a screenwriter.

Following a chance encounter with Hollywood titan Cecil B. DeMille, Rand became an extra on the set of his 1927 film The King of Kings, where she met actor Frank O'Connor. They married in 1929, and she became an American citizen in 1931.

Rand landed a job as a clerk at RKO Pictures, eventually rising to head of the wardrobe department, and continued developing her craft as a writer. In 1932, she sold her screenplay Red Pawn, a Soviet romantic thriller, to Universal Studios. She soon completed a courtroom drama called Penthouse Legend, which featured the gimmick of audience members serving as the jury. In late 1934, Rand and her husband moved to New York City for its production, now renamed Night of January 16th.

Around this time, Rand also completed her first novel, We the Living. Published in 1936 after several rejections, We the Living championed the moral authority of the individual through its heroine's battles with a Soviet totalitarian state. Rand followed with the novella Anthem (1938), about a future collectivist dystopia in which "I" has been stamped out of the language.

In 1937, Rand began researching a new novel by working for New York architect Ely Jacques Kahn. The result, after years of writing and more rejections, was The Fountainhead. Underscoring Rands individualistic underpinnings, the books hero, architect Howard Roark, refuses to adhere to conventions, going so far as to blowing up one of his own creations. While not an immediate success, The Fountainhead eventually achieved strong sales, and at the end of the decade became a feature film, with Gary Cooper in the role of Roark.

Rand's ideas became even more explicit with the 1957 publication of Atlas Shrugged. A massive work of more than 1,000 pages, Atlas Shrugged portrays a future in which leading industrialists drop out of a collectivist society that exploits their talents, culminating with a notoriously lengthy speech by protagonist John Galt. The novel drew some harsh reviews, but became an immediate best seller.

Around 1950, Rand met with a college student named Nathan Blumenthal, who changed his name to Nathaniel Braden and became the author's designated heir. Along with his wife, Barbara, Braden formed a group that met at Rand's apartment to engage in intellectual discussions. The group, which included future Federal Reserve Chairman Alan Greenspan, called itself the Collective, or the Class of '43 (the publication year of The Fountainhead).

Rand soon honed her philosophy of what she termed "Objectivism": a belief in a concrete reality, from which individuals can discern existing truths, and the ultimate moral value of the pursuit of self interest. The development of this system essentially ended her career as a novelist: In 1958, the Nathaniel Branden Institute formed to spread her message through lectures, courses and literature, and in 1962, the author and her top disciple launched The Objectivist Newsletter. Her books during this period, including For the New Intellectual (1961) and Capitalism: The Unknown Ideal (1966), were primarily comprised of previously published essays and other works.

Following a public split with Braden, the author published The Romantic Manifesto (1969), a series of essays on the cultural importance of art, and repackaged her newsletter as The Ayn Rand Letter. She continued traveling to give lectures, though she was slowed by an operation for lung cancer. In 1979, she published a collection of articles in Introduction to Objectivist Epistemology, which included an essay from protg Leonard Peikoff.

Rand was working on a television adaptation of Atlas Shrugged when she died of heart failure at her home in New York City on March 6, 1982.

Although she weathered criticism for her perceived literary shortcomings and philosophical arguments, Rand undeniably left her mark on the Western culture she embraced. In 1985, Peikoff founded the Ayn Rand Institute to continue her teachings. The following year, Braden's ex-wife, Barbara, published a tell-all memoir, The Passion of Ayn Rand, which later was made into a movie starring Helen Mirren.

Interest in Rand's works resurfaced alongside the rise of the Tea Party movement during President Barack Obama's administration, with leading political proponents like Rand Paul and Ted Cruz proclaiming their admiration for the author. In 2010, the Ayn Rand Institute announced that more than 500,000 copies of Atlas Shrugged had been sold the previous year.

In 2017,Tony-winning director Ivo van Hove reintroduced The Fountainhead to the American public with a production at the Brooklyn Academy of Music. Having originated at Toneelgroep Amsterdam in the Netherlands, van Hove's version featured his performers speaking in Dutch, with their words projected onto a screen in English.

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Ayn Rand - - Biography

Understanding Ayn Rand’s Rejection of Faith

Even among the non-religious, deep religious faith is often portrayed as a strength and a source of comfort. But theres at least one atheist who had a diametrically opposite view of the value of religious faith. Ayn Rand was a staunch advocate of reason and an opponent of faith. Consider this passage of hers from the climactic speech near the end of Atlas Shrugged:

To make sense of why Rand would have been so uncompromising in her opposition to faith, it is helpful to explore her distinctive view of what faith demands.

As I discussed in a recent webinar, Should I Go by Reason or by Faith?, theres much confusion about what faith actually means. For instance, I argue that faith is not the same thing as trusting other people: we can sometimes have good reason to trust other people. At minimum, faith means accepting something as true without reason or evidence.

One believes on faith not out of some positive internal joy, but out of fear of a negative.

Somewhere in the distant reaches of his childhood, when his own understanding of reality clashed with the assertions of others, with their arbitrary orders and contradictory demands, [a mystic is a man who] . . . gave in to so craven a fear of independence that he renounced his rational faculty. At the crossroads of the choice between I know and They say, he chose the authority of others, he chose to submit rather than to understand, to believe rather than to think. Faith in the supernatural begins as faith in the superiority of others.1

One thing that I think makes this view of faith plausible is that it helps to explain why many people have the religious beliefs they do. Why, for instance, are there so many Muslims in the Middle East? Have all or even most of them carefully compared different religious texts and faith traditions and coincidentally decided that the Koran is the most reliable? Or did they simply uncritically accept what they were raised to believe? The latter is far more likely. Obviously the same explanation applies to Hindus in India, Jews in Israel, and Christians in contemporary America.

READ ALSO: Ben Bayer on Arbitrary Speculation and Religious Faith

All of this should help clarify why faith cannot be a source of strength or comfort in Rands view. There is nothing empowering or comforting about living a life shackled to ones tribe, a life of surrendering the I know to the they say. Neither is deceiving oneself into thinking one is actually peering at eternal truths with the help of an inner light. This is why Rand thought it was crucial that we go by reason all the time and never by faith.

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Footnotes

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Understanding Ayn Rand's Rejection of Faith

Gordon Sondland: 5 things to know – Fox News

Gordon Sondland, theEU ambassador, finds himself at the center of Wednesdays impeachment inquiry hearings set to take place inWashington. He is considered a key witness, but unpredictable due to hisevolving accounts of how the Trump administration dealt with Ukraine. Before the wealthy businessmanappeared on the scene in D.C., he was a Seattle hotelier and major donor to President Trump. Here arefive other factsabout the 62-year-old.

FAMILY SURVIVED THE HOLOCAUST: Sondland once told the Portland Business Journal that his parents escaped from Nazi Germany. "My mother was able to get out of Nazi Germany because her father was Russian, and those with a Russian passport could leave,"he said. "My father was not so fortunate and he had to be smuggled out of Germany by being tied to the bow of a vegetable freighter that was leaving for the North Sea. He almost lost one leg because it was so cold and he wound up in France."His father went on to fight Nazis in North Africa. His family eventually ended up in Uruguay and moved to Seattle.

POWER COUPLE: Sondland is married to Katherine Durant, a successful Portland real estate broker. The couple wasfeatured in OregonBusiness.com in January about their courtship (she said he wasnt her type at first). Durant, who helpedrun the hotel business while her husband servedoverseas, toldThe Washington Post that the media is not treating her husband fairly. "We live in a world right now where theres no upside to supporting someone like Gordon who isworking for Trump; its a mob."

AYN RAND INFLUENCE: Sondland is a fan of Ayn Rand, the author of "The Fountainhead"and "Atlas Shrugged."President Trump is also a fan of "The Fountainhead." The author died in 1982.

ATTRACTION TO PEOPLE WITH POWER: An associate of Ted Kulongoski, the former governor of Oregon, told Fortune that Sondland works hard to ingratiate himself with influential people. Sondland is a major Republican donor and a divining rod for people with political power, the source said. If you walk into a crowded room and you're looking for the most powerful person, look for Gordon, because you know he's tall and he'll be within 5 feet of them."

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ABANDONED TRUMP: Sondland, who initially supported Jeb Bush in 2016, made a public break from then-candidate Trump after his comments on the Gold Star Muslim family. He went on to donate $1 million to Trumps inauguration through some of his companies, NPR reported.

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Gordon Sondland: 5 things to know - Fox News

Why Selfishness is Necessary – Thrive Global

The title may conjure up the Ayn Randian philosophy of theVirtue of Selfishness or Atlas Shrugged. The article does take some of AynRands philosophy and apply this to todays life. Altruism as defined byAuguste Comte, calls for living for the sake of others. The belief that one must place the welfare ofothers over our own self-interest. That a person must become a sacrificiallamb and self-sacrifice as a value and duty. Other interests are subordinate to your owninterests and its is ones moral obligation to live life in this manner.

Ayn Rands definition of selfishnessis that a person has the right to live for their own self. It does not mean the person can do whateverthey want. Morality and ethics are partof the societys culture and laws that need to be obeyed. The person has a right to live a life ofreason, purpose and self-esteem.

It is not my intention to uphold or debate the RandianPhilosophy, rather make the point that in order to be altruistic a person mustbe selfish. Lets look at the basic needs of the Altruistic person that need tobe met for the Altruist to help others.

Health. Too often we have seen people neglect theirown health in order to make life easier for others. While this may work in the short term,eventually your disregard for your health will catch up with you. The longhours at the office, the second job, unhealthy eating habits, the striving caregiver. The selfish motive of Altruism should be to place your health above allelse as a rational interest, in order to pursue the unselfish goals.

Wealth. There needs to be enough to meet the basicneeds of the Altruist. We have seen the exemplary charitable behavior of BillGates or Warren Buffet who have more to give than most people can imagine. Inorder for the normal person to contribute either in time or money, both ofwhich are interchangeable, there should be a buffer of wealth that allows theperson to contribute in a meaningful way.

Mental Fortitude. The Altruist needs to develop theappropriate mental strength so they can immerse themselves in the aid ofothers. It means at times taking the selfishstep to devote time and energy in their own mental wellbeing. To feed theirsoul with the rest, reflection and recuperation it needs.

To quote Ayn Rand from the Fountainhead: To say I Love You one must know first how to say the I. The I must be self-aware, self-accepting and strong.

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Why Selfishness is Necessary - Thrive Global

Gordon Sondland’s Family: 5 Fast Facts You Need to Know – Heavy.com

YouTubeGordon Sondland's family includes two kids and a wife.

Gordon Sondland, Donald Trumps ambassador to the EU, is a hotelier from the west coast who is the son of parents who escaped the Nazis. He has two children and is married to Katherine Durant, who runs an investment company and with whom hes been described as a power couple.

Sondland is a long-time Republican donor, businessman, and philanthropist (who has at times donated to Democrats) and who has ties to the campaigns of George W. Bush, Jeb Bush, and Mitt Romney. Hes been mixed on Trump over the years, but he did give the presidents inaugural committee $1 million through various companies, and hes now found himself in the midst of the impeachment inquiry.

Sondland attorney, Robert Luskin, told CBS News, Sondland believes strongly that he acted at all times in the best interests of the United States, and he stands ready to answer the Committees questions fully and truthfully.

A video biography created when Sondland became ambassador highlighted his wife and kids:

VideoVideo related to gordon sondlands family: 5 fast facts you need toknow2019-11-20T09:20:19-05:00

Heres what you need to know about Sondlands Family:

Gordon Sondland, the United States Ambassador to the European Union, addresses the media during a press conference at the US Embassy to Romania in Bucharest September 5, 2019.

Sondland is the child of immigrant parents who fled Nazi Germany, according to Politico.

Oregon Live reported that Sondlands parents left Gdansk, now Poland, and his father fought the Nazis in the French Foreign Legion and British Army. The family eventually settled in Uruguay and then Seattle, Washington.

In a video biography put out when he was named ambassador, Sondland said he was born and raised in Seattle, but he was the first in my family who were born in the U.S.

My mother was able to get out of Nazi Germany because her father was Russian, and those with a Russian passport could leave, Sondland said, according to Fox News. My father was not so fortunate and he had to be smuggled out of Germany by being tied to the bow of a vegetable freighter that was leaving for the North Sea. He almost lost one leg because it was so cold and he wound up in France. His father later fought the Nazis in North Africa.

Sondland spoke about his family origins and the Holocaust to Portland Business Review. You can listen to that audio interview here. In it, he explained that his parents married at age 15 and were teenage sweethearts who left Nazi Germany in a very precarious way.

He gave a lengthy tribute to his parents at his nomination hearing, saying, Theirs was a story of intense personal sacrifice, unshakeable spirit and faith, hard work, good luck, and a deep commitmentdevoted in equal parts to the United States and to each other. Having met and married in Berlin in 1938, Gunther and Frieda, and my sister Lucy, unlike so many of their less fortunate relatives were able to flee the scourge of Nazism.

He added:

In 1939, Frieda and Lucy found safe haven in South America, while Gunther promptly volunteered to take up arms against the murderous, authoritarian regime from which theyd just escaped. First, with the French Foreign Legion in Africa, and later with the British Army in Burma. World War II came to a close, and two years later so too did Gunther and Friedas eight-year separation, when they were reunited in Montevideo, Uruguay, in 1947. Along with tens of thousands of other Jews, Gunthers surviving family had sought shelter in Shanghai. Soon, they and Gunther, Frieda, and my sister Lucy found fortunate, permanent refuge in Seattle, Washington, on the Northwestern edge of our great country. Here, they raised their two children, including me, the first of my family ever to claim natural-born citizenship in the United States. Here, they embarked on their own unique American dream, as proud American citizens, eventually starting and running a small successful dry-cleaning business for the next thirty years. Here, they labored, loved, made many friends andhad a positive impact on their community. Here, they never ceased being grateful to the country that had given them hope, safety, and a new beginning. Gunther and Frieda fought hard for their American citizenship. They cherished it. They nurtured it. And, they marinated me and my sister Lucy in it. They bequeathed to us neither riches nor property, but something much more treasured: an abiding respect for industry, determination, and self-sufficiency; a deep love of God, family, and country this country in particular; faith in the rule of law; and, finally, the certainty that self-governance is essential to happiness, prosperity and true liberty.

GettyUS Ambassador to the EU Gordon Sondland (L) and European Commission Vice President Maros Sefcovic talk with to reporters aboard Air Force One May 14, 2019, in Louisiana.

Sondland has gone back and forth on Trump over the years, and hes regarded as more of an establishment Republican who is a fan of the free market and Ayn Rand.

Sondland spoke about Trump to a Politico podcast in which he also advocated for the free market. Hes a hell of a lot of fun, Sondland said, of Trump, indicating that he thinks Europeans have been too hard on the president. I think they would enjoy his company.

However, according to Oregon Live, after initially supporting Trump during his run for president once Trump was the Republican nominee, Sondland and his wife broke with Trump when he criticized Gold Star Father Khizr Khan. Trumps constantly evolving positions diverge from their personal beliefs and values on so many levels, their spokesperson said, according to Oregon Live.

At that time, a spokesperson for Sondland cited his parents experiences, saying they were persecuted for their faith.

The spokesperson also said, according to Willamette Week: Mr. Sondland is a first generation American whose parents were forced to flee Germany during the years leading up to World War II because they were persecuted for their faithHistorically, Mr. Sondland has been supportive of the Republican partys nominees for President. However, in light of Mr. Trumps treatment of the Khan family and the fact his constantly evolving positions diverge from their personal beliefs and values on so many levels, neither Mr. Sondland or Mr. Wali can support his candidacy.

Sondland, chairman of Provenance Hotels and based in Oregon and Washington, later changed his mind and became a major donor to Trumps inaugural committee.

Sondland and his wife run the Sondland Durant Foundation. Its website says The Gordon D. Sondland and Katherine J. Durant Foundation was founded in 1999 by Gordon Sondland & Katherine Durant. The organizations supported by the Foundation include the Portland Art Museum, OMSI, OHSU, New Avenues for Youth, Oregon Ballet Theatre, the Portland Parks Foundation.

The foundations mission is described as Helping Families & Boosting Communities. Sondlands wife, who is also called Katy, holds a Bachelor of Science in Business form Pepperdine University as well as an MBA in Finance from Willamette University, according to the foundations website. Max and Lucy Sondland are also listed on the website. They are both college students.

In 2018, in his statement after being nominated as ambassador, Sondland said of his wife, Shes a formidable success in business, as well as in our home, and shes been an enduring source of strength and humbling, smart advice since the day I was fortunate to meet her nearly 30 years ago.

The foundation website lists these boards for Durant: Pratt School of Engineering Board of Visitors at Duke University; Portland Art Museum Board of Directors and Executive Committee, Chair of the Investment Committee; Jesuit High School Board of Trustees; Elevate Oregon Board of Directors.

Sondlands website lists him as serving on the following boards: Sanford School Board of Visitors at Duke University; Oregon Health & Science University Foundation; U.S. Bancorp Washington State Advisory Board; National Finance Co-Chairman; George W. Bush Center.

Sondlands wife is also involved in real estate investment.

YouTubeGordon Sondland and his wife, Katherine Durant.

Both Sondlands described to Oregon Business how they met. I flew to Portland to look at a building Katy was marketing. My friend and mentor Howard S. Wright counseled me against the investment but advised me to keep in touch with that broker; she is really pretty and smart, Sondland said.

Katy added, He really wasnt my type. I was focused on showing him and Mr. Wright the building I hoped they would buy. I was not successful in that endeavor, but I sold it to someone else. Today we say it was the best deal weve ever done that didnt go through. She told the site she insisted on keeping her name and staying in Portland.

They have gone on to amass a $60 million fortune and a major art collection.

Im also a lover of art. Katy and I have assembled a wonderful collection. Weve been fortunate even to loan a couple of paintings to the White House, Sondland said in the video biography, which shows off a couple of the familys paintings. According to Mother Jones, Sondlands art collection is worth about $25 million.

Gordon Sondland and his wife.

Max and Lucy Sondland, the couples children, are also listed on the foundations website. They are both college students. Willamette Week reports that Max attends Duke University; his parents gave the college $2.5 million.

Sitting next to Katy are our two proudest accomplishments, our children Max and Lucy, both of whom are undergraduates at Duke, and both of whom departed challenging summer internships so they could be here by my side, Sondland said in 2018 at his nomination hearing. Im delighted they could be here today.

A video biography introducing Sondland by the U.S. Mission to the EU shows the new ambassador sitting in his home with his wife, making coffee, and sitting next to his dog. He said he had been married for 25 years to Katy Durant and introduced his two children.

My family is the most important thing to me, said Sondland.

READ NEXT: Gordon Sondlands Net Worth.

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Gordon Sondland's Family: 5 Fast Facts You Need to Know - Heavy.com

What Is the Root of Cronyism? – New Ideal

If theres one issue that almost everyone agrees on whether Republican or Democrat, liberal or conservative its that cronyism is a significant problem in our political system, which is corrupted by special interest politics and rigged in favor of the well-connected and powerful.

But how well do we truly understand the nature and causes of cronyism, or how to solve the problem?

A thorough exploration of this question, and Ayn Rands distinctive perspective on it, can be found in the book Foundations of a Free Society: Reflections on Ayn Rands Political Philosophy, edited by Gregory Salmieri and Robert Mayhew. Cronyism is the focus of one essay in the collection, The Aristocracy of Pull: An Objectivist Analysis of Cronyism, by Steve Simpson, senior attorney at Pacific Legal Foundation and former director of Legal Studies at the Ayn Rand Institute.

Simpsons essay explains the origins of the corruption in our political system and points us toward the antidote.

As Simpson explains:

Ayn Rand viewed this issue radically differently from other thinkers and thus approached it in a fundamentally different way. She did not use the term cronyism and likely would not have used it, as it implies that the cause of problems such as pressure group warfare, influence peddling, and the unjust laws that result is individual favoritism. Instead, Rand looked for the cause of these problems in mistaken philosophical premises about the nature, purpose, and proper functions of government. In Rands view, the fundamental cause of these problems is not corrupt individuals but, rather, a flaw in the ends that government is held to serve. Increasingly, our laws and policies are based on and justified by altruism and collectivism, Rand argued. These premises lead to a political system that is designed to compel individuals to sacrifice their incomes, their labor, and ultimately their lives for the good of society. Rand saw any political system based on altruism and collectivism as a form of institutionalized thuggery a system in which some people possess the legal authority to impose their will by force on others. In any society, this will lead to a form of gang warfare, as different factions fight to control the government and thus the legal authority to sacrifice others.

Unlike the typical perspectives on cronyism we encounter today, Rands view is that the problem is deeply philosophical. Simpsons essay brings clarity to the issue, explains the origins of the corruption in our political system, and points us toward the antidote.

The Aristocracy of Pull is a must-read for anyone who wants to understand the root of and the solution to the deeply ingrained problem of cronyism. To learn more, buy your copy of Foundations of a Free Society today.

The author would like to acknowledge the useful editorial feedback of Keith Lockitch in improving this article.

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What Is the Root of Cronyism? - New Ideal

Marine Serre, Telfar, Draw Inspiration From the Apocalypse – Papermag

Have you heard that the world is ending? It is! The climate strikers are running around asking for a merciful future for Leonardo DiCaprio's baby girlfriends; politicians are nightmares; it's fall and the weather in New York is set to hit 90 degrees on Wednesday. Hope is a dangerous thing for a woman like me to have and I don't have it! Rising seas, take me away.

Politics can be a dangerous thing for fashion designers to meddle with. Some do it adeptly; more make meaningless faux-woke slogan t-shirts produced by children in Bangladesh (and those are the ostensible liberals it's even funnier when conservative values creep in, like all those Ayn Rand t-shirts that they still sell at Brandy Melville). Fashion is an industry that pollutes the environment and exploits workers at all levels; enjoyment of it comes from the beauty, the fantasy, the artistry.

But fashion, as many have said before, doesn't exist in a bubble, and designers get inspired by current events, bleak though they may be. It's not universal as Sarah Kent and Zoe Suen wrote for Business of Fashion, the London shows generally seemed to take a break from "political navel-gazing," largely ignoring the incomprehensible mess that is Brexit. Milan shows were mostly about Italian glamour, minus the straitjackets and Foucault-quoting show notes at Gucci. But in New York and Paris, designers were getting ready for the end.

There were some sickos Bstroy, a "neo-native post-apocalypse streetwear brand," made headlines for making sweatshirts inspired by the worst elements of our current dystopia, i.e. school shootings (hoodies with Sandy Hook and Columbine logos were emblazoned with bullet holes). But most brands were far more thoughtful. While the Andreas Kronthaler for Vivienne Westwood Spring 2020 show in Paris seemed to mainly focus on the fantastical (the show notes described closer Bella Hadid as a "naked Fifties pin-up, photographed from below, looking like she's in the sky with puffs of cotton wool thrown on her"), the brand's recently released men's Spring 2020 lookbook stayed true to its history of protest and cries for sustainability; models were positioned underneath signs with slogans like "What's bad for the planet is bad for the economy."

For the past few seasons, Marine Serre has explicitly stated that her clothing is inspired by the impending end of the world as we know it. "It's after the apocalypse, a group of friends are underground a community coming together. It's a safe zone in which a new world is being created, a future world, a new way to see fashion," she said of her Fall 2019 collection.

For Spring 2020 (titled "Marre Noire," oil spill in English), the designer expanded on the theme, dressing survivors of the climate wars (including dogs) in her trademark "futurewear." The clothes, made from largely upcycled fabrics, were chaotic utilitarian the show began with black, militaristic garments, including a jumpsuit worn by an older, angry-looking (sexy) Frenchman who looked prepared to lead some sort of hacker revolution.

The Telfar spring 2020 show looked to migrants and immigration policies; models walked while a film played that featured TSA screenings and airport interrogations. And the opening looks were practical, clothes you could theoretically wear in the wake of global geopolitical collapse; designer Telfar Clemens showed four variations of cargo pants in a row. Cargo pants, which are both a callback to the Bush years and a garment that you could theoretically wear while on the run from fires and water wars, have been everywhere: brands ranging from Gypsy Sport to Maryam Nassir Zadeh (two downtown New York labels that have basically no aesthetic commonalities) have included them in the spring collections.

Utilitarian garments seem like an appropriate response to the climate catastrophe (they're also outdoorsy I guess we should all get outside and hike while we still can?). But they have another point of origin: lesbian style.

Sorry to generalize, but lesbians, as a group, represent some of the chicest trends of all. Lesbian aesthetics are vital: tailored suiting, Prada shoes, Vacancy Project haircuts. But ancient stereotypes of lesbian dressing could be seen in the spring collections, like the cargo pants and practical footwear (Tevas and Crocs have been trendy for a minute). You could see echoes of dyke camp.

In her popular 2018 essay "Notes on dyke camp," writer Mikaella Clements defined her theory of dyke camp, "a specific brand of humor, manners, and sensibilities guided by lesbian identity."

"Rather than drag, which parodies what is real dyke camp takes the real and magnifies it, so that it becomes absurd or funny or simply attractive in its own right," Clements wrote. "Dyke camp is a Walkman, a pair of Adidas sweatpants, the paintings of Kelly Beeman with their glazed sleepy stares, and Janelle Mone's PYNK video with its vagina pants. Big silver thumb rings are dyke camp, as are certain brands of gardening gloves; for obvious reasons, dyke camp tends to favor hands."

Designers may cite depressing forms of inspiration as opposed to queer aesthetics when it comes to their garments with zippers and pulleys and big pockets. But as Clements wrote, "the more you look for dyke camp, the more it seems to show up. Prowling, smirking, swaggering and usually already looking back at you."

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Marine Serre, Telfar, Draw Inspiration From the Apocalypse - Papermag

Joker is a film of our time, but not the film we need – Fabius Maximus website

Summary: Joker is a film of our time. But it is an entertaining horror film feeding our fears (like drinking while depressed), not the inspirational film we need to defeat our fears. We have what we need on our shelves, waiting for us to use them.

The Batman stories evoke our fears for the future. Gotham City looms as a likely future for the America we are building, a high-tech society that abandoned its roots in Western values and so lost most of its social cohesion. All that remains are greed and power. The rich read Ayn Rand and feel superior while devoting themselves to conspicuous spending and collecting art. Our government devotes itself to gathering power over all things great and small, foreign and domestic. Inequality reaches Latin American levels that destroy the governments legitimacy. The underclass grows, becoming wilder. The shrinking middle class suffers impotently between those above and below.

In a world where science killed God and Nietzsche destroyed the Enlightenments lessons, we live in darkness above a void. Rational analysis no longer illuminates our lives. This is the story of the new film, Joker, about our existential fears given human form.

Now for the bad news: many Americans find the burdens of self-government too great to bear. Our new national motto seems to be Its not my fault. It should replace E Pluribus Unum on the dollar bill. This is the ethos of a nation in decline. It is why so many people fear for Americas future.

When a peoples conceits and delusions burn away, we fall back on our core beliefs: belief in freedom, free markets, human rights, and a republican form of government. But this aspect of America is an intellectual project. It has a strong hold on our minds but not on our hearts. That is not enough to break us out of our current decline. America is like a jet aircraft with sputtering engines, pilots bickering, and passengers panicking. Neither self-interest or love of our nation provides sufficient strength in such a crisis.

All we have left are myths. Unfortunately, our modern myths reflect the spiritual weakness that is one cause of our crisis. For example, see the stories of super-heroes that fill our theaters and TVs. Most of them tell about people who find a magic dingus and become great, or have powers bestowed on them by some Great MacGuffin. Heroes like Harry Potter, Shazzam, Spiderman, etc. James Bowman calls these Hollywoods slacker heroes.

In Xxx

These are entertainment, but not the kind that inspires or provides any guidance for our lives. It is not culture in its original meaning. Allan Boom explains this in his great work, Closing of the American Mind

{Culture is} everything that uplifts and edifies a people, as opposed to commerce. It constitutes a people, binding individuals into a group with roots, a community in which they think and become a moral unity of which the arts are an expression. It is the peak expression of mans creativity, our ability to break out of natures narrow bonds, and hence out of the degrading interpretation of man in modern natural and political science. It is profounder than the modern state, which deals only with mans bodily needs and tends to degenerate into mere economy.

American culture has myths that better match our past and can lead us to a greater future. We have myths that provide stronger food for our spirit and imagination. Here are two. You can list many more.

As a young boy, Bruce Wayne watched the murder of his parents. He resolved to prevent other children from suffering as he did, and spent years studying and training to become Batman. The story of a man voluntarily devoting his life to healing our broken society even by the most arduous and dangerous public service has great appeal. Its consistent with the admiration of Americans for the US military, who are despite their many failings the most trusted of our institutions.

James T. Kirk studied for years before entering Star Fleet Academy, preparing himself to become a great Starship Captain. As an instructor at the Academy, his students saw him as a stack of books with legs. He was familiar with both ancient philosophy (Spinoza, as mentioned in the TV episode Where No Man has Gone Before

There are other myths out there that can help, some from other lands. For example, we have a generation growing up many of whom saw the Fullmetal Alchemist TV shows and films (see Wikipedia), whose tagline (slightly paraphrased) is the kind of insight on which great nations can be built.

Humankind cannot gain anything without first giving something in return. To gain anything, something of equal value must be given. That is lifes First Law of Equivalent Exchange, and applies to things tangible and intangible matter, energy, and spirit.

These are just stories, but they represent a part of us to which we can look for inspiration in the dark times ahead.

People need stories, more than bread, itself. They teach us how to live, and why. Stories show us how to win. The Master Storyteller in HBOs wonderfulArabian Nights.

If you liked this post,like us on Facebookandfollow us on Twitter. See all postsabout heroes, aboutreforming America: steps to newpolitics, and especially these

By Joseph Campbell (1949).

This is the book that sparked serious research in to the function and significance of myths. See Wikipedia. From the publisher.

Since its release in 1949,The Hero with a Thousand Faceshas influenced millions of readers by combining the insights of modern psychology with Joseph Campbells revolutionary understanding of comparative mythology. In these pages, Campbell outlines the Heros Journey, a universal motif of adventure and transformation that runs through virtually all of the worlds mythic traditions. He also explores the Cosmogonic Cycle, the mythic pattern of world creation and destruction.

As relevant today as when it was first published,The Hero with a Thousand Facescontinues to find new audiences.

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Joker is a film of our time, but not the film we need - Fabius Maximus website

Ayn Rand’s "The Fountainhead" Shows Us That There’s More to …

(IRVINE)Leonard Peikoff inherited the works, manuscripts and notes from Philosopher Ayn Rand. He donated all but two pages of the original manuscript of 'The Fountainhead' to the Library Of Congress. When the government found out that he kept two pages they sent an agent out to confiscate the pages from a framed display in his home. Peikoff holding an inscription that Ayn Rand wrote in a copy of the 'Fountainhead' to her husband Frank. (Photo by Mark Boster/Los Angeles Times via Getty Images)

On this day in1943, Ayn Rands The Fountainhead was published. It tells the story of an impoverished architecture school dropout, Howard Roark, and how he navigatesor fails to navigatethe New York architecture scene. Rand is a hero in many minds and a villain in many more. And why wouldnt she be? She wrote, in addition to her fiction, books titled The Virtue of Selfishness and Capitalism: The Unknown Ideal. The virtue ofselfishness? The reckless and greedy pursuit of gain as an ideal? How awful. Doesnt she know there is more to life than money?

Of course she did. To claim that she only cared about money and said that people should only care about money is to show that you either havent read her books or at least havent understood them. This isnt to say that theres a subtlety you missed in between the long speeches and the rough-bordering-on-violent sex. This is to say that you have missed what is plainly there.

Consider The Fountainhead. I tried to read it in college, gave up, and finally read it (along with Atlas Shrugged) as a graduate student. The Fountainhead is an entire novel about an artist who refuses to sell out. It seems odd in a writer famous for her paeans to capitalism and profit. To focus solely on what she says about profit and selfishness is to neglect her deeper ethic of fidelity to objective standards of right and wrong.

Unyielding and unwavering commitment to principle is why Roark wont budge. He cares about designing to his standards and being faithful to his vision of what a building should be, how that changes based on the materials available, and what the building is being designed for. He doesnt care about being famous. He doesnt care about being rich. He doesnt care about getting credit. He cares about his vision and seeing it fulfilled.

By contrast, his nemesis Peter Keating is the star of the New York architecture world. He is rich. He is famous. But he is a fraud and unprincipled faker. He designs poorly but after the style of the day as dictated in part by Ellsworth Toohey, an intellectual and architecture critic who surrounds himself with mediocrity and who works to destroy genuine excellence (he hates Roark, therefore). Keatings only good work isnt his work at all: it is Roarks. But Roark, again, doesnt want credit. He just wants to see his vision made a reality.

Keating is commissioned to design a housing project. As usual, he gets Roark to do the design work for him, and again Roark wants only to see that the building is done exactly to his specifications. But then other people involved in the project get their hands on it. They add an element here, a little theater there. They mangle Roarks vision, and Keating does nothing to stop them. Roark does: he dynamites the building.

The book has all the elements that make a Rand novel an Ayn Rand novel. One-dimensional, perfect or perfectly flawed characters who are written to highlight very specific virtues or vices. Courtroom drama. Long speeches. Sex. At the end of the novel, Roark stands triumphantly atop a tower he is building, a beacon of the triumph of reason and principle over vanity and avarice.

Object, if you will and must, to some or most or all of Rands philosophical and ethical position. I myself disagree with her atheism, among other things. But before you cast aspersions on a writer and a stack of books that have had a marked influence on so many people because you disagree with her exaltation of selfishness, think it possible that you misread her.

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Ayn Rand's "The Fountainhead" Shows Us That There's More to ...

News – Ayn Rand’s "The Fountainhead" Shows Us That …

On this day in1943, Ayn RandsThe Fountainheadwas published. It tells the story of an impoverished architecture school dropout, Howard Roark, and how he navigatesor fails to navigatethe New York architecture scene. Rand is a hero in many minds and a villain in many more. And why wouldnt she be? She wrote, in addition to her fiction, books titledThe Virtue of SelfishnessandCapitalism: The Unknown Ideal. The virtue ofselfishness? The reckless and greedy pursuit ofgainas anideal? How awful. Doesnt she know there is more to life than money?

Of course she did. To claim that sheonlycared about money and said that people shouldonlycare about money is to show that you either havent read her books or at least havent understood them. This isnt to say that theres a subtlety you missed in between the long speeches and the rough-bordering-on-violent sex. This is to say that you have missed what is plainly there.

ConsiderThe Fountainhead. I tried to read it in college, gave up, and finally read it (along withAtlas Shrugged) as a graduate student.The Fountainheadis an entire novel about an artist who refuses to sell out. It seems odd in a writer famous for her paeans to capitalism and profit. To focus solely on what she says about profit and selfishness is to neglect her deeper ethic of fidelity to objective standards of right and wrong.

Unyielding and unwavering commitment to principle is why Roark wont budge. He cares about designing to his standards and being faithful to his vision of what abuildingshould be, how that changes based on the materials available, and what the building is being designedfor. He doesnt care about being famous. He doesnt care about being rich. He doesnt care about getting credit. He cares about his vision and seeing it fulfilled.

By contrast, his nemesis Peter Keating is the star of the New York architecture world. He is rich. He is famous. But he is a fraud and unprincipled faker. He designs poorly but after the style of the day as dictated in part by Ellsworth Toohey, an intellectual and architecture critic who surrounds himself with mediocrity and who works to destroy genuine excellence (he hates Roark, therefore). Keatings only good work isnt his work at all: it is Roarks. But Roark, again, doesnt want credit. He just wants to see his vision made a reality.

Keating is commissioned to design a housing project. As usual, he gets Roark to do the design work for him, and again Roark wants only to see that the building is done exactly to his specifications. But then other people involved in the project get their hands on it. They add an element here, a little theater there. They mangle Roarks vision, and Keating does nothing to stop them. Roark does: he dynamites the building.

The book has all the elements that make a Rand novel an Ayn Rand novel. One-dimensional, perfect or perfectly flawed characters who are written to highlight very specific virtues or vices. Courtroom drama. Long speeches. Sex. At the end of the novel, Roark stands triumphantly atop a tower he is building, a beacon of the triumph of reason and principle over vanity and avarice.

Object, if you will and must, to some or most or all of Rands philosophical and ethical position. I myself disagree with her atheism, among other things. But before you cast aspersions on a writer and a stack of books that have had a marked influence on so many people because you disagree with her exaltation of selfishness, think it possible that you misread her.

[Originally Published at Forbes]

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Ayn Rand | Biography, Books, & Facts | Britannica.com

Ayn Rand, original name Alissa Zinovievna Rosenbaum, (born February 2, 1905, St. Petersburg, Russiadied March 6, 1982, New York, New York, U.S.), Russian-born American writer whose commercially successful novels promoting individualism and laissez-faire capitalism were influential among conservatives and libertarians and popular among generations of young people in the United States from the mid-20th century.

Her father, Zinovy Rosenbaum, was a prosperous pharmacist. After being tutored at home, Alissa Rosenbaum, the eldest of three children, was enrolled in a progressive school, where she excelled academically but was socially isolated. Following the Russian Revolution of 1917, her fathers shop was confiscated by communist authorities, an event she deeply resented. As a student at Leningrad State University, she studied history and became acquainted with the works of Plato and Aristotle. After graduating in 1924, she enrolled in the State Institute for Cinematography, hoping to become a screenwriter.

The arrival of a letter from cousins in Chicago gave her an opportunity to leave the country on the pretext of gaining expertise that she could apply in the Soviet film industry. Upon her arrival in the United States in 1926, she changed her name to Ayn Rand. (The first name, which rhymes with pine, was inspired by the name of a Finnish writer, whom she never identified, and the surname she described as an abbreviation of Rosenbaum.) After six months in Chicago she moved to Hollywood, where a fortuitous encounter with the producer Cecil B. DeMille led to work as a movie extra and eventually to a job as a screenwriter. In 1929 she married the actor Frank OConnor. Soon hired as a filing clerk in the wardrobe department of RKO Radio Pictures, Inc., she rose to head of the department within a year, meanwhile writing stories, plays, and film scenarios in her spare time. She became an American citizen in 1931.

Rands first successful play, Night of January 16th (1933; originally titled Penthouse Legend), was a paean to individualism in the form of a courtroom drama. In 1934 she and OConnor moved to New York City so that she could oversee the plays production on Broadway. That year she also wrote Ideal, about a self-centred film star on the run from the law, first as a novel and then as a play. However, she shelved both versions. The play was not produced until 1989, and the novel was not published until 2015. Her first published novel, We the Living (1936), was a romantic tragedy in which Soviet totalitarianism epitomized the inherent evils of collectivism, which she understood as the subordination of individual interests to those of the state. A subsequent novella, Anthem (1938), portrayed a future collectivist dystopia in which the concept of the self and even the word I have been lost.

Rand spent more than seven years working on her first major work, The Fountainhead (1943), the story of a handsome architectural genius whose individualism and integrity are evinced in his principled dedication to his own happiness. The hero, Howard Roark, blows up a public housing project he had designed after it is altered against his wishes by government bureaucrats. On trial for his crime, he delivers a lengthy speech in his own defense in which he argues for individualism over collectivism and egoism over altruism (the doctrine which demands that man live for others and place others above self). The jury votes unanimously to acquit him. Despite generally bad reviews, the book attracted readers through word of mouth and eventually became a best seller. Rand sold it to Warner Brothers studio and wrote the screenplay for the film, which was released in 1949.

Having returned to Los Angeles with OConnor to work on the script for The Fountainhead, Rand signed a contract to work six months a year as a screenwriter for the independent producer Hal Wallis. In 1945 she began sketches for her next novel, Atlas Shrugged (1957; film part 1, 2011, part 2, 2012, part 3, 2014), which is generally considered her masterpiece. The book depicts a future United States on the verge of economic collapse after years of collectivist misrule, under which productive and creative citizens (primarily industrialists, scientists, and artists) have been exploited to benefit an undeserving population of moochers and incompetents. The hero, John Galt, a handsome and supremely self-interested physicist and inventor, leads a band of elite producers and creators in a strike designed to deprive the economy of their leadership and thereby force the government to respect their economic freedom. From their redoubt in Colorado, Galts Gulch, they watch as the national economy and the collectivist social system are destroyed. As the elite emerge from the Gulch in the novels final scene, Galt raises his hand over the desolate earth andtrace[s] in space the sign of the dollar.

Atlas Shrugged was notable for making explicit the philosophical assumptions that underlay The Fountainhead, which Rand described as only an overture to the later work. In an appendix to Atlas Shrugged, Rand described her systematic philosophy, which she called objectivism, as in essencethe concept of man as a heroic being, with his own happiness as the moral purpose of his life, with productive achievement as his noblest activity, and reason as his only absolute.

Although the book was attacked by critics from across the political spectrum for its perceived immorality and misanthropy and its overt hostility to religion (Rand was an atheist), it was an instant best seller. It was especially well received by business leaders, many of whom were impressed by its moral justification of capitalism and delighted to think of their occupations as noble and virtuous. Like The Fountainhead, Atlas Shrugged also appealed widely to young people through its extreme romanticism, its accessible and comprehensive philosophy, its rejection of traditional authority and convention, and its implicit invitation to the reader to join the ranks of the elite by modeling himself on the storys hero.

In 1950 Rand agreed to meet a young admirer, Nathan Blumenthal, on the basis of his several articulate fan letters. The two established an immediate rapport, and Blumenthal and his girlfriend, Barbara Weidman, became Rands friends as well as her intellectual followers. In 1951 the couple moved to New York, and Rand and OConnor soon followed. There the Brandens, as Nathan and Barbara called themselves after their marriage in 1953, introduced Rand to their friends and relatives, some of whom later attended regular meetings at Rands apartment for discussion and to read newly written chapters of Atlas Shrugged. The group, which called itself the Class of 43 (a reference to the publication date of The Fountainhead) or (ironically) the Collective, included Alan Greenspan, an economics consultant who would later head the presidents Council of Economic Advisers (197477) and serve as chairman of the Federal Reserve (19872006). Among members of the Collective Nathan Branden was unquestionably Rands favourite. She openly acknowledged him as her intellectual heir and formally designated him as such in the afterword of Atlas Shrugged, which she co-dedicated to him and to OConnor.

In the late 1950s, with Rands permission, Branden established a business designed to teach the basic principles of objectivism to sympathetic readers of Rands novels. The Nathaniel Branden Institute (NBI), as it was later called, offered courses in objectivism in New York and distributed tape-recorded lectures by Branden to objectivist centers in various other cities. Despite its outward appearance as an educational institution, NBI did not permit its students to think critically about objectivism or to develop objectivist ideas in novel ways. Through the success of NBI, Branden would eventually become the public guardian of objectivist orthodoxy against innovation or unauthorized borrowing by objectivist sympathizers, especially among the growing student right. In 1962 Branden and Rand launched the monthly Objectivist Newsletter (renamed The Objectivist in 1966). Meanwhile, Rands fame grew apace with the brisk sales of her novels. She was invited to speak at numerous colleges and universities and was interviewed on television talk shows and on the news program 60 Minutes. Growing into her role as a public intellectual, she published her first work of nonfiction, For the New Intellectual, largely a collection of philosophical passages from her fiction, in 1961. The Virtue of Selfishness (1964) and Capitalism: The Unknown Ideal (1966) were drawn mostly from lectures and newsletter articles.

In 1968 Rand learned that Branden, with whom she had been having an intermittent affair (with their spouses knowledge) since 1954, was involved in a romantic relationship with a younger woman. Accusing him of betraying objectivist principles, she stripped him of his partnership in The Objectivist and demanded that he surrender control of NBI, which was soon dissolved. The closing of the institute freed various self-described objectivists to publicly develop their own interpretations of Rands philosophyall of which, however, she rejected as perversions or plagiarism of her ideas. She was especially incensed at the use of objectivist vocabulary by young libertarians, whom she accused of disregarding morality and flirting with anarchism. Meanwhile, Brandens status as Rands favourite disciple was assumed by Leonard Peikoff, an original member of the Collective whom she would eventually designate as her intellectual and legal heir.

In 1971 Rand ceased publication of The Objectivist and replaced it with the fortnightly Ayn Rand Letter, which appeared with increasing irregularity until 1976. In 1974 she underwent surgery for lung cancer. Although she recovered, she never again had the energy to pursue large-scale writing projects. In 1979 she published Introduction to Objectivist Epistemology, a collection of philosophical articles originally written in 1967. She was working on an adaptation of Atlas Shrugged for a television miniserieseventually unrealizedwhen she died.

Rand was continually frustrated by her failure to gain acceptance among academic philosophers, most of whom dismissed (or were simply unaware of) her work. This neglect, which she attributed to collectivist bias and incompetence, was partly due to the fictional form in which the best-known statements of her philosophy appeared, which necessarily rendered them imprecise by professional standards. Other factors were her idiosyncratic interpretation of the history of Western philosophy, her tendency to rely, even in her nonfiction works, on broad ad hominem attacks, and her general unwillingness to tolerate disagreement with her views among those with whom she associated.

In 1986 Barbara Branden published a memoir, The Passion of Ayn Rand, that disclosed Rands affair with Nathan and revealed unflattering details of her relations with members of the Collective and others. Despite the resulting damage to her reputation, her novels continued to enjoy large sales, and she retained a loyal following among conservatives and libertarians, including some high-ranking members of the Ronald Reagan administration (the most notable being Greenspan). In the 1990s and 2000s her works undoubtedly contributed to the increased popularity of libertarianism in the United States, and from 2009 she was an iconic figure in the antigovernment Tea Party movement. It is for these specifically political influences, rather than for her contributions to literature or philosophy, that she is likely to be remembered by future generations.

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Inspirational Ayn Rand quotes On Life and Capitalism

Looking for inspirational Ayn Rand quotes? Enjoy!

1.) A creative man is motivated by the desire to achieve, not by the desire to beat others. Ayn Rand

2.) Achievement of your happiness is the only moral purpose of your life, and that happiness, not pain or mindless self-indulgence, is the proof of your moral integrity, since it is the proof and the result of your loyalty to the achievement of your values. Ayn Rand

3.) Money is only a tool. It will take you wherever you wish, but it will not replace you as the driver. Ayn Rand

4.) Individual rights are not subject to a public vote; a majority has no right to vote away the rights of a minority; the political function of rights is precisely to protect minorities from oppression by majorities (and the smallest minority on earth is the individual). Ayn Rand

5.) The only power any government has is the power to crack down on criminals. Well, when there arent enough criminals, one makes them. One declares so many things to be a crime that it becomes impossible for men to live without breaking laws. Ayn Rand

6.) The question isnt who is going to let me; its who is going to stop me. Ayn Rand

7.) Do not let your fire go out, spark by irreplaceable spark in the hopeless swamps of the not-quite, the not-yet, and the not-at-all. Do not let the hero in your soul perish in lonely frustration for the life you deserved and have never been able to reach. The world you desire can be won. It exists.. it is real.. it is possible.. its yours. Ayn Rand

8.) To sell your soul is the easiest thing in the world. Thats what everybody does every hour of his life. If I asked you to keep your soul would you understand why thats much harder?If its worth doing, its worth overdoing. Ayn Rand

9.) Joy is the goal of existence, and joy is not to be stumbled upon, but to be achieved, and the act of treason is to let its vision drown in the swamp of the moments torture. Ayn Rand

10.) I hope you will understand my hesitation in writing to one whom I admire as the greatest representative of a philosophy to which I want to dedicate my whole life. Ayn Rand

11.) Free competition enforced by law is a grotesque contradiction in terms. Ayn Rand

12.) What is greatness? I will answer: it is the capacity to live by the three fundamental values of John Galt: reason, purpose, self-esteem. Ayn Rand

13.) Guilt is a rope that wears thin. Ayn Rand

14.) Learn to value yourself, which means: to fight for your happiness. Ayn Rand

15.) Thanksgiving is a typically American holidayThe lavish meal is a symbol of the fact that abundant consumption is the result and reward of production. Ayn Rand

16.) The upper classes are a nations past; the middle class is its future. Ayn Rand

17.) I need no warrant for being, and no word of sanction upon my being. I am the warrant and the sanction. Ayn Rand

18.) I swear by my life and my love of it that I will never live for the sake of another man, nor ask another man to live for mine. Ayn Rand

19.) Freedom (n.): To ask nothing. To expect nothing. To depend on nothing. Ayn Rand

20.) The man who does not value himself, cannot value anything or anyone. Ayn Rand

21.) You can avoid reality, but you cannot avoid the consequences of avoiding reality. Ayn Rand

22.) Learn to value yourself, which means: fight for your happiness. Ayn Rand

23.) The truth is not for all men but only for those who seek it. Ayn Rand

24.) I am not primarily an advocate of capitalism, but of egoism; I am not primarily an advocate of egoism, but of reason. If one recognizes the supremacy of reason and applies it consistently, all the rest follows. Ayn Rand

25.) Why is it immoral for you to desire, but moral for others to do so? Why is it immoral to produce a value and keep it, but moral to give it away? And if it is not moral for you to keep a value, why is it moral for others to accept it? If you are selfless and virtuous when you give it, are they not selfish and vicious when they take it? Ayn Rand

26.) When I disagree with a rational man, I let reality be our final arbiter; if I am right, he will learn; if I am wrong, I will; one of us will win, but both will profit. When I disagree with a rational man, I let reality be our final arbiter; if I am right, he will learn; if I am wrong, I will; one of us will win, but both will profit. Ayn Rand

27.) The evil of the world is made possible by nothing but the sanction [that] you give it. Ayn Rand

28.) The most depraved type of human being . . . (is) the man without a purpose. Ayn Rand

29.) Theres nothing of any importance except how well you do your work. Ayn Rand

30.) Man is an end in himself. Romantic lovethe profound, exalted, lifelong passion that unites his mind and body in the sexual actis the living testimony to that principle. Ayn Rand

31.) To love is to value. Only a rationally selfish man, a man of self-esteem, is capable of lovebecause he is the only man capable of holding firm, consistent, uncompromising, unbetrayed values. The man who does not value himself, cannot value anything or anyone. Ayn Rand

32.) To say I love you one must know first how to say the I. Ayn Rand

33.) Dont help me or serve me, but let me see it once, because I need it. Dont work for my happiness, my brothers show me yours show me that it is possible show me your achievement and the knowledge will give me the courage for mine. Ayn Rand

34.) Love is the expression of ones values, the greatest reward you can earn for the moral qualities you have achieved in your character and person, the emotional price paid by one man for the joy he receives from the virtues of another. Ayn Rand

35.) There is no conflict of interests among men, neither in business nor in trade nor in their most personal desiresif they omit the irrational from their view of the possible and destruction from the view of the practical. There is no conflict, and no call for sacrifice, and no man is a threat to the aims of anotherif men understand that reality is an absolute not to be faked, that lies do not work, that the unearned can not be had, that the undeserved cannot be given, that the destruction of a value which is, will not bring value to that which isnt. Ayn Rand

36.) The concept of free competition enforced by law is a grotesque contradiction in terms. Ayn Rand

37.) The smallest minority on earth is the individual. Those who deny individual rights cannot claim to be defenders of minorities. Ayn Rand

38.) Life is the reward of virtue. And happiness is the goal and reward of life Ayn Rand

39.) You must be the kind of man who can get things done. But to get things done, you must love the doing, not the secondary consequences. Ayn Rand

40.) Anything may be betrayed, anyone may be forgiven, but not those who lack the courage of their own greatness. Ayn Rand

41.) You were not born to be a second-hander. Ayn Rand

42.) I would step in the way of a bullet if it were aimed at my husband. It is not self-sacrifice to die protecting that which you value: If the value is great enough, you do not care to exist without it. Ayn Rand

43.) I dont make comparisons. I never think of myself in relation to anyone else. I just refuse to measure myself as part of anything. Im an utter egotist. Ayn Rand

44.) No ones happiness but my own is in my power to achieve or to destroy Ayn Rand

45.) Contradictions do not exist. Whenever you think you are facing a contradiction, check your premises. You will find that one of them is wrong. Ayn Rand

46.) The ladder of success is the best climbed by stepping on the rungs of opportunity Ayn Rand

47.) A desire presupposes the possibility of action to achieve it; action presupposes a goal which is worth achieving. Ayn Rand

48.) Money demands that you sell, not your weakness to mens stupidity, but your talent to their reason. Ayn Rand

49.) Statism needs war; a free country does not. Statism survives by looting; a free country survives by producing. Ayn Rand

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Ayn Rand’s life & ideas | Ayn Rand, Objectivism | The Atlas …

Details February 26, 2015

Ayn Rand is Americas most controversial individualist. She was a bold woman who produced brilliant worksfusing fiction and philosophy. Her best-selling novels, like Atlas Shrugged and The Fountainhead, have sold millions of copies and continue to influence independent thinkers and celebrities the world over, from Wikipedia's Jimmy Wales to Angelina Jolie and Hugh Hefner.

Rand cut a striking figure, with her long-stemmed cigarette holder and intense gaze. Known for her fearless denunciations of irrationalism, Rand issued blistering critiques of powerful leaders, from the Pope to President Nixon. She could not be pigeon-holed as Right or Left, although she was known for her scathing attacks on Communism and all forms of collectivism.

She penned philosophical non-fiction works of such originality and power that she was credited by a small group of stunned intellectuals as having single-handedly solved an ancient philosophical puzzle. Yet the elite of her day refused to accept her as a legitimate philosopher. She derided them and their ideas; they returned the favor.

The new philosophy which she founded through her books andessays is called Objectivism. It is a philosophy that celebrates the power and potential of the individual, and reveals the principles necessary for developing a flourishing

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Ayn Rand Quotes (Author of Atlas Shrugged) – Goodreads

The man who refuses to judge, who neither agrees nor disagrees, who declares that there are no absolutes and believes that he escapes responsibility, is the man responsible for all the blood that is now spilled in the world. Reality is an absolute, existence is an absolute, a speck of dust is an absolute and so is a human life. Whether you live or die is an absolute. Whether you have a piece of bread or not, is an absolute. Whether you eat your bread or see it vanish into a looter's stomach, is an absolute.

There are two sides to every issue: one side is right and the other is wrong, but the middle is always evil. The man who is wrong still retains some respect for truth, if only by accepting the responsibility of choice. But the man in the middle is the knave who blanks out the truth in order to pretend that no choice or values exist, who is willing to sit out the course of any battle, willing to cash in on the blood of the innocent or to crawl on his belly to the guilty, who dispenses justice by condemning both the robber and the robbed to jail, who solves conflicts by ordering the thinker and the fool to meet each other halfway. In any compromise between food and poison, it is only death that can win. In any compromise between good and evil, it is only evil that can profit. In that transfusion of blood which drains the good to feed the evil, the compromise is the transmitting rubber tube. Ayn Rand, Atlas Shrugged

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Scientific & Technological Progress | The Ayn Rand Institute

ARIs Point of View on the Value of Science and Technology

In Rands day, a culture-wide celebration of technological progress was non-existent. In July 1969, Rand attended the launch of Apollo 11 to the moon. In her essay Apollo 11, she draws out the timeless philosophic meaning of that mission, and discusses the cultural reactions to it. What we had seen, in naked essentials, she writes, was the concretized abstraction of mans greatness. For Rand, the launch and the ensuing moonwalk represented man at his best. This scientific and technological achievement was a spectacular illustration of the efficacy of mans rational mind.

A great event, however, is like an explosion that blasts off pretenses and brings the hidden out to the surface, be it diamonds or muck. The diamonds were to be found in the publics positive reaction to the launch. The muck came in the reaction from many intellectuals, whose critiques reveal the malignant nature of their ideas about man, morality and reason. (This essay can be found in The Voice of Reason.)

It is these malignant ideas of mysticism and self-sacrifice that ARI opposes in the name of reason, which, when left free, can and does achieve the scientifically and technologically wondrous.

Below is a brief excerpt from Rand's much longer essay "Apollo 11." The excerpt, published in the Los Angeles Times on the thirtieth anniversary of the launch, offers an indication of Rand's perspective.

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Moon Launch Was Man's Shining Hourby Ayn Rand

"No matter what discomforts and expenses you had to bear to come here," said a NASA guide to a group of guests at the conclusion of a tour of the Space Center on Cape Kennedy on July 15, 1969, "there will be seven minutes tomorrow morning that will make you feel it was worth it."

It was.

[The launch] began with a large patch of bright yellow-orange flame shooting sideways from under the base of the rocket. It looked like a normal kind of flame, and I felt an instant's shock of anxiety, as if this were a building on fire. In the next instant the flame and the rocket were hidden by such a sweep of dark red fire that the anxiety vanished. This was not part of any normal experience and could not be integrated with anything.

The dark red fire parted into two gigantic wings, as if a hydrant were shooting streams of fire outward and up, toward the zenith, and between the two wings, against a pitch-black sky, the rocket rose slowly, so slowly that it seemed to hang still in the air, a pale cylinder with a blinding oval of white light at the bottom, like an upturned candle with its flame directed at the Earth.

Then I became aware that this was happening in total silence, because I heard the cries of birds winging frantically away from the flames. The rocket was rising faster, slanting a little, its tense white flame leaving a long, thin spiral of bluish smoke behind it. It had risen into the open blue sky, and the dark red fire had turned into enormous billows of brown smoke, when the sound reached us. It was a long, violent crack, not a rolling sound, but specifically a cracking, grinding sound, as if space were breaking apart, but it seemed irrelevant and unimportant, because it was a sound from the past and the rocket was long since speeding safely out of its reach though it was strange to realize that only a few seconds had passed.

I found myself waving to the rocket involuntarily, I heard people applauding and joined them, grasping our common motive; it was impossible to watch passively, one had to express, by some physical action, a feeling that was not triumph, but more the feeling that that white object's unobstructed streak of motion was the only thing that mattered in the universe.

What we had seen, in naked essentials but in reality, not in a work of art was the concretized abstraction of man's greatness.

The fundamental significance of Apollo 11's triumph is not political; it is philosophical; specifically, moral-epistemological.

The meaning of the sight lay in the fact that when those dark red wings of fire flared open, one knew that one was not looking at a normal occurrence but at a cataclysm which, if unleashed by nature, would have wiped man out of existence and one knew also that this cataclysm was planned, unleashed and controlled by man, that this unimaginable power was ruled by his power and, obediently serving his purpose, was making way for a slender, rising craft.

One knew that this spectacle was not the product of inanimate nature, like some aurora borealis, or of chance, or of luck, that it was unmistakably human with "human," for once, meaning grandeur that a purpose and a long, sustained, disciplined effort had gone to achieve this series of moments, and that man was succeeding, succeeding, succeeding! For once, if only for seven minutes, the worst among those who saw it had to feel not "How small is man by the side of the Grand Canyon!" but "How great is man and how safe is nature when he conquers it!"

That we had seen a demonstration of man at his best, no one could doubt this was the cause of the event's attraction and of the stunned numbed state in which it left us. And no one could doubt that we had seen an achievement of man in his capacity as a rational being an achievement of reason, of logic, of mathematics, of total dedication to the absolutism of reality.

Frustration is the leitmotif in the lives of most men, particularly today the frustration of inarticulate desires, with no knowledge of the means to achieve them. In the sight and hearing of a crumbling world, Apollo 11 enacted the story of an audacious purpose, its execution, its triumph and the means that achieved it the story and the demonstration of man's highest potential.

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