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Mesothelioma – Symptoms and causes – Mayo Clinic

Overview

Malignant mesothelioma (me-zoe-thee-lee-O-muh) is a type of cancer that occurs in the thin layer of tissue that covers the majority of your internal organs (mesothelium).

Mesothelioma is an aggressive and deadly form of cancer. Mesothelioma treatments are available, but for many people with mesothelioma, a cure isn't possible.

Doctors divide mesothelioma into different types based on what part of the mesothelium is affected. Mesothelioma most often affects the tissue that surrounds the lungs (pleura). This type is called pleural mesothelioma. Other, rarer types of mesothelioma affect tissue in the abdomen (peritoneal mesothelioma), around the heart and around the testicles.

Mesothelioma care at Mayo Clinic

Signs and symptoms of mesothelioma vary depending on where the cancer occurs.

Pleural mesothelioma, which affects the tissue that surrounds the lungs, causes signs and symptoms that may include:

Peritoneal mesothelioma, which occurs in tissue in the abdomen, causes signs and symptoms that may include:

Signs and symptoms of other types of mesothelioma are unclear, since these forms of the disease are very rare.

Pericardial mesothelioma, which affects tissue that surrounds the heart, can cause signs and symptoms such as breathing difficulty and chest pains.

Mesothelioma of tunica vaginalis, which affects tissue surrounding the testicles, may be first detected as swelling or a mass on a testicle.

See your doctor if you have signs and symptoms that worry you. Signs and symptoms of mesothelioma aren't specific to this disease and, due to the rarity of mesothelioma, are more likely to be related to other conditions. If any persistent signs and symptoms seem unusual or bothersome, ask your doctor to evaluate them. Tell your doctor if you've been exposed to asbestos.

In general, cancer begins when a series of changes (mutations) happens in a cell's DNA. The DNA contains the instructions that tell a cell what to do. The mutations tell the cell to grow and multiply out of control. The abnormal cells accumulate and form a tumor.

It isn't clear what causes the initial genetic mutations that lead to mesothelioma, though researchers have identified factors that may increase the risk. It's likely that cancers form because of an interaction between many factors, such as inherited conditions, your environment, your health conditions and your lifestyle choices.

Most mesotheliomas are thought to be related to asbestos exposure. Asbestos is a mineral that's found naturally in the environment. Asbestos fibers are strong and resistant to heat, making them useful in a wide variety of applications, such as in insulation, brakes, shingles, flooring and many other products.

When asbestos is broken up, such as during the mining process or when removing asbestos insulation, dust may be created. If the dust is inhaled or swallowed, the asbestos fibers will settle in the lungs or in the stomach, where they can cause irritation that may lead to mesothelioma. Exactly how this happens isn't understood. It can take 20 to 60 years or more for mesothelioma to develop after asbestos exposure.

Most people with asbestos exposure never develop mesothelioma. This indicates that other factors may be involved in determining whether someone gets mesothelioma. For instance, you could inherit a predisposition to cancer or some other condition could increase your risk.

Factors that may increase the risk of mesothelioma include:

As pleural mesothelioma spreads in the chest, it puts pressure on the structures in that area. This can cause complications, such as:

Reducing your exposure to asbestos may lower your risk of mesothelioma.

Most people with mesothelioma were exposed to the asbestos fibers at work. Workers who may encounter asbestos fibers include:

Ask your employer whether you have a risk of asbestos exposure on the job.

Follow all safety precautions in your workplace, such as wearing protective equipment. You may also be required to shower and change out of your work clothes before taking a lunch break or going home. Talk to your doctor about other precautions you can take to protect yourself from asbestos exposure.

Older homes and buildings may contain asbestos. In many cases, it's more dangerous to remove the asbestos than it is to leave it intact. Breaking up asbestos may cause fibers to become airborne, where they can be inhaled. Consult experts trained to detect asbestos in your home. These experts may test the air in your home to determine whether the asbestos is a risk to your health. Don't attempt to remove asbestos from your home hire a qualified expert.

Jan. 15, 2019

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Mesothelioma - Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clinic

Mesothelioma – Wikipedia

Cancer associated with asbestos

Mesothelioma is a type of cancer that develops from the thin layer of tissue that covers many of the internal organs (known as the mesothelium).[9] The most common area affected is the lining of the lungs and chest wall.[1][3] Less commonly the lining of the abdomen and rarely the sac surrounding the heart,[10] or the sac surrounding the testis may be affected.[1][11] Signs and symptoms of mesothelioma may include shortness of breath due to fluid around the lung, a swollen abdomen, chest wall pain, cough, feeling tired, and weight loss.[1] These symptoms typically come on slowly.[2]

More than 80% of mesothelioma cases are caused by exposure to asbestos.[3] The greater the exposure the greater the risk.[3] As of 2013, about 125 million people worldwide have been exposed to asbestos at work.[12] High rates of disease occur in people who mine asbestos, produce products from asbestos, work with asbestos products, live with asbestos workers, or work in buildings containing asbestos.[3] Asbestos exposure and the onset of cancer are generally separated by about 40 years.[3] Washing the clothing of someone who worked with asbestos also increases the risk.[12] Other risk factors include genetics and infection with the simian virus 40.[3] The diagnosis may be suspected based on chest X-ray and CT scan findings, and is confirmed by either examining fluid produced by the cancer or by a tissue biopsy of the cancer.[2]

Prevention centers around reducing exposure to asbestos.[4] Treatment often includes surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.[5] A procedure known as pleurodesis, which involves using substances such as talc to scar together the pleura, may be used to prevent more fluid from building up around the lungs.[5] Chemotherapy often includes the medications cisplatin and pemetrexed.[2] The percentage of people that survive five years following diagnosis is on average 8% in the United States.[6]

In 2015, about 60,800 people had mesothelioma, and 32,000 died from the disease.[7][8] Rates of mesothelioma vary in different areas of the world.[3] Rates are higher in Australia, the United Kingdom, and lower in Japan.[3] It occurs in about 3,000 people per year in the United States.[13] It occurs more often in males than females.[3] Rates of disease have increased since the 1950s.[3] Diagnosis typically occurs after the age of 65 and most deaths occur around 70 years old.[3] The disease was rare before the commercial use of asbestos.[3]

Symptoms or signs of mesothelioma may not appear until 20 to 50 years (or more) after exposure to asbestos. Shortness of breath, cough, and pain in the chest due to an accumulation of fluid in the pleural space (pleural effusion) are often symptoms of pleural mesothelioma.[14]

Mesothelioma that affects the pleura can cause these signs and symptoms:[14]

In severe cases, the person may have many tumor masses. The individual may develop a pneumothorax, or collapse of the lung. The disease may metastasize, or spread to other parts of the body.

The most common symptoms of peritoneal mesothelioma are abdominal swelling and pain due to ascites (a buildup of fluid in the abdominal cavity). Other features may include weight loss, fever, night sweats, poor appetite, vomiting, constipation, and umbilical hernia.[15] If the cancer has spread beyond the mesothelium to other parts of the body, symptoms may include pain, trouble swallowing, or swelling of the neck or face.[citation needed]These symptoms may be caused by mesothelioma or by other, less serious conditions.

Tumors that affect the abdominal cavity often do not cause symptoms until they are at a late stage. Symptoms include:[citation needed]

Pericardial mesothelioma is not well characterized, but observed cases have included cardiac symptoms, specifically constrictive pericarditis, heart failure, pulmonary embolism, and cardiac tamponade. They have also included nonspecific symptoms, including substernal chest pain, orthopnea (shortness of breath when lying flat), and cough. These symptoms are caused by the tumor encasing or infiltrating the heart.[10]

In severe cases of the disease, the following signs and symptoms may be present:[citation needed]

If a mesothelioma forms metastases, these most commonly involve the liver, adrenal gland, kidney, or other lung.[16]

Working with asbestos is the most common risk factor for mesothelioma.[17] However, mesothelioma has been reported in some individuals without any known exposure to asbestos. Tentative evidence also raises concern about carbon-fibre nanotubes.[18][19]

The incidence of mesothelioma has been found to be higher in populations living near naturally occurring asbestos. People can be exposed to naturally occurring asbestos in areas where mining or road construction is occurring, or when the asbestos-containing rock is naturally weathered. Another common route of exposure is through asbestos-containing soil, which is used to whitewash, plaster, and roof houses in Greece.[12] In central Cappadocia, Turkey, mesothelioma was causing 50% of all deaths in three small villagesTuzky, Karain, and Sarhdr. Initially, this was attributed to erionite. Environmental exposure to asbestos has caused mesothelioma in places other than Turkey, including Corsica, Greece, Cyprus, China, and California.[12][20][21] In the northern Greek mountain town of Metsovo, this exposure had resulted in mesothelioma incidence around 300 times more than expected in asbestos-free populations, and was associated with very frequent pleural calcification known as Metsovo lung.[22][23]

The documented presence of asbestos fibers in water supplies and food products has fostered concerns about the possible impact of long-term and, as yet, unknown exposure of the general population to these fibers.[24]

Exposure to talc is also a risk factor for mesothelioma; exposure can affect those who live near talc mines, work in talc mines, or work in talc mills.[25]

In the United States, asbestos is considered the major cause of malignant mesothelioma[26] and has been considered "indisputably"[27] associated with the development of mesothelioma. Indeed, the relationship between asbestos and mesothelioma is so strong that many consider mesothelioma a signal or sentinel tumor.[28][29][30][31] A history of asbestos exposure exists in most cases.

Pericardial mesothelioma may not be associated with asbestos exposure.[10]

Asbestos was known in antiquity, but it was not mined and widely used commercially until the late 19th century. Its use greatly increased during World War II. Since the early 1940s, millions of American workers have been exposed to asbestos dust. Initially, the risks associated with asbestos exposure were not publicly known. However, an increased risk of developing mesothelioma was later found among naval personnel (e.g., Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard), shipyard workers, people who work in asbestos mines and mills, producers of asbestos products, workers in the heating and construction industries, and other tradespeople. Today, the official position of the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the U.S. EPA is that protections and "permissible exposure limits" required by U.S. regulations, while adequate to prevent most asbestos-related non-malignant disease, are not adequate to prevent or protect against asbestos-related cancers such as mesothelioma.[32] Likewise, the British Government's Health and Safety Executive (HSE) states formally that any threshold for exposure to asbestos must be at a very low level and it is widely agreed that if any such threshold does exist at all, then it cannot currently be quantified. For practical purposes, therefore, HSE assumes that no such "safe" threshold exists. Others have noted as well that there is no evidence of a threshold level below which there is no risk of mesothelioma.[33] There appears to be a linear, doseresponse relationship, with increasing dose producing increasing risk of disease.[34] Nevertheless, mesothelioma may be related to brief, low level or indirect exposures to asbestos.[27] The dose necessary for effect appears to be lower for asbestos-induced mesothelioma than for pulmonary asbestosis or lung cancer.[27] Again, there is no known safe level of exposure to asbestos as it relates to increased risk of mesothelioma.

The time from first exposure to onset of the disease, is between 25 and 70 years.[35] It is virtually never less than fifteen years and peaks at 3040 years.[27][36] The duration of exposure to asbestos causing mesothelioma can be short. For example, cases of mesothelioma have been documented with only 13 months of exposure.[37][38]

Exposure to asbestos fibers has been recognized as an occupational health hazard since the early 20th century. Numerous epidemiological studies have associated occupational exposure to asbestos with the development of pleural plaques, diffuse pleural thickening, asbestosis, carcinoma of the lung and larynx, gastrointestinal tumors, and diffuse malignant mesothelioma of the pleura and peritoneum. Asbestos has been widely used in many industrial products, including cement, brake linings, gaskets, roof shingles, flooring products, textiles, and insulation.[39]

Commercial asbestos mining at Wittenoom, Western Australia, took place from 1937 to 1966. The first case of mesothelioma in the town occurred in 1960. The second case was in 1969, and new cases began to appear more frequently thereafter. The lag time between initial exposure to asbestos and the development of mesothelioma varied from 12 years 9 months up to 58 years.[40] A cohort study of miners employed at the mine reported that 85 deaths attributable to mesothelioma had occurred by 1985. By 1994, 539 reported deaths due to mesothelioma had been reported in Western Australia.[citation needed]

Occupational exposure to asbestos in the United States mainly occurs when people are maintaining buildings that already have asbestos. Approximately 1.3 million US workers are exposed to asbestos annually; in 2002, an estimated 44,000 miners were potentially exposed to asbestos.[25]

Family members and others living with asbestos workers have an increased risk of developing mesothelioma, and possibly other asbestos-related diseases.[11][41][42] This risk may be the result of exposure to asbestos dust brought home on the clothing and hair of asbestos workers via washing a worker's clothes or coming into contact with asbestos-contaminated work clothing.[12][25] To reduce the chance of exposing family members to asbestos fibres, asbestos workers are usually required to shower and change their clothing before leaving the workplace.[citation needed]

Many building materials used in both public and domestic premises prior to the banning of asbestos may contain asbestos. Those performing renovation works or DIY activities may expose themselves to asbestos dust. In the UK, use of chrysotile asbestos was banned at the end of 1999. Brown and blue asbestos were banned in the UK around 1985. Buildings built or renovated prior to these dates may contain asbestos materials.[citation needed]

In a recent research carried on white American population in 2012, it was found that people with a germline mutation in their BAP1 gene are at higher risk of developing mesothelioma and uveal melanoma.[43]

Erionite is a zeolite mineral with similar properties to asbestos and is known to cause mesothelioma.[11] Detailed epidemiological investigation has shown that erionite causes mesothelioma mostly in families with a genetic predisposition.[12][20][21] Erionite is found in deposits in the Western United States, where it is used in gravel for road surfacing, and in Turkey, where it is used to construct homes. In Turkey, the United States, and Mexico, erionite has been associated with mesothelioma and has thus been designated a "known human carcinogen" by the US National Toxicology Program.[21]

In rare cases, mesothelioma has also been associated with irradiation of the chest or abdomen, intrapleural thorium dioxide (thorotrast) as a contrast medium, and inhalation of other fibrous silicates, such as erionite or talc.[11][25] Some studies suggest that simian virus 40 (SV40) may act as a cofactor in the development of mesothelioma.[25] This has been confirmed in animal studies,[44][45] but studies in humans are inconclusive.[44][46][47]

The mesothelium consists of a single layer of flattened to cuboidal cells forming the epithelial lining of the serous cavities of the body including the peritoneal, pericardial and pleural cavities. Deposition of asbestos fibers in the parenchyma of the lung may result in the penetration of the visceral pleura from where the fiber can then be carried to the pleural surface, thus leading to the development of malignant mesothelial plaques. The processes leading to the development of peritoneal mesothelioma remain unresolved, although it has been proposed that asbestos fibers from the lung are transported to the abdomen and associated organs via the lymphatic system. Additionally, asbestos fibers may be deposited in the gut after ingestion of sputum contaminated with asbestos fibers.[citation needed]

Pleural contamination with asbestos or other mineral fibers has been shown to cause cancer. Long thin asbestos fibers (blue asbestos, amphibole fibers) are more potent carcinogens than "feathery fibers" (chrysotile or white asbestos fibers).[27] However, there is now evidence that smaller particles may be more dangerous than the larger fibers. They remain suspended in the air where they can be inhaled, and may penetrate more easily and deeper into the lungs. "We probably will find out a lot more about the health aspects of asbestos from [the World Trade Center attack], unfortunately," said Dr. Alan Fein, chief of pulmonary and critical-care medicine at North Shore-Long Island Jewish Health System.[48]

Mesothelioma development in rats has been demonstrated following intra-pleural inoculation of phosphorylated chrysotile fibers. It has been suggested that in humans, transport of fibers to the pleura is critical to the pathogenesis of mesothelioma. This is supported by the observed recruitment of significant numbers of macrophages and other cells of the immune system to localized lesions of accumulated asbestos fibers in the pleural and peritoneal cavities of rats. These lesions continued to attract and accumulate macrophages as the disease progressed, and cellular changes within the lesion culminated in a morphologically malignant tumor.[citation needed]

Experimental evidence suggests that asbestos acts as a complete carcinogen with the development of mesothelioma occurring in sequential stages of initiation and promotion. The molecular mechanisms underlying the malignant transformation of normal mesothelial cells by asbestos fibers remain unclear despite the demonstration of its oncogenic capabilities (see next-but-one paragraph). However, complete in vitro transformation of normal human mesothelial cells to a malignant phenotype following exposure to asbestos fibers has not yet been achieved. In general, asbestos fibers are thought to act through direct physical interactions with the cells of the mesothelium in conjunction with indirect effects following interaction with inflammatory cells such as macrophages.[citation needed]

Analysis of the interactions between asbestos fibers and DNA has shown that phagocytosed fibers are able to make contact with chromosomes, often adhering to the chromatin fibers or becoming entangled within the chromosome. This contact between the asbestos fiber and the chromosomes or structural proteins of the spindle apparatus can induce complex abnormalities. The most common abnormality is monosomy of chromosome 22. Other frequent abnormalities include structural rearrangement of 1p, 3p, 9p and 6q chromosome arms.[citation needed]

Common gene abnormalities in mesothelioma cell lines include deletion of the tumor suppressor genes:[citation needed]

Asbestos has also been shown to mediate the entry of foreign DNA into target cells. Incorporation of this foreign DNA may lead to mutations and oncogenesis by several possible mechanisms:

Several genes are commonly mutated in mesothelioma, and may be prognostic factors. These include epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and C-Met, receptor tyrosine kinases which are overexpressed in many mesotheliomas. Some association has been found with EGFR and epithelioid histology but no clear association has been found between EGFR overexpression and overall survival. Expression of AXL receptor tyrosine kinase is a negative prognostic factor. Expression of PDGFRB is a positive prognostic factor.[50] In general, mesothelioma is characterized by loss of function in tumor suppressor genes, rather than by an overexpression or gain of function in oncogenes.[51]

As an environmentally triggered malignancy, mesothelioma tumors have been found to be polyclonal in origin, by performing a X-inactivation based assay on epitheloid and biphasic tumors obtained from female patients.[52] These results suggest that an environmental factor, most likely asbestos exposure, may damage and transform a group of cells in the tissue, resulting in a population of tumor cells that are, albeit only slightly, genetically different.[53]

Asbestos fibers have been shown to alter the function and secretory properties of macrophages, ultimately creating conditions which favour the development of mesothelioma. Following asbestos phagocytosis, macrophages generate increased amounts of hydroxyl radicals, which are normal by-products of cellular anaerobic metabolism. However, these free radicals are also known clastogenic (chromosome-breaking) and membrane-active agents thought to promote asbestos carcinogenicity. These oxidants can participate in the oncogenic process by directly and indirectly interacting with DNA, modifying membrane-associated cellular events, including oncogene activation and perturbation of cellular antioxidant defences.[citation needed]

Asbestos also may possess immunosuppressive properties. For example, chrysotile fibres have been shown to depress the in vitro proliferation of phytohemagglutinin-stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes, suppress natural killer cell lysis and significantly reduce lymphokine-activated killer cell viability and recovery. Furthermore, genetic alterations in asbestos-activated macrophages may result in the release of potent mesothelial cell mitogens such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and transforming growth factor- (TGF-) which in turn, may induce the chronic stimulation and proliferation of mesothelial cells after injury by asbestos fibres.[citation needed]

Diagnosis of mesothelioma can be suspected with imaging but is confirmed with biopsy. It must be clinically and histologically differentiated from other pleural and pulmonary malignancies, including reactive pleural disease, primary lung carcinoma, pleural metastases of other cancers, and other primary pleural cancers.[11]Primary pericardial mesothelioma is often diagnosed after it has metastasized to lymph nodes or the lungs.[10]

Diagnosing mesothelioma is often difficult because the symptoms are similar to those of a number of other conditions. Diagnosis begins with a review of the patient's medical history. A history of exposure to asbestos may increase clinical suspicion for mesothelioma. A physical examination is performed, followed by chest X-ray and often lung function tests. The X-ray may reveal pleural thickening commonly seen after asbestos exposure and increases suspicion of mesothelioma.[14] A CT (or CAT) scan or an MRI is usually performed. If a large amount of fluid is present, abnormal cells may be detected by cytopathology if this fluid is aspirated with a syringe.[10] For pleural fluid, this is done by thoracentesis or tube thoracostomy (chest tube); for ascites, with paracentesis or ascitic drain; and for pericardial effusion with pericardiocentesis. While absence of malignant cells on cytology does not completely exclude mesothelioma, it makes it much more unlikely, especially if an alternative diagnosis can be made (e.g., tuberculosis, heart failure).[citation needed] However, with primary pericardial mesothelioma, pericardial fluid may not contain malignant cells and a tissue biopsy is more useful in diagnosis.[10] Using conventional cytology diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma is difficult, but immunohistochemistry has greatly enhanced the accuracy of cytology.[citation needed]

Generally, a biopsy is needed to confirm a diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma. A doctor removes a sample of tissue for examination under a microscope by a pathologist. A biopsy may be done in different ways, depending on where the abnormal area is located. If the cancer is in the chest, the doctor may perform a thoracoscopy. In this procedure, the doctor makes a small cut through the chest wall and puts a thin, lighted tube called a thoracoscope into the chest between two ribs. Thoracoscopy allows the doctor to look inside the chest and obtain tissue samples. Alternatively, the chest surgeon might directly open the chest (thoracotomy). If the cancer is in the abdomen, the doctor may perform a laparoscopy. To obtain tissue for examination, the doctor makes a small incision in the abdomen and inserts a special instrument into the abdominal cavity. If these procedures do not yield enough tissue, an open surgical procedure may be necessary.[citation needed]

Immunohistochemical studies play an important role for the pathologist in differentiating malignant mesothelioma from neoplastic mimics, such as breast or lung cancer that has metastasized to the pleura. There are numerous tests and panels available, but no single test is perfect for distinguishing mesothelioma from carcinoma or even benign versus malignant. The positive markers indicate that mesothelioma is present; if other markers are positive it may indicate another type of cancer, such as breast or lung adenocarcinoma. Calretinin is a particularly important marker in distinguishing mesothelioma from metastatic breast or lung cancer.[11]

There are three main histological subtypes of malignant mesothelioma: epithelioid, sarcomatous, and biphasic. Epithelioid and biphasic mesothelioma make up approximately 75-95% of mesotheliomas and have been well characterized histologically, whereas sarcomatous mesothelioma has not been studied extensively. Most mesotheliomas express high levels of cytokeratin 5 regardless of subtype.[11]

Epithelioid mesothelioma is characterized by high levels of calretinin.[11]

Sarcomatous mesothelioma does not express high levels of calretinin.[11]

Other morphological subtypes have been described:

Staging of mesothelioma is based on the recommendation by the International Mesothelioma Interest Group.[54] TNM classification of the primary tumor, lymph node involvement, and distant metastasis is performed. Mesothelioma is staged IaIV (one-A to four) based on the TNM status.[54][55]

Mesothelioma can be prevented in most cases by preventing exposure to asbestos. The US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health maintains a recommended exposure limit of 0.1 asbestos fiber per cubic centimeter.[25]

There is no universally agreed protocol for screening people who have been exposed to asbestos. Screening tests might diagnose mesothelioma earlier than conventional methods thus improving the survival prospects for patients. The serum osteopontin level might be useful in screening asbestos-exposed people for mesothelioma. The level of soluble mesothelin-related protein is elevated in the serum of about 75% of patients at diagnosis and it has been suggested that it may be useful for screening.[56] Doctors have begun testing the Mesomark assay, which measures levels of soluble mesothelin-related proteins (SMRPs) released by mesothelioma cells.[57]

Mesothelioma is generally resistant to radiation and chemotherapy treatment. Long-term survival and cures are exceedingly rare.[11] Treatment of malignant mesothelioma at earlier stages has a better prognosis. Clinical behavior of the malignancy is affected by several factors including the continuous mesothelial surface of the pleural cavity which favors local metastasis via exfoliated cells, invasion to underlying tissue and other organs within the pleural cavity, and the extremely long latency period between asbestos exposure and development of the disease. The histological subtype and the patient's age and health status also help predict prognosis. The epithelioid histology responds better to treatment and has a survival advantage over sarcomatoid histology.[58]

The effectiveness of radiotherapy compared to chemotherapy or surgery for malignant pleural mesothelioma is not known.[59]

Surgery, by itself, has proved disappointing. In one large series, the median survival with surgery (including extrapleural pneumonectomy) was only 11.7 months.[60] However, research indicates varied success when used in combination with radiation and chemotherapy (Duke, 2008), or with one of the latter. A pleurectomy/decortication is the most common surgery, in which the lining of the chest is removed. Less common is an extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP), in which the lung, lining of the inside of the chest, the hemi-diaphragm and the pericardium are removed.[citation needed] In localized pericardial mesothelioma, pericardectomy can be curative; when the tumor has metastasized, pericardectomy is a palliative care option. The entire tumor is not often able to be removed.[10]

For patients with localized disease, and who can tolerate a radical surgery, radiation can be given post-operatively as a consolidative treatment. The entire hemithorax is treated with radiation therapy, often given simultaneously with chemotherapy. Delivering radiation and chemotherapy after a radical surgery has led to extended life expectancy in selected patient populations. It can also induce severe side-effects, including fatal pneumonitis.[61] As part of a curative approach to mesothelioma, radiotherapy is commonly applied to the sites of chest drain insertion, in order to prevent growth of the tumor along the track in the chest wall.[citation needed]

Although mesothelioma is generally resistant to curative treatment with radiotherapy alone, palliative treatment regimens are sometimes used to relieve symptoms arising from tumor growth, such as obstruction of a major blood vessel. Radiation therapy, when given alone with curative intent, has never been shown to improve survival from mesothelioma. The necessary radiation dose to treat mesothelioma that has not been surgically removed would be beyond human tolerance.[citation needed] Radiotherapy is of some use in pericardial mesothelioma.[10]

Chemotherapy is the only treatment for mesothelioma that has been proven to improve survival in randomised and controlled trials. The landmark study published in 2003 by Vogelzang and colleagues compared cisplatin chemotherapy alone with a combination of cisplatin and pemetrexed (brand name Alimta) chemotherapy in patients who had not received chemotherapy for malignant pleural mesothelioma previously and were not candidates for more aggressive "curative" surgery.[62] This trial was the first to report a survival advantage from chemotherapy in malignant pleural mesothelioma, showing a statistically significant improvement in median survival from 10 months in the patients treated with cisplatin alone to 13.3 months in the group of patients treated with cisplatin in the combination with pemetrexed and who also received supplementation with folate and vitamin B12. Vitamin supplementation was given to most patients in the trial and pemetrexed related side effects were significantly less in patients receiving pemetrexed when they also received daily oral folate 500mcg and intramuscular vitamin B12 1000mcg every 9 weeks compared with patients receiving pemetrexed without vitamin supplementation. The objective response rate increased from 20% in the cisplatin group to 46% in the combination pemetrexed group. Some side effects such as nausea and vomiting, stomatitis, and diarrhoea were more common in the combination pemetrexed group but only affected a minority of patients and overall the combination of pemetrexed and cisplatin was well tolerated when patients received vitamin supplementation; both quality of life and lung function tests improved in the combination pemetrexed group. In February 2004, the United States Food and Drug Administration approved pemetrexed for treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma. However, there are still unanswered questions about the optimal use of chemotherapy, including when to start treatment, and the optimal number of cycles to give.[citation needed] Cisplatin and pemetrexed together give patients a median survival of 12.1 months.[11]

Cisplatin in combination with raltitrexed has shown an improvement in survival similar to that reported for pemetrexed in combination with cisplatin, but raltitrexed is no longer commercially available for this indication. For patients unable to tolerate pemetrexed, cisplatin in combination with gemcitabine or vinorelbine is an alternative, or vinorelbine on its own, although a survival benefit has not been shown for these drugs. For patients in whom cisplatin cannot be used, carboplatin can be substituted but non-randomised data have shown lower response rates and high rates of haematological toxicity for carboplatin-based combinations, albeit with similar survival figures to patients receiving cisplatin.[63] Cisplatin in combination with premetrexed disodium, folic acid, and vitamin B12 may also improve survival for people who are responding to chemotherapy.[64]

In January 2009, the United States FDA approved using conventional therapies such as surgery in combination with radiation and or chemotherapy on stage I or II Mesothelioma after research conducted by a nationwide study by Duke University concluded an almost 50 point increase in remission rates.[citation needed]

In pericardial mesothelioma, chemotherapy - typically adriamycin or cisplatin - is primarily used to shrink the tumor and is not curative.[10]

Treatment regimens involving immunotherapy have yielded variable results. For example, intrapleural inoculation of Bacillus Calmette-Gurin (BCG) in an attempt to boost the immune response, was found to be of no benefit to the patient (while it may benefit patients with bladder cancer). Mesothelioma cells proved susceptible to in vitro lysis by LAK cells following activation by interleukin-2 (IL-2), but patients undergoing this particular therapy experienced major side effects. Indeed, this trial was suspended in view of the unacceptably high levels of IL-2 toxicity and the severity of side effects such as fever and cachexia. Nonetheless, other trials involving interferon alpha have proved more encouraging with 20% of patients experiencing a greater than 50% reduction in tumor mass combined with minimal side effects.[citation needed]

Hyperthermic intrathoracic chemotherapy is used in conjunction with surgery,[65] including in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma.[66] The surgeon removes as much of the tumor as possible followed by the direct administration of a chemotherapy agent, heated to between 40 and 48C, in the abdomen. The fluid is perfused for 60 to 120 minutes and then drained. High concentrations of selected drugs are then administered into the pleural cavity. Heating the chemotherapy treatment increases the penetration of the drugs into tissues. Also, heating itself damages the malignant cells more than the normal cells.[citation needed]

Multimodal therapy, which includes a combined approach of surgery, radiation or photodynamic therapy, and chemotherapy, is not suggested for routine practice for treating malignant pleural mesothelioma.[67] The effectiveness and safety of multimodal therapy is not clear (not enough research has been performed) and one clinical trial has suggested a possible increased risk of adverse effects.[67]

Large series of examining multimodality treatment have only demonstrated modest improvement in survival (median survival 14.5 months and only 29.6% surviving 2 years).[60] Reducing the bulk of the tumor with cytoreductive surgery is key to extending survival. Two surgeries have been developed: extrapleural pneumonectomy and pleurectomy/decortication. The indications for performing these operations are unique. The choice of operation namely depends on the size of the patient's tumor. This is an important consideration because tumor volume has been identified as a prognostic factor in mesothelioma.[68] Pleurectomy/decortication spares the underlying lung and is performed in patients with early stage disease when the intention is to remove all gross visible tumor (macroscopic complete resection), not simply palliation.[69] Extrapleural pneumonectomy is a more extensive operation that involves resection of the parietal and visceral pleurae, underlying lung, ipsilateral (same side) diaphragm, and ipsilateral pericardium. This operation is indicated for a subset of patients with more advanced tumors, who can tolerate a pneumonectomy.[70]

Mesothelioma often has a poor prognosis. Typical survival despite surgery is between 12 and 21 months depending on the stage of disease at diagnosis with about 7.5% of people surviving for 5 years.[71]

Women, young people, people with low-stage cancers, and people with epithelioid cancers have better prognoses.[11] Negative prognostic factors include sarcomatoid or biphasic histology, high platelet counts (above 400,000), age over 50 years, white blood cell counts above 15.5, low glucose levels in the pleural fluid, low albumin levels, and high fibrinogen levels. Several markers are under investigation as prognostic factors, including nuclear grade, and serum c-reactive protein. Long-term survival is rare.[50]

Pericardial mesothelioma has a 10-month median survival time.[10]

In peritoneal mesothelioma, high expression of WT-1 protein indicates a worse prognosis.[11]

Although reported incidence rates have increased in the past 20 years, mesothelioma is still a relatively rare cancer. The incidence rate varies from one country to another, from a low rate of less than 1 per 1,000,000 in Tunisia and Morocco, to the highest rate in Britain, Australia and Belgium: 30 per 1,000,000 per year.[72] For comparison, populations with high levels of smoking can have a lung cancer incidence of over 1,000 per 1,000,000. Incidence of malignant mesothelioma currently ranges from about 7 to 40 per 1,000,000 in industrialized Western nations, depending on the amount of asbestos exposure of the populations during the past several decades.[73] Worldwide incidence is estimated at 1-6 per 1,000,000.[11] Incidence of mesothelioma lags behind that of asbestosis due to the longer time it takes to develop; due to the cessation of asbestos use in developed countries, mesothelioma incidence is expected to decrease.[25] Incidence is expected to continue increasing in developing countries due to continuing use of asbestos.[11] Mesothelioma occurs more often in men than in women and risk increases with age, but this disease can appear in either men or women at any age. Approximately one fifth to one third of all mesotheliomas are peritoneal.[citation needed] Less than 5% of mesotheliomas are pericardial. The prevalence of pericardial mesothelioma is less than 0.002%; it is more common in men than women. It typically occurs in a person's 50s-70s.[10][74]

Between 1940 and 1979, approximately 27.5 million people were occupationally exposed to asbestos in the United States.[75] Between 1973 and 1984, the incidence of pleural mesothelioma among Caucasian males increased 300%. From 1980 to the late 1990s, the death rate from mesothelioma in the USA increased from 2,000 per year to 3,000, with men four times more likely to acquire it than women.[citation needed] More than 80% of mesotheliomas are caused by asbestos exposure.[11]

The incidence of peritoneal mesothelioma is 0.53.0 per million per year in men, and 0.22.0 per million per year in women.[76]

Mesothelioma accounts for less than 1% of all cancers diagnosed in the UK, (around 2,600 people were diagnosed with the disease in 2011), and it is the seventeenth most common cause of cancer death (around 2,400 people died in 2012).[77]

The connection between asbestos exposure and mesothelioma was discovered in the 1970s. In the United States, asbestos manufacture stopped in 2002. Asbestos exposure thus shifted from workers in asbestos textile mills, friction product manufacturing, cement pipe fabrication, and insulation manufacture and installation to maintenance workers in asbestos-containing buildings.[25]

Mesothelioma, though rare, has had a number of notable patients:

Although life expectancy with this disease is typically limited, there are notable survivors. In July 1982, Stephen Jay Gould, a well-regarded paleontologist, was diagnosed with peritoneal mesothelioma. After his diagnosis, Gould wrote "The Median Isn't the Message",[84] in which he argued that statistics such as median survival are useful abstractions, not destiny. Gould lived for another 20 years, eventually succumbing to cancer not linked to his mesothelioma.

Some people who were exposed to asbestos have collected damages for an asbestos-related disease, including mesothelioma. Compensation via asbestos funds or class action lawsuits is an important issue in law practices regarding mesothelioma.[citation needed]

The first lawsuits against asbestos manufacturers were in 1929. Since then, many lawsuits have been filed against asbestos manufacturers and employers, for neglecting to implement safety measures after the links between asbestos, asbestosis, and mesothelioma became known (some reports seem to place this as early as 1898). The liability resulting from the sheer number of lawsuits and people affected has reached billions of dollars.[85] The amounts and method of allocating compensation have been the source of many court cases, reaching up to the United States Supreme Court, and government attempts at resolution of existing and future cases. However, to date, the US Congress has not stepped in and there are no federal laws governing asbestos compensation.[86]In 2013, the "Furthering Asbestos Claim Transparency (FACT) Act of 2013" passed the US House of representatives and was sent to the US Senate, where it was referred to the Senate Judiciary Committee.[87] As the Senate did not vote on it before the end of the 113th Congress, it died in committee. It was revived in the 114th Congress, where it has not yet been brought before the House for a vote.[88]

The first lawsuit against asbestos manufacturers was brought in 1929. The parties settled that lawsuit, and as part of the agreement, the attorneys agreed not to pursue further cases. In 1960, an article published by Wagner et al. was seminal in establishing mesothelioma as a disease arising from exposure to asbestos.[89] The article referred to over 30 case studies of people who had suffered from mesothelioma in South Africa. Some exposures were transient and some were mine workers. Before the use of advanced microscopy techniques, malignant mesothelioma was often diagnosed as a variant form of lung cancer.[90] In 1962, McNulty reported the first diagnosed case of malignant mesothelioma in an Australian asbestos worker.[91] The worker had worked in the mill at the asbestos mine in Wittenoom from 1948 to 1950.[citation needed]

In the town of Wittenoom, asbestos-containing mine waste was used to cover schoolyards and playgrounds. In 1965, an article in the British Journal of Industrial Medicine established that people who lived in the neighbourhoods of asbestos factories and mines, but did not work in them, had contracted mesothelioma.[citation needed]

Despite proof that the dust associated with asbestos mining and milling causes asbestos-related disease, mining began at Wittenoom in 1943 and continued until 1966. In 1974, the first public warnings of the dangers of blue asbestos were published in a cover story called "Is this Killer in Your Home?" in Australia's Bulletin magazine. In 1978, the Western Australian Government decided to phase out the town of Wittenoom, following the publication of a Health Dept. booklet, "The Health Hazard at Wittenoom", containing the results of air sampling and an appraisal of worldwide medical information.[citation needed]

By 1979, the first writs for negligence related to Wittenoom were issued against CSR and its subsidiary ABA, and the Asbestos Diseases Society was formed to represent the Wittenoom victims.[citation needed]

In Leeds, England the Armley asbestos disaster involved several court cases against Turner & Newall where local residents who contracted mesothelioma demanded compensation because of the asbestos pollution from the company's factory. One notable case was that of June Hancock, who contracted the disease in 1993 and died in 1997.[92]

The WT-1 protein is overexpressed in mesothelioma and is being researched as a potential target for drugs.[11]

There are two high-confidence miRNAs that can potentially serve as biomarkers of asbestos exposure and malignant mesothelioma. Validation studies are needed to assess their relevance.[citation needed]

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Mesothelioma - Wikipedia

Mesothelioma Causes, Symptoms, Treatment & Prognosis

Mesothelioma facts

What is mesothelioma?

Mesothelioma is a rare form of cancer (malignancy) that most frequently arises from the cells lining the sacs of the chest (the pleura) or the abdomen (the peritoneum). Pleural mesothelioma is the most common form, often becoming apparent with symptoms in the chest area such as chest pain, cough, and/or shortness of breath. Shortness of breath often occurs due to a large pleural effusion (fluid in the thoracic cavity). Peritoneal mesothelioma is much less common. This can affect the organs in the abdomen, and its symptoms are related to this area of the body, that is, abdominal swelling, nausea, vomiting, and bowel obstruction. The rarest form of mesothelioma is pericardial mesothelioma, which involves the sac surrounding the heart.

There are two major cell types of mesothelioma, epithelial and sarcomatoid. Sometimes both of these cell types can be present, also referred to as biphasic. The sarcomatoid type is rarer and occurs in only about 15% of cases; it portends a poorer prognosis. In very rare cases, mesothelioma can originate from benign, non-malignant cells. Surgery cures this so-called benign mesothelioma.

There are many causes of chest pain. A serious form of chest pain is angina, which is a symptom of heart disease and results from inadequate oxygen supply to the heart muscle. Angina can be caused by coronary artery disease or spasm of the coronary arteries. Chest pain can also be due to a heart attack (coronary occlusion), aortic aneurysm dissection, myocarditis, esophageal spasm, esophagitis, rib injury or disease, anxiety, and other important diseases. Do not try to ignore chest pain and "work (or play) through it." Chest pain is a warning to seek medical attention.

What are mesothelioma symptoms?

Most people present with complaints of shortness of breath. They also can have complaints of chest pain and cough. Patients may also be asymptomatic, with the disease discovered by physical exam or an abnormal chest X-ray.

As the disease progresses, shortness of breath increases, and weight loss, decreased appetite, and night sweats can develop. Local invasion by the tumor can result in changing of voice, loss of function of the diaphragm, and symptoms specific to the area and involvement of adjacent structures.

What causes mesothelioma?

Most people with malignant mesothelioma have worked on jobs where they breathed asbestos. Usually, this involves men over 40 years of age. Others have been exposed to asbestos in a household environment, often without knowing it. The number of new cases of mesothelioma has been relatively stable since 1983, the same time that the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) instituted restrictions on asbestos. In Europe, the number of new cases of mesothelioma continues to rise.

How much asbestos exposure does it take to get mesothelioma?

An exposure of as little as one or two months can result in mesothelioma 30 or 40 years later and in some cases, as much as 70 years later.

How long does it take after asbestos exposure for mesothelioma to show up?

People exposed in the 1940s, '50s, '60s, and '70s are now being diagnosed with mesothelioma because of the long latency period of asbestos disease.

How do health care professionals diagnose mesothelioma?

Pathological examination from a biopsy diagnoses mesothelioma. A health care professional removes tissue. Then a pathologist places it under a microscope and makes a definitive diagnosis and issues a pathology report. This is the end of a process that usually begins with symptoms that send most people to the doctor: a fluid buildup around the lungs (pleural effusions), shortness of breath, pain in the chest, or pain or swelling in the abdomen. The doctor may order an X-ray or CT scan of the chest or abdomen. If further examination is warranted, the following tests may be done:

What is the prognosis for mesothelioma?

Like most cancers, the prognosis for this disease often depends on how early it is diagnosed and how aggressively it is treated. Unfortunately, oftentimes health care professionals find mesothelioma at a stage in which a cure is unobtainable. Many will succumb to the disease within one year of diagnosis.

Treatment options are determined by the stage of mesothelioma (the extent to which the tumor has spread in the body). There are three staging systems currently in use, and each one measures somewhat different variables.

The oldest staging system and the one most often used is the Butchart system, based mainly on the extent of primary tumor mass and divides mesotheliomas into four stages.

The more recent TNM system considers variables of tumor in mass and spread, lymph node involvement, and metastasis.

TNM system: variables of T (tumor), N (lymph nodes), and M (metastasis)

The Brigham system is the latest system and stages mesothelioma according to resectability (the ability to remove the tumor surgically) and lymph node involvement.

What is the treatment for mesothelioma?

There are three traditional kinds of treatment for patients with malignant mesothelioma. Often physicians combine two or more of these in the course of treatment:

Surgery: There are several types of surgery used in treating mesothelioma.

Radiation therapy uses high-energy X-rays to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. Radiation may come from a machine outside the body (external radiation therapy) or from putting materials that produce radiation (radioisotopes) through thin plastic tubes in the area where the cancer cells are (internal radiation therapy).

If fluid has collected in the chest or abdomen, your doctor may drain the fluid out of your body by putting in a needle into the chest or abdomen and using gentle suction to remove the fluid. If a doctor removes fluid from the chest, this is called thoracentesis. If a physician removes fluid from the abdomen, this is called paracentesis. Your doctor may also put drugs through a tube into the chest to prevent more fluid from accumulating.

Health care professionals administer adjuvant radiation in a manner to avoid exposure of the opposite lung to radiation and its potential side effects.

Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to kill cancer cells. Health care professionals administer chemotherapy by pill, or it may be put into the body by a needle in the vein or muscle. Often, a platinum-based chemotherapy (cisplatin or carboplatin) drug is given along with a second agent, pemetrexed. The side effects can be quite toxic, therefore they are used in people who are physically well enough to tolerate these side effects.

Chemotherapeutic agents can be administered either systemically (through the bloodstream) or intrapleurally (in the pleural cavity). When it is administered intrapleurally, the treatment is localized at the site of the tumor. These drugs are generally very toxic and you should discuss their use very carefully with your physician.

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Is there any promising research or are there promising drugs for mesothelioma?

Medical researchers are testing new approaches to treat malignant mesothelioma. They often combine traditional treatments or include something entirely new. They include:

Research is being conducted at various cancer centers all over the United States.

A recent study involving L-NDDP produced two cases of remission in mesothelioma patients. Another study found that a drug known as lovastatin might hold promise for mesothelioma patients.

To learn more about mesothelioma clinical studies and journal medical journal articles, visit the Mesothelioma Web (http://www.mesotheliomaweb.org).

What other kinds of information is available for people with mesothelioma?

There are numerous cancer web sites, some specific to mesothelioma. Because they are often difficult to locate, we have listed some relevant medical web sites that have information about mesothelioma.

American Institute for Cancer Research(http://www.aicr.org)

American Thoracic Society(http://www.thoracic.org/)

Canadian Cancer Society(http://www.bc.cancer.ca)

Mesothelioma Web(http://www.mesotheliomaweb.org)

Medically Reviewed on 7/5/2018

References

Mujoomdar, A.A., and D.J. Sugarbaker. "Hyperthermic Chemoperfusion for the Treatment of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma." Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 20.4 Winter 2008: 298-304.

Ried, Michael, et al. "Cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intrathoracic chemotherapy perfusion for malignant pleural tumours: perioperative management and clinical experience." Eur J Cardio-thoracic Surgery 43.4 April 2013: 801-807.

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Mesothelioma Causes, Symptoms, Treatment & Prognosis

FDA Provides Approval of Keytruda For Treatment of Mesothelioma and Other Tumors – Mesothelioma.net Blog

Published on June 18, 2020

Following confirmation of positive results, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved the use of the immunotherapy drug pembrolizumab (Keytruda) for patients diagnosed with unresectable or metastatic malignant mesothelioma, as well as other solid tumor cancers.

The approval was specifically provided for patients with mesothelioma tumors and other tumors that contain levels of tissue tumor mutation that are considered high as determined by an FDA-approved test, whose disease has progressed despite having received other treatments and for whom there are no good alternatives available.

In explaining its rationale for approval of the innovative treatment, the FDA issued a press release indicating that clinical trials had shown a response rate of 29% in patients with mesothelioma and other tumors who demonstrated this particular mutation biomarker level. The agency referred to these results as quite impressive, and particularly in light of the challenges presented by these diseases.

The FDA has indicated that the approval of Keytruda for use in mesothelioma is contingent upon verification of clinical benefit in future trials, and reports that the approval is supported by findings from an analysis of 10 cohorts of patients. The results were notably better than what was found in patients whose tumor mutation levels were not categorized as high.

The positive results gathered from the ten cohorts showed complete responses in 4% of patients and partial responses in 25%. More than half of the patients in the study were able to gain a benefit for at least one year, and half of that group had responses of at least two years. Speaking of the approval, Roy S. Herbst, MD, PhD, ensign professor of medicine (medical oncology) and professor of pharmacology, Yale School of Medicine; chief of medical oncology, Yale Cancer Center and Smilow Cancer Hospital; and associate cancer center director for translational research, Yale Cancer Center, said, As physicians, we are always looking to find new options for patients, especially in the second-line or higher treatment setting. Its great to see the use of innovative biomarkers and immunotherapy come together with this approval and encouraging that we now have an option for patients with TMB-H tumors across cancer types, including rare cancers.

For mesothelioma patients, news of expanded treatment options approved by the FDA is very encouraging. For information on treatment centers offering state of the art options, contact the Patient Advocates at Mesothelioma.net today at1-800-692-8608.

Learn more about and contact Terri

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FDA Provides Approval of Keytruda For Treatment of Mesothelioma and Other Tumors - Mesothelioma.net Blog

Study Reveals Weakness of Vide-Assisted Pleural Biopsy for Mesothelioma Diagnosis – Mesothelioma.net Blog

Published on June 17, 2020

When a patient is suspected of having malignant pleural mesothelioma, speed is of the essence. The physicians goal is to confirm the diagnosis as quickly as possible so that they can devise the most effective treatment protocol for the patients specific condition. One of the most frequently-used tools in staging this rare and fatal form of cancer is to take a tissue sample from the tumor via video-assisted thoracospic surgery, or VATS. Though this video-assisted pleural biopsy has long been highly regarded, a new study out of Japan has revealed significant weaknesses in its accuracy.

Though most oncologists will quickly order a video-assisted pleural biopsy when malignant pleural mesothelioma is suspected, oncologists at Hyogo College of Medicine in Japan have recently conducted research on 400 patients suspected of having the aggressive form of asbestos-related cancer, and have found significant vulnerabilities in the accuracy of its results.

Though the cancer doctors found that video-assisted pleural biopsy correctly identified mesothelioma in many patients, those who are in the earliest stages of the disease or whose bodies are reacting with a significant amount of inflammation or growths of fibrous connective tissue around the tumor had a high likelihood of being misdiagnosed. These misdiagnoses can often lead to delays in much-needed treatment.

Though the Japanese researchers did not conclude that video-assisted pleural biopsy should be entirely abandoned when malignant pleural mesothelioma is suspected, they did warn physicians who may order the test that though it is advantageous due to its minimally-invasive approach, there are many situations where it falls short of the specific patients needs.

In the case of this study, of the 400 patients tested for pleural mesothelioma between 2004 and 2017, roughly 70 percent had that diagnosis confirmed by the testing, but ten percent were misdiagnosed. Approximately 102 were diagnosed with either atypical mesothelial proliferation or non-specific pleuritis, and 9.8 percent of those diagnoses were incorrect and later diagnosed as malignant mesothelioma.

If you or someone you love has been exposed to asbestos and begins to show symptoms suggestive of malignant mesothelioma, then getting accurate diagnostic testing is one of the most important steps you can take. For more information on access to crucial medical resources, contact the Patient Advocates at Mesothelioma.net today at1-800-692-8608.

Learn more about and contact Terri

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Study Reveals Weakness of Vide-Assisted Pleural Biopsy for Mesothelioma Diagnosis - Mesothelioma.net Blog

Immunotherapy Combination Proving Effective for Peritoneal Mesothelioma – Mesothelioma Guide

Most clinical trials experimenting with novel treatments focus on pleural mesothelioma, due to the higher incidence rates and poorer prognosis. Peritoneal mesothelioma often gets little attention.

One study combining two mesothelioma immunotherapy drugs is the anomaly to that truth.

Researchers from the MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, Texas, are analyzing the effects of atezolizumab and bevacizumab. Atezolizumab is an anti-PD-L1 drug, and bevacizumab is an anti-VEGF treatment.

Together they are called AtezoBev, and they showed promising results in a recent phase 2 clinical trial.

If you want to learn more about peritoneal mesothelioma treatment options, reach out to our medical staff. Our registered nurse, Jenna Campagna, can provide insight into the best methods for treating your individual diagnosis. Email her at jenna@mesotheliomaguide.com.

The standard treatment for peritoneal mesothelioma is cytoreduction with heated intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC). According to numerous studies, this approach can lead to survival times of between three and five years.

However, mesothelioma recurrence is frequent due to the makeup of the disease. Microscopic tumors fill the peritoneum, which is the small membrane covering the abdominal cavity, along with the abdominal cavity itself. Removing all of them during surgery is challenging.

Additionally, some patients might not be eligible for cytoreduction with HIPEC. Their cancer may resist traditional chemotherapy, which is typical for mesothelioma. Any treatment that may reduce tumor size prior to surgery or extend life for non-surgical patients should be investigated.

The atezolizumab and bevacizumab study included many types of cancers, including both peritoneal mesothelioma and pleural mesothelioma. It involved 160 patients, of which 20 had peritoneal mesothelioma. Patients received both atezolizumab and bevacizumab for 60 minutes once every three weeks, so long as the disease did not progress.

The American Society of Clinical Oncology analyzed the effectiveness of AtezoBev just among those 20 participants with peritoneal mesothelioma. Seven of the 20 (35%) experienced at least a minimal reduction in tumor size, which surpasses the original goal of just 11%.

Long-term follow-ups showed substantial benefits of AtezoBev:

Atezolizumab and bevacizumab work in distinctly different ways, but they have the same goal: mesothelioma cell death.

Atezolizumab prevents a connection that helps mesothelioma cells survive. These infected cells have a protein called PD-L1, which can subdue the bodys T-cells. These disease-fighting cells have the protein PD-1. When the two protein receptors link, the T-cells are inhibited from accurately assessing mesothelioma cells as dangerous.

Atezolizumab breaks this link and acts as a wall between the receptors. Its presence allows the T-cells to recognize mesothelioma cells as dangerous.

Bevacizumab, the generic name for the brand drug Avastin, subdues another mesothelioma protein called VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor). This protein stimulates the creation of new blood vessels, a process called angiogenesis.

All cells, even cancerous ones, need to receive oxygen and nutrients to survive. Making new blood vessels is how mesothelioma tumors grow and spread through the body. Bevacizumab blocks this protein and can prevent mesothelioma cells from receiving oxygen and nutrients.

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Devin Golden is the content writer for Mesothelioma Guide. He produces mesothelioma-related content on various mediums, including the Mesothelioma Guide website and social media channels. Devin's objective is to translate complex information regarding mesothelioma into informative, easily absorbable content to help patients and their loved ones.

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Immunotherapy Combination Proving Effective for Peritoneal Mesothelioma - Mesothelioma Guide

Malignant Mesothelioma Market Emerging Trends, Global Demand and Business Opportunities 2020 to 2026 – 3rd Watch News

COVID-19 Impact Analysis of Malignant Mesothelioma Market

[Los Angeles], [United States], June 2020, The Malignant Mesothelioma Market research report includes an in-sight study of the key [Global Malignant Mesothelioma Market Size, Status and Forecast 2020-2026] market prominent players along with the company profiles and planning adopted by them. This helps the buyer of the Malignant Mesothelioma report to gain a clear view of the competitive landscape and accordingly plan Malignant Mesothelioma market strategies. An isolated section with top key players is provided in the report, which provides a complete analysis of price, gross, revenue(Mn), Malignant Mesothelioma specifications, and company profiles. The Malignant Mesothelioma study is segmented by Module Type, Test Type, And Region.

The market size section gives the Malignant Mesothelioma market revenue, covering both the historic growth of the market and the forecasting of the future. Moreover, the report covers a host of company profiles, who are making a mark in the industry or have the potential to do so. The profiling of the players includes their market size, key product launches, information regarding the strategies they employ, and others. The report identifies the total market sales generated by a particular firm over a period of time. Industry experts calculate share by taking into account the product sales over a period and then dividing it by the overall sales of the Malignant Mesothelioma industry over a defined period.

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Key Manufacturers of Malignant Mesothelioma Market include: AstraZeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Roche, Merck, Novartis, Pfizer, Sanofi, Eli Lilly, Teva Pharmaceuticals, Boehringer Ingelheim GmbH, Mylan, Fresenius Kabi, Sun Pharmaceuticals, Corden Pharma, Concordia International, Kyowa Hakko Kirin, Polaris Pharmaceuticals, MolMed, Ono Pharmaceutical, Nichi-Iko Pharmaceutical Malignant Mesothelioma

The research covers the current market size of the [Global Malignant Mesothelioma Market Size, Status and Forecast 2020-2026]and its growth rates based on 5 year history data. It also covers various types of segmentation such as by geography North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific etc.,. The in-depth information by segments of Malignant Mesotheliomamarket helps monitor performance & make critical decisions for growth and profitability. It provides information on trends and developments, focuses on markets and materials, capacities, technologies, CAPEX cycle and the changing structure of the [Global Malignant Mesothelioma Market Size, Status and Forecast 2020-2026].

This study also contains company profiling, product picture and specifications, sales, market share and contact information of various international, regional, and local vendors of [Global Malignant Mesothelioma Market Size, Status and Forecast 2020-2026]. The market competition is constantly growing higher with the rise in technological innovation and M&A activities in the industry. Moreover, many local and regional vendors are offering specific application products for varied end-users. The new vendor entrants in the market are finding it hard to compete with the international vendors based on quality, reliability, and innovations in technology.

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Geographically,this report is segmented into several key Regions, with production, consumption, revenue (million USD), and market share and growth rate of Malignant Mesotheliomain these regions, from 2012 to 2022 (forecast), covering

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Table of Contents:

Chapter 1, to describe Definition, Specifications and Classification of Malignant Mesothelioma, Applications of Malignant Mesothelioma, Market Segment by Regions;

Chapter 2, To analyse the Manufacturing Cost Structure, Raw Material and Suppliers, Manufacturing Process, Industry Chain Structure;

Chapter 3, to display the Technical Data and Manufacturing Plants Analysis of Malignant Mesothelioma, Capacity and Commercial Production Date, Manufacturing Plants Distribution, R&D Status and Technology Source, Raw Materials Sources Analysis;

Chapter 4, to show the Overall Market Analysis, Capacity Analysis (AstraZeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Roche, Merck, Novartis, Pfizer, Sanofi, Eli Lilly, Teva Pharmaceuticals, Boehringer Ingelheim GmbH, Mylan, Fresenius Kabi, Sun Pharmaceuticals, Corden Pharma, Concordia International, Kyowa Hakko Kirin, Polaris Pharmaceuticals, MolMed, Ono Pharmaceutical, Nichi-Iko Pharmaceutical Malignant Mesothelioma ), Sales Analysis (AstraZeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Roche, Merck, Novartis, Pfizer, Sanofi, Eli Lilly, Teva Pharmaceuticals, Boehringer Ingelheim GmbH, Mylan, Fresenius Kabi, Sun Pharmaceuticals, Corden Pharma, Concordia International, Kyowa Hakko Kirin, Polaris Pharmaceuticals, MolMed, Ono Pharmaceutical, Nichi-Iko Pharmaceutical Malignant Mesothelioma ), Sales Price Analysis (AstraZeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Roche, Merck, Novartis, Pfizer, Sanofi, Eli Lilly, Teva Pharmaceuticals, Boehringer Ingelheim GmbH, Mylan, Fresenius Kabi, Sun Pharmaceuticals, Corden Pharma, Concordia International, Kyowa Hakko Kirin, Polaris Pharmaceuticals, MolMed, Ono Pharmaceutical, Nichi-Iko Pharmaceutical Malignant Mesothelioma );

Chapter 5 and 6, to show the Regional Market Analysis that includes North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific etc., Malignant Mesothelioma Segment Market Analysis;

Chapter 7 and 8, to analyse the Malignant Mesothelioma Segment Market Analysis Major Manufacturers Analysis of Malignant Mesothelioma;

Chapter 9, Market Trend Analysis, Regional Market Trend, Market Trend by Product Type, Market Trend;

Chapter 10, Regional Marketing Type Analysis, International Trade Type Analysis, Supply Chain Analysis;

Chapter 11, to analyse the Consumers Analysis of Malignant Mesothelioma;

Chapter 12, to describe Malignant Mesothelioma Research Findings and Conclusion, Appendix, methodology and data source;

Chapter 13, 14 and 15, to describe Malignant Mesothelioma sales channel, distributors, traders, dealers, Research Findings and Conclusion, appendix and data source.

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Malignant Mesothelioma Market Emerging Trends, Global Demand and Business Opportunities 2020 to 2026 - 3rd Watch News

Palliative Treatment for Mesothelioma – Mesothelioma.net Blog

This page has been fact checked by aDoctor of Nursing Practice who specializes in Oncology and has experience working with mesothelioma patients.

Sources of information are listed at the bottom of the article. We make every attempt to keep our information accurate and up-to-date.

Please Contact Us with any questions or comments.

Palliative treatment is especially important for mesothelioma patients who often live with severe side effects and symptoms, distress, anxiety, and fear. More than just treating the disease, palliative care is supportive care for the person as a whole and aims to improve their quality of life for as long as possible.

Palliative treatment is any type of care provided for a patient with a serious or terminal illness with the goal of improving quality of life. Instead of solely treating a disease, it focuses on factors that affect symptoms as well prioritizing personalized care. Treatment is geared towards what matters most to patients. This includes all kinds of supportive care:

While there may be some overlap in strategies, palliative care is not the same as other cancer treatments. The goal of treatments that are not palliative is to cure, slow, or stop the progression of a disease. Many patients with mesothelioma benefit from both palliative and non-palliative treatments.

Studies find that malignant mesothelioma patients have a high burden of symptoms. In one study, for instance, 92 percent of patients lived with three or more difficult symptoms: shortness of breath, fatigue, chest pains, loss of appetite, and cough, among other less common symptoms. They also experience distress, uncertainty, and a sense of lack of control.

Management of symptoms to improve quality of life is the main reason to use palliative care. Without treatment for symptoms, patients may struggle with severe, uncomfortable, and painful side effects of the cancer and its treatments. Palliation can help patients physically but also give them better control over quality of life, which improves mental health.

Historically, palliative care was reserved for patients in the latter stages of cancer. However, literature supports introduction of palliative care at the time of diagnosis, especially for those cancers that tend to be aggressive with shorter survival trends. Palliative care can work in conjunction with the medical and surgical oncology teams to provide patient centered care. Mesothelioma is a particularly painful cancer, though, and palliation early on in the disease can be beneficial too.

Studies have shown that cancer patients with early access to palliative care enjoyed better quality of life and improved survival times.

Patients in need of palliative care will generally work with a specialist. Some centers have dedicated palliative care teams. They have specialty training in palliative care and can create a strategy with the patient and their family. If a dedicated team is not available, the medical care team can certainly have a more palliative approach and work to provide support that best fits an individuals goals.

The actual medical procedures are provided by physicians. The palliative care specialist will also reach out to other caregivers to help implement the plan: pain specialists, holistic care providers, pharmacists, physical therapists, psychologists, spiritual leaders, and others.

Palliative treatments do not have to wait until a patient is in hospice car. Hospice may be in a medical facility or at home, but is care that is provided to patients at the end of their lives. Palliative care does not require enrollment into hospice.

Palliative care becomes especially important in hospice, where it provides relief, comfort, and the best possible quality of life for the time a patient has left.

Patients living with pleural mesothelioma experience a number of difficult symptoms, including pain, a relentless cough, and difficulty breathing. Several treatments, including surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy can be used for relief and palliation:

Many of the same strategies used for pleural mesothelioma palliation can be applied to the peritoneal patient. Paracentesis is the term for removing fluid from the abdomen. Standard chemotherapy may provide some benefits, but radiation is not generally used for peritoneal mesothelioma.

The buildup of fluid in the abdomen, know as ascites, can be particularly uncomfortable for peritoneal patients. Specialists who provide HIPEC, a debulking surgery followed by heated chemotherapy, may offer this service for palliation. It is generally used as a treatment to slow or cure the cancer, but studies have also found it can improve quality of life as a palliative treatment.

Managing this rare type of mesothelioma is especially challenging because it is so close to the heart. A percardiocentisis a surgical procedure that can be used to drain fluid from around the heart, which relieves pressure and pain. Chemotherapy may also help relieve symptoms, but radiation is not effective with pericardial mesothelioma.

A surgical procedure known as a pericardiectomy may help relieve symptoms specific to this type of mesothelioma. It involves removing part or all of the pericardium around the heart. This may help relieve pressure on the heart, which is both uncomfortable and dangerous.

For any type of mesothelioma, pain is a major symptom and focus of palliative treatment. The medical treatments used for each type can help relieve pain but are often not adequate. Medications and other management strategy can help reduce pain or make it more tolerable:

While most complementary and alternative (CAM) practices are unproven to help treat cancer, they can help manage symptoms and play an important role in palliative care.

For example, a study from MD Anderson Cancer Center included 375 cancer patients and found that acupuncture relieved several symptoms: fatigue, hot flashes, numbness, nausea, and dry mouth.

CAM may also include aromatherapy, massage therapy, herbal supplements, and other strategies. Patients may have a CAM specialist on their treatment or palliative care team. Some CAM practices may help some patients feel better or not work for others. Most are safe to try, though.

Palliative treatments are essential for helping mesothelioma patients enjoy a better quality of life. This is a devastating disease that is most often terminal but also very painful physically. Palliative care can provide psychological and spiritual assistance and medical treatments to relieve symptoms.

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Chemo, Immunotherapy Combo May Be Effective Mesothelioma Treatment – Study Finds

BALTIMORE Mesothelioma, a rare but very aggressive form of cancer in the lungs, is usually caused by exposure to asbestos. Once the cancer becomes inoperable, patients dont have many treatment options. A new set of research from Johns Hopkins Medicine, however, suggests that a combination of chemotherapy and immunotherapy may be an effective first line of treatment for mesotheliomapatients.

A total of 55 patients from 15 U.S. cancer treatment facilities were examined for this study. Each patient received the immunotherapy drug durvalumabin combination with cisplatin and pemetrexed (two chemotherapy drugs).Every three weeks patients were given six treatments of the combination therapy, followed by a dosage of just durvalumab alone. This went on for up to one full calendar year across all studied mesothelioma patients.

Historically, mesothelioma patients treated with chemotherapy alone usually survive for an average of 12 months. Patients given the combination therapy, however, survived for an average of 20.4 months. Thats a very remarkable result; this is the first piece of research ever to show patients with inoperable mesothelioma surviving for longer than 20 months.

Moreover, none of the patients experienced any unexpected negative side effects from the combination therapy.

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After closely examining tissue samples provided by participating patients, the studys authors discovered that the combination therapy appears to stop a certain cancerous protein (PD-L1) from forming a protective armor around cancer cells.

Inflammation is key to the development of pleural mesothelioma and, as such, it represents a key target for immunotherapy. This, in addition to earlier studies that showed promising results using the same immunotherapy drug in previously treated cases, led us to study the combination, says Patrick Forde, an associate professor of oncology at Hopkins, in a statement. Because of the promising results, we are in the process of starting a phase 3 study to confirm the benefit of this approach.

This study will begin accruing patients across the United States and Australia in late 2020.

The research was presented at the the American Society of Clinical Oncologys annual meeting.

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The Potential Impact of Coronavirus (COVID-19) for Malignant Mesothelioma Market : Industry Trends and Developments 20192028 – Personal Injury Bureau…

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The report reveals that the global Malignant Mesothelioma market is set to grow at a CAGR of ~XX% over the forecast period (2019-2029) and surpass the value of ~US$XX by the end of 2029. The presented study also includes a thorough analysis of the micro and macroeconomic factors, regulatory framework, and current trends that are expected to influence the growth of the Malignant Mesothelioma market during the assessment period.

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Our research methodology leverages both primary and secondary research to collect the relevant market data. We have analyzed the global malignant mesothelioma market by considering key player revenue, usage patterns, historic trends, and problems faced by oncologists, the required treatment developments, and most preferred drugs. Key opinion leaders including experienced healthcare professionals in various healthcare facilities at the country level have been considered for primary research. These estimates have been further validated with drug manufacturers, distributors, and suppliers. Extensive secondary research has been carried out to understand the epidemiology of malignant mesothelioma, treatment rate, adoption rate, regulatory scenarios, average selling price and the global reimbursement scenario by referring to published scientific literature from various databases such as the WHO, Asbestos.com, PubMed, Springer, and Wiley among many others. We have also analyzed the various companies annual reports, investor presentations, SEC filings, reports and press releases to fetch substantial information pertaining to the market size, trends, opportunities, drivers, and restraints.

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Ohio Mesothelioma Victims Center is Urging the Family of a Person with Just Diagnosed Mesothelioma in Ohio to Call for Direct Access to Attorney Erik…

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CLEVELAND , OHIO, USA, June 17, 2020 / EINPresswire.com / -- The Ohio Mesothelioma Victims Center is urging the family of a person who has just been diagnosed with mesothelioma anywhere in Ohio to call 800-714-0303 for direct access tom attorney Erik Karst of the law firm of Karst von Oiste. Because of the Coronavirus many people in Ohio with confirmed mesothelioma were probably initially diagnosed with pneumonia-COVID-19. This may have cost the person with mesothelioma valuable time. If your husband or dad has just been diagnosed with mesothelioma in Ohio-please call attorney Erik Karst of the law firm of Karst von Oiste.

Aside from being to explain how the financial compensation process to a person with mesothelioma Erik Karst will also be able to assess the potential value of the compensation claim. Erik Karst and his remarkable colleagues at Karst von Oiste have been assisting people with mesothelioma nationwide for decades and they are responsible for over a billion dollars in financial compensation results for people like this. For direct access to attorney Erik Karst at the law firm of Karst von Oiste please call 800-714-0303." http://www.karstvonoiste.com/

Aside from their focus on the best possible compensation the Center is also extremely passionate about the best possible medical treatments. For the best possible mesothelioma treatment options in Ohio the Ohio Mesothelioma Victims Center strongly recommends the following three heath care facilities with the offer to help a diagnosed victim, or their family get to the right physicians at each hospital.

* Case Western Reserve University Cancer Research Center Cleveland, Ohio: https://cancer.case.edu/ * Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center Columbus, Ohio: https://cancer.osu.edu/ * The Cleveland Clinic Taussig Cancer Institute Cleveland, Ohio: https://my.clevelandclinic.org/departments/cancer .

The Ohio Mesothelioma Victims Center wants to emphasize there is a statewide initiative available to a diagnosed victim anywhere in Ohio including communities such as Columbus, Cleveland, Cincinnati, Toledo, Akron, Dayton, or Youngstown. https://Ohio.MesotheliomaVictimsCenter.Com

High risk work groups for exposure to asbestos in Ohio include Veterans of the US Navy, power plant workers, factory workers, plumbers, electricians, coal miners, auto mechanics, machinists, and construction workers. Typically the exposure to asbestos occurred in the 1950''s, 1960''s, 1970''s, or 1980''s. http://www.karstvonoiste.com/

According to the CDC the states indicated with the highest incidence of mesothelioma include Maine, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Maryland, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia, Virginia, Michigan, Illinois, Minnesota, Louisiana, Washington, and Oregon. http://www.karstvonoiste.com/

However, based on the calls the Mesothelioma Victims Center receives a diagnosed victim of mesothelioma could live in any state including New York, Florida, California, Texas, Illinois, Ohio, Iowa, Indiana, Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, North Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Kansas, Nebraska, North Dakota, Wyoming, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, Arizona, Idaho, or Alaska.

For more information about mesothelioma please refer to the National Institutes of Health''s web site related to this rare form of cancer: https://www.cancer.gov/types/mesothelioma

Michael ThomasOhio Mesothelioma Victims Center+1 800-714-0303email us here

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Ohio Mesothelioma Victims Center is Urging the Family of a Person with Just Diagnosed Mesothelioma in Ohio to Call for Direct Access to Attorney Erik...

Odds of Surviving Mesothelioma Equal in Rural and Urban Australia | – Surviving Mesothelioma

Living in a city and having a better socioeconomic status does not necessarily increase the odds of surviving mesothelioma.

That is the message from a 15-year Australian study of more than 300,000 cancer patients.

Some studies suggest cancer survival rates are lower in rural areas. But that does not appear to be the case for mesothelioma in Australia.

Unfortunately, the odds of surviving mesothelioma remain low no matter where a person lives.

Australia used to mine and export more asbestos than any other country. The mineral has been banned there since 2003, but Australian mesothelioma rates are still among the highest in the world.

Asbestos fibers are biopersistent. Once they are embedded in the tissue, they never leave the body. By the time a patient receives a mesothelioma diagnosis, the odds of surviving mesothelioma for more than 18 months are low.

Australias mesothelioma cases came in waves. The first wave included asbestos mine workers, their families, and people who lived near mines. The second wave occurred among construction and demolition workers exposed to asbestos in buildings.

Public health officials say the third wave is happening among homeowners who fail to protect themselves during DIY home improvement projects. Australia has launched media campaigns to educate homeowners. Earlier diagnosis improves the odds of surviving mesothelioma.

Researchers with the Cancer Council of Victoria found 331,302 cases of cancer in the region between 2001 and 2015. Pleural mesothelioma was one of 30 cancers represented.

People living outside the cities had lower survival for 11 kinds of cancer. But the odds of surviving mesothelioma, uterus, or small intestine cancer stayed the same in the country and the city.

People in rural areas tend to be poorer than those in cities. When the researchers adjusted for the differences in socieconomic status, survival rates for many cancers went down.

The observed differences in survival decreased for most cancers and disappeared for colorectal cancer, but they remained largely unchanged for cancers of esophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, lung, connective/soft tissue, ovary and kidney, the researchers write.

The odds of surviving mesothelioma were unaffected by patients finances.

The finding suggests that asbestos cancer is uniformly deadly. However, some US studies show longer mesothelioma survival among people living near academic cancer centers. This seems to be related to the experience level of doctors in these centers.

Larger cancer centers are also more likely to offer mesothelioma clinical trials, which have been shown to improve the odds of surviving mesothelioma.

Source:

Afshar, N, et al, Differences in cancer survival by remoteness of residence: an analysis of data from a population-based cancer registry, April 30, 2020, Cancer Causes and Control, Epub ahead of print, https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10552-020-01303-2

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Mesothelioma – Home of Science

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Mesothelioma is a form of cancer that affects the tissue that surrounds the chest. This type of cancer usually develops in one of the many tissues that surround the heart, but it can develop anywhere in the body.

The most common place for mesothelioma to develop is in the lining of the lungs are particularly vulnerable to this form of cancer. Anytime cancer grows in the lining of the lungs, it can lead to symptoms such as shortness of breath, coughing, a heavy feeling in the chest and pain. Other symptoms can include itching and infection in the lining of the lungs. A patients risk of developing mesothelioma increases with age, smoking and exposure to asbestos.

Mesothelioma usually occurs when asbestos fibers, dust or other contaminants are inhaled. Symptoms occur when the asbestos gets lodged in the lining of the lungs and lung tissue is damaged. After the asbestos particles get lodged, they can begin to grow and produce more asbestos fibers and possibly tumors. While the majority of lung cancer cases are caused by asbestos exposure, it is not always the case.

When a person has specific mesothelioma symptoms, it will be important to identify the cause of the illness. For instance, asbestos exposure will have its own set of symptoms, but they will not necessarily be the same as those for mesothelioma.

Some of the symptoms that can be experienced by a person who has mesothelioma include: headaches, nausea, nasal congestion, shortness of breath, chest pains, pain in the side of the neck and difficulty breathing. Some of these symptoms can be mistaken for simple sinus infections. A medical professional will need to be consulted if a patient has any of these symptoms.

If symptoms like these arise, it is important to find out if they are connected to the condition. There are several ways to diagnose mesothelioma, such as using a computerized tomography scan, a biopsy of the lining of the lungs or a computed tomography scan. One of the ways that patients can start treatment is through radiation therapy or chemotherapy.

Surgical procedures to remove some of the cancerous cells that have developed can help stop the progression of the disease. Many people who suffer from mesothelioma choose to have surgery to remove the most visible tissue in the lungs. There are also individuals who choose to take a medical option called endoscopic thoracic surgery. Endoscopic surgery does not involve removing tissue.

This surgical procedure does not involve surgery at all, but instead the doctor places a camera into the chest cavity, allowing the doctor to see the mesothelioma. After the cancer is removed from the lungs the medical procedure does not necessarily eradicate the cause of the disease. However, when the mesothelioma is removed from the lungs it stops the growth of the cancer.

Mucklai began writing seven years ago, landed his first client that same year, and published his first book six years ago.

Mucklai has served thousands of clients, including Game of Thrones, Emmy award wining singer Halsey, and most notably Matrix 4 (currently in pre-production)

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Mesothelioma - Home of Science

Mesothelioma Treatment – Home of Science

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Mesothelioma is a rare form of cancer that generally occurs in the lining of the lungs, abdomen and peritoneum. If left untreated, it can progress to a more aggressive stage, causing death.

Mesothelioma is diagnosed through blood tests, X-rays and biopsy. The doctors will check the size of the tumor and its place in the body. During a biopsy, the doctor will examine the area and look for cancer cells, using the tissue from the patient. Biopsy is a procedure where an organ (bio-cut) is removed for examination and microscopic examinations are done to confirm the presence of mesothelioma.

During the procedure, the doctor may give the patient medication and administer general anesthesia. A tube will be inserted into the abdomen and it will be possible to control the flow of blood with the help of an endotracheal tube. In some cases, some parts of the body, such as the breastbone, chest, liver, lung, diaphragm and esophagus, will be removed for biopsy. The patient will also receive radiotherapy therapy, where a patient will be given radio waves to kill the cancer cells.

During the procedure, the patient will be under a general or local anesthetic. The patient will be allowed to sleep and eat on the first day of the procedure. It is important that the patient will get enough rest and that he/she will not have physical activity. The doctors will monitor the patients condition and they will check him/her every day to make sure the patient has no pain.

During the post-operative care, a doctor will examine the patients blood and urine to see if there are any abnormal results. Blood tests will show if the patient is suffering from elevated blood sugar or if the patient is dehydrated.

After the surgery, the doctor will tell the patient to start having his or her meals, even if the patient has an early stage of mesothelioma. The patient should keep eating regularly because this is the best method to prevent a recurrence of the cancerous cells.

Patients will not be able to use a motor vehicle until the extent of their mesothelioma has been treated completely. For these patients, driving a car or operating machinery is very dangerous. These patients are often advised to stay at home to be close to the doctor or family members.

The patient should also be careful when working with radium or other hazardous chemicals. This may cause a cancerous growth which can be fatal. The risk of developing the disease increases when a person has a family history of this illness.

Mucklai began writing seven years ago, landed his first client that same year, and published his first book six years ago.

Mucklai has served thousands of clients, including Game of Thrones, Emmy award wining singer Halsey, and most notably Matrix 4 (currently in pre-production)

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Study Reveals Concerning Aftereffects of Peritoneal Mesothelioma Surgery – Mesothelioma.net Blog

Published on April 01, 2020

Mesothelioma is a rare and fatal form of cancer that is caused by exposure to asbestos. The disease is diagnosed in approximately 3,500 people per year, and among those roughly 20 to 35% have the peritoneal form of the disease which forms in the abdominal cavity. Though patients with peritoneal mesothelioma have realized significant success from a specialized procedure that combines surgery with the direct administration of chemotherapy, a study by researchers in Singapore has noted that many of them end up with blood cell problems years later.

One of the most promising treatment options available for patients diagnosed with peritoneal mesothelioma combines surgical removal of malignant tumors from the peritoneal area followed immediately by pouring a heated solution of chemotherapeutic agents directly into the still-open surgical field. The HIPEC treatment is thought to kill any microscopic cancer cells that may be left behind following surgery.

But cancer researchers analyzing 15 years worth of retrospective outcomes found that of patients whod had the procedure, more than half developed toxicities of the blood: some problems involved white blood cells, some with platelets or proteins, and some with their red blood cells. The troubling effect was most likely to arise in older patients who had previously undergone chemotherapeutic treatment with the purpose of minimizing the size of their tumors prior to surgery.

Though cytoreductive surgery combined with heated intraperitoneal chemotherapy has extended survival time for countless mesothelioma patients, the researchers from Singapores National Cancer Centre have issued some startling results that physicians need to consider while crafting a treatment plan. Their study followed patients whod had the procedure over a 15-year period, and revealed that more than 37 percent developed a low platelet count condition called thrombocytopenia which prevents the blood from clotting properly. Nineteen percent experienced conditions that reduce white blood cells that fight infection,

Notably, these issues are not long-term problems that develop slowly. Rather, they appear in just days after the surgery is performed, giving physicians the opportunity to watch out for their development and provide appropriate treatment quickly.

If you have been diagnosed with malignant mesothelioma, it is easy to be overwhelmed. The compassionate Patient Advocates at Mesothelioma.net can help you by providing information and other resources. Call us today at1-800-692-8608.

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3 Objectives for People With Mesothelioma During Coronavirus Isolation – Mesothelioma Guide

The COVID-19 coronavirus continues to derail our usual way of life. People with mesothelioma are not immune to the anxiousness and hardships caused by this health crisis.

The economy continues to suffer as many businesses are closed. Stocks are dropping. Sporting events have been canceled. Social outings are an afterthought. Many cities have asked residents to shelter in place.

If you have mesothelioma, then you can make good use of this time in isolation. Dont devote all of your mental energy to the negatives associated with the coronavirus pandemic.

We have three suggestions for objectives you should focus on in the next few weeks or months however long the crisis lasts.

A growing number of cities, counties and even states have initiated stay at home orders for residents. For instance, Floridas Orange County (where Orlando is located) instilled a two-weekrule starting March 26 (Thursday) at 11 p.m.

Even if you live somewhere that hasnt taken the same stance, you should isolate yourself from others.

People with mesothelioma are at risk of contracting a severe case of coronavirus. The virus attaches to your lungs and attacks your respiratory system. The most common type of mesothelioma (pleural mesothelioma) forms near the lungs and often spreads to this organ.

Since you have malignant cancer, your immune system is weaker than usual. Youll have difficulty fighting back against the coronavirus and expelling it from your body.

The best way to stay safe from this outbreak is reducing or, better yet, eliminating your in-person interaction with others. If youd like tips on safety measures to take, then read one of our latest blogs on mesothelioma and the coronavirus.

Mesothelioma affects around 3,000 Americans each year. All of them no matter their age, gender or where they live were given this cancer by corporate greed.

Manufacturers prioritized using asbestos due to its fire-resistant and cost-effective qualities. They preferred this substance despite many knowing it was dangerous to their workers health and the health of the general public.

You and other mesothelioma patients should consider taking legal action against these corporations. While in isolation, people with this cancer can contact a lawyer to discuss their options. Mesothelioma claims usually involve filing with asbestos trust funds. The process is simple, and you should receive financial help quickly.

The top mesothelioma lawyers have adjusted to our current isolated American lifestyle. They offer virtual options for face-to-face meetings and can process all documents and signatures electronically.

Remember, mesothelioma treatment can cost thousands of dollars. You and your family may also struggle financially due to lost wages, rising debt and other effects of this cancer. Add in the current economic climate businesses closing, jobs being cut and retirement accounts bleeding money and theres even more reason to seek compensation.

Mesothelioma treatment is continuously expanding and evolving. Surgery techniques are improving, new methods are proving useful and survival rates are showing promise.

Staying at home and keeping a safe distance from others means you have a little more time to research your treatment options. Clinical trials pop up regularly and offer people like yourself an opportunity to access outside-the-box ideas, such as:

The United States Food and Drug Administration has only approved chemotherapy for treating mesothelioma. However, many specialists receive approval to use surgery and radiation along with chemotherapy drugs cisplatin and pemetrexed.

We can help you learn more about accessing a clinical trial or connecting with a top mesothelioma doctor. Our patient advocate and registered nurse, Jenna Campagna, is available via email at jenna@mesotheliomaguide.com.

While our staff is prioritizing safety during the coronavirus outbreak, we remain dedicated to helping patients find treatment, beat this cancer, and live happily and healthily for many years to come.

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Devin Golden is the content writer for Mesothelioma Guide. He produces mesothelioma-related content on various mediums, including the Mesothelioma Guide website and social media channels. Devin's objective is to translate complex information regarding mesothelioma into informative, easily absorbable content to help patients and their loved ones.

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Mesothelioma Pain Management with PCC – Surviving Mesothelioma

A study out of the UK says more doctors should consider using a minimally invasive surgical technique called PCC in mesothelioma pain management. They also say it should happen earlier.

Percutaneous cervical cordotomy (PCC) uses an electrode to destroy a small set of nerves in the spinal cord. These nerves send pain signals to the brain.

Although the evidence for PCC is limited, the researchers say their study shows it is safe and effective for mesothelioma pain management. Unfortunately, the patients who do have PCC tend to have it late in their illness.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma is a cancer of the thin tissue that encases the lungs. There are no nerves in this tissue, so patients do not usually feel any pain in the early stages of mesothelioma. This is part of why many people are not diagnosed until they have more advanced mesothelioma.

There is no cure for mesothelioma and tumors usually continue to grow. As mesothelioma progresses, the cancer may invade the chest wall. At this stage, patients often do need mesothelioma pain management.

Doctors have a number of ways of treating cancer pain, including opioid medications. But opioids come with their own risks and side effects. Also, most mesothelioma patients experience one-sided pain, which cannot be addressed by medication alone.

The UK study suggests that PCC may be a viable alternative for mesothelioma pain management, especially in people who do not get adequate relief from medication.

During a PCC procedure, a surgeon inserts a needle into the spine. The needle acts as a guide for a tiny electrode. The electrode passes through the needle to direct a burst of radiofrequency waves into the nerves that transmit pain messages from the chest.

The UK researchers note that there are not many studies on PCC for mesothelioma pain management. But the studies that do exist suggest that it is effective and helps reduce opioid use.

The UK study ran from 2012 to 2017 and included 159 patients with cancer pain. Fifty-seven percent of the patients had pleural mesothelioma. The median time from diagnosis to PCC was 13 months, with the longest being nearly two years.

Before the procedure, patients had an average cancer pain score of six out of 10. On follow-up (an average of 9 days later), the average score had dropped to just two. Other issues linked to mesothelioma pain management were also positively impacted.

The median reduction in strong opioid dose at follow-up was 50 percent, writes researcher Marlise Poolman of Bangor Institute for Health and Medical Research at Bangor University. With the exception of activity, all health-related quality of life scores either improved or were stable after PCC. Only six patients had any PCC-related adverse events.

The team concludes that PCC is effective for mesothelioma pain management but that PCC referrals tended to be late in patients disease trajectories.

In addition to more studies on the earlier use of PCC, they say a consensus from cancer doctors on the procedure will further enhance opportunities to improve patient care.

Source:

Poolman, M, et al, Percutaneous cervical cordotomy for cancer-related pain: national data, March 27, 2020, https://spcare.bmj.com/content/early/2020/03/26/bmjspcare-2019-002057

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California Mesothelioma Victims Center Now Urges A Person in California with Mesothelioma to Forgo the ‘Free booklet and to Call for Direct Access to…

(MENAFN - EIN Presswire) "Attorney Erik Karst of the law firm of Karst von Oiste will travel anywhere in California for no obligation meeting with a person with mesothelioma to explain compensation. California Mesothelioma Victims Center

LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA, USA, April 2, 2020 / EINPresswire.com / -- The California Mesothelioma Victims Center says, "We are urging a person with mesothelioma anywhere in California or their family members to call us anytime at 800-714-0303 so that instead of ending up with a 'free' booklet about the disease they already know about-they end up talking to attorney Erik Karst the founding partner of the law firm of Karst von Oiste-KVO. Erik Karst is one of the nation's most skilled and experienced mesothelioma attorneys and he and his colleagues are responsible for over a billion dollars in financial compensation for people with this rare asbestos exposure cancer.

"Attorney Erik Karst of the law firm of Karst von Oiste-KVO will travel anywhere in California for no obligation meeting with a person with mesothelioma to explain the compensation process and to assess the potential financial settlement. Having a very skilled and honest fulltime mesothelioma attorney in the home of a person with mesothelioma to answer specific questions is much better than a lawyer sponsored 'free' publication about mesothelioma. For direct access to attorney Erik Karst of Karst von Oiste-KVO please call 800-714-0303 anytime." http://www.karstvonoiste.com/

Rather than offering a 'free' booklet, or overnight package the Mesothelioma Victims Center offers a free vital service they call the 'list' for a Navy Veteran or person with mesothelioma in California and nationwide:

* 'We will assist a Navy Veteran or person with mesothelioma document how, where and when they were exposed to asbestos. We call this service the 'list' and it is this information that becomes the basis for a mesothelioma compensation claim as we would like to discuss at 800-714-0303.' https://California.MesotheliomaVictimsCenter.Com

Coronavirus/COVID-19 update for people with confirmed mesothelioma from the Mesothelioma Victims Center: "We are extremely concerned that a Navy Veteran or person with mesothelioma will not begin the mesothelioma compensation process because of the Coronavirus/COVID-19 or they will reach out to a local car accident attorney who has little to no experience doing mesothelioma compensation claims. We have endorsed attorney Erik Karst the founding partner of the law firm of Karst von Oiste to ensure a Navy Veteran or person with mesothelioma receives the best possible compensation results nationwide. Erik Karst is one of the nation's leading mesothelioma attorneys and he will know exactly how to help you or your loved one. For direct access to attorney Erik Karst managing partner of the law firm of Karst von Oiste please call 800-714-0303." http://www.karstvonoiste.com/

For the best possible mesothelioma treatment options in California the California Mesothelioma Victims Center strongly recommends the following heath care facilities with the offer to help a diagnosed victim, or their family get to the right physicians at one of these three hospitals:

UCLA Medical Center Los Angeles, California: https://cancer.ucla.edu/ .

* Stanford Cancer Institute: http://cancer.stanford.edu/

University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California: http://cancer.ucsf.edu/ .

The California Mesothelioma Victims Center also wants to emphasize theirs is a statewide unsurpassed service that is available to any diagnosed victim in California including communities such as Los Angeles, San Diego, San Francisco, San Jose, Riverside, Fresno, Sacramento, Oceanside, Palm Springs, Riverside, or Eureka. https://California.MesotheliomaVictimsCenter.Com

High-risk work groups for exposure to asbestos In California include US Navy Veterans, power plant workers, shipyard workers, oil refinery workers, chemical plant workers, manufacturing workers, plumbers, electricians, auto mechanics, machinists, or construction workers. Typically, the exposure to asbestos occurred in the 1950's, 1960's, 1970's, or 1980's.

According to the CDC the states indicated with the highest incidence of mesothelioma include Maine, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Maryland, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia, Virginia, Michigan, Illinois, Minnesota, Louisiana, Washington, and Oregon. However, mesothelioma and asbestos exposure lung cancer happen to over a thousand people each year in California.

http://www.karstvonoiste.com/

For more information about mesothelioma please refer to the National Institutes of Health's web site related to this rare form of cancer: https://www.cancer.gov/types/mesothelioma .

For more information about asbestos exposure lung cancer and mesothelioma please visit the CDC's website on these topics: https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/asbestos/health_effects_ asbestos.html.

Michael ThomasCalifornia Mesothelioma Victims Center+1 800-714-0303email us here

MENAFN0204202000703196ID1099956280

EIN Presswire publishes and distributes press releases worldwide for small and mid-sized companies both public and private. Specializing in industry and business, topic categories range from agriculture and aviation to pharma and technology. The company was founded in 1995.

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California Mesothelioma Victims Center Now Urges A Person in California with Mesothelioma to Forgo the 'Free booklet and to Call for Direct Access to...

Prevention key to protecting those at high risk during pandemic – Orange Leader – Orange Leader

By Dawn Burleigh

The Orange Leader

With predictions of COVID-19 deaths reaching over 6,000 by August 4 in Texas, with the peak expected on May 6, 2020 with 155 deaths per day.

Those with lung and heart diseases, diabetes and overweight are the highest at risk to have complications with the virus.

Texas is already experiencing a shortage of ICU beds with 2,469 beads needed and 2,259 available throughout the state. Almost 2,000 invasive ventilators are needed.

Based upon available information to date, those at high-risk for severe illness from COVID-19 include:

People with chronic lung disease or moderate to severe asthma

People who have serious heart conditions

People who are immunocompromised including cancer treatment

People of any age with severe obesity (body mass index [BMI] >40) or certain underlying medical conditions, particularly if not well controlled, such as those with diabetes, renal failure, or liver disease might also be at risk

Many conditions can cause a person to be immunocompromised, including cancer treatment, smoking, bone marrow or organ transplantation, immune deficiencies, poorly controlled HIV or AIDS, and prolonged use of corticosteroids and other immune weakening medications.

Those already sick with a respiratory condition are a target for the virus, Mason Miranda, health writer for Mesothelioma.com said. They already have trouble breathing. This can lead to a lack of oxygen which is then a lack of oxygen to the brain leading to confusion.

For someone with dementia, this can increase the symptoms of their condition.

For those with mesothelioma, the virus can create more problems.

Mesothelioma is a rare, aggressive form of cancer that develops in the linings of the lungs, abdomen or heart. Exposure to asbestos is the only known cause of malignant mesothelioma. The average life expectancy of mesothelioma patients is 12 21 months after diagnosis. Symptoms can include chest pain, shortness of breath and general fatigue, according to http://www.mesothelioma.com

On a normal day, a person with mesothelioma, we suggest the always check the grocery store to see if it has or is going through renovations and if it was found to have asbestos, Miranda said. It takes a minute to Google, and if no renovations, Great I can go there. Now they must take more precautions.

A person with a compromised immunity already takes precautions to not get sick.

The flu can impact their health. The virus is a double whammy for them, Miranda said. Always wash your hands, wash your hands, wash your hands.

Besides sanitizing ones home and washing ones clothes frequently, Miranda also suggested forgotten areas.

While avoiding crowds, also avoid travel, Miranda said. When sanitizing, dont forget your car such as the steering wheel, emergency brake and shifter.

While those in the medical field are wearing a face mask to help prevent being exposed to COVID-19, for the general public without respiratory illness, wearing lightweight disposable surgical masks is not recommended. Because they dont fit tightly, they may allow tiny infected droplets to get into the nose, mouth or eyes. Also, people with the virus on their hands who touch their face under a mask might become infected.People with a respiratory illness can wear these masks to lessen their chance of infecting others. Bear in mind that stocking up on masks makes fewer available for sick patients and health care workers who need them, according to Expectational Emergency Center.

Health care professionals are wearing professional, tight-fitting respirators, such as the N95.

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Prevention key to protecting those at high risk during pandemic - Orange Leader - Orange Leader

Arizona Mesothelioma Victims Center Has Endorsed Attorney Erik Karst of Karst von Oiste To Ensure a Navy Veteran or Person with Mesothelioma Receives…

(MENAFN - EIN Presswire) "The Arizona Mesothelioma Victims Center has endorsed attorney Erik Karst of the law firm of Karst von Oiste to ensure a Navy Veteran with mesothelioma in Arizona receives the very best compensation. Arizona Mesothelioma Victims Center

PHOENIX , ARIZONA , USA, April 1, 2020 / EINPresswire.com / -- The Arizona Mesothelioma Victims Center has endorsed attorney Erik Karst of the law firm of Karst von Oiste to ensure a Navy Veteran or person with mesothelioma anywhere in Arizona receives the very best possible financial compensation results as they would be happy to discuss at 800-714-0303. Attorney Erik Karst will typically stop whatever he is doing to discuss financial compensation with a Navy Veteran or person who has just been diagnosed with this rare form of cancer. What makes Arizona unique for people with mesothelioma is most with this rare cancer had their asbestos exposure outside of Arizona.

The group has endorsed attorney Erik Karst of Karst von Oiste for a Navy Veteran or person with mesothelioma in Arizona because he and his colleagues have been assisting Navy Veterans with mesothelioma for decades and they are responsible for over a billion dollars in financial compensation for people like this. Additionally, Erik Karst or his colleagues make no-obligation house calls in Arizona to make sure the Veteran or person with this cancer understands the compensation process and they get an idea of what their compensation settlement might be. For direct access to attorney Erik Karst of Karst von Oiste please call 800-714-0303 anytime. http://www.karstvonoiste.com/

Rather than offering a 'free' booklet, or overnight package the Mesothelioma Victims Center offers a free vital service they call the 'list' for a Navy Veteran or person with mesothelioma in Arizona and nationwide:

* 'We will assist a Navy Veteran with mesothelioma document how, where and when they were exposed to asbestos. We call this service the 'list' and it is this information that becomes the basis for a mesothelioma compensation claim as we would like to discuss at 800-714-0303.' https://Arizona.MesotheliomaVictimsCenter.Com

Coronavirus/COVID-19 update for people with confirmed mesothelioma from the Mesothelioma Victims Center: "We are extremely concerned that a Navy Veteran or person with mesothelioma will not begin the mesothelioma compensation process because of the Coronavirus/COVID-19 or they will reach out to a local car accident attorney who has little to no experience doing mesothelioma compensation claims. We have endorsed attorney Erik Karst the founding partner of the law firm of Karst von Oiste to ensure a Navy Veteran or person with mesothelioma receives the best possible compensation results nationwide. Erik Karst is one of the nation's leading mesothelioma attorneys and he will know exactly how to help you or your loved one. For direct access to attorney Erik Karst managing partner of the law firm of Karst von Oiste please call 800-714-0303." http://www.karstvonoiste.com/

For the best possible mesothelioma treatment options in Arizona the Arizona Mesothelioma Victims Center strongly recommends the following heath care facilities with the offer to help a diagnosed victim, or their family get to the right physicians at each hospital.

* The Mayo Clinic Phoenix/Scottsdale, Arizona: https://www.mayoclinic.org/departments-centers/mayo-clinic-cancer-center

* The University of Arizona Medical Center Tucson, Arizona: https://cancercenter.arizona.edu/

The Arizona Mesothelioma Victims Center would like to emphasize theirs is a statewide initiative available to a diagnosed victim anywhere in Arizona including communities such as Phoenix, Tucson, Mesa, Chandler, Glendale, Gilbert, Tempe. Peoria, or Prescott. http://www.karstvonoiste.com/

High-risk work groups for exposure to asbestos in Arizona include US Navy Veterans, power plant workers, manufacturing workers, plumbers, nuclear power plant workers, electricians, auto mechanics, machinists, or construction workers. Typically, these high-risk workers were exposed to asbestos in the 1950's, 1960's, 1970's, or 1980's. http://www.karstvonoiste.com/

The states indicated with the highest incidence of mesothelioma include Maine, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Maryland, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia, Virginia, Michigan, Illinois, Minnesota, Louisiana, Washington, and Oregon. Mesothelioma and asbestos exposure lung cancer does happen in Arizona as the group would like to explain anytime at 800-714-0303. https://Arizona.MesotheliomaVictimsCenter.com

For more information about mesothelioma please refer to the National Institutes of Health's web site related to this rare form of cancer: https://www.cancer.gov/types/mesothelioma

Michael ThomasArizona Mesothelioma Victims Center+1 800-714-0303email us here

MENAFN0104202000703196ID1099949434

EIN Presswire publishes and distributes press releases worldwide for small and mid-sized companies both public and private. Specializing in industry and business, topic categories range from agriculture and aviation to pharma and technology. The company was founded in 1995.

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Arizona Mesothelioma Victims Center Has Endorsed Attorney Erik Karst of Karst von Oiste To Ensure a Navy Veteran or Person with Mesothelioma Receives...


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