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Ethereum Project

SECURITY WARNINGS

You are responsible for your own computer security. If your machine is compromised you will lose your ether, access to any contracts and possibly more.

You are responsible for your own actions. If you mess something up or break any laws while using this software, it’s your fault, and your fault only.

You are responsible for your own karma. Don’t be a jerk and respect the rights of others. What goes around comes around.

The following Terms and Conditions (Terms) govern the use of the Ethereum open source software platform (Ethereum Platform). Prior to any use of the Ethereum Platform, the User confirms to understand and expressly agrees to all of the Terms. All capitalized terms in this agreement will be given the same effect and meaning as in the Terms. The group of developers and other personnel that is now, or will be, employed by, or contracted with, Stiftung Ethereum (Stiftung Ethereum) is termed the Ethereum Team. The Platform will be developed by persons and entities who support Ethereum, including both volunteers and developers who are paid by nonprofit entities interested in supporting the Ethereum Platform.

The user acknowledges the following serious risks to any use the Ethereum Platform and ETH and expressly agrees to neither hold Ethereum Stiftung nor the Ethereum Team liable should any of the following risks occur:

The Ethereum Platform and ETH could be impacted by one or more regulatory inquiries or regulatory actions, which could impede or limit the ability of Stiftung Ethereum to continue to develop the Ethereum Platform, or which could impede or limit the ability of a User to use Ethereum Platform or ETH.

It is possible that alternative Ethereum-based networks could be established, which utilize the same open source source code and open source protocol underlying the Ethereum Platform. The Ethereum network may compete with these alternative Ethereum-based networks, which could potentially negatively impact the Ethereum Platform and ETH.

It is possible that the Ethereum Platform will not be used by a large number of external businesses, individuals, and other organizations and that there will be limited public interest in the creation and development of distributed applications. Such a lack of interest could impact the development of the Ethereum Platform and potential uses of ETH. It cannot predict the success of its own development efforts or the efforts of other third parties.

The User recognizes that the Ethereum Platform is under development and may undergo significant changes before release. The User acknowledges that any expectations regarding the form and functionality of the Ethereum Platform held by the User may not be met upon release of the Ethereum Platform, for any number of reasons including a change in the design and implementation plans and execution of the implementation of the Ethereum Platform.

The Ethereum Platform rests on open-source software, and there is a risk that the Ethereum Stiftung or the Ethereum Team, or other third parties not directly affiliated with the Stiftung Ethereum, may introduce weaknesses or bugs into the core infrastructural elements of the Ethereum Platform causing the system to lose ETH stored in one or more User accounts or other accounts or lose sums of other valued tokens issued on the Ethereum Platform.

Cryptography is an art, not a science. And the state of the art can advance over time. Advances in code cracking, or technical advances such as the development of quantum computers, could present risks to cryptocurrencies and the Ethereum Platform, which could result in the theft or loss of ETH. To the extent possible, Stiftung Ethereum intends to update the protocol underlying the Ethereum Platform to account for any advances in cryptography and to incorporate additional security measures, but it cannot predict the future of cryptography or guarantee that any security updates will be made in a timely or successful manner.

As with other cryptocurrencies, the blockchain used for the Ethereum Platform is susceptible to mining attacks, including but not limited to:

Any successful attacks present a risk to the Ethereum Platform, expected proper execution and sequencing of ETH transactions, and expected proper execution and sequencing of contract computations. Despite the efforts of the Ethereum Stiftung and Team, known or novel mining attacks may be successful.

If the Ethereum Platform is rapidly adopted, the demand for ETH could rise dramatically and at a pace that exceeds the rate with which ETH miners can create new ETH tokens. Under such a scenario, the entire Ethereum Platform could become destabilized, due to the increased cost of running distributed applications. In turn, this could dampen interest in the Ethereum Platform and ETH. Instability in the demand of for ETH may lead to a negative change of the economical parameters of an Ethereum based business which could result in the business being unable to continue to operate economically or to cease operation.

If the Ethereum Platform is rapidly adopted, the demand for transaction processing and distributed application computations could rise dramatically and at a pace that exceeds the rate with which ETH miners can bring online additional mining power. Under such a scenario, the entire Ethereum Platform could become destabilized, due to the increased cost of running distributed applications. In turn, this could dampen interest in the Ethereum Platform and ETH. Insufficiency of computational resources and an associated rise in the price of ETH could result in businesses being unable to acquire scarce computational resources to run their distributed applications. This would represent revenue losses to businesses or worst case, cause businesses to cease operations because such operations have become uneconomical due to distortions in the crypto-economy.

Acknowledgment, Acceptance of all Risks and Disclaimer of Warranties and LiabilitiesTHE USER EXPRESSLY KNOWS AND AGREES THAT THE USER IS USING THE Ethereum PLATFORM AT THE USERS SOLE RISK. THE USER REPRESENTS THAT THE USER HAS AN ADEQUATE UNDERSTANDING OF THE RISKS, USAGES AND INTRICACIES OF CRYPTOGRAPHIC TOKENS AND BLOCKCHAIN-BASED OPEN SOURCE SOFTWARE, ETH PLATFORM AND ETH. THE USER ACKNOWLEDGES AND AGREES THAT, TO THE FULLEST EXTENT PERMITTED BY ANY APPLICABLE LAW, THE DISCLAIMERS OF LIABILITY CONTAINED HEREIN APPLY TO ANY AND ALL DAMAGES OR INJURY WHATSOEVER CAUSED BY OR RELATED TO RISKS OF, USE OF, OR INABILITY TO USE, ETH OR THE Ethereum PLATFORM UNDER ANY CAUSE OF ACTION WHATSOEVER OF ANY KIND IN ANY JURISDICTION, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, ACTIONS FOR BREACH OF WARRANTY, BREACH OF CONTRACT OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE) AND THAT NEITHER Stiftung Ethereum NOR ETHEREUM TEAM SHALL BE LIABLE FOR ANY INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, INCLUDING FOR LOSS OF PROFITS, GOODWILL OR DATA. SOME JURISDICTIONS DO NOT ALLOW THE EXCLUSION OF CERTAIN WARRANTIES OR THE LIMITATION OR EXCLUSION OF LIABILITY FOR CERTAIN TYPES OF DAMAGES. THEREFORE, SOME OF THE ABOVE LIMITATIONS IN THIS SECTION MAY NOT APPLY TO A USER. IN PARTICULAR, NOTHING IN THESE TERMS SHALL AFFECT THE STATUTORY RIGHTS OF ANY USER OR EXCLUDE INJURY ARISING FROM ANY WILLFUL MISCONDUCT OR FRAUD OF Stiftung Ethereum.

We recommend any groups handling large or important transactions to maintain a voluntary 24 hour waiting period on any ether deposited. In case the integrity of the network is at risk due to issues in the clients, we will endeavor to publish patches in a timely fashion to address the issues. We will endeavour to provide solutions within the voluntary 24 hour waiting period.

All disputes or claims arising out of, relating to, or in connection with the Terms, the breach thereof, or use of the Ethereum Platform shall be finally settled under the Rules of Arbitration of the International Chamber of Commerce by one or more arbitrators appointed in accordance with said Rules. All claims between the parties relating to these Terms that are capable of being resolved by arbitration, whether sounding in contract, tort, or otherwise, shall be submitted to ICC arbitration. Prior to commencing arbitration, the parties have a duty to negotiate in good faith and attempt to resolve their dispute in a manner other than by submission to ICC arbitration. The arbitration panel shall consist of one arbitrator only, unless the ICC Court of Arbitration determines that the dispute is such as to warrant three arbitrators. If the Court determines that one arbitrator is sufficient, then such arbitrator shall be Swiss resident. If the Court determines that three arbitrators are necessary, then each party shall have 30 days to nominate an arbitrator of its choice — in the case of the Claimant, measured from receipt of notification of the ICC Courts decision to have three arbitrators; in the case of Respondent, measured from receipt of notification of Claimants nomination. All nominations must be Swiss resident. If a party fails to nominate an arbitrator, the Court will do so. The Court shall also appoint the chairman. All arbitrators shall be and remain independent of the parties involved in the arbitration. The place of arbitration shall be Zug, Switzerland. The language of the arbitration shall be English. In deciding the merits of the dispute, the tribunal shall apply the laws of Switzerland and any discovery shall be limited and shall not involve any depositions or any other examinations outside of a formal hearing. The tribunal shall not assume the powers of amiable compositeur or decide the case ex aequo et bono. In the final award, the tribunal shall fix the costs of the arbitration and decide which of the parties shall bear such costs in what proportion. Every award shall be binding on the parties. The parties undertake to carry out the award without delay and waive their right to any form of recourse against the award in so far as such waiver can validly be made.

Stiftung Ethereum is finally not liable for:

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Ethereum Project

Ethereum – Wikipedia

blockchain platform with programmable transactions

The Ethereum Project’s logo, first used in 2014

Ethereum is an open-source, public, blockchain-based distributed computing platform and operating system featuring smart contract (scripting) functionality.[3] It supports a modified version of Nakamoto consensus via transaction-based state transitions.

Ether is a cryptocurrency whose blockchain is generated by the Ethereum platform. Ether can be transferred between accounts and used to compensate participant mining nodes for computations performed.[4] Ethereum provides a decentralized Turing-complete virtual machine, the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM), which can execute scripts using an international network of public nodes. “Gas”, an internal transaction pricing mechanism, is used to mitigate spam and allocate resources on the network.[3][5]

Ethereum was proposed in late 2013 by Vitalik Buterin, a cryptocurrency researcher and programmer. Development was funded by an online crowdsale that took place between July and August 2014.[6] The system went live on 30 July 2015, with 72million coins “premined”.[7] This accounts for about 70 percent of the total circulating supply in 2018.

In 2016, as a result of the collapse of The DAO project, Ethereum was split into two separate blockchains the new separate version became Ethereum (ETH), and the original continued as Ethereum Classic (ETC).[8][9][10] The value of the Ethereum currency grew over 13,000 percent in 2017, to over $1400.[11] By September 2018, it had fallen back to $200.[12]

Vitalik Buterin picked the name Ethereum after browsing Wikipedia articles about elements and science fiction, when he found the name, noting, “I immediately realized that I liked it better than all of the other alternatives that I had seen; I suppose it was the fact that sounded nice and it had the word ‘ether’, referring to the hypothetical invisible medium that permeates the universe and allows light to travel.”[13]

Ethereum was initially described in a white paper by Vitalik Buterin,[14] a programmer involved with Bitcoin Magazine, in late 2013 with a goal of building decentralized applications.[15][16] Buterin had argued that Bitcoin needed a scripting language for application development. Failing to gain agreement, he proposed development of a new platform with a more general scripting language.[17]:88

At the time of public announcement in January 2014, the core Ethereum team was Vitalik Buterin, Mihai Alisie, Anthony Di Iorio, and Charles Hoskinson.[18] Formal development of the Ethereum software project began in early 2014 through a Swiss company, Ethereum Switzerland GmbH (EthSuisse).[19][20] Subsequently, a Swiss non-profit foundation, the Ethereum Foundation (Stiftung Ethereum), was created as well. Development was funded by an online public crowdsale during JulyAugust 2014, with the participants buying the Ethereum value token (ether) with another digital currency, bitcoin.[6] While there was early praise for the technical innovations of Ethereum, questions were also raised about its security and scalability.[15]

In March 2017, various blockchain start-ups, research groups, and Fortune 500 companies announced the creation of the Enterprise Ethereum Alliance (EEA) with 30 founding members.[21] By May, the nonprofit organization had 116 enterprise membersincluding ConsenSys, CME Group, Cornell University’s research group, Toyota Research Institute, Samsung SDS, Microsoft, Intel, J. P. Morgan, Cooley LLP, Merck KGaA, DTCC, Deloitte, Accenture, Banco Santander, BNY Mellon, ING, and National Bank of Canada.[22][23][24] By July 2017, there were over 150 members in the alliance, including recent additions MasterCard, Cisco Systems, Sberbank and Scotiabank.[25][26]

Legend:

Old version

Older version, still supported

Latest version

Latest preview version

Future release

Several codenamed prototypes of the Ethereum platform were developed by the Foundation, as part of their Proof-of-Concept series, prior to the official launch of the Frontier network. “Olympic” was the last of these prototypes, and public beta pre-release.[28][29] The Olympic network provided users with a bug bounty of 25,000 ether for stress testing the limits of the Ethereum blockchain. “Frontier” marked the tentative experimental release of the Ethereum platform in July 2015.[30][31]

Since the initial launch, Ethereum has undergone several planned protocol upgrades, which are important changes affecting the underlying functionality and/or incentive structures of the platform.[32][33] Protocol upgrades are accomplished by means of a soft fork of the open source code base.

“Homestead” was the first to be considered stable.[34][35] It included improvements to transaction processing, gas pricing, and security[36][34][37] and the soft fork occurred on 31 July 2015.[17]:87

The “Metropolis Part 1: Byzantium” soft fork took effect on 16 October 2017, and included changes to reduce the complexity of the EVM and provide more flexibility for smart contract developers.[33] Byzantium also adds supports for zk-SNARKs (from Zcash); with the first zk-SNARK transaction occurring on testnet on September 19, 2017.[27]

There are at least two other protocol upgrades planned in the future:”Metropolis Part 2: Constantinople” will lay the foundations for the transition to proof-of-stake (Casper).[38]

In 2016 a decentralized autonomous organization called The DAO, a set of smart contracts developed on the platform, raised a record US$150 million in a crowdsale to fund the project.[39] The DAO was exploited in June when US$50 million in ether were claimed by an anonymous entity.[40][41] The event sparked a debate in the crypto-community about whether Ethereum should perform a contentious “hard fork” to reappropriate the affected funds.[42] As a result of the dispute, the network split in two. Ethereum (the subject of this article) continued on the forked blockchain, while Ethereum Classic continued on the original blockchain.[43] The hard fork created a rivalry between the two networks.[44]

After the hard fork related to The DAO, Ethereum subsequently forked twice in the fourth quarter of 2016 to deal with other attacks.[45] By the end of November 2016, Ethereum had increased its DDoS protection, de-bloated the blockchain, and thwarted further spam attacks by hackers.[37]

Ether is a fundamental cryptocurrency for operation of Ethereum, which thereby provides a public distributed ledger for transactions. It is used to pay for gas, a unit of computation used in transactions and other state transitions. Mistakenly, this currency is also referred to as Ethereum.[46] It is listed under the code ETH and traded on cryptocurrency exchanges, and the Greek uppercase Xi character () is generally used for its currency symbol. It is also used to pay for transaction fees and computational services on the Ethereum network.[47]

As with other cryptocurrencies, the validity of each ether is provided by a blockchain, which is a continuously growing list of records, called blocks, which are linked and secured using cryptography.[48][49] By design, the blockchain is inherently resistant to modification of the data. It is an open, distributed ledger that records transactions between two parties efficiently and in a verifiable and permanent way.[50] Unlike Bitcoin, Ethereum operates using accounts and balances in a manner called state transitions. This does not rely upon unspent transaction outputs (UTXOs). State denotes the current balances of all accounts and extra data. State is not stored on the blockchain, it is stored in a separate Merkle Patricia tree. A cryptocurrency wallet stores the public and private “keys” or “addresses” which can be used to receive or spend Ether. These can be generated through BIP 39 style mnemonics for a BIP 32 “HD Wallet”. In Ethereum, this is unnecessary as it does not operate in a UTXO scheme. With the private key, it is possible to write in the blockchain, effectively making an ether transaction.[51] To send ether to an account, you need the public key of that account. Ether accounts are pseudonymous in that they are not linked to individual persons, but rather to one or more specific addresses.[52] Owners can store these addresses in software, on paper and possibly in memory (“brain wallet”).

Ethereum addresses are composed of the prefix “0x”, a common identifier for hexadecimal, concatenated with the rightmost 20 bytes of the Keccak-256 hash (big endian) of the ECDSA public key. In hexadecimal, 2 digits represents a byte, meaning addresses contain 40 hexadecimal digits. One example is 0xb794F5eA0ba39494cE839613fffBA74279579268, the Poloniex ColdWallet. Contract addresses are in the same format, however they are determined by sender and creation transaction nonce.[53] User accounts are indistinguishable from contract accounts given only an address for each and no blockchain data. Any valid Keccak-256 hash put into the described format is valid, even if it does not correspond to an account with a private key or a contract. This is unlike Bitcoin, which uses base58check to ensure that addresses are properly typed.

Ether is different from Bitcoin (the cryptocurrency with the largest market capitalization as of June 2018) in several aspects:

The total supply of ether was 100 million as of June 2018.[56] In 2017, mining generated 9.2 million new ether, corresponding to a 10% increase in its total supply.[57] Casper FFG and CBC are expected to reduce the inflation rate to between 0.5% to 2%.[58] There is no currently implemented hard cap on the total supply of ETH, but it is expected to end at a certain point, and become deflationary.

Ether can be traded by regular currency brokers, cryptocurrency exchanges, as well as many online cryptocurrency wallets.[59] As of January 2018, at least 150 stores accept ether.[60]

The Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM)[61][62] is the runtime environment for smart contracts in Ethereum. It is a 256-bit register stack, designed to run the same code exactly as intended. It is the fundamental consensus mechanism for Ethereum. The formal definition of the EVM is specified in the Ethereum Yellow Paper.[53][63] It is sandboxed and also completely isolated from the network, filesystem or other processes of the host computer system. Every Ethereum node in the network runs an EVM implementation and executes the same instructions. On February 1, 2018, there were 27,500 nodes in the main Ethereum network.[64] Ethereum Virtual Machines have been implemented in C++, Go, Haskell, Java, JavaScript, Python, Ruby, Rust, and WebAssembly (currently under development).[65][66]

Ethereum’s smart contracts are based on different computer languages, which developers use to program their own functionalities.[67] Smart contracts are high-level programming abstractions that are compiled down to EVM bytecode and deployed to the Ethereum blockchain for execution. They can be written in Solidity (a language library with similarities to C and JavaScript), Serpent (similar to Python, but deprecated), LLL (a low-level Lisp-like language), and Mutan (Go-based, but deprecated). There is also a research-oriented language under development called Viper (a strongly-typed Python-derived decidable language).[68]

Smart contracts can be public, which opens up the possibility to prove functionality, e.g. self-contained provably fair casinos.[69]

One issue related to using smart contracts on a public blockchain is that bugs, including security holes, are visible to all but cannot be fixed quickly.[70] One example of this is the 17 June 2016 attack on The DAO, which could not be quickly stopped or reversed.[40]

There is ongoing research on how to use formal verification to express and prove non-trivial properties. A Microsoft Research report noted that writing solid smart contracts can be extremely difficult in practice, using The DAO hack to illustrate this problem. The report discussed tools that Microsoft had developed for verifying contracts, and noted that a large-scale analysis of published contracts is likely to uncover widespread vulnerabilities. The report also stated that it is possible to verify the equivalence of a Solidity program and the EVM code.[71]

Ethereum is written in Turing complete language, which includes seven different programming languages.[72] Developers use the language to create and publish applications which they know will run inside Ethereum.[73][74] Its a cumbersome system, but thats not deterring developers from writing Ethereum programs.[75]

Ethereum blockchain applications are usually referred to as DApps (decentralized application), since they are based on the decentralized Ethereum Virtual Machine, and its smart contracts.[5] Many uses have been proposed for Ethereum platform, including ones that are impossible or unfeasible.[76][77][47] Use case proposals have included finance, the internet-of-things, farm-to-table produce, electricity sourcing and pricing, and sports betting.[47][78] Ethereum is (as of 2017) the leading blockchain platform for initial coin offering projects, with over 50% market share.[79]

As of January 2018, there are more than 250 live DApps, with hundreds more under development.[80] Some application examples include: digital signature algorithms, securitized tokens, digital rights management, crowdfunding, prediction markets, remittance, online gambling, social media platforms, financial exchanges and identity systems.

Ethereum-based customized software and networks, independent from the public Ethereum chain, are being tested by enterprise software companies.[81] Interested parties include Microsoft, IBM, JPMorgan Chase,[47][82] Deloitte,[83] R3,[84] Innovate UK (cross-border payments prototype).[85][86] Barclays, UBS and Credit Suisse are experimenting with Ethereum blockchain to automate Markets in Financial Instruments Directive (MiFID) II requirements.[87]

Ethereum-based permissioned blockchain variants are used and being investigated for various projects.

In Ethereum all smart contracts are stored publicly on every node of the blockchain, which has costs.[92] Being a blockchain means it issecure by designand is an example of a distributed computing system with highByzantine fault tolerance. The downside is that performance issues arise in that every node is calculating all the smart contracts in real time, resulting in lower speeds.[92] As of January 2016, the Ethereum protocol could process 25 transactions per second.[92] On 19 December 2016, Ethereum exceeded one million transactions in a single day for the first time.[93]

Ethereum’s blockchain uses Merkle trees, for security reasons, to improve scalability, and to optimize transaction hashing.[97] As with any Merkle tree implementation, it allows for storage savings, set membership proofs (called “Merkle proofs”), and light client synchronization. The Ethereum network has at times faced congestion problems, for example, congestion occurred during late 2017 in relation to Cryptokitties.[98]

Notable ethereum-based cryptocurrencies that emerged from forking the Ethereum blockchain include: Ethereum Classic

In October 2015,[99] a development governance was proposed as Ethereum Improvement Proposal, aka EIP, standardized on EIP-1.[100] The core development group and community were to gain consensus by a process regulated EIP. A few notable decisions were made in the process of EIP, such as EIP-160 (EXP cost increase caused by Spurious Dragon Hardfork)[101] and EIP-20 (ERC-20 Token Standard).[102] In January 2018, the EIP process was finalized and published as EIP-1 status turned “active”.[99]

A finance blogger on FT Alphaville has pointed out that criminals are using Ethereum to run Ponzi schemes and other forms of investment fraud.[103] The article was based on a paper from the University of Cagliari, which placed the number of Ethereum smart contracts which facilitate Ponzi schemes at nearly 10% of 1384 smart contracts examined. However, it also estimated that only 0.05% of the transactions on the network were related to such contracts.[104]

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Ethereum – Wikipedia

Ethereum Price – CoinDesk

Mt Gox’s Bitcoin Creditors Have 4 Days to Submit Rehabilitation Claims

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Excerpt from:

Ethereum Price – CoinDesk

EthereumPrice.org – USD Price, Charts & History

EthereumPrice.org – USD Price, Charts & History

$-5.5924 Hour Change

$209.4124 Hour High

$202.0624 Hour Low

$20.80B Market Cap

The price of Ethereum (ETH/USD) today is $202.62 USD with a total market cap of $20,799,002,019.

View the latest Ethereum price predictions sourced directly from the Augur marketplace. What does the crowd expect the price of Ethereum be in the future?

This guide takes a look at the investment case for Ethereum as well as the exchanges and platforms from which it can be bought.

Calculate the price of Ether in your own local currency using this simple tool with real-time price data.

Period

Change

Change (%)

High

Low

24h

$-5.59

-2.68%

$209.41

$202.06

1m

$-7.22

-3.44%

$254.57

$187.03

6m

$-312.66

-60.68%

$834.21

$167.72

1y

$-111.03

-35.40%

$1422.47

$167.72

5y

$201.27

14908.89%

$1422.47

$0.43

Year

USD

AUD

BTC

CAD

EUR

GBP

2016

749.47%

784.38%

280.62%

764.34%

808.13%

947.56%

2017

9087.98%

8813.52%

553.40%

8765.65%

8121.94%

8223.13%

2018

-72.67%

-72.26%

-42.04%

-71.79%

-72.41%

-71.71%

Ethereum is facing a new narrative of pessimism. What is currently happening on the blockchain that may warrant a price that goes above and beyond $1,000?

Ethereum’s recent decision to drop the block reward (coin supply inflation) from 3 Ether to 2 Ether, and Cboe’s announcement of an Ethereum futures market has done nothing to sway investor sentiment.

Ethereum has suffered a steep decline in value, dropping sharply from $731 3 months ago, to $258 at the time of writing – a fall of over 60%. Where does Ethereum go from here?

When we all stop talking about the price of Ethereum and start going back to what we were doing before, building stuff. Find out what’s been going on at EthereumPrice.org here.

Given that the vast majority of my working life is spent in cryptocurrency, it would come as no surprise that yes – I’m bullish on the stuff. But I’ve been bullish longer than most – in fact it was in 2011 that I decided Bitcoin had a place in the future of payments […]

The rest is here:

EthereumPrice.org – USD Price, Charts & History

ETH USD – Ethereum Price Chart TradingView

Price is at a confusing level still, and we’re waiting for a proper breakdown signal before we jump into the marketplace. Price had a green candle with a large green wick, and since then, it’s been pretty side-wards. There’s some technical factors to bear in mind, such as that price is still right at the 20, and 50 moving average resistance level, therefore from a …

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ETH USD – Ethereum Price Chart TradingView

Buy and Sell Ether With The Peer-to-Peer Ethereum Marketplace …

Buy and Sell Ether With The Peer-to-Peer Ethereum Marketplace localethereum

You need to enable Javascript in your web browser settings to access localethereum.com’s marketplace.

Localethereum is a place where you can find people to trade with these could be individuals like you on the other end of the market, or established businesses and brokers.

Buyers and sellers connect on localethereum to dodge the hassles of centralised exchanges. Over-the-counter trading is simple, quick, safe and private.

Check our step-by-step guide on how to buy ether.

0000000002000000080000b000020000400000f00e0000000000FUNDED000000a00000000008000500000000RELEASEDd0000PAID000400a000000000000000000000000000000LOCKED006000c000000000070600000000000000db000000000000000000b000000d0000000RELEASED00000FUNDED0000000000000000000500000d000037000000060004000000PAID0a000000c0000000000000f041000010000000000000000000000000070000002RELEASED00000005a0006005000000000900da0000c00

Transfers of ether between buyers and sellers are escrowed using a decentralised Ethereum smart contract. Instead of trusting a central authority to hold and release funds, localethereum’s escrow system is trust-less. We never take control of your ether.

In the event of a payment dispute, parties can authorise our team to resolve the trade. Learn more.

Messages between buyers and sellers are end-to-end encrypted using a mechanism inspired by the Signal protocol. Every conversation is protected by a unique secret key which self-destructs after completion.

We can only decipher message history if the secret key is volunteered to our team, for example during a payment dispute. Learn how it works.

In case you haven’t heard, centralised exchanges have been the subject of hacks, thefts and grave errors since the first MtGox scandal in 2011. Over $1 billion worth of crypto has been reported stolen at the hands of exchanges. Check our exhaustive timeline of crypto-exchange catastrophes if you can’t believe the scale of this snowballing trend.

We never take custody of your wallet, so users are immune to these catastrophes. The keys to your ether are kept encrypted in your browser at all times.

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Buy and Sell Ether With The Peer-to-Peer Ethereum Marketplace …

Ethereum Classic – A smarter blockchain that takes digital …

WHAT IS A BLOCKCHAIN?

Put simply, blockchains provide a way to keep track of digital assets (money, things) without the need for intermediaries, such as banks and other financial institutions.

Ethereum Classic (ETC) is a smarter blockchain, it is a network, a community, and a cryptocurrency that takes digital assets further. In addition to allowing people to send value to each other, ETC allows for complex contracts that operate autonomously and cannot be modified or censored.

This may be best explained with an analogy, imagine Bitcoin as a landline phoneit does one thing very well. ETC is like a smartphoneit can do everything Bitcoin can and much more.

If the Internet was simply a bunch of interconnected computers, and didnt have any users or creators making websites, it would be largely useless. In much the same way a blockchain needs users and creators. ETC has both and were working on solving real world problems of interconnecting people and their devices.

See the original post:

Ethereum Classic – A smarter blockchain that takes digital …

Ethereum Project

SECURITY WARNINGS

You are responsible for your own computer security. If your machine is compromised you will lose your ether, access to any contracts and possibly more.

You are responsible for your own actions. If you mess something up or break any laws while using this software, it’s your fault, and your fault only.

You are responsible for your own karma. Don’t be a jerk and respect the rights of others. What goes around comes around.

The following Terms and Conditions (Terms) govern the use of the Ethereum open source software platform (Ethereum Platform). Prior to any use of the Ethereum Platform, the User confirms to understand and expressly agrees to all of the Terms. All capitalized terms in this agreement will be given the same effect and meaning as in the Terms. The group of developers and other personnel that is now, or will be, employed by, or contracted with, Stiftung Ethereum (Stiftung Ethereum) is termed the Ethereum Team. The Platform will be developed by persons and entities who support Ethereum, including both volunteers and developers who are paid by nonprofit entities interested in supporting the Ethereum Platform.

The user acknowledges the following serious risks to any use the Ethereum Platform and ETH and expressly agrees to neither hold Ethereum Stiftung nor the Ethereum Team liable should any of the following risks occur:

The Ethereum Platform and ETH could be impacted by one or more regulatory inquiries or regulatory actions, which could impede or limit the ability of Stiftung Ethereum to continue to develop the Ethereum Platform, or which could impede or limit the ability of a User to use Ethereum Platform or ETH.

It is possible that alternative Ethereum-based networks could be established, which utilize the same open source source code and open source protocol underlying the Ethereum Platform. The Ethereum network may compete with these alternative Ethereum-based networks, which could potentially negatively impact the Ethereum Platform and ETH.

It is possible that the Ethereum Platform will not be used by a large number of external businesses, individuals, and other organizations and that there will be limited public interest in the creation and development of distributed applications. Such a lack of interest could impact the development of the Ethereum Platform and potential uses of ETH. It cannot predict the success of its own development efforts or the efforts of other third parties.

The User recognizes that the Ethereum Platform is under development and may undergo significant changes before release. The User acknowledges that any expectations regarding the form and functionality of the Ethereum Platform held by the User may not be met upon release of the Ethereum Platform, for any number of reasons including a change in the design and implementation plans and execution of the implementation of the Ethereum Platform.

The Ethereum Platform rests on open-source software, and there is a risk that the Ethereum Stiftung or the Ethereum Team, or other third parties not directly affiliated with the Stiftung Ethereum, may introduce weaknesses or bugs into the core infrastructural elements of the Ethereum Platform causing the system to lose ETH stored in one or more User accounts or other accounts or lose sums of other valued tokens issued on the Ethereum Platform.

Cryptography is an art, not a science. And the state of the art can advance over time. Advances in code cracking, or technical advances such as the development of quantum computers, could present risks to cryptocurrencies and the Ethereum Platform, which could result in the theft or loss of ETH. To the extent possible, Stiftung Ethereum intends to update the protocol underlying the Ethereum Platform to account for any advances in cryptography and to incorporate additional security measures, but it cannot predict the future of cryptography or guarantee that any security updates will be made in a timely or successful manner.

As with other cryptocurrencies, the blockchain used for the Ethereum Platform is susceptible to mining attacks, including but not limited to:

Any successful attacks present a risk to the Ethereum Platform, expected proper execution and sequencing of ETH transactions, and expected proper execution and sequencing of contract computations. Despite the efforts of the Ethereum Stiftung and Team, known or novel mining attacks may be successful.

If the Ethereum Platform is rapidly adopted, the demand for ETH could rise dramatically and at a pace that exceeds the rate with which ETH miners can create new ETH tokens. Under such a scenario, the entire Ethereum Platform could become destabilized, due to the increased cost of running distributed applications. In turn, this could dampen interest in the Ethereum Platform and ETH. Instability in the demand of for ETH may lead to a negative change of the economical parameters of an Ethereum based business which could result in the business being unable to continue to operate economically or to cease operation.

If the Ethereum Platform is rapidly adopted, the demand for transaction processing and distributed application computations could rise dramatically and at a pace that exceeds the rate with which ETH miners can bring online additional mining power. Under such a scenario, the entire Ethereum Platform could become destabilized, due to the increased cost of running distributed applications. In turn, this could dampen interest in the Ethereum Platform and ETH. Insufficiency of computational resources and an associated rise in the price of ETH could result in businesses being unable to acquire scarce computational resources to run their distributed applications. This would represent revenue losses to businesses or worst case, cause businesses to cease operations because such operations have become uneconomical due to distortions in the crypto-economy.

Acknowledgment, Acceptance of all Risks and Disclaimer of Warranties and LiabilitiesTHE USER EXPRESSLY KNOWS AND AGREES THAT THE USER IS USING THE Ethereum PLATFORM AT THE USERS SOLE RISK. THE USER REPRESENTS THAT THE USER HAS AN ADEQUATE UNDERSTANDING OF THE RISKS, USAGES AND INTRICACIES OF CRYPTOGRAPHIC TOKENS AND BLOCKCHAIN-BASED OPEN SOURCE SOFTWARE, ETH PLATFORM AND ETH. THE USER ACKNOWLEDGES AND AGREES THAT, TO THE FULLEST EXTENT PERMITTED BY ANY APPLICABLE LAW, THE DISCLAIMERS OF LIABILITY CONTAINED HEREIN APPLY TO ANY AND ALL DAMAGES OR INJURY WHATSOEVER CAUSED BY OR RELATED TO RISKS OF, USE OF, OR INABILITY TO USE, ETH OR THE Ethereum PLATFORM UNDER ANY CAUSE OF ACTION WHATSOEVER OF ANY KIND IN ANY JURISDICTION, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, ACTIONS FOR BREACH OF WARRANTY, BREACH OF CONTRACT OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE) AND THAT NEITHER Stiftung Ethereum NOR ETHEREUM TEAM SHALL BE LIABLE FOR ANY INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, INCLUDING FOR LOSS OF PROFITS, GOODWILL OR DATA. SOME JURISDICTIONS DO NOT ALLOW THE EXCLUSION OF CERTAIN WARRANTIES OR THE LIMITATION OR EXCLUSION OF LIABILITY FOR CERTAIN TYPES OF DAMAGES. THEREFORE, SOME OF THE ABOVE LIMITATIONS IN THIS SECTION MAY NOT APPLY TO A USER. IN PARTICULAR, NOTHING IN THESE TERMS SHALL AFFECT THE STATUTORY RIGHTS OF ANY USER OR EXCLUDE INJURY ARISING FROM ANY WILLFUL MISCONDUCT OR FRAUD OF Stiftung Ethereum.

We recommend any groups handling large or important transactions to maintain a voluntary 24 hour waiting period on any ether deposited. In case the integrity of the network is at risk due to issues in the clients, we will endeavor to publish patches in a timely fashion to address the issues. We will endeavour to provide solutions within the voluntary 24 hour waiting period.

All disputes or claims arising out of, relating to, or in connection with the Terms, the breach thereof, or use of the Ethereum Platform shall be finally settled under the Rules of Arbitration of the International Chamber of Commerce by one or more arbitrators appointed in accordance with said Rules. All claims between the parties relating to these Terms that are capable of being resolved by arbitration, whether sounding in contract, tort, or otherwise, shall be submitted to ICC arbitration. Prior to commencing arbitration, the parties have a duty to negotiate in good faith and attempt to resolve their dispute in a manner other than by submission to ICC arbitration. The arbitration panel shall consist of one arbitrator only, unless the ICC Court of Arbitration determines that the dispute is such as to warrant three arbitrators. If the Court determines that one arbitrator is sufficient, then such arbitrator shall be Swiss resident. If the Court determines that three arbitrators are necessary, then each party shall have 30 days to nominate an arbitrator of its choice — in the case of the Claimant, measured from receipt of notification of the ICC Courts decision to have three arbitrators; in the case of Respondent, measured from receipt of notification of Claimants nomination. All nominations must be Swiss resident. If a party fails to nominate an arbitrator, the Court will do so. The Court shall also appoint the chairman. All arbitrators shall be and remain independent of the parties involved in the arbitration. The place of arbitration shall be Zug, Switzerland. The language of the arbitration shall be English. In deciding the merits of the dispute, the tribunal shall apply the laws of Switzerland and any discovery shall be limited and shall not involve any depositions or any other examinations outside of a formal hearing. The tribunal shall not assume the powers of amiable compositeur or decide the case ex aequo et bono. In the final award, the tribunal shall fix the costs of the arbitration and decide which of the parties shall bear such costs in what proportion. Every award shall be binding on the parties. The parties undertake to carry out the award without delay and waive their right to any form of recourse against the award in so far as such waiver can validly be made.

Stiftung Ethereum is finally not liable for:

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Ethereum Project

Ethereum Price – CoinDesk

Early Coinbase Executive Adam White Is Leaving the Firm

Oct 5, 2018 at 09:35 | Daniel Palmer

Adam White, one of U.S.-based crypto exchange Coinbase’s most senior executives and fifth-ever employee, is leaving the company.

Oct 5, 2018 at 04:01 | David Floyd

Can a “faster, better, cheaper” Augur attract the user base it needs in order to succeed?

Oct 4, 2018 at 14:00 | Sebastian Sinclair

Ether, the second largest cryptocurrency by market capitalization, has staved off a bearish move and may be looking at further gains.

Oct 4, 2018 at 12:59 | Anna Baydakova

Melonport co-founder Reto Trinkler is joining an increasingly crowded field with the launch of Agora Trade, a decentralized crypto exchange.

Oct 4, 2018 at 11:03 | Omkar Godbole

Bitcoin’s prolonged period of consolidation could end with an upside break if prices clear key resistance at $6,800.

Oct 3, 2018 at 16:15 | Nikhilesh De

Crypto exchange Gemini announced Wednesday it had gained insurance for all of its custodied digital assets.

Oct 3, 2018 at 15:45 | Sam Ouimet

Bears have been emboldened by the latest dip to $6,400, but bulls might be ready to fight back as a trend line of support comes into play.

Oct 3, 2018 at 14:20 | Nikhilesh De

TD Ameritrade is reportedly investing in ErisX, a new cryptocurrency exchange built by derivatives market provider Eris Exchange.

Oct 3, 2018 at 11:00 | Daniel Palmer

Crypto exchange Coinbase has deployed a system aimed to automatically reduce delays in bitcoin payments arising from transaction fee volatility.

Oct 2, 2018 at 16:30 | Nikhilesh De

Coinbase has brought a Charles Schwab advisor onto its board of directors, as well as hired a new managing director for institutional products.

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Ethereum Price – CoinDesk

Ethereum – Wikipedia

blockchain platform with programmable transactions

The Ethereum Project’s logo, first used in 2014

Ethereum is an open-source, public, blockchain-based distributed computing platform and operating system featuring smart contract (scripting) functionality.[3] It supports a modified version of Nakamoto consensus via transaction-based state transitions.

Ether is a cryptocurrency whose blockchain is generated by the Ethereum platform. Ether can be transferred between accounts and used to compensate participant mining nodes for computations performed.[4] Ethereum provides a decentralized Turing-complete virtual machine, the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM), which can execute scripts using an international network of public nodes. “Gas”, an internal transaction pricing mechanism, is used to mitigate spam and allocate resources on the network.[3][5]

Ethereum was proposed in late 2013 by Vitalik Buterin, a cryptocurrency researcher and programmer. Development was funded by an online crowdsale that took place between July and August 2014.[6] The system went live on 30 July 2015, with 11.9million coins “premined” for the crowdsale.[7] This accounts for about 13 percent of the total circulating supply.

In 2016, as a result of the collapse of The DAO project, Ethereum was split into two separate blockchains the new separate version became Ethereum (ETH), and the original continued as Ethereum Classic (ETC).[8][9][10] The value of the Ethereum currency grew over 13,000 percent in 2017.[11]

Vitalik Buterin picked the name Ethereum after browsing Wikipedia articles about elements and science fiction, when he found the name, noting, “I immediately realized that I liked it better than all of the other alternatives that I had seen; I suppose it was the fact that sounded nice and it had the word ‘ether’, referring to the hypothetical invisible medium that permeates the universe and allows light to travel.”[12]

Ethereum was initially described in a white paper by Vitalik Buterin,[13] a programmer involved with Bitcoin Magazine, in late 2013 with a goal of building decentralized applications.[14][15] Buterin had argued that Bitcoin needed a scripting language for application development. Failing to gain agreement, he proposed development of a new platform with a more general scripting language.[16]:88

At the time of public announcement in January 2014, the core Ethereum team was Vitalik Buterin, Mihai Alisie, Anthony Di Iorio, and Charles Hoskinson.[17] Formal development of the Ethereum software project began in early 2014 through a Swiss company, Ethereum Switzerland GmbH (EthSuisse).[18][19] Subsequently, a Swiss non-profit foundation, the Ethereum Foundation (Stiftung Ethereum), was created as well. Development was funded by an online public crowdsale during JulyAugust 2014, with the participants buying the Ethereum value token (ether) with another digital currency, bitcoin.[6] While there was early praise for the technical innovations of Ethereum, questions were also raised about its security and scalability.[14]

In March 2017, various blockchain start-ups, research groups, and Fortune 500 companies announced the creation of the Enterprise Ethereum Alliance (EEA) with 30 founding members.[20] By May, the nonprofit organization had 116 enterprise membersincluding ConsenSys, CME Group, Cornell University’s research group, Toyota Research Institute, Samsung SDS, Microsoft, Intel, J. P. Morgan, Cooley LLP, Merck KGaA, DTCC, Deloitte, Accenture, Banco Santander, BNY Mellon, ING, and National Bank of Canada.[21][22][23] By July 2017, there were over 150 members in the alliance, including recent additions MasterCard, Cisco Systems, Sberbank and Scotiabank.[24][25]

Legend:

Old version

Older version, still supported

Latest version

Latest preview version

Future release

Several codenamed prototypes of the Ethereum platform were developed by the Foundation, as part of their Proof-of-Concept series, prior to the official launch of the Frontier network. “Olympic” was the last of these prototypes, and public beta pre-release.[27][28] The Olympic network provided users with a bug bounty of 25,000 ether for stress testing the limits of the Ethereum blockchain. “Frontier” marked the tentative experimental release of the Ethereum platform in July 2015.[29][30]

Since the initial launch, Ethereum has undergone several planned protocol upgrades, which are important changes affecting the underlying functionality and/or incentive structures of the platform.[31][32] Protocol upgrades are accomplished by means of a soft fork of the open source code base.

“Homestead” was the first to be considered stable.[33][34] It included improvements to transaction processing, gas pricing, and security[35][33][36] and the soft fork occurred on 31 July 2015.[16]:87

The “Metropolis Part 1: Byzantium” soft fork took effect on 16 October 2017, and included changes to reduce the complexity of the EVM and provide more flexibility for smart contract developers.[32] Byzantium also adds supports for zk-SNARKs (from Zcash); with the first zk-SNARK transaction occurring on testnet on September 19, 2017.[26]

There are at least two other protocol upgrades planned in the future:”Metropolis Part 2: Constantinople” will lay the foundations for the transition to proof-of-stake (Casper).[37]

In 2016 a decentralized autonomous organization called The DAO, a set of smart contracts developed on the platform, raised a record US$150 million in a crowdsale to fund the project.[38] The DAO was exploited in June when US$50 million in ether were claimed by an anonymous entity.[39][40] The event sparked a debate in the crypto-community about whether Ethereum should perform a contentious “hard fork” to reappropriate the affected funds.[41] As a result of the dispute, the network split in two. Ethereum (the subject of this article) continued on the forked blockchain, while Ethereum Classic continued on the original blockchain.[42] The hard fork created a rivalry between the two networks.[43]

After the hard fork related to The DAO, Ethereum subsequently forked twice in the fourth quarter of 2016 to deal with other attacks.[44] By the end of November 2016, Ethereum had increased its DDoS protection, de-bloated the blockchain, and thwarted further spam attacks by hackers.[36]

Ether is a fundamental cryptocurrency for operation of Ethereum, which thereby provides a public distributed ledger for transactions. It is used to pay for gas, a unit of computation used in transactions and other state transitions. Mistakenly, this currency is also referred to as Ethereum.[45] It is listed under the code ETH and traded on cryptocurrency exchanges, and the Greek uppercase Xi character () is generally used for its currency symbol. It is also used to pay for transaction fees and computational services on the Ethereum network.[46]

As with other cryptocurrencies, the validity of each ether is provided by a blockchain, which is a continuously growing list of records, called blocks, which are linked and secured using cryptography.[47][48] By design, the blockchain is inherently resistant to modification of the data. It is an open, distributed ledger that records transactions between two parties efficiently and in a verifiable and permanent way.[49] Unlike Bitcoin, Ethereum operates using accounts and balances in a manner called state transitions. This does not rely upon unspent transaction outputs (UTXOs). State denotes the current balances of all accounts and extra data. State is not stored on the blockchain, it is stored in a separate Merkle Patricia tree. A cryptocurrency wallet stores the public and private “keys” or “addresses” which can be used to receive or spend Ether. These can be generated through BIP 39 style mnemonics for a BIP 32 “HD Wallet”. In Ethereum, this is unnecessary as it does not operate in a UTXO scheme. With the private key, it is possible to write in the blockchain, effectively making an ether transaction.[50] To send ether to an account, you need the public key of that account. Ether accounts are pseudonymous in that they are not linked to individual persons, but rather to one or more specific addresses.[51] Owners can store these addresses in software, on paper and possibly in memory (“brain wallet”).

Ethereum addresses are composed of the prefix “0x”, a common identifier for hexadecimal, concatenated with the rightmost 20 bytes of the Keccak-256 hash (big endian) of the ECDSA public key. In hexadecimal, 2 digits represents a byte, meaning addresses contain 40 hexadecimal digits. One example is 0xb794F5eA0ba39494cE839613fffBA74279579268, the Poloniex ColdWallet. Contract addresses are in the same format, however they are determined by sender and creation transaction nonce.[52] User accounts are indistinguishable from contract accounts given only an address for each and no blockchain data. Any valid Keccak-256 hash put into the described format is valid, even if it does not correspond to an account with a private key or a contract. This is unlike Bitcoin, which uses base58check to ensure that addresses are properly typed.

Ether is different from Bitcoin (the cryptocurrency with the largest market capitalization as of June 2018) in several aspects:

The total supply of ether was 100 million as of June 2018.[55] In 2017, mining generated 9.2 million new ether, corresponding to a 10% increase in its total supply.[56] Casper FFG and CBC are expected to reduce the inflation rate to between 0.5% to 2%.[57] There is no currently implemented hard cap on the total supply of ETH, but it is expected to end at a certain point, and become deflationary.

Ether can be traded by regular currency brokers, cryptocurrency exchanges, as well as many online cryptocurrency wallets.[58] As of January 2018, at least 150 stores accept ether.[59]

The Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM)[60][61] is the runtime environment for smart contracts in Ethereum. It is a 256-bit register stack, designed to run the same code exactly as intended. It is the fundamental consensus mechanism for Ethereum. The formal definition of the EVM is specified in the Ethereum Yellow Paper.[52][62] It is sandboxed and also completely isolated from the network, filesystem or other processes of the host computer system. Every Ethereum node in the network runs an EVM implementation and executes the same instructions. In February 1, 2018, there were 27,500 nodes in the main Ethereum network.[63] Ethereum Virtual Machines have been implemented in C++, Go, Haskell, Java, JavaScript, Python, Ruby, Rust, and WebAssembly (currently under development).[64][65]

Ethereum’s smart contracts are based on different computer languages, which developers use to program their own functionalities.[66] Smart contracts are high-level programming abstractions that are compiled down to EVM bytecode and deployed to the Ethereum blockchain for execution. They can be written in Solidity (a language library with similarities to C and JavaScript), Serpent (similar to Python, but deprecated), LLL (a low-level Lisp-like language), and Mutan (Go-based, but deprecated). There is also a research-oriented language under development called Viper (a strongly-typed Python-derived decidable language).[67]

Smart contracts can be public, which opens up the possibility to prove functionality, e.g. self-contained provably fair casinos.[68]

One issue related to using smart contracts on a public blockchain is that bugs, including security holes, are visible to all but cannot be fixed quickly.[69] One example of this is the 17 June 2016 attack on The DAO, which could not be quickly stopped or reversed.[39]

There is ongoing research on how to use formal verification to express and prove non-trivial properties. A Microsoft Research report noted that writing solid smart contracts can be extremely difficult in practice, using The DAO hack to illustrate this problem. The report discussed tools that Microsoft had developed for verifying contracts, and noted that a large-scale analysis of published contracts is likely to uncover widespread vulnerabilities. The report also stated that it is possible to verify the equivalence of a Solidity program and the EVM code.[70]

Ethereum is written in Turing complete language, which includes seven different programming languages.[71] Developers use the language to create and publish applications which they know will run inside Ethereum.[72][73] Its a cumbersome system, but thats not deterring developers from writing Ethereum programs.[74]

Ethereum blockchain applications are usually referred to as DApps (decentralized application), since they are based on the decentralized Ethereum Virtual Machine, and its smart contracts.[5] Many uses have been proposed for Ethereum platform, including ones that are impossible or unfeasible.[75][76][46] Use case proposals have included finance, the internet-of-things, farm-to-table produce, electricity sourcing and pricing, and sports betting.[46][77] Ethereum is (as of 2017) the leading blockchain platform for initial coin offering projects, with over 50% market share.[78]

As of January 2018, there are more than 250 live DApps, with hundreds more under development.[79] Some application examples include: digital signature algorithms, securitized tokens, digital rights management, crowdfunding, prediction markets, remittance, online gambling, social media platforms, financial exchanges and identity systems.

Ethereum-based customized software and networks, independent from the public Ethereum chain, are being tested by enterprise software companies.[80] Interested parties include Microsoft, IBM, JPMorgan Chase,[46][81] Deloitte,[82] R3,[83] Innovate UK (cross-border payments prototype).[84][85] Barclays, UBS and Credit Suisse are experimenting with Ethereum blockchain to automate Markets in Financial Instruments Directive (MiFID) II requirements.[86]

Ethereum-based permissioned blockchain variants are used and being investigated for various projects.

In Ethereum all smart contracts are stored publicly on every node of the blockchain, which has costs.[91] Being a blockchain means it issecure by designand is an example of a distributed computing system with highByzantine fault tolerance. The downside is that performance issues arise in that every node is calculating all the smart contracts in real time, resulting in lower speeds.[91] As of January 2016, the Ethereum protocol could process 25 transactions per second.[91] On 19 December 2016, Ethereum exceeded one million transactions in a single day for the first time.[92]

Ethereum’s blockchain uses Merkle trees, for security reasons, to improve scalability, and to optimize transaction hashing.[96] As with any Merkle tree implementation, it allows for storage savings, set membership proofs (called “Merkle proofs”), and light client synchronization. The Ethereum network has at times faced congestion problems, for example, congestion occurred during late 2017 in relation to Cryptokitties.[97]

Notable ethereum-based cryptocurrencies that emerged from forking the Ethereum blockchain include: Ethereum Classic

In October 2015,[98] a development governance was proposed as Ethereum Improvement Proposal, aka EIP, standardized on EIP-1.[99] The core development group and community were to gain consensus by a process regulated EIP. A few notable decisions were made in the process of EIP, such as EIP-160 (EXP cost increase caused by Spurious Dragon Hardfork)[100] and EIP-20 (ERC-20 Token Standard).[101] In January 2018, the EIP process was finalized and published as EIP-1 status turned “active”.[98]

A finance blogger on FT Alphaville has pointed out that criminals are using Ethereum to run Ponzi schemes and other forms of investment fraud.[102] The article was based on a paper from the University of Cagliari, which placed the number of Ethereum smart contracts which facilitate Ponzi schemes at nearly 10% of 1384 smart contracts examined. However, it also estimated that only 0.05% of the transactions on the network were related to such contracts.[103]

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Ethereum – Wikipedia

EthereumPrice.org – USD Price, Charts & History

EthereumPrice.org – USD Price, Charts & History

$5.1824 Hour Change

$230.8024 Hour High

$220.0624 Hour Low

$23.22B Market Cap

The price of Ethereum (ETH/USD) today is $226.78 USD with a total market cap of $23,221,368,863.

View the latest Ethereum price predictions sourced directly from the Augur marketplace. What does the crowd expect the price of Ethereum be in the future?

This guide takes a look at the investment case for Ethereum as well as the exchanges and platforms from which it can be bought.

Calculate the price of Ether in your own local currency using this simple tool with real-time price data.

Period

Change

Change (%)

High

Low

24h

$5.18

2.34%

$230.80

$220.06

1m

$1.52

0.67%

$254.57

$167.72

6m

$-141.11

-38.36%

$834.21

$167.72

1y

$-81.58

-26.46%

$1422.47

$167.72

5y

$225.43

16698.52%

$1422.47

$0.43

Year

USD

AUD

BTC

CAD

EUR

GBP

2016

749.47%

784.38%

280.62%

764.34%

808.13%

947.56%

2017

9087.98%

8813.52%

553.40%

8765.65%

8121.94%

8223.13%

2018

-69.41%

-68.43%

-35.78%

-68.20%

-69.21%

-68.67%

Ethereum is facing a new narrative of pessimism. What is currently happening on the blockchain that may warrant a price that goes above and beyond $1,000?

Ethereum’s recent decision to drop the block reward (coin supply inflation) from 3 Ether to 2 Ether, and Cboe’s announcement of an Ethereum futures market has done nothing to sway investor sentiment.

Ethereum has suffered a steep decline in value, dropping sharply from $731 3 months ago, to $258 at the time of writing – a fall of over 60%. Where does Ethereum go from here?

When we all stop talking about the price of Ethereum and start going back to what we were doing before, building stuff. Find out what’s been going on at EthereumPrice.org here.

Given that the vast majority of my working life is spent in cryptocurrency, it would come as no surprise that yes – I’m bullish on the stuff. But I’ve been bullish longer than most – in fact it was in 2011 that I decided Bitcoin had a place in the future of payments […]

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EthereumPrice.org – USD Price, Charts & History

Ethereum Cash Pro

There are absolutely no boundaries when we talk about transfer of value. Sometimes, it is real pain full to get that money transfer from another country.

Problem no more, cryptocurrencies do not recognize the concept of borders, and they can be transferred from point A to point B in a matter of seconds.

Another great point is transparency. You cannot cheat the system without letting others know about that.

This is why Bitcoin or Ethereum had their rough days with someone exploiting the loopholes, but due to the fact that everyone could see what was happening, the loopholes were closed in a short period of time with the determination of community and developers.

It is not only expensive to send money, but you also have to put a lot of effort into filling all the necessary papers for it.

In comparison to SWIFT/SEPA, the transaction time is fast as a lightning strike.

I know that the cryptocurrency community is not very close to VISA transfer speed, but the crypto community is actively working on solving the problem.

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Ethereum Cash Pro

Ethereum Definition | Investopedia

DEFINITION of ‘Ethereum’

Launched in 2015, Ethereum is a decentralized software platform that enables SmartContracts and Distributed Applications (Apps) to be built and run without any downtime, fraud, control or interference from a third party. The platform is also the basis for its own virtual currency, Ether. Ethereum is not just a platform but also a programming language (Turing complete) running on a blockchain, helping developers to build and publish distributed applications. The potential applications of Ethereum are wide ranging.

The applications on Ethereum are run on its platform-specific cryptographic token, ether. During 2014, Ethereum had launched a pre-sale for ether which had received an overwhelming response. Ether is like a vehicle for moving around on the Ethereum platform, and is sought by mostly developers looking to develop and run applications inside Ethereum. Ether is used broadly for two purposes, it is traded as a digital currency exchange like other cryptocurrencies and is used inside Ethereum to run applications and even to monetize work. The current market cap of ether (ETH) is now more than Ripple and Litecoin although its far behind bitcoin (BTC).

According to Ethereum, it can be used to codify, decentralize, secure and trade just about anything. One of the big projects around Ethereum is Microsofts partnership with ConsenSys which offers Ethereum Blockchain as a Service (EBaaS) on Microsoft Azure so Enterprise clients and developers can have a single click cloud based blockchain developer environment.

In 2016 Ethereum was split into two separate blockchains – Ethereum, and Ethereum Classic, after a malicious actor stole more than $50 million worth of funds which had been raised on The DAO, a set of smart contracts originating from Ethereum’s software platform. The new Ethereum was a hard fork from the original software intended to protect against further malware attacks. As of July 2018 Ethereum was the second-largest virtual currency on the market, behind only Bitcoin. It is much faster to acquire ether currency than bitcoin (about 14 or 15 seconds to bitcoin’s near-uniform 10 minutes) and there are far more ether units in circulation than there are bitcoin.

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Ethereum Definition | Investopedia

Ethereum News – CCN

October 04, 2018 15:37

October 01, 2018 22:45

October 01, 2018 16:20

October 01, 2018 13:57

September 28, 2018 23:30

September 28, 2018 17:30

September 28, 2018 11:21

September 25, 2018 21:17

September 24, 2018 17:10

September 21, 2018 14:55

September 19, 2018 21:35

September 19, 2018 20:35

September 18, 2018 14:20

September 18, 2018 01:15

September 17, 2018 23:47

September 17, 2018 23:11

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Ethereum News – CCN

Ethereum news, prices, information, and more – ETHNews.com

Trinity v0.1.0-alpha.16

The fifth major release of the Trinity Ethereum client, named Ada Lovelace after the 19th-century mathematician, focuses on improving sync reliability and performance. This includes preference for more performative and reliable peers. The update also includes improvements to data reliability. See More

Geth v1.8.16 (Budapest)

Budapest is a regular maintenance update for Geth, with an assortment of bug fixes and some small improvements, including several that ready the client for Constantinople. See More

Parity 1.x Versions Reach ‘End of Life’

This week, Parity released version 2.0.5-stable. Afri Schoedon, a developer at Parity, asked the client’s users to upgrade to 2.0.5-stable or 2.1.0-beta if they have not already done so. That’s because all versions of Parity 1.x will no longer function. See More

Parity 2.0.4-beta

Parity’s most recent beta, released on September 11, fixes several bugs. See More

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Ethereum news, prices, information, and more – ETHNews.com

Ethereum Classic – A smarter blockchain that takes digital …

WHAT IS A BLOCKCHAIN?

Put simply, blockchains provide a way to keep track of digital assets (money, things) without the need for intermediaries, such as banks and other financial institutions.

Ethereum Classic (ETC) is a smarter blockchain, it is a network, a community, and a cryptocurrency that takes digital assets further. In addition to allowing people to send value to each other, ETC allows for complex contracts that operate autonomously and cannot be modified or censored.

This may be best explained with an analogy, imagine Bitcoin as a landline phoneit does one thing very well. ETC is like a smartphoneit can do everything Bitcoin can and much more.

If the Internet was simply a bunch of interconnected computers, and didnt have any users or creators making websites, it would be largely useless. In much the same way a blockchain needs users and creators. ETC has both and were working on solving real world problems of interconnecting people and their devices.

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Ethereum Classic – A smarter blockchain that takes digital …

Buy and Sell Ether With The Peer-to-Peer Ethereum …

Buy and Sell Ether With The Peer-to-Peer Ethereum Marketplace localethereum

You need to enable Javascript in your web browser settings to access localethereum.com’s marketplace.

Localethereum is a place where you can find people to trade with these could be individuals like you on the other end of the market, or established businesses and brokers.

Buyers and sellers connect on localethereum to dodge the hassles of centralised exchanges. Over-the-counter trading is simple, quick, safe and private.

Check our step-by-step guide on how to buy ether.

000000000000030000007000000d0000400000000000000e0000FUNDED000000000000000000000000900000RELEASED00000PAID000000000000000000000000000000c000000LOCKED000000000000000007000400000000000000000000000000000000000000000000002RELEASED00e00FUNDED00000000020000000000000060000020000000000000000000PAID00070000000000000000000000000000000300000000000002000000000000001RELEASED0000000000000000000900000000600000000

Transfers of ether between buyers and sellers are escrowed using a decentralised Ethereum smart contract. Instead of trusting a central authority to hold and release funds, localethereum’s escrow system is trust-less. We never take control of your ether.

In the event of a payment dispute, parties can authorise our team to resolve the trade. Learn more.

Messages between buyers and sellers are end-to-end encrypted using a mechanism inspired by the Signal protocol. Every conversation is protected by a unique secret key which self-destructs after completion.

We can only decipher message history if the secret key is volunteered to our team, for example during a payment dispute. Learn how it works.

In case you haven’t heard, centralised exchanges have been the subject of hacks, thefts and grave errors since the first MtGox scandal in 2011. Over $1 billion worth of crypto has been reported stolen at the hands of exchanges. Check our exhaustive timeline of crypto-exchange catastrophes if you can’t believe the scale of this snowballing trend.

We never take custody of your wallet, so users are immune to these catastrophes. The keys to your ether are kept encrypted in your browser at all times.

Follow this link:

Buy and Sell Ether With The Peer-to-Peer Ethereum …


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