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Nanotechnology – Wikipedia

Field of applied science whose theme is the control of matter on atomic and (supra)molecular scale

Nanotechnology (or "nanotech") is manipulation of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale. The earliest, widespread description of nanotechnology[1][2] referred to the particular technological goal of precisely manipulating atoms and molecules for fabrication of macroscale products, also now referred to as molecular nanotechnology. A more generalized description of nanotechnology was subsequently established by the National Nanotechnology Initiative, which defines nanotechnology as the manipulation of matter with at least one dimension sized from 1 to 100 nanometers. This definition reflects the fact that quantum mechanical effects are important at this quantum-realm scale, and so the definition shifted from a particular technological goal to a research category inclusive of all types of research and technologies that deal with the special properties of matter which occur below the given size threshold. It is therefore common to see the plural form "nanotechnologies" as well as "nanoscale technologies" to refer to the broad range of research and applications whose common trait is size.

Nanotechnology as defined by size is naturally very broad, including fields of science as diverse as surface science, organic chemistry, molecular biology, semiconductor physics, energy storage,[3][4] microfabrication,[5] molecular engineering, etc.[6] The associated research and applications are equally diverse, ranging from extensions of conventional device physics to completely new approaches based upon molecular self-assembly,[7] from developing new materials with dimensions on the nanoscale to direct control of matter on the atomic scale.

Scientists currently debate the future implications of nanotechnology. Nanotechnology may be able to create many new materials and devices with a vast range of applications, such as in nanomedicine, nanoelectronics, biomaterials energy production, and consumer products. On the other hand, nanotechnology raises many of the same issues as any new technology, including concerns about the toxicity and environmental impact of nanomaterials,[8] and their potential effects on global economics, as well as speculation about various doomsday scenarios. These concerns have led to a debate among advocacy groups and governments on whether special regulation of nanotechnology is warranted.

The concepts that seeded nanotechnology were first discussed in 1959 by renowned physicist Richard Feynman in his talk There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom, in which he described the possibility of synthesis via direct manipulation of atoms.

In 1960, Egyptian engineer Mohamed Atalla and Korean engineer Dawon Kahng at Bell Labs fabricated the first MOSFET (metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor) with a gate oxide thickness of 100nm, along with a gate length of 20m.[9] In 1962, Atalla and Kahng fabricated a nanolayer-base metalsemiconductor junction (MS junction) transistor that used gold (Au) thin films with a thickness of 10nm.[10]

The term "nano-technology" was first used by Norio Taniguchi in 1974, though it was not widely known. Inspired by Feynman's concepts, K. Eric Drexler used the term "nanotechnology" in his 1986 book Engines of Creation: The Coming Era of Nanotechnology, which proposed the idea of a nanoscale "assembler" which would be able to build a copy of itself and of other items of arbitrary complexity with atomic control. Also in 1986, Drexler co-founded The Foresight Institute (with which he is no longer affiliated) to help increase public awareness and understanding of nanotechnology concepts and implications.

The emergence of nanotechnology as a field in the 1980s occurred through convergence of Drexler's theoretical and public work, which developed and popularized a conceptual framework for nanotechnology, and high-visibility experimental advances that drew additional wide-scale attention to the prospects of atomic control of matter. Since the popularity spike in the 1980s, most of nanotechnology has involved investigation of several approaches to making mechanical devices out of a small number of atoms.[11]

In the 1980s, two major breakthroughs sparked the growth of nanotechnology in modern era. First, the invention of the scanning tunneling microscope in 1981 which provided unprecedented visualization of individual atoms and bonds, and was successfully used to manipulate individual atoms in 1989. The microscope's developers Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer at IBM Zurich Research Laboratory received a Nobel Prize in Physics in 1986.[12][13] Binnig, Quate and Gerber also invented the analogous atomic force microscope that year.

Second, fullerenes were discovered in 1985 by Harry Kroto, Richard Smalley, and Robert Curl, who together won the 1996 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.[14][15] C60 was not initially described as nanotechnology; the term was used regarding subsequent work with related graphene tubes (called carbon nanotubes and sometimes called Bucky tubes) which suggested potential applications for nanoscale electronics and devices. The discovery of carbon nanotubes is largely attributed to Sumio Iijima of NEC in 1991,[16] for which Iijima won the inaugural 2008 Kavli Prize in Nanoscience.

In 1987, Bijan Davari led an IBM research team that demonstrated the first MOSFET with a 10nm gate oxide thickness, using tungsten-gate technology.[17] Multi-gate MOSFETs enabled scaling below 20nm gate length, starting with the FinFET (fin field-effect transistor), a three-dimensional, non-planar, double-gate MOSFET.[18] The FinFET originates from the research of Digh Hisamoto at Hitachi Central Research Laboratory in 1989.[19][20][21][22] At UC Berkeley, FinFET devices were fabricated by a group consisting of Hisamoto along with TSMC's Chenming Hu and other international researchers including Tsu-Jae King Liu, Jeffrey Bokor, Hideki Takeuchi, K. Asano, Jakub Kedziersk, Xuejue Huang, Leland Chang, Nick Lindert, Shibly Ahmed and Cyrus Tabery. The team fabricated FinFET devices down to a 17nm process in 1998, and then 15nm in 2001. In 2002, a team including Yu, Chang, Ahmed, Hu, Liu, Bokor and Tabery fabricated a 10nm FinFET device.[18]

In the early 2000s, the field garnered increased scientific, political, and commercial attention that led to both controversy and progress. Controversies emerged regarding the definitions and potential implications of nanotechnologies, exemplified by the Royal Society's report on nanotechnology.[23] Challenges were raised regarding the feasibility of applications envisioned by advocates of molecular nanotechnology, which culminated in a public debate between Drexler and Smalley in 2001 and 2003.[24]

Meanwhile, commercialization of products based on advancements in nanoscale technologies began emerging. These products are limited to bulk applications of nanomaterials and do not involve atomic control of matter. Some examples include the Silver Nano platform for using silver nanoparticles as an antibacterial agent, nanoparticle-based transparent sunscreens, carbon fiber strengthening using silica nanoparticles, and carbon nanotubes for stain-resistant textiles.[25][26]

Governments moved to promote and fund research into nanotechnology, such as in the U.S. with the National Nanotechnology Initiative, which formalized a size-based definition of nanotechnology and established funding for research on the nanoscale, and in Europe via the European Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development.

By the mid-2000s new and serious scientific attention began to flourish. Projects emerged to produce nanotechnology roadmaps[27][28] which center on atomically precise manipulation of matter and discuss existing and projected capabilities, goals, and applications.

In 2006, a team of Korean researchers from the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) and the National Nano Fab Center developed a 3nm MOSFET, the world's smallest nanoelectronic device. It was based on gate-all-around (GAA) FinFET technology.[29][30]

Over sixty countries created nanotechnology research and development (R&D) government programs between 2001 and 2004. Government funding was exceeded by corporate spending on nanotechnology R&D, with most of the funding coming from corporations based in the United States, Japan and Germany. The top five organizations that filed the most intellectual patents on nanotechnology R&D between 1970 and 2011 were Samsung Electronics (2,578 first patents), Nippon Steel (1,490 first patents), IBM (1,360 first patents), Toshiba (1,298 first patents) and Canon (1,162 first patents). The top five organizations that published the most scientific papers on nanotechnology research between 1970 and 2012 were the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Russian Academy of Sciences, Centre national de la recherche scientifique, University of Tokyo and Osaka University.[31]

Nanotechnology is the engineering of functional systems at the molecular scale. This covers both current work and concepts that are more advanced. In its original sense, nanotechnology refers to the projected ability to construct items from the bottom up, using techniques and tools being developed today to make complete, high performance products.

One nanometer (nm) is one billionth, or 109, of a meter. By comparison, typical carbon-carbon bond lengths, or the spacing between these atoms in a molecule, are in the range 0.120.15 nm, and a DNA double-helix has a diameter around 2nm. On the other hand, the smallest cellular life-forms, the bacteria of the genus Mycoplasma, are around 200nm in length. By convention, nanotechnology is taken as the scale range 1 to 100 nm following the definition used by the National Nanotechnology Initiative in the US. The lower limit is set by the size of atoms (hydrogen has the smallest atoms, which are approximately a quarter of a nm kinetic diameter) since nanotechnology must build its devices from atoms and molecules. The upper limit is more or less arbitrary but is around the size below which phenomena not observed in larger structures start to become apparent and can be made use of in the nano device.[32] These new phenomena make nanotechnology distinct from devices which are merely miniaturised versions of an equivalent macroscopic device; such devices are on a larger scale and come under the description of microtechnology.[33]

To put that scale in another context, the comparative size of a nanometer to a meter is the same as that of a marble to the size of the earth.[34] Or another way of putting it: a nanometer is the amount an average man's beard grows in the time it takes him to raise the razor to his face.[34]

Two main approaches are used in nanotechnology. In the "bottom-up" approach, materials and devices are built from molecular components which assemble themselves chemically by principles of molecular recognition.[35] In the "top-down" approach, nano-objects are constructed from larger entities without atomic-level control.[36]

Areas of physics such as nanoelectronics, nanomechanics, nanophotonics and nanoionics have evolved during the last few decades to provide a basic scientific foundation of nanotechnology.

Several phenomena become pronounced as the size of the system decreases. These include statistical mechanical effects, as well as quantum mechanical effects, for example the "quantum size effect" where the electronic properties of solids are altered with great reductions in particle size. This effect does not come into play by going from macro to micro dimensions. However, quantum effects can become significant when the nanometer size range is reached, typically at distances of 100 nanometers or less, the so-called quantum realm. Additionally, a number of physical (mechanical, electrical, optical, etc.) properties change when compared to macroscopic systems. One example is the increase in surface area to volume ratio altering mechanical, thermal and catalytic properties of materials. Diffusion and reactions at nanoscale, nanostructures materials and nanodevices with fast ion transport are generally referred to nanoionics. Mechanical properties of nanosystems are of interest in the nanomechanics research. The catalytic activity of nanomaterials also opens potential risks in their interaction with biomaterials.

Materials reduced to the nanoscale can show different properties compared to what they exhibit on a macroscale, enabling unique applications. For instance, opaque substances can become transparent (copper); stable materials can turn combustible (aluminium); insoluble materials may become soluble (gold). A material such as gold, which is chemically inert at normal scales, can serve as a potent chemical catalyst at nanoscales. Much of the fascination with nanotechnology stems from these quantum and surface phenomena that matter exhibits at the nanoscale.[37]

Modern synthetic chemistry has reached the point where it is possible to prepare small molecules to almost any structure. These methods are used today to manufacture a wide variety of useful chemicals such as pharmaceuticals or commercial polymers. This ability raises the question of extending this kind of control to the next-larger level, seeking methods to assemble these single molecules into supramolecular assemblies consisting of many molecules arranged in a well defined manner.

These approaches utilize the concepts of molecular self-assembly and/or supramolecular chemistry to automatically arrange themselves into some useful conformation through a bottom-up approach. The concept of molecular recognition is especially important: molecules can be designed so that a specific configuration or arrangement is favored due to non-covalent intermolecular forces. The WatsonCrick basepairing rules are a direct result of this, as is the specificity of an enzyme being targeted to a single substrate, or the specific folding of the protein itself. Thus, two or more components can be designed to be complementary and mutually attractive so that they make a more complex and useful whole.

Such bottom-up approaches should be capable of producing devices in parallel and be much cheaper than top-down methods, but could potentially be overwhelmed as the size and complexity of the desired assembly increases. Most useful structures require complex and thermodynamically unlikely arrangements of atoms. Nevertheless, there are many examples of self-assembly based on molecular recognition in biology, most notably WatsonCrick basepairing and enzyme-substrate interactions. The challenge for nanotechnology is whether these principles can be used to engineer new constructs in addition to natural ones.

Molecular nanotechnology, sometimes called molecular manufacturing, describes engineered nanosystems (nanoscale machines) operating on the molecular scale. Molecular nanotechnology is especially associated with the molecular assembler, a machine that can produce a desired structure or device atom-by-atom using the principles of mechanosynthesis. Manufacturing in the context of productive nanosystems is not related to, and should be clearly distinguished from, the conventional technologies used to manufacture nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes and nanoparticles.

When the term "nanotechnology" was independently coined and popularized by Eric Drexler (who at the time was unaware of an earlier usage by Norio Taniguchi) it referred to a future manufacturing technology based on molecular machine systems. The premise was that molecular scale biological analogies of traditional machine components demonstrated molecular machines were possible: by the countless examples found in biology, it is known that sophisticated, stochastically optimised biological machines can be produced.

It is hoped that developments in nanotechnology will make possible their construction by some other means, perhaps using biomimetic principles. However, Drexler and other researchers[38] have proposed that advanced nanotechnology, although perhaps initially implemented by biomimetic means, ultimately could be based on mechanical engineering principles, namely, a manufacturing technology based on the mechanical functionality of these components (such as gears, bearings, motors, and structural members) that would enable programmable, positional assembly to atomic specification.[39] The physics and engineering performance of exemplar designs were analyzed in Drexler's book Nanosystems.

In general it is very difficult to assemble devices on the atomic scale, as one has to position atoms on other atoms of comparable size and stickiness. Another view, put forth by Carlo Montemagno,[40] is that future nanosystems will be hybrids of silicon technology and biological molecular machines. Richard Smalley argued that mechanosynthesis are impossible due to the difficulties in mechanically manipulating individual molecules.

This led to an exchange of letters in the ACS publication Chemical & Engineering News in 2003.[41] Though biology clearly demonstrates that molecular machine systems are possible, non-biological molecular machines are today only in their infancy. Leaders in research on non-biological molecular machines are Dr. Alex Zettl and his colleagues at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories and UC Berkeley.[1] They have constructed at least three distinct molecular devices whose motion is controlled from the desktop with changing voltage: a nanotube nanomotor, a molecular actuator,[42] and a nanoelectromechanical relaxation oscillator.[43] See nanotube nanomotor for more examples.

An experiment indicating that positional molecular assembly is possible was performed by Ho and Lee at Cornell University in 1999. They used a scanning tunneling microscope to move an individual carbon monoxide molecule (CO) to an individual iron atom (Fe) sitting on a flat silver crystal, and chemically bound the CO to the Fe by applying a voltage.

The nanomaterials field includes subfields which develop or study materials having unique properties arising from their nanoscale dimensions.[46]

These seek to arrange smaller components into more complex assemblies.

These seek to create smaller devices by using larger ones to direct their assembly.

These seek to develop components of a desired functionality without regard to how they might be assembled.

These subfields seek to anticipate what inventions nanotechnology might yield, or attempt to propose an agenda along which inquiry might progress. These often take a big-picture view of nanotechnology, with more emphasis on its societal implications than the details of how such inventions could actually be created.

Nanomaterials can be classified in 0D, 1D, 2D and 3D nanomaterials. The dimensionality play a major role in determining the characteristic of nanomaterials including physical, chemical and biological characteristics. With the decrease in dimensionality, an increase in surface-to-volume ratio is observed. This indicate that smaller dimensional nanomaterials have higher surface area compared to 3D nanomaterials. Recently, two dimensional (2D) nanomaterials are extensively investigated for electronic, biomedical, drug delivery and biosensor applications.

There are several important modern developments. The atomic force microscope (AFM) and the Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) are two early versions of scanning probes that launched nanotechnology. There are other types of scanning probe microscopy. Although conceptually similar to the scanning confocal microscope developed by Marvin Minsky in 1961 and the scanning acoustic microscope (SAM) developed by Calvin Quate and coworkers in the 1970s, newer scanning probe microscopes have much higher resolution, since they are not limited by the wavelength of sound or light.

The tip of a scanning probe can also be used to manipulate nanostructures (a process called positional assembly). Feature-oriented scanning methodology may be a promising way to implement these nanomanipulations in automatic mode.[62][63] However, this is still a slow process because of low scanning velocity of the microscope.

Various techniques of nanolithography such as optical lithography, X-ray lithography, dip pen nanolithography, electron beam lithography or nanoimprint lithography were also developed. Lithography is a top-down fabrication technique where a bulk material is reduced in size to nanoscale pattern.

Another group of nanotechnological techniques include those used for fabrication of nanotubes and nanowires, those used in semiconductor fabrication such as deep ultraviolet lithography, electron beam lithography, focused ion beam machining, nanoimprint lithography, atomic layer deposition, and molecular vapor deposition, and further including molecular self-assembly techniques such as those employing di-block copolymers. The precursors of these techniques preceded the nanotech era, and are extensions in the development of scientific advancements rather than techniques which were devised with the sole purpose of creating nanotechnology and which were results of nanotechnology research.[64]

The top-down approach anticipates nanodevices that must be built piece by piece in stages, much as manufactured items are made. Scanning probe microscopy is an important technique both for characterization and synthesis of nanomaterials. Atomic force microscopes and scanning tunneling microscopes can be used to look at surfaces and to move atoms around. By designing different tips for these microscopes, they can be used for carving out structures on surfaces and to help guide self-assembling structures. By using, for example, feature-oriented scanning approach, atoms or molecules can be moved around on a surface with scanning probe microscopy techniques.[62][63] At present, it is expensive and time-consuming for mass production but very suitable for laboratory experimentation.

In contrast, bottom-up techniques build or grow larger structures atom by atom or molecule by molecule. These techniques include chemical synthesis, self-assembly and positional assembly. Dual polarisation interferometry is one tool suitable for characterisation of self assembled thin films. Another variation of the bottom-up approach is molecular beam epitaxy or MBE. Researchers at Bell Telephone Laboratories like John R. Arthur. Alfred Y. Cho, and Art C. Gossard developed and implemented MBE as a research tool in the late 1960s and 1970s. Samples made by MBE were key to the discovery of the fractional quantum Hall effect for which the 1998 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded. MBE allows scientists to lay down atomically precise layers of atoms and, in the process, build up complex structures. Important for research on semiconductors, MBE is also widely used to make samples and devices for the newly emerging field of spintronics.

However, new therapeutic products, based on responsive nanomaterials, such as the ultradeformable, stress-sensitive Transfersome vesicles, are under development and already approved for human use in some countries.[65]

Because of the variety of potential applications (including industrial and military), governments have invested billions of dollars in nanotechnology research. Prior to 2012, the USA invested $3.7 billion using its National Nanotechnology Initiative, the European Union invested $1.2 billion, and Japan invested $750 million.[66] Over sixty countries created nanotechnology research and development (R&D) programs between 2001 and 2004. In 2012, the USA and EU each invested $2.1 billion on nanotechnology research, followed by Japan with $1.2 billion. Global investment reached $7.9 billion in 2012. Government funding was exceeded by corporate R&D spending on nanotechnology research, which was $10 billion in 2012. The largest corporate R&D spenders were from the USA, Japan and Germany which accounted for a combined $7.1 billion.[31]

As of August 21, 2008, the Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies estimates that over 800 manufacturer-identified nanotech products are publicly available, with new ones hitting the market at a pace of 34 per week.[26] The project lists all of the products in a publicly accessible online database. Most applications are limited to the use of "first generation" passive nanomaterials which includes titanium dioxide in sunscreen, cosmetics, surface coatings,[67] and some food products; Carbon allotropes used to produce gecko tape; silver in food packaging, clothing, disinfectants and household appliances; zinc oxide in sunscreens and cosmetics, surface coatings, paints and outdoor furniture varnishes; and cerium oxide as a fuel catalyst.[25]

Further applications allow tennis balls to last longer, golf balls to fly straighter, and even bowling balls to become more durable and have a harder surface. Trousers and socks have been infused with nanotechnology so that they will last longer and keep people cool in the summer. Bandages are being infused with silver nanoparticles to heal cuts faster.[68] Video game consoles and personal computers may become cheaper, faster, and contain more memory thanks to nanotechnology.[69] Also, to build structures for on chip computing with light, for example on chip optical quantum information processing, and picosecond transmission of information.[70]

Nanotechnology may have the ability to make existing medical applications cheaper and easier to use in places like the general practitioner's office and at home.[71] Cars are being manufactured with nanomaterials so they may need fewer metals and less fuel to operate in the future.[72]

Scientists are now turning to nanotechnology in an attempt to develop diesel engines with cleaner exhaust fumes. Platinum is currently used as the diesel engine catalyst in these engines. The catalyst is what cleans the exhaust fume particles. First a reduction catalyst is employed to take nitrogen atoms from NOx molecules in order to free oxygen. Next the oxidation catalyst oxidizes the hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide to form carbon dioxide and water.[73] Platinum is used in both the reduction and the oxidation catalysts.[74] Using platinum though, is inefficient in that it is expensive and unsustainable. Danish company InnovationsFonden invested DKK 15 million in a search for new catalyst substitutes using nanotechnology. The goal of the project, launched in the autumn of 2014, is to maximize surface area and minimize the amount of material required. Objects tend to minimize their surface energy; two drops of water, for example, will join to form one drop and decrease surface area. If the catalyst's surface area that is exposed to the exhaust fumes is maximized, efficiency of the catalyst is maximized. The team working on this project aims to create nanoparticles that will not merge. Every time the surface is optimized, material is saved. Thus, creating these nanoparticles will increase the effectiveness of the resulting diesel engine catalystin turn leading to cleaner exhaust fumesand will decrease cost. If successful, the team hopes to reduce platinum use by 25%.[75]

Nanotechnology also has a prominent role in the fast developing field of Tissue Engineering. When designing scaffolds, researchers attempt to mimic the nanoscale features of a cell's microenvironment to direct its differentiation down a suitable lineage.[76] For example, when creating scaffolds to support the growth of bone, researchers may mimic osteoclast resorption pits.[77]

Researchers have successfully used DNA origami-based nanobots capable of carrying out logic functions to achieve targeted drug delivery in cockroaches. It is said that the computational power of these nanobots can be scaled up to that of a Commodore 64.[78]

Commercial nanoelectronic semiconductor device fabrication began in the 2010s. In 2013, SK Hynix began commercial mass-production of a 16nm process,[79] TSMC began production of a 16nm FinFET process,[80] and Samsung Electronics began production of a 10nm process.[81] TSMC began production of a 7nm process in 2017,[82] and Samsung began production of a 5nm process in 2018.[83] In 2019, Samsung announced plans for the commercial production of a 3nm GAAFET process by 2021.[84]

Commercial production of nanoelectronic semiconductor memory also began in the 2010s. In 2013, SK Hynix began mass-production of 16nm NAND flash memory,[79] and Samsung began production of 10nm multi-level cell (MLC) NAND flash memory.[81] In 2017, TSMC began production of SRAM memory using a 7nm process.[82]

An area of concern is the effect that industrial-scale manufacturing and use of nanomaterials would have on human health and the environment, as suggested by nanotoxicology research. For these reasons, some groups advocate that nanotechnology be regulated by governments. Others counter that overregulation would stifle scientific research and the development of beneficial innovations. Public health research agencies, such as the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health are actively conducting research on potential health effects stemming from exposures to nanoparticles.[85][86]

Some nanoparticle products may have unintended consequences. Researchers have discovered that bacteriostatic silver nanoparticles used in socks to reduce foot odor are being released in the wash.[87] These particles are then flushed into the waste water stream and may destroy bacteria which are critical components of natural ecosystems, farms, and waste treatment processes.[88]

Public deliberations on risk perception in the US and UK carried out by the Center for Nanotechnology in Society found that participants were more positive about nanotechnologies for energy applications than for health applications, with health applications raising moral and ethical dilemmas such as cost and availability.[89]

Experts, including director of the Woodrow Wilson Center's Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies David Rejeski, have testified[90] that successful commercialization depends on adequate oversight, risk research strategy, and public engagement. Berkeley, California is currently the only city in the United States to regulate nanotechnology;[91] Cambridge, Massachusetts in 2008 considered enacting a similar law,[92] but ultimately rejected it.[93] Over the next several decades, applications of nanotechnology will likely include much higher-capacity computers, active materials of various kinds, and cellular-scale biomedical devices.[11]

Nanofibers are used in several areas and in different products, in everything from aircraft wings to tennis rackets. Inhaling airborne nanoparticles and nanofibers may lead to a number of pulmonary diseases, e.g. fibrosis.[94] Researchers have found that when rats breathed in nanoparticles, the particles settled in the brain and lungs, which led to significant increases in biomarkers for inflammation and stress response[95] and that nanoparticles induce skin aging through oxidative stress in hairless mice.[96][97]

A two-year study at UCLA's School of Public Health found lab mice consuming nano-titanium dioxide showed DNA and chromosome damage to a degree "linked to all the big killers of man, namely cancer, heart disease, neurological disease and aging".[98]

A major study published more recently in Nature Nanotechnology suggests some forms of carbon nanotubes a poster child for the "nanotechnology revolution" could be as harmful as asbestos if inhaled in sufficient quantities. Anthony Seaton of the Institute of Occupational Medicine in Edinburgh, Scotland, who contributed to the article on carbon nanotubes said "We know that some of them probably have the potential to cause mesothelioma. So those sorts of materials need to be handled very carefully."[99] In the absence of specific regulation forthcoming from governments, Paull and Lyons (2008) have called for an exclusion of engineered nanoparticles in food.[100] A newspaper article reports that workers in a paint factory developed serious lung disease and nanoparticles were found in their lungs.[101][102][103][104]

Calls for tighter regulation of nanotechnology have occurred alongside a growing debate related to the human health and safety risks of nanotechnology.[105] There is significant debate about who is responsible for the regulation of nanotechnology. Some regulatory agencies currently cover some nanotechnology products and processes (to varying degrees) by "bolting on" nanotechnology to existing regulations there are clear gaps in these regimes.[106] Davies (2008) has proposed a regulatory road map describing steps to deal with these shortcomings.[107]

Stakeholders concerned by the lack of a regulatory framework to assess and control risks associated with the release of nanoparticles and nanotubes have drawn parallels with bovine spongiform encephalopathy ("mad cow" disease), thalidomide, genetically modified food,[108] nuclear energy, reproductive technologies, biotechnology, and asbestosis. Dr. Andrew Maynard, chief science advisor to the Woodrow Wilson Center's Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies, concludes that there is insufficient funding for human health and safety research, and as a result there is currently limited understanding of the human health and safety risks associated with nanotechnology.[109] As a result, some academics have called for stricter application of the precautionary principle, with delayed marketing approval, enhanced labelling and additional safety data development requirements in relation to certain forms of nanotechnology.[110][111]

The Royal Society report[23] identified a risk of nanoparticles or nanotubes being released during disposal, destruction and recycling, and recommended that "manufacturers of products that fall under extended producer responsibility regimes such as end-of-life regulations publish procedures outlining how these materials will be managed to minimize possible human and environmental exposure" (p. xiii).

The Center for Nanotechnology in Society has found that people respond to nanotechnologies differently, depending on application with participants in public deliberations more positive about nanotechnologies for energy than health applications suggesting that any public calls for nano regulations may differ by technology sector.[89]

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Nanotechnology - Wikipedia

What is Nanotechnology? | Nano

Nanotechnology is science, engineering, and technologyconductedat the nanoscale, which is about 1 to 100 nanometers.

Physicist Richard Feynman, the father of nanotechnology.

Nanoscience and nanotechnology are the study and application of extremely small things and can be used across all the other science fields, such as chemistry, biology, physics, materials science, and engineering.

The ideas and concepts behind nanoscience and nanotechnology started with a talk entitled Theres Plenty of Room at the Bottom by physicist Richard Feynman at an American Physical Society meeting at the California Institute of Technology (CalTech) on December 29, 1959, long before the term nanotechnology was used. In his talk, Feynman described a process in which scientists would be able to manipulate and control individual atoms and molecules. Over a decade later, in his explorations of ultraprecision machining, Professor Norio Taniguchi coined the term nanotechnology. It wasn't until 1981, with the development of the scanning tunneling microscope that could "see" individual atoms, that modern nanotechnology began.

Its hard to imagine just how small nanotechnology is. One nanometer is a billionth of a meter, or 10-9 of a meter. Here are a few illustrative examples:

Nanoscience and nanotechnology involve the ability to see and to control individual atoms and molecules. Everything on Earth is made up of atomsthe food we eat, the clothes we wear, the buildings and houses we live in, and our own bodies.

But something as small as an atom is impossible to see with the naked eye. In fact, its impossible to see with the microscopes typically used in a high school science classes. The microscopes needed to see things at the nanoscale were invented relatively recentlyabout 30 years ago.

Once scientists had the right tools, such as thescanning tunneling microscope (STM)and the atomic force microscope (AFM), the age of nanotechnology was born.

Although modern nanoscience and nanotechnology are quite new, nanoscale materialswereused for centuries. Alternate-sized gold and silver particles created colors in the stained glass windows of medieval churches hundreds of years ago. The artists back then just didnt know that the process they used to create these beautiful works of art actually led to changes in the composition of the materials they were working with.

Today's scientists andengineers are finding a wide variety of ways to deliberatelymake materials at the nanoscale to take advantage of their enhanced properties such as higher strength, lighter weight,increased control oflight spectrum, and greater chemical reactivity than theirlarger-scale counterparts.

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What is Nanotechnology? | Nano

Nanotechnology | Britannica

nanotechnology: food processingLearn about the use of nanotechnology in food processing, including the possible health issues.Contunico ZDF Enterprises GmbH, MainzSee all videos for this article

Nanotechnology, the manipulation and manufacture of materials and devices on the scale of atoms or small groups of atoms. The nanoscale is typically measured in nanometres, or billionths of a metre (nanos, the Greek word for dwarf, being the source of the prefix), and materials built at this scale often exhibit distinctive physical and chemical properties due to quantum mechanical effects. Although usable devices this small may be decades away (see microelectromechanical system), techniques for working at the nanoscale have become essential to electronic engineering, and nanoengineered materials have begun to appear in consumer products. For example, billions of microscopic nanowhiskers, each about 10 nanometres in length, have been molecularly hooked onto natural and synthetic fibres to impart stain resistance to clothing and other fabrics; zinc oxide nanocrystals have been used to create invisible sunscreens that block ultraviolet light; and silver nanocrystals have been embedded in bandages to kill bacteria and prevent infection.

Possibilities for the future are numerous. Nanotechnology may make it possible to manufacture lighter, stronger, and programmable materials that require less energy to produce than conventional materials, that produce less waste than with conventional manufacturing, and that promise greater fuel efficiency in land transportation, ships, aircraft, and space vehicles. Nanocoatings for both opaque and translucent surfaces may render them resistant to corrosion, scratches, and radiation. Nanoscale electronic, magnetic, and mechanical devices and systems with unprecedented levels of information processing may be fabricated, as may chemical, photochemical, and biological sensors for protection, health care, manufacturing, and the environment; new photoelectric materials that will enable the manufacture of cost-efficient solar-energy panels; and molecular-semiconductor hybrid devices that may become engines for the next revolution in the information age. The potential for improvements in health, safety, quality of life, and conservation of the environment are vast.

At the same time, significant challenges must be overcome for the benefits of nanotechnology to be realized. Scientists must learn how to manipulate and characterize individual atoms and small groups of atoms reliably. New and improved tools are needed to control the properties and structure of materials at the nanoscale; significant improvements in computer simulations of atomic and molecular structures are essential to the understanding of this realm. Next, new tools and approaches are needed for assembling atoms and molecules into nanoscale systems and for the further assembly of small systems into more-complex objects. Furthermore, nanotechnology products must provide not only improved performance but also lower cost. Finally, without integration of nanoscale objects with systems at the micro- and macroscale (that is, from millionths of a metre up to the millimetre scale), it will be very difficult to exploit many of the unique properties found at the nanoscale.

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Nanotechnology | Britannica

Tech News: Nanotechnology at the centre of big innovations – IOL

By Louis Fourie Mar 20, 2020

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One of the fastest-growing nanotechnology fields is biomedicine, where the sheer number and range of innovations makes it hard to stay abreast of the newest developments.

Many of these breakthroughs made over the past few months could significantly change the quality of peoples lives in the future. Scientists from Michigan State University and Stanford University in the US have invented a nanoparticle that removes the plaque that causes heart attacks.

In the Nature Nanotechnology of January 27, associate professor Brian Smith and a team of scientists published an article that describes how they created a Trojan Horse nanoparticle that can be guided to eat debris, reducing and stabilising plaque.

This discovery is an important breakthrough in the potential treatment for atherosclerosis, which is one of the leading causes of heart disease, stroke and death in South Africa.

The nanoparticle has a high selectivity for macrophages (a cell responsible for detecting and destroying germs) and once inside the macrophages in the plaques, it delivers a drug agent that stimulates the cell to surround and devour dead and dying cells.

The macrophage-specific nanotherapy removes the dead cells in the core of the plaque. By reviving the macrophages through the delivery of nanoparticle messages, the plaque size is decreased and stabilised, and the risk of heart attacks reduced.

Scientists at Rice University, Biola University and Texas A&M Health Science Center (US) developed nanodrills to treat skin diseases. The light-activated molecular nanomachines, originally designed to target drug-resistant bacteria, cancer and other disease-causing cells by drilling holes into their cell walls, are now able to kill whole eukaryotic organisms (whose cells have a nucleus such as animals).

Customised nanomachines with spatial and temporal control that target specific tissues for therapy could also be used in a variety of benign and malignant disease states, among others the treatment of cancer, parasites, bacteria and diseased tissues. It could also help to fight drug-resistant pneumonia where antibiotics have proven ineffective, as well as be used for environmental parasite control.

On December 17 a group of researchers from Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden published an article in the highly regarded scientific journal ACS Nano, where they explain their creation of a new, nanostructured rubber-like material with a unique set of properties that could replace human tissue in medical procedures.

This mesoporous (a material containing pores with diameters between 2 and 50 nanometres) elastomer (a polymer with elastic properties) could make a huge difference to many peoples lives in the future.

The nanorubber is soft, flexible, extremely elastic, can easily be processed and is, therefore, very suitable for medical use. What makes it so valuable is that the material can be constructed to prevent bacteria to grow on the surface through placing antimicrobial peptides (small proteins, which are part of our innate immune system) on it. This could help reduce the need for antibiotics and thus help in the fight against increasing antibiotic resistance.

Without doubt, the nanoworld of atoms and molecules - where everything is measured in nanometres, or a billionth of a metre - has many more secrets, new materials and incredible innovations to offer that will certainly change our future.

Professor Louis C H Fourie is a futurist and technology strategist. [emailprotected] For the full version of this article, go to http://www.busrep.co.za

BUSINESS REPORT

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Tech News: Nanotechnology at the centre of big innovations - IOL

AFRL partners with Northern Arizona University, DOD labs, industry to develop nanotechnology solutions to cyberattacks and cyber warfare – Aerotech…

Personnel from the Air Force Research Laboratory joined dozens of industry and military partners at Northern Arizona University Feb. 25, 2020, to discuss a multimillion-dollar cybersecurity project headed by Professor Bertrand Cambou.

Cambou, a professor of nanotechnology and cybersecurity in the School of Informatics, Computing, and Cyber Systems, is the principal investigator on a grant from the U.S. Air Force to develop nanotechnology solutions to cyberattacks and cyber warfare. SICCS professor Paul Flikkema is the PI on a grant aimed at developing hardware for computer diversity. Together, the grants total $6.3 million and include a dozen researchers and students at NAU.

Because of the complexity and constantly changing nature of cybersecurity and computing diversity issues, the Department of Defense brought in additional partners to aid in the transfer of technologies, which is always a huge task. That group met at NAU to seek clarity on the critical tasks and objectives of the work.

Not only are these complicated issues, but the work of about 12 faculty members at NAU has to be coordinated with seven different organizations, Cambou said. Therefore, we are implementing a process to drive the program management of the entire program.

Partners from the Air Force Research Labs Information Directorate, Space Vehicles Directorate and Materials and Manufacturing Directorate; the Office of Naval Research; Sandia National Laboratory; Lockheed Martin; and Crossbar Inc. are part of this project, which has two major goals:

Hackers and cyber-criminals continuously probe and attack legacy infrastructure that was not designed to combat the ever-evolving complex assaults, Telesca said. With the existing infrastructure continuing to be weak to cyberattacks, it is time to consider radical architectural and infrastructural changes intended to disrupt the status quo and support a healthier cybersecurity ecosystem through computational diversity.

We are excited and honored that AFRL recognizes our facultys innovative approach in identifying nontraditional solutions to the increasing danger of cyberattacks and cyber warfare, NAU President Rita Cheng said as she welcomed the group. The impact of this work reaches all corners of modern life, helping to protect factories, power plants, transportation systems, drones, personal medical devices and much more.

The Air Force Research Laboratory is the primary scientific research and development center for the Air Force. AFRL plays an integral role in leading the discovery, development, and integration of affordable warfighting technologies for our air, space, and cyberspace force. With a workforce of more than 11,000 across nine technology areas and 40 other operations across the globe, AFRL provides a diverse portfolio of science and technology ranging from fundamental to advanced research and technology development.

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AFRL partners with Northern Arizona University, DOD labs, industry to develop nanotechnology solutions to cyberattacks and cyber warfare - Aerotech...

Drew Ely of GlenOak, Malone University Teen of the Month – Canton Repository

Name: Drew Ely

Residence: North Canton

Age: 18

School: GlenOak High School

GPA: 4.714

College choice: Undecided

Parents: Anne and Chris Ely

Describe yourself in three words: Curious, Funny, Driven

School activities: Cross country, track, Academic Challenge, Ohio Model United Nations, National Honors Society

Community Activities: National Honors Society, women's health drive, race volunteering

Honors and Awards: ACT score of 35, 2 Academic Letters, 4 Cross Country Letters, 3 Track Letters, 3 Debate Letters, Public Forum Debate State Qualifier

Nominated By: Jennifer Austin, international baccalaureate diploma programme English language and literature teacher and Emily Palmer, international baccalaureate diploma programme director coordinator and theory of knowledge teacher.

What is your favorite thing to do outside school: To play games with my friends. A few years ago, a friend of mine introduced me to Dungeons and Dragons, and I've been hooked ever since.

Favorite High School Memory: My first cross country practice in the rain. Heavy rain during cross country always seems to make practice more fun and less painful, and a mixture of bad singing, running through miniature lakes and rivers of water, and yelling in joy made that day extremely enjoyable.

Most people would be surprised to know. . .: I have a girlfriend.

What do you hope to do as a career: I hope to become a biomedical engineer with a specialization in nanotechnology. I plan on utilizing nanotechnology to prevent and alleviate prevalent illnesses and issues.

What is the biggest issue facing teens today?: The wasting of potential. Teenagers often feel discredited and ignored, yet remain ignorant to important information, disrespectful, and undedicated to bettering themselves as people. The reason I believe this is such a large issue is because many teens have the ability to achieve greatness, but settle for complacency. There is an opportunity inherent within this generation to create positive change in the world, and we have a responsibility to fulfill that potential.

Boys

Alliance High School

DeSean Hollins

Nominated by: Carrie Chunat, vocal music teacher and Christian Shively, teacher

Canton South High School

Logan Phillip Bergert

Nominated by: Cathy Ferrell, English teacher

Central Catholic High School

Justin Matthew Buckland

Nominated by: Penny Harris, AP English teacher and Jeff Lindesmith, guidance officer

East Canton High School

Demetrius Snellenberger

Nominated by: Kelly Lenhart and Tom Loy

Hoover High School

Jaideep Ram Seth

Nominated by: Tiffany Walker, AP junior English teacher and Dave Birtcher, AP US history teacher

Jackson High School

Alexander John Regas

Nominated by: Julie Prato, school counselor and Kevin Walsh, teacher

Lake Center Christian School

Blake Sommers

Nominated by: Sharon Martin, English teacher, advanced placement instructor, National Honor Society advisor and Malone University English adjunct professor and Jennings Bryan Luton Jr., math and history teacher

Lake High School

Janson Smith

Nominated by: Zachary McCoy, economics teacher and Aja Tompot, marketing and business management teacher

Louisville High School

Hunter Michael Vaught

Nominated by: Jen Schaeffer, English teacher and Mike McKinney, science teacher

Marlington High School

Daniel Greco

Nominated by: Sam Alhadid, chorus teacher and Matthew Denny, robotics teacher

McKinley High School

Trenton Eaves

Nominated by: Lori Nickels, head of counselors and Manuel Halkias, teacher and director of speech

Minerva High School

Luke Craddock

Nominated by: Lisa Kuehn, honors mathematics teacher, National Honors Society advisor, Top 10 Percent coordinator, honors night coordinator and winter homecoming advisor and Brett Yeagley, principal

Perry High School

Nickolas Baret Forchione

Nominated by: Kevin McDougal, social studies teacher and speech and debate coach and Christopher Meiser, social studies department head

Sandy Valley High School

Nash English Monroe

Nominated by: Lori Ann Trachsel, media specialist and student council advisor and Michelle Crowe, business and English teacher

Tuslaw High School

Bradley Daniel Goff

Nominated by: Sharon Fannin, English teacher and Neil Parrot, science teacher

Originally posted here:

Drew Ely of GlenOak, Malone University Teen of the Month - Canton Repository

Nanotechnology is Making Devices and Object which were Not Possible – The Canton Independent Sentinel

A sequence of advancements in materials and design has allowed producers to work at scales smaller than a billionth of a meter. At these sizes,it is attainable to create units and objects that sometimes arent attainable and to manufacture supplies that behave in a different way on account of their dimensions.

These supplies and applied sciences known as nanotechnology provide a spread of advantages forproducers. Regardless of the novelty of the know-how, theyre already being utilized in mass manufacturing.

Beneath, well break down what nanotechnology is and the way the brand new know-how is related to manufacturing.

Nanotechnology is the manufacture and manipulation of nanoscopic supplies and know-how. As a result of the sector has solely come into large use in manufacturing just lately, there are competing definitions for what counts as nano. One well-liked definition for nanomaterials, which make up the majority of nanotechnology at present in use, was set by the European Fee. It defines nano as any materials made up of at the least 50% of particles betweenone and 100 nanometers in size or, about one-hundredth to one-tenth the scale of the typical germ.

This definition consists of each manufactured and naturally occurring nanomaterials, like volcanic ash.

Nanotechnology has grown quickly over the previous few years. There are a number of causes for the sudden development, together with the sensible. Working at microscopic scales permits you to, for instance, create ultra-thin and versatile circuit boards. Plus, there are distinctive benefits that solely nanomaterials can provide.

These tiny suppliestypicallybehave in a different way than normal supplies and have distinctive or uncommon properties on account of their construction. For instance, there are carbon nanotubes, that are a few of the best-known nanomaterials. These nanotubesare extremely sturdy and light-weight, have a near-limit tip-surface space, are extremely chemically secure and are extra thermally conductive than diamond.

Along with these nanoscale supplies, nanotechnology additionally consists of domains like nanomedicine, nanoelectronics and nanorobotics. These are subdomains of bigger fields which might be working on nanoscale.Outdoors of nanomaterials, nanorobotics and nanoelectronics are probably essentially the most related to manufacturing.

There are two broad classes of strategy to nanofabrication, themanufacturing of nanomaterials: top-down and bottom-up.

With a top-down manufacturing strategy, a producer will begin with bigger supplies and use chemical and bodily processes to interrupt them down into nanoscopic components. This strategy is usually employed when a producer wants to use a fabric that is available at regular scales on the nano stage. For instance, diamonds have naturally excessive thermal conductivity. Diamond nanoparticles present comparable properties, however can be utilized in several methods or blended into liquids like mineral oil.

Backside-up manufacturing begins with particular person molecules or compounds and makes use of a mix of chemical and bodily processes to hitch them collectively into nanoscopic supplies. Many nanomaterials which have distinctive or uncommon constructions like carbon nanotubes are manufactured with a bottom-up strategy.

As a result of theres such a spread of various nanomaterials, theres additionally all kinds of potential purposes.

Carbon nanotubes are a few of the most generally used nanomaterials, merely as a result of materialss set of distinctive traits. Theyre already being utilized in conditions the place a producer wants excessive put on resistance and break power at a light-weight weight for instance, bike frames, bulletproof vests, industrial robotic arms, sailboat hulls and spaceship parts, amongst others.

The distinctive construction of those nanotubes additionally makes them efficient in water purification and drug supply. The rings of carbon within the nanotubes construction can filter out many chemical, organic and bodily pollution from water. Their form might be wrapped round inside parts, shielding them throughout drug supply.

Carbon nanofibers are typically used within the manufacture of security put on, particularly biotextiles, the place they will present a number of extremely helpful qualities like liquid and stain resistance, in addition to antimicrobial properties.

Carbon nanoparticles can be utilized in mixture with heavy, non-nano supplies, like metal. When distributed all through metal, these nanoparticles can improve its power. They will in the end cut back the quantity of fabric wanted, creatinglighter weight objects with out relying solely on nanomaterials.

Nanotechnology can be used to create more practical and secure lubricants, that are helpful in a wide range of industrial purposes. On the nanoscale, supplies can act equally to ball-bearings in petroleum-based lubricants, preserving issues flowing easily, guaranteeing even distribution and limiting aggregation. They will ensure that machine parts keep lubricated, even within the face of fast adjustments in temperature or stress.

Nanotechnology can also be utilized in automotive manufacturing. Tire producers are more and more utilizing polymer nanocomposites in high-end tires to extend their sturdiness and put on resistance. As well as, nanotech might be utilized within themanufacture of improved consumer car products, like motor oil.

In electronics, nanotechnology allows the manufacture of tinyelectronics and electrical units like nanoscale transistors made out of carbon nanotubes. The extraordinarily small scale makes it attainable to print skinny and extremely versatile objects like plastic photo voltaic panels, electrical textiles and versatile gasoline sensors.

Different purposes of nanotechnology which have proven critical promise embrace nanomachines or nanites mechanical or robotic units that function on the nanoscale. Nanomachines are, for essentially the most half, future-tech and never broadly utilized in manufacturing proper now. Nonetheless, that is anticipated to vary quickly probably, inside the decade. Researchers are already beginning to be utilized in sure settings especially in medicine, where nanoscopic, self-assembling units can be utilized in ways in which normal machines cannot.

The widespread use of nanotechnology is pretty new. Lately, nonetheless, the know-how has quickly develop into extra well-liked, as new analysis and experimental design has made it clear how efficient these nanotechnologies might be.

Well-liked nanomaterials, like carbon nanotubes, are already broadly fabricated and utilized within the manufacture of a wide range of items, together with sailboat hulls, bicycle frames and spaceship parts. In electronics, design on the nanoscale is creating extremely versatile units and circuit boards. Quickly, nanoscale robots known as nanomachines or nanites could quickly revolutionize medical machine development. Nanotech and manufacturing will shortly be linked in methods that can inform future processes

Josh is Editor In Chief of Canton Sentinel Blog

He is News Journalist By Profession carrying Experience of More than 15 years.

He also supports a Charity Named as No Smoke World

Email [emailprotected]

Originally posted here:

Nanotechnology is Making Devices and Object which were Not Possible - The Canton Independent Sentinel

Nanotechnology in Drug Delivery Market : Drivers, Restraints, Opportunities, and Threats (2019-2025) – Packaging News 24

The global Nanotechnology in Drug Delivery market reached ~US$ xx Mn in 2019 and is anticipated grow at a CAGR of xx% over the forecast period 2019-2029. In this Nanotechnology in Drug Delivery market study, the following years are considered to predict the market footprint:

The business intelligence study of the Nanotechnology in Drug Delivery market covers the estimation size of the market both in terms of value (Mn/Bn USD) and volume (x units). In a bid to recognize the growth prospects in the Nanotechnology in Drug Delivery market, the market study has been geographically fragmented into important regions that are progressing faster than the overall market. Each segment of the Nanotechnology in Drug Delivery market has been individually analyzed on the basis of pricing, distribution, and demand prospect for the Global regions.

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Each market player encompassed in the Nanotechnology in Drug Delivery market study is assessed according to its market share, production footprint, current launches, agreements, ongoing R&D projects, and business tactics. In addition, the Nanotechnology in Drug Delivery market study scrutinizes the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis.

The key players covered in this studyAccess PharmaceuticalsAlkermesAquanovaCamurusCapsulution PharmaCelgene

Market segment by Type, the product can be split intoTargeted DeliveryDrug Package

Market segment by Application, split intoCancerTumorOther

Market segment by Regions/Countries, this report coversUnited StatesEuropeChinaJapanSoutheast AsiaIndiaCentral & South America

The study objectives of this report are:To analyze global Nanotechnology in Drug Delivery status, future forecast, growth opportunity, key market and key players.To present the Nanotechnology in Drug Delivery development in United States, Europe and China.To strategically profile the key players and comprehensively analyze their development plan and strategies.To define, describe and forecast the market by product type, market and key regions.

In this study, the years considered to estimate the market size of Nanotechnology in Drug Delivery are as follows:History Year: 2014-2018Base Year: 2018Estimated Year: 2019Forecast Year 2019 to 2025For the data information by region, company, type and application, 2018 is considered as the base year. Whenever data information was unavailable for the base year, the prior year has been considered.

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What insights readers can gather from the Nanotechnology in Drug Delivery market report?

The Nanotechnology in Drug Delivery market report answers the following queries:

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Nanotechnology in Drug Delivery Market : Drivers, Restraints, Opportunities, and Threats (2019-2025) - Packaging News 24

Thomas Mensah: the pioneer of fiber optics and nanotechnology – Face2Face Africa

Dr. Thomas Mensah, a nanotechnology expert and Ghanas technology icon, is a pioneer in fiber optics manufacturing and communications systems.

He has contributed immensely to the development offiber opticsandnanotechnology. Fiber-optic communication is the use of light pulses to transmit data through cables from one place to another.

The Ghanaian-American engineers contribution to the process of making fiber optic cables has enhanced the cost-efficiency of producing those cables, paving the way for a much greater degree of fiber optics technologies at work in our world.

Mensah was born in 1950 in Kumasi, Ghana. He could read newspapers and speak French fluently and was the main contact person between his fathers business and french clients. He also won different levels of the National French Contest (Le Grand Concours) between 1968 and 1970.

Whilst in high school, Mensah excelled in science and math and went on to study chemical engineering at the University of Science and Technology, Kumasi in Ghana graduating in 1974.

He attended the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and then studied chemical engineering at the University of Science and Technology at Montpellier, France where he graduated in 1978 with a Ph.D.

Dr. Mensah moved to the United States in 1980 after taking a job as a research engineer with Air Products & Chemicals of Allentown, PA.

Three years later, he joined the engineering team of Corning Glass Works in Corning, NY. He soon discovered that the fragility of the glass fiber-optic wires which the company manufactured caused them to snap easily if the drawing and coating phases of manufacturing fiber optics were configured to produce more than two meters per second of wire.

He discovered a solution that results in the fiber optic wires greater durability and increases in production at rates of up to 20 times the previous production speed without breaking.

His groundbreaking discoveries at Corning Glass Works was the beginning of his engineering career.

In 1986, he joined Georgias AT&T Bell Laboratories, now known as Bell Labs, where he was able to utilize fiber optics to create a guidance system for missiles that incorporated a small camera that was installed within the missiles nose.

The images captured by that camera could be delivered to a pilot, giving them a technique for locking onto a target with incredible accuracy.

Reportedly,the fiber optics missile guidance systems were capable of working whiletraveling at the speed of sound and were utilized in Patriot missiles and otherguided weaponry used by the United States in the Gulf War.

InDecember 1988, Dr. Mensah was part of a team of Corning inventors who wereissued U.S. Patent No. 4792347, entitled Method for Coating Optical WaveguideFiber. The patent protects the method of using carbon dioxide as a purge gas toreduce air entrainment and bubble inclusions in the liquid coating of a glassoptical fiber.

Dr.Mensah is also one of two inventors listed on U.S. Patent No. 4636405, issuedunder the title Curing Apparatus for Coated Fiber.

He holds 14 patents with seven patents in fiber optics technologies over the course of six years.

Some of his inventions include semiconductors designed for space communications, tank gun barrel replacements and solid-state rechargeable cell phone batteries.

Dr. Mensah founded in Norcross, GA, a high tech firm called Supercond Technologies, which helped to develop advanced structural materials for American fighter aircraft.

Dr.Mensah is currently the president and director of Georgia Aerospace SystemsManufacturing, which is also focused on research and development in aerospacematerials.

Dr. Mensahs technological exploits have various recognition and award. He earned the Corning Glass Works Industrial Outstanding Contributor Award for Innovation in Fiber Optics, 1985; AT&T Bell Laboratories High-Performance Award, 1988; and the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE)s William Grimes Award for Excellence in Chemical Engineering, 2006.

He got the Kwame Nkrumah African Genius Award in Ghana in 2017, The World Nanotechnology Conference Award in Dubai, 2019, Fellow recognition at the US National Academy of Inventors, Percy Julian Award in the US, AIChE 100 amongst others.

He has also authored five books on innovation including the international textbook Nanotechnology Commercialization.

Apart from creating Silicon Valley of Ghana, Dr. Mensah is involved in several high profile infrastructure programmes in the West African country that is aimed at helping Ghana reach 90 percent of its Sustainable Development Goals.

Dr. Mensah has beendescribed as the Imhotep of Modern Times.

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Thomas Mensah: the pioneer of fiber optics and nanotechnology - Face2Face Africa

China and US salute the cyborg soldier – Asia Times

The arrest of Harvard ProfessorCharles Lieberfor failing to reveal his work for the Chinese is more than alarming. One of the worlds leading experts in nanotechnology, Liebercontributed toChinas Thousand Talents Program and assistedChinain its military arms race with the United States, whether knowingly or not. Americans should be concerned thatChinais pursuing military nanotechnology solutions, including linking soldiers brains directly to computers.

Since at least 2000, when President Clinton proclaimed his National Nanotechnology Initiative, US government agencies have been heavily engaged in nanotechnology research.A significant part of the work has been funded by theDefense Department, and the long-term goal is to create a new kind of warrior linking the human brain to machines, to millions of sensors and to the computer cloud. If successful, the capability of the human brain would be expanded exponentially. For the warfighter, the complete integration of sensors to shooters and near-perfect situational awareness would create a formidable soldier, and if in the hands of an enemy, a highly dangerous adversary.

The American military, especially since the microelectronics revolution, has based its superiority on technology as a force multiplier, permitting the United States to field smaller but much more lethal forces.Chinais rapidly catching up with the US military, a source of deep worry in Washington.

As more and more military operations begin to rely on artificial intelligence, a field actively pursued by the Pentagon and by the Peoples Liberation Army ofChina, the line between the warrior and machines starts to blur. Connect the human brain directly to the computers and systems making critical calculations, and the character of the warfighter is forever changed, assuming it is possible.

TheDefense Departmentin 2018 published a major study called Cyborg Soldier 2050, Human/Machine fusion and the Implications for the Future of the DoD.The study proclaimed :

neural implants for brain-computer interfacing would allow for seamless interaction between individuals and secondary assets (machines). This control could be exerted upon drones, weapon systems, and other remote systems operated by an enhanced individual. The enhancement would not simply entail user control of equipment (brain to machine) but also transmission to operator (machine to brain) and human to human (command and control dynamics) to enhance situational awareness as drone, computational analytical, and human information is relayed to the operator.

While theDefense Departmentis aiming at 2050, inventor and futurologist Ray Kurzweil sees the mind-machine interface happening by 2030, where he says the 300 million or so very general pattern recognizers in the brain can be expanded by creating a synthetic neo-cortex linking the brain to the cloud and merging artificial and human intelligence together. This will be achieved by nano-scale brain implants.

Lieberand his partners were working on exactly this type of technology and received substantial funding from the Department of Defense and many of its agencies. Lieberand his colleagues were awarded a number of patents, but the most important one appears to be a 2015 patent award called Systems and Methods for [nano-scale] Injectable Devices. The idea of the 2015 patent was to inject a nano-scale matrix into the brain and creating a brain interface that could be linked to machines.

Research for this patent was funded by theDefense Departmentand the National Institutes of Health.The government has certain rights to the invention, according to the patent application.

Lieberhas been accused by the US government of concealing information about the work he was doing inChina. In 2015, Lieberwas elected as a foreign member of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

In 2015, the same year that Lieberwas awarded a patent enabling nanotechnology implants for the human brain, Pentagon officials sounded the alarm aboutChinaworking on their own cyborg project. Then-Deputy Defense Secretary Robert Work said:Now our adversaries, quite frankly, are pursuing enhanced human operations, and it scares the crap out of us.

Cyborg technology is also being commercialized.Elon Musks company Neuralink is now entering the animal-testing phase and states that it will start experiments on humans in 2020.Lieberis one of the consulting scientists at Neuralink. Musk has invested $100 million of his money in this startup and is raising additional funds.

Whether 2050 or 2030 or in the next few years the first Cyborg Warrior may actually appear. Will it be an American Cyborg or fromChina?No one knows.

Stephen Bryen served as a deputy undersecretary of defense and as the director of the Defense Technology Security Administration. He is a senior fellow at the American Center for Democracy.

This article was previously published in the Washington Times

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China and US salute the cyborg soldier - Asia Times

Curadigm announces the selection of its Nanoprimer technology by the National Cancer Institute for a characterization & development collaboration…

PARIS--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Regulatory News:

Curadigm, an early-stage nanotechnology company committed to improving treatment outcomes by redefining the therapeutic balance between bioavailability, toxicity, and efficacy, announced the selection of its Nanoprimer technology by the National Cancer Institutes (NCI) Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory (NCL) for characterization, based on its potential to significantly impact treatments in multiple disease indications, including cancer.

The broad utility of the Nanoprimer technology is due to its unique nanomedicine approach to improve therapeutic action without modifying the therapeutic in any way. Rather, the Nanoprimer is administered intravenously just prior to a therapeutic, specifically and transiently occupying the liver pathways responsible for clearance. This temporarily increases the therapeutics bioavailability and subsequent accumulation in target tissue. This mechanism, targeting the universal upstream pathways involved in intravenous drug clearance, means the Nanoprimer can be used in combination with multiple classes of nanomedicines including nucleic acid and small molecule therapeutics or gene editing technologies.

Through this collaboration, the NCL, a leader in the characterization and development of Nanomedicines, will perform in-depth pre-clinical characterizations. These studies will support the Nanoprimers development, driving advancement toward filing an Investigational New Drug (IND) with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and future clinical development. This work will also support ongoing and future collaborations combining the Nanoprimer with therapeutics across diverse clinical indications.

Curadigm is a 2019 Nanobiotix spin-off, that aims to reshape and elevate the efficacy of intravenously administered therapeutics. The Nanoprimer technology is based on engineered, biocompatible nanoparticles that are administered just prior to the therapeutic and acts rapidly to temporarily occupy the Kupffer and liver sinusoidal endothelial (LSEC) cells. This precision-based approach leads to enhanced systemic bioavailability for increased therapeutic action.

The NCL was established to study the use of nanoparticles and nanomedicines to advance cancer research and to accelerate the development of promising and safe nanotechnology-based cancer therapeutics. The program provides pre-clinical testing and services on a competitive acceptance basis to companies, such as Curadigm, and is working in concert with other US agencies such as the FDA to accelerate the use of nanomedicines from early-stage development to clinical applications.

The selection of our nanoprimer by the NCL is a major step for Curadigm, said Matthieu Germain, CEO of Curadigm. The standardized cascade assay developed by the NCL is a great opportunity to accelerate the development of the Nanoprimer by providing additional data about its physico-chemical properties, safety and mechanism of action that will facilitate regulatory review. The results generated through this collaboration will also be instrumental in supporting our discussions with partners to develop their therapeutics with the Nanoprimer.

About Curadigm

Curadigm, a Nanobiotix Corp spin-off, is an early-stage nanotechnology company dedicated to improving outcomes for patients by shifting the therapeutic delivery paradigm. Curadigms Nanoprimer technology increases drug bioavailability while decreasing unintended off-target effects, specifically liver & spleen toxicities. The platform can be used with most intravenous (IV) therapeutics across multiple drug classes. Curadigm is dedicated to advancing therapeutic development based on our deep understanding of how drugs interact with the body, to impact both known and novel drugs across multiple clinical indications.

For more information about Curadigm visit http://www.curadigm.com

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Curadigm announces the selection of its Nanoprimer technology by the National Cancer Institute for a characterization & development collaboration...

What can save the world? – It’s All About . . . – Castanet.net

Mark Jennings-Bates -Mar 13, 2020 / 6:00 am | Story:279331

Photo: hidenanalytical.com

Can nanotechnology save the world?

I believe it can and goodness knows we need some solution for what is going on whether it is:

We likely only have ourselves to blame for the challenges we are experiencing.

While the world struggles to contain the ripples from theCovid19 outbreak, some people are hard at work in labs and R&D centres around trying to find new world solutions.

It turns out those solutions come in a very tiny form and the potential for nano particles is, lets say, explored, but not implemented.

To give you an idea how small a nano particle typically is, a piece of writing or copy paper is approximately 0.05mm thick.

By comparison, 1mm is equivalent to 1,000,000 nano metres and a nano particle ranges between 1nm and 100nm. I hope you see the point, but you wont ever see a nano particle with the naked eye.

But why is something so small able to change the future of the world?

Turns out there is a lot of answers from a short question so over the next few weeks, I want to explore a burgeoning industry and talk about why nanotechnology can in fact save the world.

When you take a deep dive in to the subject, you will see that nano particles have been around for a long time, and secondly that development is advancing at a rapid rate with our knowledge of what they can be used for increasing exponentially.

Literally, we can find examples of nano particles being used very successfully in areas like road construction through to anti bacterial and anti viral applications in the medical industry.

How? Well lets start getting in to it a little more than next week.

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What can save the world? - It's All About . . . - Castanet.net

Okanagan-born nanoscientist thinking small in a big way – BCLocalNews

Building a structure out of toothpicks and glue takes creativity, patience and careful planning. But imagine trying to build a similar structure which height is the thickness of a piece of paper. The beams and supports, a 50th the thickness. Sounds impossible, right?

Although he cant see them with his naked eye, nanoscientist and Penticton native Nigel Clarke has been building these microscopic structure, as well as other creations, for years. For nanoscientists, thinking small in a big way is key.

Based out of Mountain View, California, Clarke works to explore new product ideas with Samsungs Thing Tank Team. His day-to-day is spent brainstorming and building new creations; from new TV displays to virtual reality, and even robot arms that cook in your kitchen.

Born and raised in Penticton, the now 27-year-old Senior Research Engineer is working to develop game-changing technology which could affect many things.

[Story continues below]

[Nanoscientist and research engineer, Nigel Clarke. Supplied]

I always liked inventing things, so I wanted to be on the bleeding edge of something, said Clarke. So when I first about nanotechnology, I was immediately attracted to it. Because it seemed like such a new field, there were so many opportunities to create new things.

After graduating from Penticton Secondary School in 2010 and the University of Waterloo for Nanotechnology Engineering in 2015, Clarke went on to receive his masters in Mechanical Engineering and Design Methodology from Stanford University in 2018. His masters was based on the most efficient way of testing and learning from products in order to figure out what should be produced.

Throughout his education he explored nanofabrication and the creation of objects so small, their structure cannot be fully appreciated with light-based microscopes.

By designing these microscopic structures, scientists can observe how certain materials behave. This allows them to create structures with unique properties, not normally seen in larger materials.

Clarke has previously worked with a group, led by California Institute of Technology professor Julia Greer, to develop this technology and turn it into something practical.

In addition to these microscopic structures, Clarke has also researched how light behaves differently at the nanoscale, which helped in the development health sensors. He also worked on the development of thin flexible electronics, used in contact lenses.

Imagine shining light through a microscope; at a certain point the ray of light is so concentrated that it has the ability to burn. At the very centre of this hourglass shape, the light is the brightest.

To start the creation of these microscopic structures, Clarke covers a surface with a light-sensitive material, Photoresist, which reacts when it comes into contact with light. When exposed to light, the Photoresist then changes from appearing like a liquid, to appearing like a solid. In other words areas that are exposed to the bright light crosslink and become a hard material, eventually forming a structure.

By moving lasers around in 3D space, they can draw microscopic structures one line at a time out of thin air.

The main thing this group was trying to do was look at these unique properties that you only get at the nano scale, pretty much a strength improvement in this normally brittle material and say; are there ways that we can bring that type of property to larger materials that we use every day, said Clarke.

In future, this could result in the creation of extremely strong structures which are also very lightweight. One use already implemented is the creation of artificial bone.

To see Clarkes photos up close, visit the St. Germain caf downtown Penticton where they are currently on display. He credited his mother for allowing him to view his photographs as art, and showcase them to the world.

READ MORE: Morning Start: Did you know there is a liquid you can breathe like air?

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Nanotechnology Industry Insights & Outlook, 2020-2024 by Component, Application and Region – Yahoo Finance

DUBLIN, March 2, 2020 /PRNewswire/ -- The "Global Nanotechnology Market Outlook 2024" report has been added to ResearchAndMarkets.com's offering.

Nanotechnology is a rapidly growing technology with potential applications in many sectors of the global economy, namely healthcare, cosmetics, energy, and agriculture among others. The technology is revolutionizing every industry, while tremendously attracting worldwide attention.

Owing to its wide range of uses, the global nanotechnology market is expected to grow at a CAGR of around 17% during the forecasted period of 2018-2024. Thus, there lies a great opportunity for industry participants to tap the fast-growing market, which would garner huge revenue on the back of the commercialization of the technology.

In the latest research study, analysts have conducted a segmented research on the nanotechnology industry, and have interpreted the key market trends & developments that clearly highlight the areas offering promising possibilities for industries to boost their growth.

In 2017, the global nanotechnology market has shown impressive growth owing to factors, like an increase in government and private sector funding for R&D, partnerships & strategic alliances between countries, and increased in demand for smaller and more powerful devices at affordable prices. At present, the healthcare industry is one of the largest sectors where nanotechnology has made major breakthroughs with its application for the diagnosis and treatment of chronic diseases like cancer, heart ailments, etc. Further, significant developments are also being done in other sectors like electronics, agriculture, and energy.

In this report, the analysts have studied the current nanotechnology market on segment basis (by application, by component and by region), so as to provide an insight on the current market scenario as well as forecasts of the aforementioned segments till 2024. The report provides an in-depth analysis of all the major segments, taking into account the major developments taking place at the global level in the respective segments that will further boost the growth of the nanotechnology market.

Further, the application section covers the use of nanotechnology in electronics, energy, cosmetics, medical, defence, and food and agriculture sectors; while the component section covers the segregation of nanotechnology market into nanomaterials, nanotools, and nanodevices.

Additionally, the report covers the country-level analysis of 13 major countries like the US, France, UK, Germany, and Russia among others in terms of R&D, nanotechnology patent analysis, funding, and regulations, to provide an in-depth understanding about the investments and recent research & developments done in the field of nanotechnology.

The report covers the profiles of key players like Altair, Nanophase Tech, Nanosys, etc. with the key financials, strength & weakness analyses, and recent activities, providing a comprehensive outlook of the global nanotechnology industry. Overall, the report provides all the pre-requisite information for clients looking to venture in this industry, and facilitate them to formulate schemes while going for an investment/partnership in the industry.

Story continues

Key Topics Covered

1. Analyst View

2. Research Methodology

3. Nanotechnology - An Introduction

4. Key Market Trends and Developments4.1 Nanotech Tools Open Market for more Miniature Electronics4.2 Nanotechnology Accelerating Healthcare and Medical Device Industry4.3 International Collaborations for Nanotechnology Research4.4 Nanotechnology Playing a Vital Role in the Growth of Energy Industry4.5 Nanotechnology Playing a Key Role in the Growth of Food & Agriculture Industry

5. Nanotechnology Market Outlook to 20245.1 By Components5.1.1 Nanomaterials5.1.2 Nanotools5.1.3 Nanodevices5.2 By Major Applications5.2.1 Electronics5.2.2 Energy5.2.3 Cosmetics5.2.4 Biomedical5.2.5 Defense5.2.6 Food and Agriculture

6. Country-Level Analysis(Funding, Research & Developments, Regulations)6.1 U.S.6.2 Brazil6.3 Germany6.4 France6.5 U.K.6.6 Ireland6.7 Russia6.8 Japan6.9 South Korea6.10 Taiwan6.11 China6.12 India6.13 Australia

7. Patents Analysis

8. Competitive Landscape8.1 Altair Nanotechnologies Inc.8.2 Nanophase Technologies Corporation8.3 Nanosys, Inc.8.4 Unidym, Inc. (subsidiary of WisePower Co.)8.5 Ablynx8.6 Zyvex Corporation8.7 Acusphere, Inc.8.8 Chasm Technologies, Inc.8.9 PEN, Inc.8.10 Bruker Nano GmbH8.11 Advanced Diamond Technologies, Inc.

For more information about this report visit https://www.researchandmarkets.com/r/g2y67j

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Nanotechnology Industry Insights & Outlook, 2020-2024 by Component, Application and Region - Yahoo Finance

Nanotechnology: Work-related aspects – Open Access Government

There is no doubt nanotechnology constitutes one of the most relevant technology disruptions during the past and present century. The physicochemical properties of nanomaterials have been leveraged in a broad spectrum of industries and sectors. Nevertheless, the same properties demand critical care from an occupational point of view.

In a previous article, the risks associated with the typical exposure to nanomaterials in the workplace were highlighted (Van Cauwenberghe, 2019) as strongly related to a wide range of both acute and chronic effects, including inflammation, asthma, cystic fibrosis, lung diseases and cancer, especially emphasising on neurotoxicity, due to inhaled nanoparticles penetrating inside the olfactory mucosa that translocate in the central nervous system.

This article intends to open up the discussion about the role and interaction of researchers and manufacturers, as well as policymakers and insurers to manage risks associated with the use of nanotechnology.

An investigation carried out by the Section of Occupational Medicine, Department of Public Health, University of Naples Federico II, along with the Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Epidemiology and Hygiene, Italian Workers Compensation Authority (INAIL), deeply details the occupational health concerns and safety risks potentially derived from nanoscale biomedical applications (Leso et al., 2019). In particular, this study focuses on the risks associated with nanotherapeutics and drug delivery systems, medical imaging agents and tissue engineering. Nanocrystals, drug-free nanoparticles, inorganic and metallic nanoparticles, polymeric drugs, liposomes and micelles are mentioned.

According to the investigators, laboratory workers involved in the research, synthesis, preparation, delivery and management of biomedical nanotech-based products from the lab to clinical pharmacies are all exposed to nanomaterials related occupational health risks. From the researchers to patients, physicians, pharmacists, dentists, nurses, as well as personnel involved in shipping, receiving and maintenance may also come into contact with nanomaterials while handling items.

Furthermore, disposal of excreta from patients receiving nanomedicines, cleaning equipment, use and spill of nano-enabled contrast agents, need to be taken into consideration in the development of safety headlines intending to address risk management. The effects of the toxicity of nanomaterials on the human body and surrounding biosystems depend on the nature, particle size, shape, substituents, and coatings of nanoparticles (Nasrollahzadeh and Sajadi, 2019).

The Worcester Polytechnic Institute performed an in-depth assessment regarding the perceptions that advanced technology companies and researchers have regarding emerging technologies, with a focus on nanotechnology, with regard to risk management for TEMAS AG, a Swiss management consultancy focused on advanced technology. Part of the study consisted of interviews with advanced technology companies and nanotechnology researchers, to really catch the essence of the work with nanotechnology. According to the investigators, as a modern technology, nanotechnology has risks. The science dilemma appears in the awareness of these technologies cannot improve without assuming a certain level of risk (Macorri et al., 1019).

In the near future, for instance, breakthrough transformations may occur as a result of molecular production, an advanced form of nanotechnology. Another of the key aspects identified in the study was the lack of involvement from insurance companies inadequately covering nanotechnologies and other emerging risks. The balance between the benefit of a certain nanotech-based product and the level of risk involved needs to be considered in the equation. On that note, policymakers play a fundamental role in guaranteeing an optimistic future for nanotechnology by maximising benefits and minimising risks (Kosal, 2019).

Decisions on the adoption of advanced technological innovation are seriously difficult for manufacturers. This aspect becomes more essential for small and medium enterprises (SMEs). These companies significantly drive product development; however, they have limited resources. Sometimes, these limitations make challenging the path to address safety issues. It is important to highlight the role of decision analytic methods applied to regulatory issues in the nanotechnology sector. Although prospective, these tools are poorly developed until now. Researchers emphasise in the value of information (VoI) as a decision analytic tool to facilitate decision-making procedures in nanotechnology manufacturing (Zabeo et al., 2019).

As the production of nanomaterials increases worldwide, safety issues related to toxicity and health risks of nanotechnology have gained increased attention from toxicologists and regulatory scientists. The relevancy of this awareness has foundation on that fact that nanomaterials are connected to all aspects of human life. Next steps will demand a profound commitment of researchers, manufacturers, policymakers and health insurers to guarantee successful management of risks associated with the use of nanotechnology.

You might like to read a previous article form Cecilia Van Cauwenberghe, that focuses on nanomaterials, looking at the challenges and opportunities around the laser ablation in liquid environment (LALE) technique. In this article, we find out that LALE is a straightforward technique to build a broad spectrum of nanostructured materials or nanomaterials and that it constitutes the most efficient and straightforward technique to create nanostructured materials in a safe and effective manner for both human health and the environment.

You can learn more on the LALE technique in another insightful article from Cecilia Van Cauwenberghe. Here, we learn that potential applications of the LALE technique include antimicrobial coatings to prevent infections and that pulsed laser ablation in the LALE technique has exhibited a variety of advantages over conventional chemical synthesis methods.

Further readingKosal, M.E., 2019. The threats from nanotechnology. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 75(6), pp.290-294.Leso, V., Fontana, L. and Iavicoli, I., 2019. Biomedical nanotechnology: Occupational views. Nano Today, 24, pp.10-14.Li, X., 2019. Emerging technologies, emerging knowledge: intentions to seek and share information on social media about the risks and bene- fits of nanotechnology (Doctoral dissertation).Macorri, E., MacInnis, L.J., Connor Recio, M.A. and Lepage, T.J., 2019. Nanotechnology: Perceived Risks and Risk Management. Nasrollahzadeh, M. and Sajadi, S.M., 2019. Risks of Nanotechnology to Human Life. In Interface Science and Technology (Vol. 28, pp. 323-336). Elsevier.Van Cauwenberghe, 2019. Open Access Government October 2019. Zabeo, A., Keisler, J.M., Hristozov, D., Marcomini, A. and Linkov, I., 2019. Value of information analysis for assessing risks and benefits of nan- otechnology innovation. Environmental Sciences Europe, 31(1), p.11.

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Nanomaterials And Nanotechnology Market Report 2020 by Companies Profiles, Trend, Business Competitors, Growing Demand, Cost Structure, Developments…

Global Nanomaterials And Nanotechnology MarketThis research report provides detailed study accumulated to offer Latest insights about acute features of the Nanomaterials And Nanotechnology Market. The report contains different market predictions related to market size, revenue, production, CAGR, Consumption, gross margin, price, and other substantial factors. While emphasizing the key driving and restraining forces for this market, the report also offers a complete study of the future trends and developments of the market. It also examines the role of the leading market players involved in the industry including their corporate overview, financial summary and SWOT analysis.It presents the 360-degree overview of the competitive landscape of the industries. Nanomaterials And Nanotechnology Market is showing steady growthand CAGR is expected to improve during the forecast period.

Company Coverage (Company Profile, Sales Revenue, Price, Gross Margin, Main Products etc.):BASF SEMinerals Technologies IncAMCOL InternationalLiquidia TechnologiesNanoOptoBioDelivery Sciences InternationalHosokawa Micron GroupHyperion Catalysis International IncorporatedBBI SolutionsCytodiagnosticsGoldsolNanoComposixSigma AldrichTanaka TechnologiesEastman Kodak Company

Product Type Coverage (Market Size & Forecast, Major Company of Product Type etc.):Carbon NanotubesNanoclaysNanofibersNanosilverOthers

Application Coverage (Market Size & Forecast, Different Demand Market by Region, Main Consumer Profile etc.):AerospaceAutomotiveMedicalMilitaryElectronicsOthers

Global Nanomaterials And Nanotechnology Market report provides you with detailed insights, industry knowledge, market forecasts and analytics. The report on the global Nanomaterials And Nanotechnology industry also clarifies economic risks and environmental compliance. Global Nanomaterials And Nanotechnology market report assists industry enthusiasts including investors and decision makers to make confident capital investments, develop strategies, optimize their business portfolio, innovate successfully and perform safely and sustainably.

Nanomaterials And Nanotechnology Market: Regional Analysis Includes:

Major Points Covered in TOC:

Key Questions Answered in the Report Include:

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Qurate Business Intelligence delivers unique market research solutions to its customers and help them to get equipped with refined information and market insights derived from reports. We are committed to providing best business services and easy processes to get the same. Qurate Business Intelligence considers themselves as strategic partners of their customers and always shows the keen level of interest to deliver quality.

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The Promising Future of Nanomedicine and… – The Doctor Weighs In

Cancer, unfortunately, is widespread throughout the world. It affects millions of lives, in many different ways, on a daily basis. Before we dive into the topic of nanomedicine and nanoparticles, lets first look at the current state of cancer treatment.

Most therapeutic options for cancer are detrimental to the body They dont just kill cancer cells, they can also damage healthy tissues causing serious side effects.

Cancer chemotherapy drugs suffer from poor biodistribution and, therefore, require high doses. [1] Resistance can also develop to one or more of the drugs being used on a regular basis. This means that oncologists must continually develop new drug cocktails to keep treating their patients.

Some of the drugs used, particularly in later rounds of chemotherapy, may also be relatively ineffective.

So far, the benefits of chemotherapy have outweighed the risks but with the dawn of the age of nanomedicine and nanoparticles, the situation may soon change.

Nanomedicine is the medical application of nanotechnology. According to Johns Hopkins:

Nanomedicine can include a wide range of applications, including biosensors, tissue engineering, diagnostic devices, and many others. [It involves]harnessing nanotechnology to more effectively diagnose, treat, and prevent various diseases.

It also involves the development of new approaches to more efficiently deliver medications to the site of action with the aim of improving outcomes with less medication (and fewer medication side effects).

Nanoparticles are amongst the most promising treatment options in oncology, They have the potential to revolutionize the usual therapies by improving the usage and delivery of chemotherapy drugs [2].

The ability to control nanoparticle shape, size, and surface, as well as their ability to transport and deliver drugs to specific locations in the body, make nanoparticles highly useful in oncology[3].

Nanoparticles use has also spread to other areas of the medical world,[4] including:

Almost. Cancer is often debilitating with few treatment options that include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, and immunotherapy. The side effects of these treatments can be detrimental to a patients way of living. They can often experience insomnia, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss among a long list of other adverse reactions [5].

With a cancer diagnosis and treatment, a patients quality of life can quickly nose-dive. But with nanomedicine, patients may experience a dramatic decrease in chemotherapy side effects, including a reduction of toxicity from the drugs used [6]. This, combined with all the other possible advantages of administering nanoparticles, makes nanomedicine an attractive new cancer therapy option.

Nanoparticles are attractive treatment options because their outer surfaces can be modified to attack specific cancer cells. They are biocompatible and biodegradable. They also offer increased stability to their drug payload[7].

Other possible advantages include:

There are three main types of nanoparticles [8] as follows:

Lipid-based nanoparticles have many advantages over other variations of nanoparticles. This accounts for their increased use in the delivery of drugs. Lipid-based nanoparticles have better biocompatibility than other nanoparticles. This means they work better with living tissue. Lipid-based nanoparticles are also more versatile, making them a better option in many therapies, like cancer treatments.

Liposomes are formulated with a wide range of natural, synthetic, and modified lipids to help them deliver drugs as well as contrast agents for medical imaging. Liposomes are used to treat cancer, fungal infections, vaccines, and more.

Polymeric nanoparticles are currently used for the following:

Polymer-based nanoparticles improve the efficiency of drugs as well as decrease drug side effects and toxicity.

Efficiently. The purpose of nanoparticles is to deliver drugs directly to the cancer cells and not the rest of the body. They are administered intravenously and are then moved around the body by the circulatory system.

Nanoparticles are designed to locate and then accumulate on the cancer tissue, penetrating through the walls of a tumor to deliver the chemotherapy drug they carry [8]. This way, the chemotherapy drug is delivered directly to the site of cancer versus distributed throughout the body. Mass distribution to both diseased and healthy tissues is usually the cause of drug side effects.

There are different methods of releasing the drugs being administered via nanomedicine [9]:

Nanoparticles can also be designed to transform under different conditions to either release or hold onto their drugs.

While widely used for cancer therapies, nanoparticles are also used for diagnostics, a type of nanomedicine referred to as nanodiagnostics[10]. Several nanoparticle formulations have already been designed for diagnostic use only. Though currently in limited use, nanodiagnostics is a growing field with imaging applications, such as use in magnetic resonance monitoring of tumor blood vessels and coronary arteries in patients.

On top of diagnostics, nanoparticles are also used in research opportunities, the treatment of cardiovascular diseases[11], and theranostics, which is a term used to describe pre-clinical research and trials of drug therapies and other treatments[12].

The production and use of nanoparticles face many challenges [13], including:

The creation process for lipid-based nanoparticles has a significant variation between each batch developed.

The manufacturing process is challenging to develop and maintain to the point that significant, quality nanoparticles can be produced.

The production of nanoparticles is time-consuming and extremely labor-intensive, requiring specialized knowledge and tools.

Nanoparticles are intended to maximize the benefit/risk ratio of therapies. Rather than causing many debilitating symptoms in the hopes of curing one disease, like current cancer treatments, nanoparticles are designed to minimize any side effects while treating that same disease.

But the technology isnt 100 percent ready for prime time yet. More research is needed and more dollars must be spent on analyzing both the effectiveness of nanomedicine as well as the long-term effects on the body.

While lipid-based nanoparticles are the most promising prospect because they are made of natural elements and have more advantages than other types of nanoparticles, they are not yet a perfect solution for drug delivery. We need more significant investments in clinical trials in both the government and private sectors to advance the technology.

Nanomedicine is used to treat a variety of different diseases and conditions, but it is in the oncology segment where nanoparticles see the most use and the most promise. To date, there are 51 nanopharmaceuticals approved for use in clinical practice[14]. More are being studied in clinical trials for cancer and other diseases.

Clearly, nanomedicine is a field to watch closely. I believe with continual research, trials, and advancements, the future of nanomedicine and nanoparticles is bright.

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Related content: Why Drug Discovery is So Hard and High Risk

References:

[1] Torchilin, V.P. and Lukyanov, A.N., 2003. Peptide and protein drug delivery to and into tumors: challenges and solutions. Drug discovery today, 8(6), pp.259-266..

[2]Shi, J., Kantoff, P.W., Wooster, R. and Farokhzad, O.C., 2017. Cancer nanomedicine: progress, challenges and opportunities. Nature Reviews Cancer, 17(1), p.20.

[3] Cho, K., Wang, X.U., Nie, S. and Shin, D.M., 2008. Therapeutic nanoparticles for drug delivery in cancer. Clinical cancer research, 14(5), pp.1310-1316.

[4] Heiligtag, F.J. and Niederberger, M., 2013. The fascinating world of nanoparticle research. Materials Today, 16(7-8), pp.262-271.

[5] Griffin, A.M., Butow, P.N., Coates, A.S., Childs, A.M., Ellis, P.M., Dunn, S.M. and Tattersall, M.H.N., 1996. On the receiving end V: patient perceptions of the side effects of cancer chemotherapy in 1993. Annals of oncology, 7(2), pp.189-195.

[6] Landesman-Milo, D., Ramishetti, S. and Peer, D., 2015. Nanomedicine as an emerging platform for metastatic lung cancer therapy. Cancer and Metastasis Reviews, 34(2), pp.291-301.

[7] Doane, T.L. and Burda, C., 2012. The unique role of nanoparticles in nanomedicine: imaging, drug delivery and therapy. Chemical Society Reviews, 41(7), pp.2885-2911.

[8] Singh, R. and Lillard Jr, J.W., 2009. Nanoparticle-based targeted drug delivery. Experimental and molecular pathology, 86(3), pp.215-223.

[9] Mura, S., Nicolas, J. and Couvreur, P., 2013. Stimuli-responsive nanocarriers for drug delivery. Nature materials, 12(11), pp.991-1003.

[10] Baetke, S.C., Lammers, T.G.G.M. and Kiessling, F., 2015. Applications of nanoparticles for diagnosis and therapy of cancer. The British journal of radiology, 88(1054), p.20150207.

[11] Godin, B., Sakamoto, J.H., Serda, R.E., Grattoni, A., Bouamrani, A. and Ferrari, M., 2010. Emerging applications of nanomedicine for the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Trends in pharmacological sciences, 31(5), pp.199-205.

[12] Lammers, T., Aime, S., Hennink, W.E., Storm, G. and Kiessling, F., 2011. Theranostic nanomedicine. Accounts of chemical research, 44(10), pp.1029-1038.

[13] Prabhakar, U., Maeda, H., Jain, R.K., Sevick-Muraca, E.M., Zamboni, W., Farokhzad, O.C., Barry, S.T., Gabizon, A., Grodzinski, P. and Blakey, D.C., 2013. Challenges and key considerations of the enhanced permeability and retention effect for nanomedicine drug delivery in oncology.

[14] Bobo, D., Robinson, K.J., Islam, J., Thurecht, K.J. and Corrie, S.R., 2016. Nanoparticle-based medicines: a review of FDA-approved materials and clinical trials to date. Pharmaceutical research, 33(10), pp.2373-2387.

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The Promising Future of Nanomedicine and... - The Doctor Weighs In

Global Nanotechnology Market Expected to Grow with a CAGR of About 17% by 2024 – ResearchAndMarkets.com – Business Wire

DUBLIN--(BUSINESS WIRE)--The "Global Nanotechnology Market Outlook 2024" report has been added to ResearchAndMarkets.com's offering.

Owing to its wide range of uses, the global nanotechnology market is expected to grow at a CAGR of around 17% during the forecasted period of 2018-2024. Thus, there lies a great opportunity for industry participants to tap the fast-growing market, which would garner huge revenue on the back of the commercialization of the technology.

In the latest research study, Global Nanotechnology Market Outlook 2024, analysts have conducted a segmented research on the nanotechnology industry, and have interpreted the key market trends & developments that clearly highlight the areas offering promising possibilities for industries to boost their growth. In 2017, the global nanotechnology market has shown impressive growth owing to factors, like an increase in government and private sector funding for R&D, partnerships & strategic alliances between countries, and increased in demand for smaller and more powerful devices at affordable prices. At present, the healthcare industry is one of the largest sectors where nanotechnology has made major breakthroughs with its application for the diagnosis and treatment of chronic diseases like cancer, heart ailments, etc. Further, significant developments are also being done in other sectors like electronics, agriculture, and energy.

In this report, the analysts have studied the current nanotechnology market on segment basis (by application, by component and by region), so as to provide an insight on the current market scenario as well as forecasts of the aforementioned segments till 2024. The report provides an in-depth analysis of all the major segments, taking into account the major developments taking place at the global level in the respective segments that will further boost the growth of the nanotechnology market.

Further, the application section covers the use of nanotechnology in electronics, energy, cosmetics, medical, defence, and food and agriculture sectors; while the component section covers the segregation of nanotechnology market into nanomaterials, nanotools, and nanodevices.

Key Topics Covered:

1. Analyst View

2. Research Methodology

3. Nanotechnology - An Introduction

4. Key Market Trends and Developments

4.1 Nanotech Tools Open Market for more Miniature Electronics

4.2 Nanotechnology Accelerating Healthcare and Medical Device Industry

4.3 International Collaborations for Nanotechnology Research

4.4 Nanotechnology Playing a Vital Role in the Growth of Energy Industry

4.5 Nanotechnology Playing a Key Role in the Growth of Food & Agriculture Industry

5. Nanotechnology Market Outlook to 2024

5.1 By Components

5.1.1 Nanomaterials

5.1.2 Nanotools

5.1.3 Nanodevices

5.2 By Major Applications

5.2.1 Electronics

5.2.2 Energy

5.2.3 Cosmetics

5.2.4 Biomedical

5.2.5 Defense

5.2.6 Food and Agriculture

6. Country-Level Analysis

6.1 US

6.1.1 Funding

6.1.2 Research & Developments

6.1.3 Regulations

6.2 Brazil

6.3 Germany

6.4 France

6.5 UK

6.6 Ireland

6.7 Russia

6.8 Japan

6.9 South Korea

6.10 Taiwan

6.11 China

6.12 India

6.13 Australia

7. Patents Analysis

8. Competitive Landscape

8.1 Altair Nanotechnologies Inc.

8.2 Nanophase Technologies Corporation

8.3 Nanosys, Inc.

8.4 Unidym, Inc. (subsidiary of WisePower Co.)

8.5 Ablynx

8.6 Zyvex Corporation

8.7 Acusphere, Inc.

8.8 Chasm Technologies, Inc.

8.9 PEN, Inc

8.10 Bruker Nano GmbH

8.11 Advanced Diamond Technologies, Inc.

For more information about this report visit https://www.researchandmarkets.com/r/ya4tqi

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Global Nanotechnology Market Expected to Grow with a CAGR of About 17% by 2024 - ResearchAndMarkets.com - Business Wire

Nanoscale 4D Printing Procedure To Drive Development of New Therapeutics – Technology Networks

Researchers at the Advanced Science Research Center at The Graduate Center, CUNY (CUNY ASRC) and Northwestern University have created a 4D printer capable of constructing patterned surfaces that recreate the complexity of cell surfaces. The technology, detailed in a newly publishedpaperin Nature Communications (DOI: 10.1038/s41467-020-14990-x), allows scientists to combine organic chemistry, surface science, and nanolithography to construct precisely designed nanopatterned surfaces that are decorated with delicate organic or biological molecules. The surfaces will have a wide variety of uses, including in drug research, biosensor development, and advanced optics. Importantly, this technology can create surfaces with different materials, and these materials can be patterned across the surface without the use of expensive photomasks or tedious clean room processes.

I am often asked if Ive used this instrument to print a specific chemical or prepare a particular system, said the studys primary investigator Adam Braunschweig, a faculty member with the CUNY ASRC Nanoscience Initiative and The Graduate Center and Hunter College Chemistry Departments. My response is that weve created a new tool for performing organic chemistry on surfaces, and its usage and application are only limited by the imagination of the user and their knowledge of organic chemistry.

The printing method, called Polymer Brush Hypersurface Photolithography, combines microfluidics, organic photochemistry, and advanced nanolithography to create a mask-free printer capable of preparing multiplexed arrays of delicate organic and biological matter. The novel system overcomes a number of limitations present in other biomaterial printing techniques, allowing researchers to create 4D objects with precisely structured matter and tailored chemical composition at each voxela capability the authors refer to as hypersurface lithography.

Researchers have been working toward using lithographic techniques to pattern surfaces with biomolecules, but to date we havent developed a system sophisticated enough to construct something as complicated as a cell surface, said Daniel Valles, a Graduate Center, CUNY doctoral student in Braunschweigs lab. We envision using this system to assemble synthetic cells that allow researchers to replicate and understand the interactions that occur on living cells, which will lead to the rapid development of medicines and other bioinspired technologies.

As proof-of-concept, the researchers printed polymer brush patterns using precise doses of light to control the polymer height at each pixel. As illustrated by the Lady Liberty image, coordination between the microfluidics and the light source control the chemical composition at each pixel.

Polymer chemistry provides such a powerful set of tools, and innovations in polymer chemistry have been major drivers of technology throughout the last century, said the papers co-author Nathan Gianneschi, who is the Jacob & Rosaline Cohn Professor of Chemistry, Materials Science & Engineering, and Biomedical Engineering at Northwestern University. This work extends this innovation to the interfaces where arbitrary structures can be made in a highly controlled way, and in a way that allows us to characterize what we have made and to generalize it to other polymers.

This paper is a tour-de force demonstration of what can be done with massively parallel lithography tools, said Chad Mirkin, George B. Rathmann, Professor of Chemistry and the director of the International Institute for Nanotechnology at Northwestern Universitys Weinberg College of Arts and Sciences, who is not a coauthor of the study. The co-authors have created a powerful set of capabilities that should be heavily utilized across the chemistry, material science, and biological communities.

The researchers plan to continue development of this novel printing platform to increase system speed, reduce pixel dimensions, and develop new chemistries for increasing the scope of materials that can be patterned. Currently, they are using the patterns created by this platform to understand the subtle interactions that dictate recognition in biological systems.

This research was supported by funding from the National Science Foundation, the Department of Defense through a Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative, and the Air Force Office of Science Research.

Reference:Carbonell, C., Valles, D., Wong, A.M. et al. (2020) Polymer brush hypersurface photolithography. Nat Commun. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-14990-x

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Nanoscale 4D Printing Procedure To Drive Development of New Therapeutics - Technology Networks

Inclusivity through innovation – Mail and Guardian

Professor Alexander Quandt, acting chair of the Materials for Energy Research Group and focus area co-ordinator for the Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials, has won the Special Annual Theme Award in the National Science and Technology Forum South32 Awards (the Science Oscars) for his work on materials for inclusive economic development. His work on the theoretical foundations, numerical implementations and practical applications of state-of-the-art material simulations focuses on first principle methods, starting from a quantum mechanical description of the atoms that constitute a given material. His methods have allowed for the development of ground-breaking contributions to the field of 2D materials that play a central role in upcoming quantum technologies.

Computer experiments have finally established themselves alongsidemore traditional experimental techniques as a powerful tool to develop noveltechnologies in a very economical and systematic fashion, says Quandt. Myresearch also points out new applications of chemical elements across the wholeperiodic table, which might lead to new types of solar cells, batteries andcomputing devices [being] developed here in South Africa.

Quandt says the highlight of his research is the work on planartypes of nanomaterials similar to the so-called wonder material, graphene. Someof his research in the field pre-dated graphene and was based on boron, theimmediate neighbour of carbon in the periodic table.

The research groups I managed in the past or started recently arerole models for unconventional but nevertheless very successful and productivemulti-disciplinary research initiatives into the fields of materials scienceand energy technologies, adds Quandt. The University of the Witwatersrand hasbecome the main hub of a new trans-continental ARUA Centre of Excellence inMaterials, Energy and Nanotechnology (ARUA CoE-MEN) that is headed by LeslieCornish and myself.

Quandt is hoping that his work may ultimately lead to theestablishment of a network of highly trained graduates that will strengthen thematerials beneficiation and high-tech sectors, something that South Africasorely needs if it wants to play a role in emergent technologies.

The goal is to develop an accurate description of optical andenergy devices over multiple length scales, which start from the atomicstructure of basic materials and extend all the way to the simulation of atypical working device, says Quandt. Understanding a solar cell, a complexoptical waveguide system or a battery in virtually all of its physical andchemical aspects allows for the optimisation of existing technologies and thedevelopment of entirely new technologies.

Ultimately, Quandt believes that the development and implementationof powerful numeric simulation methods will be a key aspect in emerging fieldssuch as Industry 4.0 and Quantum Computing.

As a student I was given a copy of Linus Paulings The Nature of the Chemical Bond, and Idevoured it in one go, concludes Quandt. Paulings unique scientific style ofcombining intuition with quantum mechanical calculations and detailedexperimental studies has always been an inspiration for my own work as amaterials scientist. It was a great satisfaction to add new fundamental aspectsto one of the most esoteric chapters in his book about electron deficientmaterials.

Quandt walks away with the Special Annual Theme Award thanks to hispioneering work in computational materials science with applications tonanomaterials, optics/photonics and renewable energy research, an award wellearned indeed. Tamsin Oxford

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Inclusivity through innovation - Mail and Guardian


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