Satoshi Nakamoto Institute

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Economics of Bitcoin as a Settlement NetworkFrom the settlement layer view, the growing adoption of Bitcoin is increasing its liquidity internationally, allowing it to compete with global reserve currencies for increasingly more valuable transactions, causing transaction fees to rise.

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The Crypto-Mises Podcast offers commentary on Bitcoin, economics, cryptography, and current events.

See episodes

You can help us achieve our goals by donating today. Bitcoins only.

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See original here:

Satoshi Nakamoto Institute

Satoshi Nakamoto: 9 Interesting Facts You Need To Know

Like the dramatic quest ofHollywood movieFinding Nemo,this quest of finding Satoshi Nakamoto the inventor of Bitcoin has also been dramatic.

Its fascinating to see how Bitcoin has become a multi-billion dollar thing, yet the Father of Bitcoin is still missing.

Satoshi Nakamoto made the Bitcoin software in 2008 and made it open source in January 2009.

And in 2010, Satoshi disappeared.

No one even knows what pronoun to use(he, she, or they)while referring to Satoshi Nakamoto because it is still not clear whether he/she is a person or a group of people.

Whomever Satoshi Nakamoto might be, there are some interesting facts about the entity that gave birth to this multi-billion dollar industry of cryptocurrencies.

Here are 9 interesting facts

1. Why is Satoshi Nakamoto Famous?

The name Satoshi Nakamoto is the pseudonym of the inventor of Bitcoin. In 2008, someone used this name and mailed the Bitcoin white paper to a cryptographic mailing list.

This mailing list contained renowned people who believedin decentralization and cryptography.

Thats why this name is so famous.

As is apparent from the name, its assumed that he was a Japanese man, but his flawless use of English in the white paper raises doubts about this conclusion.

Satoshis Mail

2. Satoshis Net Worth

It is believed that Satoshi Nakamoto owns 1 million bitcoins(or more) which makes his present net worth at the time of writing this article to be $2.6 billion.

In 2009 January, Satoshi mined the Genesis block, andin 2010, he officially stopped communicating. Between this period, the bitcoins came into existence exist on the blockchain ledger, but they have not been used or spent. Thisproves how much Satoshi owns.

1 million BTC is a huge number which, if dumped suddenly, could wreak havoc on the crypto market. Thats why Bitcoin has also earned the title of being a Ponzi scheme-because the speculative founder owns a significant share.

3. Satoshis T-Shirts

The anonymity of Bitcoins founder has led to a mushrooming of a totally new merchandising concept. Now you can buy T-Shirts with Satoshi Nakamoto things printed on it.

Things like:

You can buy one for yourself from e-commerce sites likeZazzleandTeespring.

4. Satoshi Nakamoto is Possibly A Group Of Companies

Some even suggest that Samsung, Toshiba, Nakamichi, and Motorola together created Bitcoin, as you can tell from their names:

Satoshi Nakamoto

However, there is no official proof for such conclusion.

5. Satoshi Nakamoto is PossiblyNick Szabo

Nick Szabo, a US computer scientist, and cryptographer is considered by some to be the founder of Bitcoin. Nick coined the concept of digital currency for the digital age by creating Bit Gold. Bit Gold was the ancestor of Bitcoin. However, it was not used by the masses because of limitations.

After analysis of Satoshis white paper, a blogger concluded that Nick Szabo was Satoshi Nakamoto. but Nick has never accepted this hypothesis.

6. Satoshi Nakamoto is PossiblyCraig Steven Wright

Craig Wright, an Australian Entrepreneur, claimed to the BBC on 2nd May 2016 to be the inventor of Bitcoin. However, when examined by core Bitcoin developers like Peter Todd, Craig was unable to provide any acceptable supporting evidence for such a claim.

Though initially, he said he would come back with relevant evidence, he failed to do so, and said on his blog that he was sorry and didnt have the courage to continue.

7. Satoshi Nakamoto is PossiblyDorian Nakamoto

In March 2014, another speculation came on the identity of Satoshi. A news source claimed that they had found Satoshi, and he lived inCalifornia, USA.

His full name, as reported, was Dorian Prentice Satoshi Nakamoto. He was aphysicist and a systems engineer who had recently been laid off by the government.

Later on, the person identified denied all such claims and said he is not the Nakamoto which everyone has been searching for.

8.Satoshi Nakamoto is PossiblyHal Finney

Hal was a cryptographer even before his involvement with Bitcoin. He was on the mailing list that received Satoshi Nakamotos Bitcoin white paper.

Hal claimed that he had been communicating with Satoshi to support his testing, which led to the speculative conclusion that he himself was Satoshi.

Hals writing style also closely resembles that of Satoshis in the Bitcoin white paper. The suspicion evaporated when he showed his email conversation with Satoshi, but that could just be a diversion tactic.

Fun fact:Hal was the first person to receive a Bitcoin transaction from Satoshi on January 12, 2009, after Satoshi mined the genesis block on3rd January 2009 at 18:15:05 GMT.

9. Fast Company Found Satoshi Nakamoto

An employee of Fast Company, a media brand, said thatNeal King, Vladimir Oksman, and Charles Bry were the group of people that created Bitcoin. This employee proved it by searching unique phrases in Satoshis white paper.

They even patented the phrase which appears on the Bitcoin white paper computationally impractical to reverse.

However, all of them have publically denied such allegations.

Whatever anyone may say or think, the anonymity factor of Satoshi Nakamoto has proven to be healthy for Bitcoin.

But theres still a big mystery here:

Where is Satoshi, what is Satoshi doing, and why is Satoshi hiding?

No one knows the truth.

I would like to end this article by quoting two very early adopters of Bitcoin, Erik Voorhees andRoger Ver(two people who are definitely worth following on Twitter).

Bitcoin is the most important invention in the history of the world since the internet.

Roger Ver, Bitcoin Jesus

Can we take a moment to reflect on the fact that the Bitcoin protocol STILL hasn’t been hacked? One of the greatest comp sci accomplishments

Erik Voorhees (@ErikVoorhees) May 13, 2015

This shows how important Bitcoin, blockchain technology, and of course, Satoshi Nakamoto all are!

And yes, Bitcoin has become more important than a single individual, but we would all love to solve this mystery once and for all.

If you know any more interesting facts that I have missed in this article, thendo let me know in the comments below!!!

And if you liked this post, dont forget to share it!

Here are hand-picked articles to read next:

Read more:

Satoshi Nakamoto: 9 Interesting Facts You Need To Know

Satoshi Nakamoto Institute

>Satoshi Nakamoto wrote:>> I’ve been working on a new electronic cash system that’s fully>> peer-to-peer, with no trusted third party.>> >> The paper is available at:>> http://www.bitcoin.org/bitcoin.pdf>>We very, very much need such a system, but the way I understand your >proposal, it does not seem to scale to the required size.>>For transferable proof of work tokens to have value, they must have >monetary value. To have monetary value, they must be transferred within >a very large network – for example a file trading network akin to >bittorrent.>>To detect and reject a double spending event in a timely manner, one >must have most past transactions of the coins in the transaction, which, > naively implemented, requires each peer to have most past >transactions, or most past transactions that occurred recently. If >hundreds of millions of people are doing transactions, that is a lot of >bandwidth – each must know all, or a substantial part thereof.>

Long before the network gets anywhere near as large as that, it would be safe for users to use Simplified Payment Verification (section 8) to check for double spending, which only requires having the chain of block headers, or about 12KB per day. Only people trying to create new coins would need to run network nodes. At first, most users would run network nodes, but as the network grows beyond a certain point, it would be left more and more to specialists with server farms of specialized hardware. A server farm would only need to have one node on the network and the rest of the LAN connects with that one node.

The bandwidth might not be as prohibitive as you think. A typical transaction would be about 400 bytes (ECC is nicely compact). Each transaction has to be broadcast twice, so lets say 1KB per transaction. Visa processed 37 billion transactions in FY2008, or an average of 100 million transactions per day. That many transactions would take 100GB of bandwidth, or the size of 12 DVD or 2 HD quality movies, or about $18 worth of bandwidth at current prices.

If the network were to get that big, it would take several years, and by then, sending 2 HD movies over the Internet would probably not seem like a big deal.

Satoshi Nakamoto

———————————————————————The Cryptography Mailing ListUnsubscribe by sending “unsubscribe cryptography” to [EMAIL PROTECTED]

Read the original here:

Satoshi Nakamoto Institute

Satoshi Nakamoto Institute

Mempool

Economics of Bitcoin as a Settlement NetworkFrom the settlement layer view, the growing adoption of Bitcoin is increasing its liquidity internationally, allowing it to compete with global reserve currencies for increasingly more valuable transactions, causing transaction fees to rise.

Read more

The Crypto-Mises Podcast offers commentary on Bitcoin, economics, cryptography, and current events.

See episodes

You can help us achieve our goals by donating today. Bitcoins only.

Donate

Link:

Satoshi Nakamoto Institute

Satoshi Nakamoto: 9 Interesting Facts You Need To Know

Like the dramatic quest ofHollywood movieFinding Nemo,this quest of finding Satoshi Nakamoto the inventor of Bitcoin has also been dramatic.

Its fascinating to see how Bitcoin has become a multi-billion dollar thing, yet the Father of Bitcoin is still missing.

Satoshi Nakamoto made the Bitcoin software in 2008 and made it open source in January 2009.

And in 2010, Satoshi disappeared.

No one even knows what pronoun to use(he, she, or they)while referring to Satoshi Nakamoto because it is still not clear whether he/she is a person or a group of people.

Whomever Satoshi Nakamoto might be, there are some interesting facts about the entity that gave birth to this multi-billion dollar industry of cryptocurrencies.

Here are 9 interesting facts

1. Why is Satoshi Nakamoto Famous?

The name Satoshi Nakamoto is the pseudonym of the inventor of Bitcoin. In 2008, someone used this name and mailed the Bitcoin white paper to a cryptographic mailing list.

This mailing list contained renowned people who believedin decentralization and cryptography.

Thats why this name is so famous.

As is apparent from the name, its assumed that he was a Japanese man, but his flawless use of English in the white paper raises doubts about this conclusion.

Satoshis Mail

2. Satoshis Net Worth

It is believed that Satoshi Nakamoto owns 1 million bitcoins(or more) which makes his present net worth at the time of writing this article to be $2.6 billion.

In 2009 January, Satoshi mined the Genesis block, andin 2010, he officially stopped communicating. Between this period, the bitcoins came into existence exist on the blockchain ledger, but they have not been used or spent. Thisproves how much Satoshi owns.

1 million BTC is a huge number which, if dumped suddenly, could wreak havoc on the crypto market. Thats why Bitcoin has also earned the title of being a Ponzi scheme-because the speculative founder owns a significant share.

3. Satoshis T-Shirts

The anonymity of Bitcoins founder has led to a mushrooming of a totally new merchandising concept. Now you can buy T-Shirts with Satoshi Nakamoto things printed on it.

Things like:

You can buy one for yourself from e-commerce sites likeZazzleandTeespring.

4. Satoshi Nakamoto is Possibly A Group Of Companies

Some even suggest that Samsung, Toshiba, Nakamichi, and Motorola together created Bitcoin, as you can tell from their names:

Satoshi Nakamoto

However, there is no official proof for such conclusion.

5. Satoshi Nakamoto is PossiblyNick Szabo

Nick Szabo, a US computer scientist, and cryptographer is considered by some to be the founder of Bitcoin. Nick coined the concept of digital currency for the digital age by creating Bit Gold. Bit Gold was the ancestor of Bitcoin. However, it was not used by the masses because of limitations.

After analysis of Satoshis white paper, a blogger concluded that Nick Szabo was Satoshi Nakamoto. but Nick has never accepted this hypothesis.

6. Satoshi Nakamoto is PossiblyCraig Steven Wright

Craig Wright, an Australian Entrepreneur, claimed to the BBC on 2nd May 2016 to be the inventor of Bitcoin. However, when examined by core Bitcoin developers like Peter Todd, Craig was unable to provide any acceptable supporting evidence for such a claim.

Though initially, he said he would come back with relevant evidence, he failed to do so, and said on his blog that he was sorry and didnt have the courage to continue.

7. Satoshi Nakamoto is PossiblyDorian Nakamoto

In March 2014, another speculation came on the identity of Satoshi. A news source claimed that they had found Satoshi, and he lived inCalifornia, USA.

His full name, as reported, was Dorian Prentice Satoshi Nakamoto. He was aphysicist and a systems engineer who had recently been laid off by the government.

Later on, the person identified denied all such claims and said he is not the Nakamoto which everyone has been searching for.

8.Satoshi Nakamoto is PossiblyHal Finney

Hal was a cryptographer even before his involvement with Bitcoin. He was on the mailing list that received Satoshi Nakamotos Bitcoin white paper.

Hal claimed that he had been communicating with Satoshi to support his testing, which led to the speculative conclusion that he himself was Satoshi.

Hals writing style also closely resembles that of Satoshis in the Bitcoin white paper. The suspicion evaporated when he showed his email conversation with Satoshi, but that could just be a diversion tactic.

Fun fact:Hal was the first person to receive a Bitcoin transaction from Satoshi on January 12, 2009, after Satoshi mined the genesis block on3rd January 2009 at 18:15:05 GMT.

9. Fast Company Found Satoshi Nakamoto

An employee of Fast Company, a media brand, said thatNeal King, Vladimir Oksman, and Charles Bry were the group of people that created Bitcoin. This employee proved it by searching unique phrases in Satoshis white paper.

They even patented the phrase which appears on the Bitcoin white paper computationally impractical to reverse.

However, all of them have publically denied such allegations.

Whatever anyone may say or think, the anonymity factor of Satoshi Nakamoto has proven to be healthy for Bitcoin.

But theres still a big mystery here:

Where is Satoshi, what is Satoshi doing, and why is Satoshi hiding?

No one knows the truth.

I would like to end this article by quoting two very early adopters of Bitcoin, Erik Voorhees andRoger Ver(two people who are definitely worth following on Twitter).

Bitcoin is the most important invention in the history of the world since the internet.

Roger Ver, Bitcoin Jesus

Can we take a moment to reflect on the fact that the Bitcoin protocol STILL hasn’t been hacked? One of the greatest comp sci accomplishments

Erik Voorhees (@ErikVoorhees) May 13, 2015

This shows how important Bitcoin, blockchain technology, and of course, Satoshi Nakamoto all are!

And yes, Bitcoin has become more important than a single individual, but we would all love to solve this mystery once and for all.

If you know any more interesting facts that I have missed in this article, thendo let me know in the comments below!!!

And if you liked this post, dont forget to share it!

Here are hand-picked articles to read next:

Read more here:

Satoshi Nakamoto: 9 Interesting Facts You Need To Know

Satoshi Nakamoto Institute

>Satoshi Nakamoto wrote:>> I’ve been working on a new electronic cash system that’s fully>> peer-to-peer, with no trusted third party.>> >> The paper is available at:>> http://www.bitcoin.org/bitcoin.pdf>>We very, very much need such a system, but the way I understand your >proposal, it does not seem to scale to the required size.>>For transferable proof of work tokens to have value, they must have >monetary value. To have monetary value, they must be transferred within >a very large network – for example a file trading network akin to >bittorrent.>>To detect and reject a double spending event in a timely manner, one >must have most past transactions of the coins in the transaction, which, > naively implemented, requires each peer to have most past >transactions, or most past transactions that occurred recently. If >hundreds of millions of people are doing transactions, that is a lot of >bandwidth – each must know all, or a substantial part thereof.>

Long before the network gets anywhere near as large as that, it would be safe for users to use Simplified Payment Verification (section 8) to check for double spending, which only requires having the chain of block headers, or about 12KB per day. Only people trying to create new coins would need to run network nodes. At first, most users would run network nodes, but as the network grows beyond a certain point, it would be left more and more to specialists with server farms of specialized hardware. A server farm would only need to have one node on the network and the rest of the LAN connects with that one node.

The bandwidth might not be as prohibitive as you think. A typical transaction would be about 400 bytes (ECC is nicely compact). Each transaction has to be broadcast twice, so lets say 1KB per transaction. Visa processed 37 billion transactions in FY2008, or an average of 100 million transactions per day. That many transactions would take 100GB of bandwidth, or the size of 12 DVD or 2 HD quality movies, or about $18 worth of bandwidth at current prices.

If the network were to get that big, it would take several years, and by then, sending 2 HD movies over the Internet would probably not seem like a big deal.

Satoshi Nakamoto

———————————————————————The Cryptography Mailing ListUnsubscribe by sending “unsubscribe cryptography” to [EMAIL PROTECTED]

Link:

Satoshi Nakamoto Institute

Satoshi Nakamoto – Wikipedia

Nakamoto has not disclosed any personal information when discussing technical matters.[4] He provided some commentary on banking and fractional-reserve banking. On his P2P Foundation profile as of 2012, Nakamoto claimed to be a 37-year-old male who lived in Japan,[25] but some speculated he was unlikely to be Japanese due to his use of perfect English and his bitcoin software not being documented or labelled in Japanese.[4]

Occasional British English spelling and terminology (such as the phrase “bloody hard”) in both source code comments and forum postings led to speculation that Nakamoto, or at least one individual in the consortium claiming to be him, was of Commonwealth origin.[4][6][26] Moreover, the first bitcoin block that could only be mined by Satoshi contains the encoded text The Times 03/Jan/2009 Chancellor on brink of second bailout for banks which implies that he was reading the London’s The Times newspaper at the time of the inception of bitcoin.[16][27]:18

Stefan Thomas, a Swiss coder and active community member, graphed the time stamps for each of Nakamoto’s bitcoin forum posts (more than 500); the resulting chart showed a steep decline to almost no posts between the hours of 5 a.m. and 11 a.m. Greenwich Mean Time. This was between 2 p.m. and 8 p.m. Japanese time, suggesting an unusual sleep pattern for someone presumably living in Japan. As this pattern held true even on Saturdays and Sundays, it suggested that Nakamoto was asleep at this time.[4]

Nakamoto’s initial email to Dai is dated 22 August 2008; the metadata for this PDF (pdftk bitcoin.pdf dump_data) yields as the CreationDate the value 20081003134958-07’00’ this implies 3 October 2008 or a bit over a month later, which is consistent with the local date mentioned in the Cypherpunk mailing list email. This is an earlier draft than the final draft on bitcoin.org, which is dated 20090324113315-06’00’ or 24 March 2009; the timezone differs: 7 vs 6.[28]

Gavin Andresen has said of Nakamoto’s code: “He was a brilliant coder, but it was quirky”.[29]

There is still doubt about the real identity of Satoshi Nakamoto.[30]

In December 2013, a blogger named Skye Grey linked Nick Szabo to the bitcoin whitepaper using a stylometric analysis.[31][32][33] Szabo is a decentralized currency enthusiast and published a paper on “bit gold”, which is considered a precursor to bitcoin.[32][33] He is known to have been interested in using pseudonyms in the 1990s.[34] In a May 2011 article, Szabo stated about the bitcoin creator: “Myself, Wei Dai, and Hal Finney were the only people I know of who liked the idea (or in Dai’s case his related idea) enough to pursue it to any significant extent until Nakamoto (assuming Nakamoto is not really Finney or Dai).”[35]

Detailed research by financial author Dominic Frisby provides much circumstantial evidence but, as he admits, no proof that Satoshi is Szabo.[36] Speaking on RT’s The Keiser Report, he said “I’ve concluded there is only one person in the whole world that has the sheer breadth but also the specificity of knowledge and it is this chap…”.[37] However, Szabo has denied being Satoshi. In a July 2014 email to Frisby, he said: ‘Thanks for letting me know. I’m afraid you got it wrong doxing me as Satoshi, but I’m used to it’.[38] Nathaniel Popper wrote in the New York Times that “the most convincing evidence pointed to a reclusive American man of Hungarian descent named Nick Szabo.”[39]

In a high-profile 6 March 2014 article in the magazine Newsweek,[40] journalist Leah McGrath Goodman identified Dorian Prentice Satoshi Nakamoto, a Japanese American man living in California, whose birth name is Satoshi Nakamoto,[40][41][42] as the Nakamoto in question. Besides his name, Goodman pointed to a number of facts that circumstantially suggested he was the bitcoin inventor.[40] Trained as a physicist at Cal Poly University in Pomona, Nakamoto worked as a systems engineer on classified defense projects and computer engineer for technology and financial information services companies. Nakamoto was laid off twice in the early 1990s and turned libertarian, according to his daughter, and encouraged her to start her own business “not under the government’s thumb.” In the article’s seemingly biggest piece of evidence, Goodman wrote that when she asked him about bitcoin during a brief in-person interview, Nakamoto seemed to confirm his identity as the bitcoin founder by stating: “I am no longer involved in that and I cannot discuss it. It’s been turned over to other people. They are in charge of it now. I no longer have any connection.”[40][43] The article’s publication led to a flurry of media interest, including reporters camping out near Dorian Nakamoto’s house and subtly chasing him by car when he drove to do an interview.[44] However, during the subsequent full-length interview, Dorian Nakamoto denied all connection to bitcoin, saying he had never heard of the currency before, and that he had misinterpreted Goodman’s question as being about his previous work for military contractors, much of which was classified.[45] In a Reddit “ask-me-anything” interview, he claimed he had misinterpreted Goodman’s question as being related to his work for Citibank.[46] Later that day, the pseudonymous Nakamoto’s P2P Foundation account posted its first message in five years, stating: “I am not Dorian Nakamoto.”[47][48] However, it is generally believed that Nakamoto’s P2P Foundation account had been hacked, and the message was not sent by him.[49][50][51]

Hal Finney (4 May 1956 28 August 2014) was a pre-bitcoin cryptographic pioneer and the first person (other than Nakamoto himself) to use the software, file bug reports, and make improvements.[52] He also lived a few blocks from Dorian Nakamoto’s family home, according to Forbes journalist Andy Greenberg.[53] Greenberg asked the writing analysis consultancy Juola & Associates to compare a sample of Finney’s writing to Satoshi Nakamoto’s, and they found that it was the closest resemblance they had yet come across (including the candidates suggested by Newsweek, Fast Company, The New Yorker, Ted Nelson and Skye Grey).[53] Greenberg theorized that Finney may have been a ghostwriter on behalf of Nakamoto, or that he simply used his neighbor Dorian’s identity as a “drop” or “patsy whose personal information is used to hide online exploits”. However, after meeting Finney, seeing the emails between him and Nakamoto and his bitcoin wallet’s history (including the very first bitcoin transaction from Nakamoto to him, which he forgot to pay back) and hearing his denial, Greenberg concluded that Finney was telling the truth. Juola & Associates also found that Nakamoto’s emails to Finney more closely resemble Nakamoto’s other writings than Finney’s do. Finney’s fellow extropian and sometimes co-blogger Robin Hanson assigned a subjective probability of “at least” 15% that “Hal was more involved than hes said”, before further evidence suggested that was not the case.[54]

On 8 December 2015, Wired wrote that Craig Steven Wright, an Australian academic, “either invented bitcoin or is a brilliant hoaxer who very badly wants us to believe he did”.[55] Craig Wright took down his Twitter account and neither he nor his ex-wife responded to press inquiries. The same day, Gizmodo published a story with evidence obtained by a hacker who supposedly broke into Wright’s email accounts, claiming that Satoshi Nakamoto was a joint pseudonym for Craig Steven Wright and computer forensics analyst David Kleiman, who died in 2013.[56] A number of prominent bitcoin promoters remained unconvinced by the reports.[57] Subsequent reports also raised the possibility that the evidence provided was an elaborate hoax,[58][59] which Wired acknowledged “cast doubt” on their suggestion that Wright was Nakamoto.[60]

On 9 December, only hours after Wired claimed Wright was Nakamoto, Wright’s home in Gordon, New South Wales was raided by at least ten police officers. His business premises in Ryde, New South Wales were also searched by police. The Australian Federal Police stated they conducted searches to assist the Australian Taxation Office and that “This matter is unrelated to recent media reporting regarding the digital currency bitcoin.”[61] According to a document released by Gizmodo alleged to be a transcript of a meeting between Wright and the ATO, he had been involved in a taxation dispute with them for several years.[56]

On 2 May 2016, Craig Wright posted on his blog publicly claiming to be Satoshi Nakamoto. In articles released on the same day, journalists from the BBC and The Economist stated that they saw Wright signing a message using the private key associated with the first bitcoin transaction.[62][63] During his BBC interview (which was also video recorded, aired and published by BBC News) Wright said:

Some people will believe, some people won’t, and to tell you the truth, I don’t really care…. I didn’t decide [to reveal my identity now]. People decided this matter for me. And they’re making life difficult not for me but my friends, my family, my staff…. They want to be private. They don’t want all of this to affect them. And I don’t want any of them to be impacted by this. None of it’s true. There are lots of stories out there that have been made up. And I don’t like it hurting those people I care about. So I am going to do this thing only once. And once only. I am going to come in front of a camera once. And I will never, ever, be on the camera ever again for any TV station, or any media, ever.

Wright’s claim was supported by Jon Matonis (former director of the Bitcoin Foundation) and bitcoin developer Gavin Andresen, both of whom met Wright and witnessed a similar signing demonstration.[64]

However, bitcoin developer Peter Todd said that Wright’s blog post, which appeared to contain cryptographic proof, actually contained nothing of the sort.[65] The Bitcoin Core project released a statement on Twitter saying “There is currently no publicly available cryptographic proof that anyone in particular is bitcoin’s creator.”[66][67] Bitcoin developer Jeff Garzik agreed that evidence publicly provided by Wright does not prove anything, and security researcher Dan Kaminsky concluded Wright’s claim was “intentional scammery”.[68][69]

On 4 May 2016, Wright made another post on his blog intimating his intentions to publish “a series of pieces that will lay the foundations for this extraordinary claim”.[70][71] But the following day, he deleted all his blog posts and replaced them with a notice entitled “I’m Sorry”, which read in part:

I believed that I could put the years of anonymity and hiding behind me. But, as the events of this week unfolded and I prepared to publish the proof of access to the earliest keys, I broke. I do not have the courage. I cannot.[72][73]

On Thursday 5 May 2016 shortly before closing his blog, Wright sent around an email link to a news story from an impostor site resembling SiliconAngle saying “Craig Wright faces criminal charges and serious jail time in UK”. Wright stated that “I am the source of terrorist funds as bitcoin creator or I am a fraud to the world. At least a fraud is able to see his family. There is nothing I can do.”[74].

In June 2016, the London Review of Books published an article by Andrew O’Hagan about the events, based on his book “The Secret Life: Three True Stories” in which O’Hagan spends several weeks with Wright at the request of Wright’s public relations team; which, as revealed in the book, was set up as a result of a business deal between Wright and various individuals including Calvin Ayre after bitcoin was created. All of those involved in the described business deal seemed to agree that they wanted a significant event in human history to be documented by a writer with complete impartiality and freedom to investigate. O’Hagan was with Wright during the time of his various media interviews. O’Hagan also interviews Wright’s wife, colleagues and many of the other people involved in his claims.[75][76][77] It also reveals that the Canadian company nTrust was behind Wright’s claim made in May 2016 (perhaps referencing nTrust as being the same entity which created the public relations team for Wright). Further, O’Hagan suggests that Wright provided an invalid private key because he was legally unable to provide the valid one as a result of legal obligations agreed as part of a Seychelles trust deal previously reached. O’Hagan’s book also corroborates the suggestion that both Wright and David Kleiman were the identies of the moniker “Satoshi Nakamoto”.

Following O’Hagan’s article, BBC journalist Rory Cellan-Jones (who interviewed Wright on camera for the BBC) wrote a follow up article citing O’Hagan’s account as the possible reasons for Wright’s apparent unwillingness to declare himself as Nakamoto:

To me, the key revelation is about this motivation.

He had told the BBC that he had not wanted to come out into the spotlight but needed to dispel damaging rumours affecting his family, friends and colleagues.

But O’Hagan shows us something rather different – a man under intense pressure from business associates who stood to profit from him if he could be shown to be Nakamoto.[78]

This is in reference to O’Hagan’s firsthand account, which describes business associates as being furious when they learned that Wright had provided invalid proof (despite showing them valid proof privately) and for his failure to disclose the details of the Seychelles Trust deal which meant that he could neither provide said proof publicly or yet gain access to the bitcoin attributed to Nakamoto. Cellan-Jones concludes his article by expressing doubts about Wright but admits “It seems very likely he was involved, perhaps as part of a team that included Dave Kleiman and Hal Finney, the recipient of the first transaction with the currency.”

The 2017 Netflix documentary titled Banking on Bitcoin concluded with an extract of Wright’s 2016 interview with the BBC.[79][80]

On February 14, 2018 a suit against Wright (said to be living in London) for more than US$10bn was lodged in a Florida court on behalf of David Kleiman’s estate, alleging that Wright has fraudulently appropriated Kleiman’s share of the bitcoins that he and Kleiman mined together.[81][82] The suit sets out much detail of the collaboration between Wright and Kleiman, but does not speculate on whether they or either of them created bitcoin.[83]

Ian Grigg, who is credited with inventing triple entry accounting[84] describes the events as follows[85]:

Firstly, Satoshi Nakamoto is not one human being. It is or was a team. Craig Wright named one person in his recent communications, being the late Dave Kleinman. Craig did not name others, nor should I. While he was the quintessential genius who had the original idea for Bitcoin and wrote the lion’s share of the code, Craig could not have done it alone. Satoshi Nakamoto was a team effort.

New Liberty Dollar issuer Joseph VaughnPerling says he met Wright at a conference in Amsterdam three years before publication of the bitcoin white paper and that Wright introduced himself as Satoshi Nakamoto at that time.[86][87]

In a 2011 article in The New Yorker, Joshua Davis claimed to have narrowed down the identity of Nakamoto to a number of possible individuals, including the Finnish economic sociologist Dr. Vili Lehdonvirta and Irish student Michael Clear,[88] then a graduate student in cryptography at Trinity College Dublin and now a post-doctoral student at Georgetown University.[89] Clear strongly denied he was Nakamoto,[90] as did Lehdonvirta.[91]

In October 2011, writing for Fast Company, investigative journalist Adam Penenberg cited circumstantial evidence suggesting Neal King, Vladimir Oksman and Charles Bry could be Nakamoto.[92] They jointly filed a patent application that contained the phrase “computationally impractical to reverse” in 2008, which was also used in the bitcoin white paper by Nakamoto.[93] The domain name bitcoin.org was registered three days after the patent was filed. All three men denied being Nakamoto when contacted by Penenberg.[92]

The late Dave Kleiman has been also named as a possible candidate, and Craig Wright claimed an association with him as well.[94]

In May 2013, Ted Nelson speculated that Nakamoto is really Japanese mathematician Shinichi Mochizuki.[95] Later, an article was published in The Age newspaper that claimed that Mochizuki denied these speculations, but without attributing a source for the denial.[96]

A 2013 article[97] in Vice listed Gavin Andresen, Jed McCaleb, or a government agency as possible candidates to be Nakamoto. Dustin D. Trammell, a Texas-based security researcher, was suggested as Nakamoto, but he publicly denied it.[98]

In 2013, two Israeli mathematicians, Dorit Ron and Adi Shamir, published a paper claiming a link between Nakamoto and Ross William Ulbricht. The two based their suspicion on an analysis of the network of bitcoin transactions,[99] but later retracted their claim.[100]

Some have considered that Nakamoto might be a team of people: Dan Kaminsky, a security researcher who read the bitcoin code,[101] said that Nakamoto could either be a “team of people” or a “genius”;[26] Laszlo Hanyecz, a former Bitcoin Core developer who had emailed Nakamoto, had the feeling the code was too well designed for one person.[4]

A 2017 article[102] published by a former SpaceX intern espoused the possibility of SpaceX and Tesla CEO Elon Musk being the real Satoshi, based on Musk’s technical expertise with financial software and history of publishing whitepapers. However, in a tweet on November 28th, Musk denied the claim.[103]

Original post:

Satoshi Nakamoto – Wikipedia

Satoshi Nakamoto – Bitcoin Wiki

For the unit, see satoshi (unit).

Satoshi Nakamoto is the founder of Bitcoin and initial creator of the Original Bitcoin client. He has said in a P2P foundation profile[1] that he is from Japan. Beyond that, not much else is known about him and his identity. He has been working on the Bitcoin project since 2007.[2]

His involvement in the Bitcoin project had tapered and by late 2010 it has ended. The most recent messages reportedly indicate that Satoshi is “gone for good”[3].

He left some clues about why he is doing this project with the inclusion of the following text in the Genesis block, “The Times 03/Jan/2009 Chancellor on brink of second bailout for banks”.

Some interesting quotes:

Yes, [we will not find a solution to political problems in cryptography,] but we can win a major battle in the arms race and gain a new territory offreedom for several years.

Governments are good at cutting off the heads of a centrally controllednetworks like Napster, but pure P2P networks like Gnutella and Tor seem to beholding their own.[4]

His identity and nationality are unknown.

He is entirely unknown outside of Bitcoin as far as anyone can tell, and his (never used) PGP key was created just months prior to the date of the genesis block. He seems to be very familiar with the cryptography mailing list, but there are no non-Bitcoin posts from him on it. He has used an email address from an anonymous mail hosting service (vistomail) as well as one from a free webmail account (gmx.com) and sends mail when connected via Tor. Some have speculated that his entire identity was created in advance in order to protect himself or the network. Perhaps he chose the name Satoshi because it can mean “wisdom” or “reason” and Nakamoto can mean “Central source”.

Ultimately the design of Bitcoin and its use of cryptographic proof and fully open implementation is one that makes its creator, in a sense, irrelevant and only of interest for historical reasons.

Read this article:

Satoshi Nakamoto – Bitcoin Wiki

Satoshi Nakamoto – Bitcoin Wiki

For the unit, see satoshi (unit).

Satoshi Nakamoto is the founder of Bitcoin and initial creator of the Original Bitcoin client. He has said in a P2P foundation profile[1] that he is from Japan. Beyond that, not much else is known about him and his identity. He has been working on the Bitcoin project since 2007.[2]

His involvement in the Bitcoin project had tapered and by late 2010 it has ended. The most recent messages reportedly indicate that Satoshi is “gone for good”[3].

He left some clues about why he is doing this project with the inclusion of the following text in the Genesis block, “The Times 03/Jan/2009 Chancellor on brink of second bailout for banks”.

Some interesting quotes:

Yes, [we will not find a solution to political problems in cryptography,] but we can win a major battle in the arms race and gain a new territory offreedom for several years.

Governments are good at cutting off the heads of a centrally controllednetworks like Napster, but pure P2P networks like Gnutella and Tor seem to beholding their own.[4]

His identity and nationality are unknown.

He is entirely unknown outside of Bitcoin as far as anyone can tell, and his (never used) PGP key was created just months prior to the date of the genesis block. He seems to be very familiar with the cryptography mailing list, but there are no non-Bitcoin posts from him on it. He has used an email address from an anonymous mail hosting service (vistomail) as well as one from a free webmail account (gmx.com) and sends mail when connected via Tor. Some have speculated that his entire identity was created in advance in order to protect himself or the network. Perhaps he chose the name Satoshi because it can mean “wisdom” or “reason” and Nakamoto can mean “Central source”.

Ultimately the design of Bitcoin and its use of cryptographic proof and fully open implementation is one that makes its creator, in a sense, irrelevant and only of interest for historical reasons.

Go here to see the original:

Satoshi Nakamoto – Bitcoin Wiki

Satoshi Nakamoto: 9 Interesting Facts You Need To Know

Like the dramatic quest ofHollywood movieFinding Nemo,this quest of finding Satoshi Nakamoto the inventor of Bitcoin has also been dramatic.

Its fascinating to see how Bitcoin has become a multi-billion dollar thing, yet the Father of Bitcoin is still missing.

Satoshi Nakamoto made the Bitcoin software in 2008 and made it open source in January 2009.

And in 2010, Satoshi disappeared.

No one even knows what pronoun to use(he, she, or they)while referring to Satoshi Nakamoto because it is still not clear whether he/she is a person or a group of people.

Whomever Satoshi Nakamoto might be, there are some interesting facts about the entity that gave birth to this multi-billion dollar industry of cryptocurrencies.

Here are 9 interesting facts

1. Why is Satoshi Nakamoto Famous?

The name Satoshi Nakamoto is the pseudonym of the inventor of Bitcoin. In 2008, someone used this name and mailed the Bitcoin white paper to a cryptographic mailing list.

This mailing list contained renowned people who believedin decentralization and cryptography.

Thats why this name is so famous.

As is apparent from the name, its assumed that he was a Japanese man, but his flawless use of English in the white paper raises doubts about this conclusion.

Satoshis Mail

2. Satoshis Net Worth

It is believed that Satoshi Nakamoto owns 1 million bitcoins(or more) which makes his present net worth at the time of writing this article to be $2.6 billion.

In 2009 January, Satoshi mined the Genesis block, andin 2010, he officially stopped communicating. Between this period, the bitcoins came into existence exist on the blockchain ledger, but they have not been used or spent. Thisproves how much Satoshi owns.

1 million BTC is a huge number which, if dumped suddenly, could wreak havoc on the crypto market. Thats why Bitcoin has also earned the title of being a Ponzi scheme-because the speculative founder owns a significant share.

3. Satoshis T-Shirts

The anonymity of Bitcoins founder has led to a mushrooming of a totally new merchandising concept. Now you can buy T-Shirts with Satoshi Nakamoto things printed on it.

Things like:

You can buy one for yourself from e-commerce sites likeZazzleandTeespring.

4. Satoshi Nakamoto is Possibly A Group Of Companies

Some even suggest that Samsung, Toshiba, Nakamichi, and Motorola together created Bitcoin, as you can tell from their names:

Satoshi Nakamoto

However, there is no official proof for such conclusion.

5. Satoshi Nakamoto is PossiblyNick Szabo

Nick Szabo, a US computer scientist, and cryptographer is considered by some to be the founder of Bitcoin. Nick coined the concept of digital currency for the digital age by creating Bit Gold. Bit Gold was the ancestor of Bitcoin. However, it was not used by the masses because of limitations.

After analysis of Satoshis white paper, a blogger concluded that Nick Szabo was Satoshi Nakamoto. but Nick has never accepted this hypothesis.

6. Satoshi Nakamoto is PossiblyCraig Steven Wright

Craig Wright, an Australian Entrepreneur, claimed to the BBC on 2nd May 2016 to be the inventor of Bitcoin. However, when examined by core Bitcoin developers like Peter Todd, Craig was unable to provide any acceptable supporting evidence for such a claim.

Though initially, he said he would come back with relevant evidence, he failed to do so, and said on his blog that he was sorry and didnt have the courage to continue.

7. Satoshi Nakamoto is PossiblyDorian Nakamoto

In March 2014, another speculation came on the identity of Satoshi. A news source claimed that they had found Satoshi, and he lived inCalifornia, USA.

His full name, as reported, was Dorian Prentice Satoshi Nakamoto. He was aphysicist and a systems engineer who had recently been laid off by the government.

Later on, the person identified denied all such claims and said he is not the Nakamoto which everyone has been searching for.

8.Satoshi Nakamoto is PossiblyHal Finney

Hal was a cryptographer even before his involvement with Bitcoin. He was on the mailing list that received Satoshi Nakamotos Bitcoin white paper.

Hal claimed that he had been communicating with Satoshi to support his testing, which led to the speculative conclusion that he himself was Satoshi.

Hals writing style also closely resembles that of Satoshis in the Bitcoin white paper. The suspicion evaporated when he showed his email conversation with Satoshi, but that could just be a diversion tactic.

Fun fact:Hal was the first person to receive a Bitcoin transaction from Satoshi on January 12, 2009, after Satoshi mined the genesis block on3rd January 2009 at 18:15:05 GMT.

9. Fast Company Found Satoshi Nakamoto

An employee of Fast Company, a media brand, said thatNeal King, Vladimir Oksman, and Charles Bry were the group of people that created Bitcoin. This employee proved it by searching unique phrases in Satoshis white paper.

They even patented the phrase which appears on the Bitcoin white paper computationally impractical to reverse.

However, all of them have publically denied such allegations.

Whatever anyone may say or think, the anonymity factor of Satoshi Nakamoto has proven to be healthy for Bitcoin.

But theres still a big mystery here:

Where is Satoshi, what is Satoshi doing, and why is Satoshi hiding?

No one knows the truth.

I would like to end this article by quoting two very early adopters of Bitcoin, Erik Voorhees andRoger Ver(two people who are definitely worth following on Twitter).

Bitcoin is the most important invention in the history of the world since the internet.

Roger Ver, Bitcoin Jesus

Can we take a moment to reflect on the fact that the Bitcoin protocol STILL hasn’t been hacked? One of the greatest comp sci accomplishments

Erik Voorhees (@ErikVoorhees) May 13, 2015

This shows how important Bitcoin, blockchain technology, and of course, Satoshi Nakamoto all are!

And yes, Bitcoin has become more important than a single individual, but we would all love to solve this mystery once and for all.

If you know any more interesting facts that I have missed in this article, thendo let me know in the comments below!!!

And if you liked this post, dont forget to share it!

Here are hand-picked articles to read next:

See original here:

Satoshi Nakamoto: 9 Interesting Facts You Need To Know

Satoshi Nakamoto Institute

>Satoshi Nakamoto wrote:>> I’ve been working on a new electronic cash system that’s fully>> peer-to-peer, with no trusted third party.>> >> The paper is available at:>> http://www.bitcoin.org/bitcoin.pdf>>We very, very much need such a system, but the way I understand your >proposal, it does not seem to scale to the required size.>>For transferable proof of work tokens to have value, they must have >monetary value. To have monetary value, they must be transferred within >a very large network – for example a file trading network akin to >bittorrent.>>To detect and reject a double spending event in a timely manner, one >must have most past transactions of the coins in the transaction, which, > naively implemented, requires each peer to have most past >transactions, or most past transactions that occurred recently. If >hundreds of millions of people are doing transactions, that is a lot of >bandwidth – each must know all, or a substantial part thereof.>

Long before the network gets anywhere near as large as that, it would be safe for users to use Simplified Payment Verification (section 8) to check for double spending, which only requires having the chain of block headers, or about 12KB per day. Only people trying to create new coins would need to run network nodes. At first, most users would run network nodes, but as the network grows beyond a certain point, it would be left more and more to specialists with server farms of specialized hardware. A server farm would only need to have one node on the network and the rest of the LAN connects with that one node.

The bandwidth might not be as prohibitive as you think. A typical transaction would be about 400 bytes (ECC is nicely compact). Each transaction has to be broadcast twice, so lets say 1KB per transaction. Visa processed 37 billion transactions in FY2008, or an average of 100 million transactions per day. That many transactions would take 100GB of bandwidth, or the size of 12 DVD or 2 HD quality movies, or about $18 worth of bandwidth at current prices.

If the network were to get that big, it would take several years, and by then, sending 2 HD movies over the Internet would probably not seem like a big deal.

Satoshi Nakamoto

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Here is the original post:

Satoshi Nakamoto Institute

Satoshi Nakamoto Institute

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Continued here:

Satoshi Nakamoto Institute

Satoshi Nakamoto: 9 Interesting Facts You Need To Know

Like the dramatic quest ofHollywood movieFinding Nemo,this quest of finding Satoshi Nakamoto the inventor of Bitcoin has also been dramatic.

Its fascinating to see how Bitcoin has become a multi-billion dollar thing, yet the Father of Bitcoin is still missing.

Satoshi Nakamoto made the Bitcoin software in 2008 and made it open source in January 2009.

And in 2010, Satoshi disappeared.

No one even knows what pronoun to use(he, she, or they)while referring to Satoshi Nakamoto because it is still not clear whether he/she is a person or a group of people.

Whomever Satoshi Nakamoto might be, there are some interesting facts about the entity that gave birth to this multi-billion dollar industry of cryptocurrencies.

Here are 9 interesting facts

1. Why is Satoshi Nakamoto Famous?

The name Satoshi Nakamoto is the pseudonym of the inventor of Bitcoin. In 2008, someone used this name and mailed the Bitcoin white paper to a cryptographic mailing list.

This mailing list contained renowned people who believedin decentralization and cryptography.

Thats why this name is so famous.

As is apparent from the name, its assumed that he was a Japanese man, but his flawless use of English in the white paper raises doubts about this conclusion.

Satoshis Mail

2. Satoshis Net Worth

It is believed that Satoshi Nakamoto owns 1 million bitcoins(or more) which makes his present net worth at the time of writing this article to be $2.6 billion.

In 2009 January, Satoshi mined the Genesis block, andin 2010, he officially stopped communicating. Between this period, the bitcoins came into existence exist on the blockchain ledger, but they have not been used or spent. Thisproves how much Satoshi owns.

1 million BTC is a huge number which, if dumped suddenly, could wreak havoc on the crypto market. Thats why Bitcoin has also earned the title of being a Ponzi scheme-because the speculative founder owns a significant share.

3. Satoshis T-Shirts

The anonymity of Bitcoins founder has led to a mushrooming of a totally new merchandising concept. Now you can buy T-Shirts with Satoshi Nakamoto things printed on it.

Things like:

You can buy one for yourself from e-commerce sites likeZazzleandTeespring.

4. Satoshi Nakamoto is Possibly A Group Of Companies

Some even suggest that Samsung, Toshiba, Nakamichi, and Motorola together created Bitcoin, as you can tell from their names:

Satoshi Nakamoto

However, there is no official proof for such conclusion.

5. Satoshi Nakamoto is PossiblyNick Szabo

Nick Szabo, a US computer scientist, and cryptographer is considered by some to be the founder of Bitcoin. Nick coined the concept of digital currency for the digital age by creating Bit Gold. Bit Gold was the ancestor of Bitcoin. However, it was not used by the masses because of limitations.

After analysis of Satoshis white paper, a blogger concluded that Nick Szabo was Satoshi Nakamoto. but Nick has never accepted this hypothesis.

6. Satoshi Nakamoto is PossiblyCraig Steven Wright

Craig Wright, an Australian Entrepreneur, claimed to the BBC on 2nd May 2016 to be the inventor of Bitcoin. However, when examined by core Bitcoin developers like Peter Todd, Craig was unable to provide any acceptable supporting evidence for such a claim.

Though initially, he said he would come back with relevant evidence, he failed to do so, and said on his blog that he was sorry and didnt have the courage to continue.

7. Satoshi Nakamoto is PossiblyDorian Nakamoto

In March 2014, another speculation came on the identity of Satoshi. A news source claimed that they had found Satoshi, and he lived inCalifornia, USA.

His full name, as reported, was Dorian Prentice Satoshi Nakamoto. He was aphysicist and a systems engineer who had recently been laid off by the government.

Later on, the person identified denied all such claims and said he is not the Nakamoto which everyone has been searching for.

8.Satoshi Nakamoto is PossiblyHal Finney

Hal was a cryptographer even before his involvement with Bitcoin. He was on the mailing list that received Satoshi Nakamotos Bitcoin white paper.

Hal claimed that he had been communicating with Satoshi to support his testing, which led to the speculative conclusion that he himself was Satoshi.

Hals writing style also closely resembles that of Satoshis in the Bitcoin white paper. The suspicion evaporated when he showed his email conversation with Satoshi, but that could just be a diversion tactic.

Fun fact:Hal was the first person to receive a Bitcoin transaction from Satoshi on January 12, 2009, after Satoshi mined the genesis block on3rd January 2009 at 18:15:05 GMT.

9. Fast Company Found Satoshi Nakamoto

An employee of Fast Company, a media brand, said thatNeal King, Vladimir Oksman, and Charles Bry were the group of people that created Bitcoin. This employee proved it by searching unique phrases in Satoshis white paper.

They even patented the phrase which appears on the Bitcoin white paper computationally impractical to reverse.

However, all of them have publically denied such allegations.

Whatever anyone may say or think, the anonymity factor of Satoshi Nakamoto has proven to be healthy for Bitcoin.

But theres still a big mystery here:

Where is Satoshi, what is Satoshi doing, and why is Satoshi hiding?

No one knows the truth.

I would like to end this article by quoting two very early adopters of Bitcoin, Erik Voorhees andRoger Ver(two people who are definitely worth following on Twitter).

Bitcoin is the most important invention in the history of the world since the internet.

Roger Ver, Bitcoin Jesus

Can we take a moment to reflect on the fact that the Bitcoin protocol STILL hasn’t been hacked? One of the greatest comp sci accomplishments

Erik Voorhees (@ErikVoorhees) May 13, 2015

This shows how important Bitcoin, blockchain technology, and of course, Satoshi Nakamoto all are!

And yes, Bitcoin has become more important than a single individual, but we would all love to solve this mystery once and for all.

If you know any more interesting facts that I have missed in this article, thendo let me know in the comments below!!!

And if you liked this post, dont forget to share it!

Here are hand-picked articles to read next:

Read the original:

Satoshi Nakamoto: 9 Interesting Facts You Need To Know

Satoshi Nakamoto – Wikipedia

Satoshi Nakamoto is the name used by the unknown person or people who designed bitcoin and created its original reference implementation.[1] As part of the implementation, they also devised the first blockchain database.[2] In the process they were the first to solve the double-spending problem for digital currency. They were active in the development of bitcoin up until December 2010.

On a P2P Foundation profile, Nakamoto claimed to be a man living in Japan, born on 5 April 1975.[3] Speculation about the true identity of Nakamoto has mostly focused on a number of cryptography and computer science experts of non-Japanese descent, living in the United States and various European countries.[4] Satoshi Nakamoto also created the bitcointalk forum, posted the first message in 2009 under the pseudonym satoshi.[5]

In October 2008, Nakamoto published a paper[6][7] on the cryptography mailing list at metzdowd.com[8] describing the bitcoin digital currency. It was titled “Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System”. In January 2009, Nakamoto released the first bitcoin software that launched the network and the first units of the bitcoin cryptocurrency, called bitcoins.[9][10] Satoshi Nakamoto released the Version 0.1 of bitcoin software on Sourceforge on 9 January 2009.

Nakamoto claimed that work on the writing of the code began in 2007.[11] The inventor of Bitcoin knew that due to its nature, the core design would have to be able to support a broad range of transaction types. The implemented solution enabled specialized codes and data fields from the start through the use of a predicative script.[12]

Nakamoto created a website with the domain name bitcoin.org and continued to collaborate with other developers on the bitcoin software until mid-2010. Around this time, he handed over control of the source code repository and network alert key to Gavin Andresen,[13] transferred several related domains to various prominent members of the bitcoin community, and stopped his involvement in the project. Until shortly before his absence and handover, Nakamoto made all modifications to the source code himself.

The inventor left a text message in the first mined block which reads ‘The Times 3 January 2009 Chancellor on brink of second bailout for banks’. The text refers to a headline in The Times published on 3 January 2009. It is a strong indication that the first block was mined no earlier than this date.[14] The genesis block has a timestamp of 18:15:05 GMT on 3 January 2009. This block is unlike all other blocks in that it doesn’t have a previous block to reference.[14] This required the use of custom code to mine it. Timestamps for subsequent blocks indicate that Nakamoto did not try to mine all the early blocks solely for himself.[14]

As the sole, predominant early miner, the inventor was awarded bitcoin at genesis and for 10 days afterwards.[15] Except for test transactions these remain unspent since mid January 2009.[15] The public bitcoin transaction log shows that Nakamoto’s known addresses contain roughly one million bitcoins.[16] As of 17December2017[update], this is worth over 19 billion USD.[17][18] This makes him the 44th richest person on Earth.[19]

Nakamoto has not disclosed any personal information when discussing technical matters.[4] He provided some commentary on banking and fractional-reserve banking. On his P2P Foundation profile as of 2012, Nakamoto claimed to be a 37-year-old male who lived in Japan,[20] but some speculated he was unlikely to be Japanese due to his use of perfect English and his bitcoin software not being documented or labelled in Japanese.[4]

Occasional British English spelling and terminology (such as the phrase “bloody hard”) in both source code comments and forum postings led to speculation that Nakamoto, or at least one individual in the consortium claiming to be him, was of Commonwealth origin.[4][6][21] Moreover, the first bitcoin block that could only be mined by Satoshi contains the encoded text The Times 03/Jan/2009 Chancellor on brink of second bailout for banks which implies that he was reading the London’s The Times newspaper at the time of the inception of bitcoin.[22][23]:18

Stefan Thomas, a Swiss coder and active community member, graphed the time stamps for each of Nakamoto’s bitcoin forum posts (more than 500); the resulting chart showed a steep decline to almost no posts between the hours of 5 a.m. and 11 a.m. Greenwich Mean Time. (Between 2pm and 8pm Japanese time, an unusual sleep pattern for someone presumably living in Japan) As this pattern held true even on Saturdays and Sundays, it suggested that Nakamoto was asleep at this time.[4]

Nakamoto’s initial email to Dai is dated 22 August 2008; the metadata for this PDF (pdftk bitcoin.pdf dump_data) yields as the CreationDate the value 20081003134958-07’00’ this implies 3 October 2008 or a bit over a month later, which is consistent with the local date mentioned in the Cypherpunk mailing list email. This is an earlier draft than the final draft on bitcoin.org, which is dated 20090324113315-06’00’ or 24 March 2009; the timezone differs: 7 vs 6.[24]

Gavin Andresen has said of Nakamoto’s code: “He was a brilliant coder, but it was quirky”.[25]

There is still doubt about the real identity of Satoshi Nakamoto.[26]

In December 2013, a blogger named Skye Grey linked Nick Szabo to the bitcoin whitepaper using a stylometric analysis.[27][28][29] Szabo is a decentralized currency enthusiast and published a paper on “bit gold”, which is considered a precursor to bitcoin.[28][29] He is known to have been interested in using pseudonyms in the 1990s.[30] In a May 2011 article, Szabo stated about the bitcoin creator: “Myself, Wei Dai, and Hal Finney were the only people I know of who liked the idea (or in Dai’s case his related idea) enough to pursue it to any significant extent until Nakamoto (assuming Nakamoto is not really Finney or Dai).”[31]

Detailed research by financial author Dominic Frisby provides much circumstantial evidence but, as he admits, no proof that Satoshi is Szabo.[32] Speaking on RT’s The Keiser Report, he said “I’ve concluded there is only one person in the whole world that has the sheer breadth but also the specificity of knowledge and it is this chap…”.[33] However, Szabo has denied being Satoshi. In a July 2014 email to Frisby, he said: ‘Thanks for letting me know. I’m afraid you got it wrong doxing me as Satoshi, but I’m used to it’.[34] Nathaniel Popper wrote in the New York Times that “the most convincing evidence pointed to a reclusive American man of Hungarian descent named Nick Szabo.”[35]

In a high-profile 6 March 2014 article in the magazine Newsweek,[36] journalist Leah McGrath Goodman identified Dorian Prentice Satoshi Nakamoto, a Japanese American man living in California, whose birth name is Satoshi Nakamoto,[36][37][38] as the Nakamoto in question. Besides his name, Goodman pointed to a number of facts that circumstantially suggested he was the bitcoin inventor.[36] Trained as a physicist at Cal Poly University in Pomona, Nakamoto worked as a systems engineer on classified defense projects and computer engineer for technology and financial information services companies. Nakamoto was laid off twice in the early 1990s and turned libertarian, according to his daughter, and encouraged her to start her own business “not under the government’s thumb.” In the article’s seemingly biggest piece of evidence, Goodman wrote that when she asked him about bitcoin during a brief in-person interview, Nakamoto seemed to confirm his identity as the bitcoin founder by stating: “I am no longer involved in that and I cannot discuss it. It’s been turned over to other people. They are in charge of it now. I no longer have any connection.”[36][39] The article’s publication led to a flurry of media interest, including reporters camping out near Dorian Nakamoto’s house and subtly chasing him by car when he drove to do an interview.[40] However, during the subsequent full-length interview, Dorian Nakamoto denied all connection to bitcoin, saying he had never heard of the currency before, and that he had misinterpreted Goodman’s question as being about his previous work for military contractors, much of which was classified.[41] In a Reddit “ask-me-anything” interview, he claimed he had misinterpreted Goodman’s question as being related to his work for Citibank.[42] Later that day, the pseudonymous Nakamoto’s P2P Foundation account posted its first message in five years, stating: “I am not Dorian Nakamoto.”[43][44] However, it is generally believed that Nakamoto’s P2P Foundation account had been hacked, and the message was not sent by him.[45][46][47]

Hal Finney (4 May 1956 28 August 2014) was a pre-bitcoin cryptographic pioneer and the first person (other than Nakamoto himself) to use the software, file bug reports, and make improvements.[48] He also lived a few blocks from Dorian Nakamoto’s family home, according to Forbes journalist Andy Greenberg.[49] Greenberg asked the writing analysis consultancy Juola & Associates to compare a sample of Finney’s writing to Satoshi Nakamoto’s, and they found that it was the closest resemblance they had yet come across (including the candidates suggested by Newsweek, Fast Company, The New Yorker, Ted Nelson and Skye Grey).[49] Greenberg theorized that Finney may have been a ghostwriter on behalf of Nakamoto, or that he simply used his neighbor Dorian’s identity as a “drop” or “patsy whose personal information is used to hide online exploits”. However, after meeting Finney, seeing the emails between him and Nakamoto and his bitcoin wallet’s history (including the very first bitcoin transaction from Nakamoto to him, which he forgot to pay back) and hearing his denial, Greenberg concluded that Finney was telling the truth. Juola & Associates also found that Nakamoto’s emails to Finney more closely resemble Nakamoto’s other writings than Finney’s do. Finney’s fellow extropian and sometimes co-blogger Robin Hanson assigned a subjective probability of “at least” 15% that “Hal was more involved than hes said”, before further evidence suggested that was not the case.[50]

On 8 December 2015, Wired wrote that Craig Steven Wright, an Australian academic, “either invented bitcoin or is a brilliant hoaxer who very badly wants us to believe he did”.[51] Craig Wright took down his Twitter account and neither he nor his ex-wife responded to press inquiries. The same day, Gizmodo published a story with evidence obtained by a hacker who supposedly broke into Wright’s email accounts, claiming that Satoshi Nakamoto was a joint pseudonym for Craig Steven Wright and computer forensics analyst David Kleiman, who died in 2013.[52] A number of prominent bitcoin promoters remained unconvinced by the reports.[53] Subsequent reports also raised the possibility that the evidence provided was an elaborate hoax,[54][55] which Wired acknowledged “cast doubt” on their suggestion that Wright was Nakamoto.[56]

On 9 December, only hours after Wired claimed Wright was Nakamoto, Wright’s home in Gordon, New South Wales was raided by at least ten police officers. His business premises in Ryde, New South Wales were also searched by police. The Australian Federal Police stated they conducted searches to assist the Australian Taxation Office and that “This matter is unrelated to recent media reporting regarding the digital currency bitcoin.”[57] According to a document released by Gizmodo alleged to be a transcript of a meeting between Wright and the ATO, he had been involved in a taxation dispute with them for several years.[52]

On 2 May 2016, Craig Wright posted on his blog publicly claiming to be Satoshi Nakamoto. In articles released on the same day, journalists from the BBC and The Economist stated that they saw Wright signing a message using the private key associated with the first bitcoin transaction.[58][59] During his BBC interview (which was also video recorded, aired and published by BBC News) Wright said:

Some people will believe, some people won’t, and to tell you the truth, I don’t really care. (…) I didn’t decide [to reveal my identity now]. People decided this matter for me. And they’re making life difficult not for me but my friends, my family, my staff. (…) They want to be private. They don’t want all of this to affect them. And I don’t want any of them to be impacted by this. None of it’s true. There are lots of stories out there that have been made up. And I don’t like it hurting those people I care about. So I am going to do this thing only once. And once only. I am going to come in front of a camera once. And I will never, ever, be on the camera ever again for any TV station, or any media, ever.

Wright’s claim was supported by Jon Matonis (former director of the Bitcoin Foundation) and bitcoin developer Gavin Andresen, both of whom met Wright and witnessed a similar signing demonstration.[60]

However, bitcoin developer Peter Todd said that Wright’s blog post, which appeared to contain cryptographic proof, actually contained nothing of the sort.[61] The Bitcoin Core project released a statement on Twitter saying “There is currently no publicly available cryptographic proof that anyone in particular is bitcoin’s creator.”[62][63] Bitcoin developer Jeff Garzik agreed that evidence publicly provided by Wright does not prove anything, and security researcher Dan Kaminsky concluded Wright’s claim was “intentional scammery”.[64][65]

On 4 May 2016, Wright made another post on his blog intimating his intentions to publish “a series of pieces that will lay the foundations for this extraordinary claim”.[66][67] But the following day, he deleted all his blog posts and replaced them with a notice entitled “I’m Sorry”, which read in part:

I believed that I could put the years of anonymity and hiding behind me. But, as the events of this week unfolded and I prepared to publish the proof of access to the earliest keys, I broke. I do not have the courage. I cannot.[68][69]

On Thursday 5 May 2016 shortly before closing his blog, Wright sent around an email link to a news story from an impostor site resembling SiliconAngle saying “Craig Wright faces criminal charges and serious jail time in UK”. Wright stated that “I am the source of terrorist funds as bitcoin creator or I am a fraud to the world. At least a fraud is able to see his family. There is nothing I can do.”[70].

In June 2016, the London Review of Books published an article by Andrew O’Hagan about the events, based on his book “The Secret Life: Three True Stories” in which O’Hagan spends several weeks with Wright at the request of Wright’s public relations team; which, as revealed in the book, was set up as a result of a business deal between Wright and various individuals including Calvin Ayre after bitcoin was created. All of those involved in the described business deal seemed to agree that they wanted a significant event in human history to be documented by a writer with complete impartiality and freedom to investigate. O’Hagan was with Wright during the time of his various media interviews. O’Hagan also interviews Wright’s wife, colleagues and many of the other people involved in his claims.[71][72][73] It also reveals that the Canadian company nTrust was behind Wright’s claim made in May 2016 (perhaps referencing nTrust as being the same entity which created the public relations team for Wright). Further, O’Hagan suggests that Wright provided an invalid private key because he was legally unable to provide the valid one as a result of legal obligations agreed as part of a Seychelles trust deal previously reached. O’Hagan’s book also corroborates the suggestion that both Wright and David Kleiman were the identies of the moniker “Satoshi Nakamoto”.

Following O’Hagan’s article, BBC journalist Rory Cellan-Jones (who interviewed Wright on camera for the BBC) wrote a follow up article citing O’Hagan’s account as the possible reasons for Wright’s apparent unwillingness to declare himself as Nakamoto:

To me, the key revelation is about this motivation.

He had told the BBC that he had not wanted to come out into the spotlight but needed to dispel damaging rumours affecting his family, friends and colleagues.

But O’Hagan shows us something rather different – a man under intense pressure from business associates who stood to profit from him if he could be shown to be Nakamoto.[74]

This is in reference to O’Hagan’s firsthand account, which describes business associates as being furious when they learned that Wright had provided invalid proof (despite showing them valid proof privately) and for his failure to disclose the details of the Seychelles Trust deal which meant that he could neither provide said proof publicly or yet gain access to the bitcoin attributed to Nakamoto. Cellan-Jones concludes his article by expressing doubts about Wright but admits “It seems very likely he was involved, perhaps as part of a team that included Dave Kleiman and Hal Finney, the recipient of the first transaction with the currency.”

The 2017 Netflix documentary titled Banking on Bitcoin concluded with an extract of Wright’s 2016 interview with the BBC.[75][76]

On February 14, 2018 a suit against Wright (said to be living in London) for more than US$10bn was lodged in a Florida court on behalf of David Kleiman’s estate, alleging that Wright has fraudulently appropriated Kleiman’s share of the bitcoins that he and Kleiman mined together.[77][78] The suit sets out much detail of the collaboration between Wright and Kleiman, but does not speculate on whether they or either of them created bitcoin.[79]

Ian Grigg, who is credited with inventing triple entry accounting[80] describes the events as follows[81]:

Firstly, Satoshi Nakamoto is not one human being. It is or was a team. Craig Wright named one person in his recent communications, being the late Dave Kleinman. Craig did not name others, nor should I. While he was the quintessential genius who had the original idea for Bitcoin and wrote the lion’s share of the code, Craig could not have done it alone. Satoshi Nakamoto was a team effort.

New Liberty Dollar issuer Joseph VaughnPerling says he met Wright at a conference in Amsterdam three years before publication of the Bitcoin paper and that Wright introduced himself as Satoshi Nakamoto at that time.[82][83]

In a 2011 article in The New Yorker, Joshua Davis claimed to have narrowed down the identity of Nakamoto to a number of possible individuals, including the Finnish economic sociologist Dr. Vili Lehdonvirta and Irish student Michael Clear,[84] then a graduate student in cryptography at Trinity College Dublin and now a post-doctoral student at Georgetown University.[85] Clear strongly denied he was Nakamoto,[86] as did Lehdonvirta.[87]

In October 2011, writing for Fast Company, investigative journalist Adam Penenberg cited circumstantial evidence suggesting Neal King, Vladimir Oksman and Charles Bry could be Nakamoto.[88] They jointly filed a patent application that contained the phrase “computationally impractical to reverse” in 2008, which was also used in the bitcoin white paper by Nakamoto.[89] The domain name bitcoin.org was registered three days after the patent was filed. All three men denied being Nakamoto when contacted by Penenberg.[88]

The late Dave Kleiman has been also named as a possible candidate, and Craig Wright claimed an association with him as well.[90]

In May 2013, Ted Nelson speculated that Nakamoto is really Japanese mathematician Shinichi Mochizuki.[91] Later, an article was published in The Age newspaper that claimed that Mochizuki denied these speculations, but without attributing a source for the denial.[92]

A 2013 article[93] in Vice listed Gavin Andresen, Jed McCaleb, or a government agency as possible candidates to be Nakamoto. Dustin D. Trammell, a Texas-based security researcher, was suggested as Nakamoto, but he publicly denied it.[94]

In 2013, two Israeli mathematicians, Dorit Ron and Adi Shamir, published a paper claiming a link between Nakamoto and Ross William Ulbricht. The two based their suspicion on an analysis of the network of bitcoin transactions,[95] but later retracted their claim.[96]

Some have considered that Nakamoto might be a team of people: Dan Kaminsky, a security researcher who read the bitcoin code,[97] said that Nakamoto could either be a “team of people” or a “genius”;[21] Laszlo Hanyecz, a former Bitcoin Core developer who had emailed Nakamoto, had the feeling the code was too well designed for one person.[4]

A 2017 article[98] published by a former SpaceX intern espoused the possibility of SpaceX and Tesla CEO Elon Musk being the real Satoshi, based on Musk’s technical expertise with financial software and history of publishing whitepapers. However, in a tweet on November 28th, Musk denied the claim.[99]

Read the original here:

Satoshi Nakamoto – Wikipedia

Satoshi Nakamoto: 9 Interesting Facts You Need To Know

Like the dramatic quest ofHollywood movieFinding Nemo,this quest of finding Satoshi Nakamoto the inventor of Bitcoin has also been dramatic.

Its fascinating to see how Bitcoin has become a multi-billion dollar thing, yet the Father of Bitcoin is still missing.

Satoshi Nakamoto made the Bitcoin software in 2008 and made it open source in January 2009.

And in 2010, Satoshi disappeared.

No one even knows what pronoun to use(he, she, or they)while referring to Satoshi Nakamoto because it is still not clear whether he/she is a person or a group of people.

Whomever Satoshi Nakamoto might be, there are some interesting facts about the entity that gave birth to this multi-billion dollar industry of cryptocurrencies.

Here are 9 interesting facts

1. Why is Satoshi Nakamoto Famous?

The name Satoshi Nakamoto is the pseudonym of the inventor of Bitcoin. In 2008, someone used this name and mailed the Bitcoin white paper to a cryptographic mailing list.

This mailing list contained renowned people who believedin decentralization and cryptography.

Thats why this name is so famous.

As is apparent from the name, its assumed that he was a Japanese man, but his flawless use of English in the white paper raises doubts about this conclusion.

Satoshis Mail

2. Satoshis Net Worth

It is believed that Satoshi Nakamoto owns 1 million bitcoins(or more) which makes his present net worth at the time of writing this article to be $2.6 billion.

In 2009 January, Satoshi mined the Genesis block, andin 2010, he officially stopped communicating. Between this period, the bitcoins came into existence exist on the blockchain ledger, but they have not been used or spent. Thisproves how much Satoshi owns.

1 million BTC is a huge number which, if dumped suddenly, could wreak havoc on the crypto market. Thats why Bitcoin has also earned the title of being a Ponzi scheme-because the speculative founder owns a significant share.

3. Satoshis T-Shirts

The anonymity of Bitcoins founder has led to a mushrooming of a totally new merchandising concept. Now you can buy T-Shirts with Satoshi Nakamoto things printed on it.

Things like:

You can buy one for yourself from e-commerce sites likeZazzleandTeespring.

4. Satoshi Nakamoto is Possibly A Group Of Companies

Some even suggest that Samsung, Toshiba, Nakamichi, and Motorola together created Bitcoin, as you can tell from their names:

Satoshi Nakamoto

However, there is no official proof for such conclusion.

5. Satoshi Nakamoto is PossiblyNick Szabo

Nick Szabo, a US computer scientist, and cryptographer is considered by some to be the founder of Bitcoin. Nick coined the concept of digital currency for the digital age by creating Bit Gold. Bit Gold was the ancestor of Bitcoin. However, it was not used by the masses because of limitations.

After analysis of Satoshis white paper, a blogger concluded that Nick Szabo was Satoshi Nakamoto. but Nick has never accepted this hypothesis.

6. Satoshi Nakamoto is PossiblyCraig Steven Wright

Craig Wright, an Australian Entrepreneur, claimed to the BBC on 2nd May 2016 to be the inventor of Bitcoin. However, when examined by core Bitcoin developers like Peter Todd, Craig was unable to provide any acceptable supporting evidence for such a claim.

Though initially, he said he would come back with relevant evidence, he failed to do so, and said on his blog that he was sorry and didnt have the courage to continue.

7. Satoshi Nakamoto is PossiblyDorian Nakamoto

In March 2014, another speculation came on the identity of Satoshi. A news source claimed that they had found Satoshi, and he lived inCalifornia, USA.

His full name, as reported, was Dorian Prentice Satoshi Nakamoto. He was aphysicist and a systems engineer who had recently been laid off by the government.

Later on, the person identified denied all such claims and said he is not the Nakamoto which everyone has been searching for.

8.Satoshi Nakamoto is PossiblyHal Finney

Hal was a cryptographer even before his involvement with Bitcoin. He was on the mailing list that received Satoshi Nakamotos Bitcoin white paper.

Hal claimed that he had been communicating with Satoshi to support his testing, which led to the speculative conclusion that he himself was Satoshi.

Hals writing style also closely resembles that of Satoshis in the Bitcoin white paper. The suspicion evaporated when he showed his email conversation with Satoshi, but that could just be a diversion tactic.

Fun fact:Hal was the first person to receive a Bitcoin transaction from Satoshi on January 12, 2009, after Satoshi mined the genesis block on3rd January 2009 at 18:15:05 GMT.

9. Fast Company Found Satoshi Nakamoto

An employee of Fast Company, a media brand, said thatNeal King, Vladimir Oksman, and Charles Bry were the group of people that created Bitcoin. This employee proved it by searching unique phrases in Satoshis white paper.

They even patented the phrase which appears on the Bitcoin white paper computationally impractical to reverse.

However, all of them have publically denied such allegations.

Whatever anyone may say or think, the anonymity factor of Satoshi Nakamoto has proven to be healthy for Bitcoin.

But theres still a big mystery here:

Where is Satoshi, what is Satoshi doing, and why is Satoshi hiding?

No one knows the truth.

I would like to end this article by quoting two very early adopters of Bitcoin, Erik Voorhees andRoger Ver(two people who are definitely worth following on Twitter).

Bitcoin is the most important invention in the history of the world since the internet.

Roger Ver, Bitcoin Jesus

Can we take a moment to reflect on the fact that the Bitcoin protocol STILL hasn’t been hacked? One of the greatest comp sci accomplishments

Erik Voorhees (@ErikVoorhees) May 13, 2015

This shows how important Bitcoin, blockchain technology, and of course, Satoshi Nakamoto all are!

And yes, Bitcoin has become more important than a single individual, but we would all love to solve this mystery once and for all.

If you know any more interesting facts that I have missed in this article, thendo let me know in the comments below!!!

And if you liked this post, dont forget to share it!

Here are hand-picked articles to read next:

The rest is here:

Satoshi Nakamoto: 9 Interesting Facts You Need To Know

Satoshi Nakamoto – Wikipedia

Satoshi Nakamoto is the name used by the unknown person or people who designed bitcoin and created its original reference implementation.[1] As part of the implementation, they also devised the first blockchain database.[2] In the process they were the first to solve the double-spending problem for digital currency. They were active in the development of bitcoin up until December 2010.

On a P2P Foundation profile, Nakamoto claimed to be a man living in Japan, born on 5 April 1975.[3] Speculation about the true identity of Nakamoto has mostly focused on a number of cryptography and computer science experts of non-Japanese descent, living in the United States and various European countries.[4] Satoshi Nakamoto also created the bitcointalk forum, posted the first message in 2009 under the pseudonym satoshi.[5]

In October 2008, Nakamoto published a paper[6][7] on the cryptography mailing list at metzdowd.com[8] describing the bitcoin digital currency. It was titled “Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System”. In January 2009, Nakamoto released the first bitcoin software that launched the network and the first units of the bitcoin cryptocurrency, called bitcoins.[9][10] Satoshi Nakamoto released the Version 0.1 of bitcoin software on Sourceforge on 9 January 2009.

Nakamoto claimed that work on the writing of the code began in 2007.[11] The inventor of Bitcoin knew that due to its nature, the core design would have to be able to support a broad range of transaction types. The implemented solution enabled specialized codes and data fields from the start through the use of a predicative script.[12]

Nakamoto created a website with the domain name bitcoin.org and continued to collaborate with other developers on the bitcoin software until mid-2010. Around this time, he handed over control of the source code repository and network alert key to Gavin Andresen,[13] transferred several related domains to various prominent members of the bitcoin community, and stopped his involvement in the project. Until shortly before his absence and handover, Nakamoto made all modifications to the source code himself.

The inventor left a text message in the first mined block which reads ‘The Times 3 January 2009 Chancellor on brink of second bailout for banks’. The text refers to a headline in The Times published on 3 January 2009. It is a strong indication that the first block was mined no earlier than this date.[14] The genesis block has a timestamp of 18:15:05 GMT on 3 January 2009. This block is unlike all other blocks in that it doesn’t have a previous block to reference.[14] This required the use of custom code to mine it. Timestamps for subsequent blocks indicate that Nakamoto did not try to mine all the early blocks solely for himself.[14]

As the sole, predominant early miner, the inventor was awarded bitcoin at genesis and for 10 days afterwards.[15] Except for test transactions these remain unspent since mid January 2009.[15] The public bitcoin transaction log shows that Nakamoto’s known addresses contain roughly one million bitcoins.[16] As of 17December2017[update], this is worth over 19 billion USD.[17][18] This makes him the 44th richest person on Earth.[19]

Nakamoto has not disclosed any personal information when discussing technical matters.[4] He provided some commentary on banking and fractional-reserve banking. On his P2P Foundation profile as of 2012, Nakamoto claimed to be a 37-year-old male who lived in Japan,[20] but some speculated he was unlikely to be Japanese due to his use of perfect English and his bitcoin software not being documented or labelled in Japanese.[4]

Occasional British English spelling and terminology (such as the phrase “bloody hard”) in both source code comments and forum postings led to speculation that Nakamoto, or at least one individual in the consortium claiming to be him, was of Commonwealth origin.[4][6][21] Moreover, the first bitcoin block that could only be mined by Satoshi contains the encoded text The Times 03/Jan/2009 Chancellor on brink of second bailout for banks which implies that he was reading the London’s The Times newspaper at the time of the inception of bitcoin.[22][23]:18

Stefan Thomas, a Swiss coder and active community member, graphed the time stamps for each of Nakamoto’s bitcoin forum posts (more than 500); the resulting chart showed a steep decline to almost no posts between the hours of 5 a.m. and 11 a.m. Greenwich Mean Time. (Between 2pm and 8pm Japanese time, an unusual sleep pattern for someone presumably living in Japan) As this pattern held true even on Saturdays and Sundays, it suggested that Nakamoto was asleep at this time.[4]

Nakamoto’s initial email to Dai is dated 22 August 2008; the metadata for this PDF (pdftk bitcoin.pdf dump_data) yields as the CreationDate the value 20081003134958-07’00’ this implies 3 October 2008 or a bit over a month later, which is consistent with the local date mentioned in the Cypherpunk mailing list email. This is an earlier draft than the final draft on bitcoin.org, which is dated 20090324113315-06’00’ or 24 March 2009; the timezone differs: 7 vs 6.[24]

Gavin Andresen has said of Nakamoto’s code: “He was a brilliant coder, but it was quirky”.[25]

There is still doubt about the real identity of Satoshi Nakamoto.[26]

In December 2013, a blogger named Skye Grey linked Nick Szabo to the bitcoin whitepaper using a stylometric analysis.[27][28][29] Szabo is a decentralized currency enthusiast and published a paper on “bit gold”, which is considered a precursor to bitcoin.[28][29] He is known to have been interested in using pseudonyms in the 1990s.[30] In a May 2011 article, Szabo stated about the bitcoin creator: “Myself, Wei Dai, and Hal Finney were the only people I know of who liked the idea (or in Dai’s case his related idea) enough to pursue it to any significant extent until Nakamoto (assuming Nakamoto is not really Finney or Dai).”[31]

Detailed research by financial author Dominic Frisby provides much circumstantial evidence but, as he admits, no proof that Satoshi is Szabo.[32] Speaking on RT’s The Keiser Report, he said “I’ve concluded there is only one person in the whole world that has the sheer breadth but also the specificity of knowledge and it is this chap…”.[33] However, Szabo has denied being Satoshi. In a July 2014 email to Frisby, he said: ‘Thanks for letting me know. I’m afraid you got it wrong doxing me as Satoshi, but I’m used to it’.[34] Nathaniel Popper wrote in the New York Times that “the most convincing evidence pointed to a reclusive American man of Hungarian descent named Nick Szabo.”[35]

In a high-profile 6 March 2014 article in the magazine Newsweek,[36] journalist Leah McGrath Goodman identified Dorian Prentice Satoshi Nakamoto, a Japanese American man living in California, whose birth name is Satoshi Nakamoto,[36][37][38] as the Nakamoto in question. Besides his name, Goodman pointed to a number of facts that circumstantially suggested he was the bitcoin inventor.[36] Trained as a physicist at Cal Poly University in Pomona, Nakamoto worked as a systems engineer on classified defense projects and computer engineer for technology and financial information services companies. Nakamoto was laid off twice in the early 1990s and turned libertarian, according to his daughter, and encouraged her to start her own business “not under the government’s thumb.” In the article’s seemingly biggest piece of evidence, Goodman wrote that when she asked him about bitcoin during a brief in-person interview, Nakamoto seemed to confirm his identity as the bitcoin founder by stating: “I am no longer involved in that and I cannot discuss it. It’s been turned over to other people. They are in charge of it now. I no longer have any connection.”[36][39] The article’s publication led to a flurry of media interest, including reporters camping out near Dorian Nakamoto’s house and subtly chasing him by car when he drove to do an interview.[40] However, during the subsequent full-length interview, Dorian Nakamoto denied all connection to bitcoin, saying he had never heard of the currency before, and that he had misinterpreted Goodman’s question as being about his previous work for military contractors, much of which was classified.[41] In a Reddit “ask-me-anything” interview, he claimed he had misinterpreted Goodman’s question as being related to his work for Citibank.[42] Later that day, the pseudonymous Nakamoto’s P2P Foundation account posted its first message in five years, stating: “I am not Dorian Nakamoto.”[43][44] However, it is generally believed that Nakamoto’s P2P Foundation account had been hacked, and the message was not sent by him.[45][46][47]

Hal Finney (4 May 1956 28 August 2014) was a pre-bitcoin cryptographic pioneer and the first person (other than Nakamoto himself) to use the software, file bug reports, and make improvements.[48] He also lived a few blocks from Dorian Nakamoto’s family home, according to Forbes journalist Andy Greenberg.[49] Greenberg asked the writing analysis consultancy Juola & Associates to compare a sample of Finney’s writing to Satoshi Nakamoto’s, and they found that it was the closest resemblance they had yet come across (including the candidates suggested by Newsweek, Fast Company, The New Yorker, Ted Nelson and Skye Grey).[49] Greenberg theorized that Finney may have been a ghostwriter on behalf of Nakamoto, or that he simply used his neighbor Dorian’s identity as a “drop” or “patsy whose personal information is used to hide online exploits”. However, after meeting Finney, seeing the emails between him and Nakamoto and his bitcoin wallet’s history (including the very first bitcoin transaction from Nakamoto to him, which he forgot to pay back) and hearing his denial, Greenberg concluded that Finney was telling the truth. Juola & Associates also found that Nakamoto’s emails to Finney more closely resemble Nakamoto’s other writings than Finney’s do. Finney’s fellow extropian and sometimes co-blogger Robin Hanson assigned a subjective probability of “at least” 15% that “Hal was more involved than hes said”, before further evidence suggested that was not the case.[50]

On 8 December 2015, Wired wrote that Craig Steven Wright, an Australian academic, “either invented bitcoin or is a brilliant hoaxer who very badly wants us to believe he did”.[51] Craig Wright took down his Twitter account and neither he nor his ex-wife responded to press inquiries. The same day, Gizmodo published a story with evidence obtained by a hacker who supposedly broke into Wright’s email accounts, claiming that Satoshi Nakamoto was a joint pseudonym for Craig Steven Wright and computer forensics analyst David Kleiman, who died in 2013.[52] A number of prominent bitcoin promoters remained unconvinced by the reports.[53] Subsequent reports also raised the possibility that the evidence provided was an elaborate hoax,[54][55] which Wired acknowledged “cast doubt” on their suggestion that Wright was Nakamoto.[56]

On 9 December, only hours after Wired claimed Wright was Nakamoto, Wright’s home in Gordon, New South Wales was raided by at least ten police officers. His business premises in Ryde, New South Wales were also searched by police. The Australian Federal Police stated they conducted searches to assist the Australian Taxation Office and that “This matter is unrelated to recent media reporting regarding the digital currency bitcoin.”[57] According to a document released by Gizmodo alleged to be a transcript of a meeting between Wright and the ATO, he had been involved in a taxation dispute with them for several years.[52]

On 2 May 2016, Craig Wright posted on his blog publicly claiming to be Satoshi Nakamoto. In articles released on the same day, journalists from the BBC and The Economist stated that they saw Wright signing a message using the private key associated with the first bitcoin transaction.[58][59] During his BBC interview (which was also video recorded, aired and published by BBC News) Wright said:

Some people will believe, some people won’t, and to tell you the truth, I don’t really care. (…) I didn’t decide [to reveal my identity now]. People decided this matter for me. And they’re making life difficult not for me but my friends, my family, my staff. (…) They want to be private. They don’t want all of this to affect them. And I don’t want any of them to be impacted by this. None of it’s true. There are lots of stories out there that have been made up. And I don’t like it hurting those people I care about. So I am going to do this thing only once. And once only. I am going to come in front of a camera once. And I will never, ever, be on the camera ever again for any TV station, or any media, ever.

Wright’s claim was supported by Jon Matonis (former director of the Bitcoin Foundation) and bitcoin developer Gavin Andresen, both of whom met Wright and witnessed a similar signing demonstration.[60]

However, bitcoin developer Peter Todd said that Wright’s blog post, which appeared to contain cryptographic proof, actually contained nothing of the sort.[61] The Bitcoin Core project released a statement on Twitter saying “There is currently no publicly available cryptographic proof that anyone in particular is bitcoin’s creator.”[62][63] Bitcoin developer Jeff Garzik agreed that evidence publicly provided by Wright does not prove anything, and security researcher Dan Kaminsky concluded Wright’s claim was “intentional scammery”.[64][65]

On 4 May 2016, Wright made another post on his blog intimating his intentions to publish “a series of pieces that will lay the foundations for this extraordinary claim”.[66][67] But the following day, he deleted all his blog posts and replaced them with a notice entitled “I’m Sorry”, which read in part:

I believed that I could put the years of anonymity and hiding behind me. But, as the events of this week unfolded and I prepared to publish the proof of access to the earliest keys, I broke. I do not have the courage. I cannot.[68][69]

On Thursday 5 May 2016 shortly before closing his blog, Wright sent around an email link to a news story from an impostor site resembling SiliconAngle saying “Craig Wright faces criminal charges and serious jail time in UK”. Wright stated that “I am the source of terrorist funds as bitcoin creator or I am a fraud to the world. At least a fraud is able to see his family. There is nothing I can do.”[70].

In June 2016, the London Review of Books published an article by Andrew O’Hagan about the events, based on his book “The Secret Life: Three True Stories” in which O’Hagan spends several weeks with Wright at the request of Wright’s public relations team; which, as revealed in the book, was set up as a result of a business deal between Wright and various individuals including Calvin Ayre after bitcoin was created. All of those involved in the described business deal seemed to agree that they wanted a significant event in human history to be documented by a writer with complete impartiality and freedom to investigate. O’Hagan was with Wright during the time of his various media interviews. O’Hagan also interviews Wright’s wife, colleagues and many of the other people involved in his claims.[71][72][73] It also reveals that the Canadian company nTrust was behind Wright’s claim made in May 2016 (perhaps referencing nTrust as being the same entity which created the public relations team for Wright). Further, O’Hagan suggests that Wright provided an invalid private key because he was legally unable to provide the valid one as a result of legal obligations agreed as part of a Seychelles trust deal previously reached. O’Hagan’s book also corroborates the suggestion that both Wright and David Kleiman were the identies of the moniker “Satoshi Nakamoto”.

Following O’Hagan’s article, BBC journalist Rory Cellan-Jones (who interviewed Wright on camera for the BBC) wrote a follow up article citing O’Hagan’s account as the possible reasons for Wright’s apparent unwillingness to declare himself as Nakamoto:

To me, the key revelation is about this motivation.

He had told the BBC that he had not wanted to come out into the spotlight but needed to dispel damaging rumours affecting his family, friends and colleagues.

But O’Hagan shows us something rather different – a man under intense pressure from business associates who stood to profit from him if he could be shown to be Nakamoto.[74]

This is in reference to O’Hagan’s firsthand account, which describes business associates as being furious when they learned that Wright had provided invalid proof (despite showing them valid proof privately) and for his failure to disclose the details of the Seychelles Trust deal which meant that he could neither provide said proof publicly or yet gain access to the bitcoin attributed to Nakamoto. Cellan-Jones concludes his article by expressing doubts about Wright but admits “It seems very likely he was involved, perhaps as part of a team that included Dave Kleiman and Hal Finney, the recipient of the first transaction with the currency.”

The 2017 Netflix documentary titled Banking on Bitcoin concluded with an extract of Wright’s 2016 interview with the BBC.[75][76]

On February 14, 2018 a suit against Wright (said to be living in London) for more than US$10bn was lodged in a Florida court on behalf of David Kleiman’s estate, alleging that Wright has fraudulently appropriated Kleiman’s share of the bitcoins that he and Kleiman mined together.[77][78] The suit sets out much detail of the collaboration between Wright and Kleiman, but does not speculate on whether they or either of them created bitcoin.[79]

Ian Grigg, who is credited with inventing triple entry accounting[80] describes the events as follows[81]:

Firstly, Satoshi Nakamoto is not one human being. It is or was a team. Craig Wright named one person in his recent communications, being the late Dave Kleinman. Craig did not name others, nor should I. While he was the quintessential genius who had the original idea for Bitcoin and wrote the lion’s share of the code, Craig could not have done it alone. Satoshi Nakamoto was a team effort.

New Liberty Dollar issuer Joseph VaughnPerling says he met Wright at a conference in Amsterdam three years before publication of the Bitcoin paper and that Wright introduced himself as Satoshi Nakamoto at that time.[82][83]

In a 2011 article in The New Yorker, Joshua Davis claimed to have narrowed down the identity of Nakamoto to a number of possible individuals, including the Finnish economic sociologist Dr. Vili Lehdonvirta and Irish student Michael Clear,[84] then a graduate student in cryptography at Trinity College Dublin and now a post-doctoral student at Georgetown University.[85] Clear strongly denied he was Nakamoto,[86] as did Lehdonvirta.[87]

In October 2011, writing for Fast Company, investigative journalist Adam Penenberg cited circumstantial evidence suggesting Neal King, Vladimir Oksman and Charles Bry could be Nakamoto.[88] They jointly filed a patent application that contained the phrase “computationally impractical to reverse” in 2008, which was also used in the bitcoin white paper by Nakamoto.[89] The domain name bitcoin.org was registered three days after the patent was filed. All three men denied being Nakamoto when contacted by Penenberg.[88]

The late Dave Kleiman has been also named as a possible candidate, and Craig Wright claimed an association with him as well.[90]

In May 2013, Ted Nelson speculated that Nakamoto is really Japanese mathematician Shinichi Mochizuki.[91] Later, an article was published in The Age newspaper that claimed that Mochizuki denied these speculations, but without attributing a source for the denial.[92]

A 2013 article[93] in Vice listed Gavin Andresen, Jed McCaleb, or a government agency as possible candidates to be Nakamoto. Dustin D. Trammell, a Texas-based security researcher, was suggested as Nakamoto, but he publicly denied it.[94]

In 2013, two Israeli mathematicians, Dorit Ron and Adi Shamir, published a paper claiming a link between Nakamoto and Ross William Ulbricht. The two based their suspicion on an analysis of the network of bitcoin transactions,[95] but later retracted their claim.[96]

Some have considered that Nakamoto might be a team of people: Dan Kaminsky, a security researcher who read the bitcoin code,[97] said that Nakamoto could either be a “team of people” or a “genius”;[21] Laszlo Hanyecz, a former Bitcoin Core developer who had emailed Nakamoto, had the feeling the code was too well designed for one person.[4]

A 2017 article[98] published by a former SpaceX intern espoused the possibility of SpaceX and Tesla CEO Elon Musk being the real Satoshi, based on Musk’s technical expertise with financial software and history of publishing whitepapers. However, in a tweet on November 28th, Musk denied the claim.[99]

Read this article:

Satoshi Nakamoto – Wikipedia

Satoshi Nakamoto – Bitcoin Wiki

For the unit, see satoshi (unit).

Satoshi Nakamoto is the founder of Bitcoin and initial creator of the Original Bitcoin client. He has said in a P2P foundation profile[1] that he is from Japan. Beyond that, not much else is known about him and his identity. He has been working on the Bitcoin project since 2007.[2]

His involvement in the Bitcoin project had tapered and by late 2010 it has ended. The most recent messages reportedly indicate that Satoshi is “gone for good”[3].

He left some clues about why he is doing this project with the inclusion of the following text in the Genesis block, “The Times 03/Jan/2009 Chancellor on brink of second bailout for banks”.

Some interesting quotes:

Yes, [we will not find a solution to political problems in cryptography,] but we can win a major battle in the arms race and gain a new territory offreedom for several years.

Governments are good at cutting off the heads of a centrally controllednetworks like Napster, but pure P2P networks like Gnutella and Tor seem to beholding their own.[4]

His identity and nationality are unknown.

He is entirely unknown outside of Bitcoin as far as anyone can tell, and his (never used) PGP key was created just months prior to the date of the genesis block. He seems to be very familiar with the cryptography mailing list, but there are no non-Bitcoin posts from him on it. He has used an email address from an anonymous mail hosting service (vistomail) as well as one from a free webmail account (gmx.com) and sends mail when connected via Tor. Some have speculated that his entire identity was created in advance in order to protect himself or the network. Perhaps he chose the name Satoshi because it can mean “wisdom” or “reason” and Nakamoto can mean “Central source”.

Ultimately the design of Bitcoin and its use of cryptographic proof and fully open implementation is one that makes its creator, in a sense, irrelevant and only of interest for historical reasons.

Read the original:

Satoshi Nakamoto – Bitcoin Wiki

Satoshi Nakamoto – Wikipedia

Satoshi Nakamoto is the name used by the unknown person or people who designed bitcoin and created its original reference implementation.[1] As part of the implementation, they also devised the first blockchain database.[2] In the process they were the first to solve the double-spending problem for digital currency. They were active in the development of bitcoin up until December 2010.

On a P2P Foundation profile, Nakamoto claimed to be a man living in Japan, born on 5 April 1975.[3] Speculation about the true identity of Nakamoto has mostly focused on a number of cryptography and computer science experts of non-Japanese descent, living in the United States and various European countries.[4] Satoshi Nakamoto also created the bitcointalk forum, posted the first message in 2009 under the pseudonym satoshi.[5]

In October 2008, Nakamoto published a paper[6][7] on the cryptography mailing list at metzdowd.com[8] describing the bitcoin digital currency. It was titled “Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System”. In January 2009, Nakamoto released the first bitcoin software that launched the network and the first units of the bitcoin cryptocurrency, called bitcoins.[9][10] Satoshi Nakamoto released the Version 0.1 of bitcoin software on Sourceforge on 9 January 2009.

Nakamoto claimed that work on the writing of the code began in 2007.[11] The inventor of Bitcoin knew that due to its nature, the core design would have to be able to support a broad range of transaction types. The implemented solution enabled specialized codes and data fields from the start through the use of a predicative script.[12]

Nakamoto created a website with the domain name bitcoin.org and continued to collaborate with other developers on the bitcoin software until mid-2010. Around this time, he handed over control of the source code repository and network alert key to Gavin Andresen,[13] transferred several related domains to various prominent members of the bitcoin community, and stopped his involvement in the project. Until shortly before his absence and handover, Nakamoto made all modifications to the source code himself.

The inventor left a text message in the first mined block which reads ‘The Times 3 January 2009 Chancellor on brink of second bailout for banks’. The text refers to a headline in The Times published on 3 January 2009. It is a strong indication that the first block was mined no earlier than this date.[14] The genesis block has a timestamp of 18:15:05 GMT on 3 January 2009. This block is unlike all other blocks in that it doesn’t have a previous block to reference.[14] This required the use of custom code to mine it. Timestamps for subsequent blocks indicate that Nakamoto did not try to mine all the early blocks solely for himself.[14]

As the sole, predominant early miner, the inventor was awarded bitcoin at genesis and for 10 days afterwards.[15] Except for test transactions these remain unspent since mid January 2009.[15] The public bitcoin transaction log shows that Nakamoto’s known addresses contain roughly one million bitcoins.[16] As of 17December2017[update], this is worth over 19 billion USD.[17][18] This makes him the 44th richest person on Earth.[19]

Nakamoto has not disclosed any personal information when discussing technical matters.[4] He provided some commentary on banking and fractional-reserve banking. On his P2P Foundation profile as of 2012, Nakamoto claimed to be a 37-year-old male who lived in Japan,[20] but some speculated he was unlikely to be Japanese due to his use of perfect English and his bitcoin software not being documented or labelled in Japanese.[4]

Occasional British English spelling and terminology (such as the phrase “bloody hard”) in both source code comments and forum postings led to speculation that Nakamoto, or at least one individual in the consortium claiming to be him, was of Commonwealth origin.[4][6][21] Moreover, the first bitcoin block that could only be mined by Satoshi contains the encoded text The Times 03/Jan/2009 Chancellor on brink of second bailout for banks which implies that he was reading the London’s The Times newspaper at the time of the inception of bitcoin.[22][23]:18

Stefan Thomas, a Swiss coder and active community member, graphed the time stamps for each of Nakamoto’s bitcoin forum posts (more than 500); the resulting chart showed a steep decline to almost no posts between the hours of 5 a.m. and 11 a.m. Greenwich Mean Time. (Between 2pm and 8pm Japanese time, an unusual sleep pattern for someone presumably living in Japan) As this pattern held true even on Saturdays and Sundays, it suggested that Nakamoto was asleep at this time.[4]

Nakamoto’s initial email to Dai is dated 22 August 2008; the metadata for this PDF (pdftk bitcoin.pdf dump_data) yields as the CreationDate the value 20081003134958-07’00’ this implies 3 October 2008 or a bit over a month later, which is consistent with the local date mentioned in the Cypherpunk mailing list email. This is an earlier draft than the final draft on bitcoin.org, which is dated 20090324113315-06’00’ or 24 March 2009; the timezone differs: 7 vs 6.[24]

Gavin Andresen has said of Nakamoto’s code: “He was a brilliant coder, but it was quirky”.[25]

There is still doubt about the real identity of Satoshi Nakamoto.[26]

In December 2013, a blogger named Skye Grey linked Nick Szabo to the bitcoin whitepaper using a stylometric analysis.[27][28][29] Szabo is a decentralized currency enthusiast and published a paper on “bit gold”, which is considered a precursor to bitcoin.[28][29] He is known to have been interested in using pseudonyms in the 1990s.[30] In a May 2011 article, Szabo stated about the bitcoin creator: “Myself, Wei Dai, and Hal Finney were the only people I know of who liked the idea (or in Dai’s case his related idea) enough to pursue it to any significant extent until Nakamoto (assuming Nakamoto is not really Finney or Dai).”[31]

Detailed research by financial author Dominic Frisby provides much circumstantial evidence but, as he admits, no proof that Satoshi is Szabo.[32] Speaking on RT’s The Keiser Report, he said “I’ve concluded there is only one person in the whole world that has the sheer breadth but also the specificity of knowledge and it is this chap…”.[33] However, Szabo has denied being Satoshi. In a July 2014 email to Frisby, he said: ‘Thanks for letting me know. I’m afraid you got it wrong doxing me as Satoshi, but I’m used to it’.[34] Nathaniel Popper wrote in the New York Times that “the most convincing evidence pointed to a reclusive American man of Hungarian descent named Nick Szabo.”[35]

In a high-profile 6 March 2014 article in the magazine Newsweek,[36] journalist Leah McGrath Goodman identified Dorian Prentice Satoshi Nakamoto, a Japanese American man living in California, whose birth name is Satoshi Nakamoto,[36][37][38] as the Nakamoto in question. Besides his name, Goodman pointed to a number of facts that circumstantially suggested he was the bitcoin inventor.[36] Trained as a physicist at Cal Poly University in Pomona, Nakamoto worked as a systems engineer on classified defense projects and computer engineer for technology and financial information services companies. Nakamoto was laid off twice in the early 1990s and turned libertarian, according to his daughter, and encouraged her to start her own business “not under the government’s thumb.” In the article’s seemingly biggest piece of evidence, Goodman wrote that when she asked him about bitcoin during a brief in-person interview, Nakamoto seemed to confirm his identity as the bitcoin founder by stating: “I am no longer involved in that and I cannot discuss it. It’s been turned over to other people. They are in charge of it now. I no longer have any connection.”[36][39] The article’s publication led to a flurry of media interest, including reporters camping out near Dorian Nakamoto’s house and subtly chasing him by car when he drove to do an interview.[40] However, during the subsequent full-length interview, Dorian Nakamoto denied all connection to bitcoin, saying he had never heard of the currency before, and that he had misinterpreted Goodman’s question as being about his previous work for military contractors, much of which was classified.[41] In a Reddit “ask-me-anything” interview, he claimed he had misinterpreted Goodman’s question as being related to his work for Citibank.[42] Later that day, the pseudonymous Nakamoto’s P2P Foundation account posted its first message in five years, stating: “I am not Dorian Nakamoto.”[43][44] However, it is generally believed that Nakamoto’s P2P Foundation account had been hacked, and the message was not sent by him.[45][46][47]

Hal Finney (4 May 1956 28 August 2014) was a pre-bitcoin cryptographic pioneer and the first person (other than Nakamoto himself) to use the software, file bug reports, and make improvements.[48] He also lived a few blocks from Dorian Nakamoto’s family home, according to Forbes journalist Andy Greenberg.[49] Greenberg asked the writing analysis consultancy Juola & Associates to compare a sample of Finney’s writing to Satoshi Nakamoto’s, and they found that it was the closest resemblance they had yet come across (including the candidates suggested by Newsweek, Fast Company, The New Yorker, Ted Nelson and Skye Grey).[49] Greenberg theorized that Finney may have been a ghostwriter on behalf of Nakamoto, or that he simply used his neighbor Dorian’s identity as a “drop” or “patsy whose personal information is used to hide online exploits”. However, after meeting Finney, seeing the emails between him and Nakamoto and his bitcoin wallet’s history (including the very first bitcoin transaction from Nakamoto to him, which he forgot to pay back) and hearing his denial, Greenberg concluded that Finney was telling the truth. Juola & Associates also found that Nakamoto’s emails to Finney more closely resemble Nakamoto’s other writings than Finney’s do. Finney’s fellow extropian and sometimes co-blogger Robin Hanson assigned a subjective probability of “at least” 15% that “Hal was more involved than hes said”, before further evidence suggested that was not the case.[50]

On 8 December 2015, Wired wrote that Craig Steven Wright, an Australian academic, “either invented bitcoin or is a brilliant hoaxer who very badly wants us to believe he did”.[51] Craig Wright took down his Twitter account and neither he nor his ex-wife responded to press inquiries. The same day, Gizmodo published a story with evidence obtained by a hacker who supposedly broke into Wright’s email accounts, claiming that Satoshi Nakamoto was a joint pseudonym for Craig Steven Wright and computer forensics analyst David Kleiman, who died in 2013.[52] A number of prominent bitcoin promoters remained unconvinced by the reports.[53] Subsequent reports also raised the possibility that the evidence provided was an elaborate hoax,[54][55] which Wired acknowledged “cast doubt” on their suggestion that Wright was Nakamoto.[56]

On 9 December, only hours after Wired claimed Wright was Nakamoto, Wright’s home in Gordon, New South Wales was raided by at least ten police officers. His business premises in Ryde, New South Wales were also searched by police. The Australian Federal Police stated they conducted searches to assist the Australian Taxation Office and that “This matter is unrelated to recent media reporting regarding the digital currency bitcoin.”[57] According to a document released by Gizmodo alleged to be a transcript of a meeting between Wright and the ATO, he had been involved in a taxation dispute with them for several years.[52]

On 2 May 2016, Craig Wright posted on his blog publicly claiming to be Satoshi Nakamoto. In articles released on the same day, journalists from the BBC and The Economist stated that they saw Wright signing a message using the private key associated with the first bitcoin transaction.[58][59] During his BBC interview (which was also video recorded, aired and published by BBC News) Wright said:

Some people will believe, some people won’t, and to tell you the truth, I don’t really care. (…) I didn’t decide [to reveal my identity now]. People decided this matter for me. And they’re making life difficult not for me but my friends, my family, my staff. (…) They want to be private. They don’t want all of this to affect them. And I don’t want any of them to be impacted by this. None of it’s true. There are lots of stories out there that have been made up. And I don’t like it hurting those people I care about. So I am going to do this thing only once. And once only. I am going to come in front of a camera once. And I will never, ever, be on the camera ever again for any TV station, or any media, ever.

Wright’s claim was supported by Jon Matonis (former director of the Bitcoin Foundation) and bitcoin developer Gavin Andresen, both of whom met Wright and witnessed a similar signing demonstration.[60]

However, bitcoin developer Peter Todd said that Wright’s blog post, which appeared to contain cryptographic proof, actually contained nothing of the sort.[61] The Bitcoin Core project released a statement on Twitter saying “There is currently no publicly available cryptographic proof that anyone in particular is bitcoin’s creator.”[62][63] Bitcoin developer Jeff Garzik agreed that evidence publicly provided by Wright does not prove anything, and security researcher Dan Kaminsky concluded Wright’s claim was “intentional scammery”.[64][65]

On 4 May 2016, Wright made another post on his blog intimating his intentions to publish “a series of pieces that will lay the foundations for this extraordinary claim”.[66][67] But the following day, he deleted all his blog posts and replaced them with a notice entitled “I’m Sorry”, which read in part:

I believed that I could put the years of anonymity and hiding behind me. But, as the events of this week unfolded and I prepared to publish the proof of access to the earliest keys, I broke. I do not have the courage. I cannot.[68][69]

On Thursday 5 May 2016 shortly before closing his blog, Wright sent around an email link to a news story from an impostor site resembling SiliconAngle saying “Craig Wright faces criminal charges and serious jail time in UK”. Wright stated that “I am the source of terrorist funds as bitcoin creator or I am a fraud to the world. At least a fraud is able to see his family. There is nothing I can do.”[70].

In June 2016, the London Review of Books published an article by Andrew O’Hagan about the events, based on his book “The Secret Life: Three True Stories” in which O’Hagan spends several weeks with Wright at the request of Wright’s public relations team; which, as revealed in the book, was set up as a result of a business deal between Wright and various individuals including Calvin Ayre after bitcoin was created. All of those involved in the described business deal seemed to agree that they wanted a significant event in human history to be documented by a writer with complete impartiality and freedom to investigate. O’Hagan was with Wright during the time of his various media interviews. O’Hagan also interviews Wright’s wife, colleagues and many of the other people involved in his claims.[71][72][73] It also reveals that the Canadian company nTrust was behind Wright’s claim made in May 2016 (perhaps referencing nTrust as being the same entity which created the public relations team for Wright). Further, O’Hagan suggests that Wright provided an invalid private key because he was legally unable to provide the valid one as a result of legal obligations agreed as part of a Seychelles trust deal previously reached. O’Hagan’s book also corroborates the suggestion that both Wright and David Kleiman were the identies of the moniker “Satoshi Nakamoto”.

Following O’Hagan’s article, BBC journalist Rory Cellan-Jones (who interviewed Wright on camera for the BBC) wrote a follow up article citing O’Hagan’s account as the possible reasons for Wright’s apparent unwillingness to declare himself as Nakamoto:

To me, the key revelation is about this motivation.

He had told the BBC that he had not wanted to come out into the spotlight but needed to dispel damaging rumours affecting his family, friends and colleagues.

But O’Hagan shows us something rather different – a man under intense pressure from business associates who stood to profit from him if he could be shown to be Nakamoto.[74]

This is in reference to O’Hagan’s firsthand account, which describes business associates as being furious when they learned that Wright had provided invalid proof (despite showing them valid proof privately) and for his failure to disclose the details of the Seychelles Trust deal which meant that he could neither provide said proof publicly or yet gain access to the bitcoin attributed to Nakamoto. Cellan-Jones concludes his article by expressing doubts about Wright but admits “It seems very likely he was involved, perhaps as part of a team that included Dave Kleiman and Hal Finney, the recipient of the first transaction with the currency.”

The 2017 Netflix documentary titled Banking on Bitcoin concluded with an extract of Wright’s 2016 interview with the BBC.[75][76]

On February 14, 2018 a suit against Wright (said to be living in London) for more than US$10bn was lodged in a Florida court on behalf of David Kleiman’s estate, alleging that Wright has fraudulently appropriated Kleiman’s share of the bitcoins that he and Kleiman mined together.[77][78] The suit sets out much detail of the collaboration between Wright and Kleiman, but does not speculate on whether they or either of them created bitcoin.[79]

Ian Grigg, who is credited with inventing triple entry accounting [80]describes the events as follows[81]:

Firstly, Satoshi Nakamoto is not one human being. It is or was a team. Craig Wright named one person in his recent communications, being the late Dave Kleinman. Craig did not name others, nor should I. While he was the quintessential genius who had the original idea for Bitcoin and wrote the lion’s share of the code, Craig could not have done it alone. Satoshi Nakamoto was a team effort.

New Liberty Dollar issuer Joseph VaughnPerling says he met Wright at a conference in Amsterdam three years before publication of the Bitcoin paper and that Wright introduced himself as Satoshi Nakamoto at that time. [82][83]

In a 2011 article in The New Yorker, Joshua Davis claimed to have narrowed down the identity of Nakamoto to a number of possible individuals, including the Finnish economic sociologist Dr. Vili Lehdonvirta and Irish student Michael Clear,[84] then a graduate student in cryptography at Trinity College Dublin and now a post-doctoral student at Georgetown University.[85] Clear strongly denied he was Nakamoto,[86] as did Lehdonvirta.[87]

In October 2011, writing for Fast Company, investigative journalist Adam Penenberg cited circumstantial evidence suggesting Neal King, Vladimir Oksman and Charles Bry could be Nakamoto.[88] They jointly filed a patent application that contained the phrase “computationally impractical to reverse” in 2008, which was also used in the bitcoin white paper by Nakamoto.[89] The domain name bitcoin.org was registered three days after the patent was filed. All three men denied being Nakamoto when contacted by Penenberg.[88]

The late Dave Kleiman has been also named as a possible candidate, and Craig Wright claimed an association with him as well.[90]

In May 2013, Ted Nelson speculated that Nakamoto is really Japanese mathematician Shinichi Mochizuki.[91] Later, an article was published in The Age newspaper that claimed that Mochizuki denied these speculations, but without attributing a source for the denial.[92]

A 2013 article[93] in Vice listed Gavin Andresen, Jed McCaleb, or a government agency as possible candidates to be Nakamoto. Dustin D. Trammell, a Texas-based security researcher, was suggested as Nakamoto, but he publicly denied it.[94]

In 2013, two Israeli mathematicians, Dorit Ron and Adi Shamir, published a paper claiming a link between Nakamoto and Ross William Ulbricht. The two based their suspicion on an analysis of the network of bitcoin transactions,[95] but later retracted their claim.[96]

Some have considered that Nakamoto might be a team of people: Dan Kaminsky, a security researcher who read the bitcoin code,[97] said that Nakamoto could either be a “team of people” or a “genius”;[21] Laszlo Hanyecz, a former Bitcoin Core developer who had emailed Nakamoto, had the feeling the code was too well designed for one person.[4]

A 2017 article[98] published by a former SpaceX intern espoused the possibility of SpaceX and Tesla CEO Elon Musk being the real Satoshi, based on Musk’s technical expertise with financial software and history of publishing whitepapers. However, in a tweet on November 28th, Musk denied the claim.[99]

Go here to see the original:

Satoshi Nakamoto – Wikipedia

Satoshi Nakamoto – Wikipedia

Satoshi Nakamoto is the name used by the unknown person or people who designed bitcoin and created its original reference implementation.[1] As part of the implementation, they also devised the first blockchain database.[2] In the process they were the first to solve the double-spending problem for digital currency. They were active in the development of bitcoin up until December 2010.

On a P2P Foundation profile, Nakamoto claimed to be a man living in Japan, born on 5 April 1975.[3] Speculation about the true identity of Nakamoto has mostly focused on a number of cryptography and computer science experts of non-Japanese descent, living in the United States and various European countries.[4] Satoshi Nakamoto also created the bitcointalk forum, posted the first message in 2009 under the pseudonym satoshi.[5]

In October 2008, Nakamoto published a paper[6][7] on the cryptography mailing list at metzdowd.com[8] describing the bitcoin digital currency. It was titled “Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System”. In January 2009, Nakamoto released the first bitcoin software that launched the network and the first units of the bitcoin cryptocurrency, called bitcoins.[9][10] Satoshi Nakamoto released the Version 0.1 of bitcoin software on Sourceforge on 9 January 2009.

Nakamoto claimed that work on the writing of the code began in 2007.[11] The inventor of Bitcoin knew that due to its nature, the core design would have to be able to support a broad range of transaction types. The implemented solution enabled specialized codes and data fields from the start through the use of a predicative script.[12]

Nakamoto created a website with the domain name bitcoin.org and continued to collaborate with other developers on the bitcoin software until mid-2010. Around this time, he handed over control of the source code repository and network alert key to Gavin Andresen,[13] transferred several related domains to various prominent members of the bitcoin community, and stopped his involvement in the project. Until shortly before his absence and handover, Nakamoto made all modifications to the source code himself.

The inventor left a text message in the first mined block which reads ‘The Times 3 January 2009 Chancellor on brink of second bailout for banks’. The text refers to a headline in The Times published on 3 January 2009. It is a strong indication that the first block was mined no earlier than this date.[14] The genesis block has a timestamp of 18:15:05 GMT on 3 January 2009. This block is unlike all other blocks in that it doesn’t have a previous block to reference.[14] This required the use of custom code to mine it. Timestamps for subsequent blocks indicate that Nakamoto did not try to mine all the early blocks solely for himself.[14]

As the sole, predominant early miner, the inventor was awarded bitcoin at genesis and for 10 days afterwards.[15] Except for test transactions these remain unspent since mid January 2009.[15] The public bitcoin transaction log shows that Nakamoto’s known addresses contain roughly one million bitcoins.[16] As of 17December2017[update], this is worth over 19 billion USD.[17][18] This makes him the 44th richest person on Earth.[19]

Nakamoto has not disclosed any personal information when discussing technical matters.[4] He provided some commentary on banking and fractional-reserve banking. On his P2P Foundation profile as of 2012, Nakamoto claimed to be a 37-year-old male who lived in Japan,[20] but some speculated he was unlikely to be Japanese due to his use of perfect English and his bitcoin software not being documented or labelled in Japanese.[4]

Occasional British English spelling and terminology (such as the phrase “bloody hard”) in both source code comments and forum postings led to speculation that Nakamoto, or at least one individual in the consortium claiming to be him, was of Commonwealth origin.[4][6][21] Moreover, the first bitcoin block that could only be mined by Satoshi contains the encoded text The Times 03/Jan/2009 Chancellor on brink of second bailout for banks which implies that he was reading the London’s The Times newspaper at the time of the inception of bitcoin.[22][23]:18

Stefan Thomas, a Swiss coder and active community member, graphed the time stamps for each of Nakamoto’s bitcoin forum posts (more than 500); the resulting chart showed a steep decline to almost no posts between the hours of 5 a.m. and 11 a.m. Greenwich Mean Time. (Between 2pm and 8pm Japanese time, an unusual sleep pattern for someone presumably living in Japan) As this pattern held true even on Saturdays and Sundays, it suggested that Nakamoto was asleep at this time.[4]

Nakamoto’s initial email to Dai is dated 22 August 2008; the metadata for this PDF (pdftk bitcoin.pdf dump_data) yields as the CreationDate the value 20081003134958-07’00’ this implies 3 October 2008 or a bit over a month later, which is consistent with the local date mentioned in the Cypherpunk mailing list email. This is an earlier draft than the final draft on bitcoin.org, which is dated 20090324113315-06’00’ or 24 March 2009; the timezone differs: 7 vs 6.[24]

Gavin Andresen has said of Nakamoto’s code: “He was a brilliant coder, but it was quirky”.[25]

There is still doubt about the real identity of Satoshi Nakamoto.[26]

In December 2013, a blogger named Skye Grey linked Nick Szabo to the bitcoin whitepaper using a stylometric analysis.[27][28][29] Szabo is a decentralized currency enthusiast and published a paper on “bit gold”, which is considered a precursor to bitcoin.[28][29] He is known to have been interested in using pseudonyms in the 1990s.[30] In a May 2011 article, Szabo stated about the bitcoin creator: “Myself, Wei Dai, and Hal Finney were the only people I know of who liked the idea (or in Dai’s case his related idea) enough to pursue it to any significant extent until Nakamoto (assuming Nakamoto is not really Finney or Dai).”[31]

Detailed research by financial author Dominic Frisby provides much circumstantial evidence but, as he admits, no proof that Satoshi is Szabo.[32] Speaking on RT’s The Keiser Report, he said “I’ve concluded there is only one person in the whole world that has the sheer breadth but also the specificity of knowledge and it is this chap…”.[33] However, Szabo has denied being Satoshi. In a July 2014 email to Frisby, he said: ‘Thanks for letting me know. I’m afraid you got it wrong doxing me as Satoshi, but I’m used to it’.[34] Nathaniel Popper wrote in the New York Times that “the most convincing evidence pointed to a reclusive American man of Hungarian descent named Nick Szabo.”[35]

In a high-profile 6 March 2014 article in the magazine Newsweek,[36] journalist Leah McGrath Goodman identified Dorian Prentice Satoshi Nakamoto, a Japanese American man living in California, whose birth name is Satoshi Nakamoto,[36][37][38] as the Nakamoto in question. Besides his name, Goodman pointed to a number of facts that circumstantially suggested he was the bitcoin inventor.[36] Trained as a physicist at Cal Poly University in Pomona, Nakamoto worked as a systems engineer on classified defense projects and computer engineer for technology and financial information services companies. Nakamoto was laid off twice in the early 1990s and turned libertarian, according to his daughter, and encouraged her to start her own business “not under the government’s thumb.” In the article’s seemingly biggest piece of evidence, Goodman wrote that when she asked him about bitcoin during a brief in-person interview, Nakamoto seemed to confirm his identity as the bitcoin founder by stating: “I am no longer involved in that and I cannot discuss it. It’s been turned over to other people. They are in charge of it now. I no longer have any connection.”[36][39] The article’s publication led to a flurry of media interest, including reporters camping out near Dorian Nakamoto’s house and subtly chasing him by car when he drove to do an interview.[40] However, during the subsequent full-length interview, Dorian Nakamoto denied all connection to bitcoin, saying he had never heard of the currency before, and that he had misinterpreted Goodman’s question as being about his previous work for military contractors, much of which was classified.[41] In a Reddit “ask-me-anything” interview, he claimed he had misinterpreted Goodman’s question as being related to his work for Citibank.[42] Later that day, the pseudonymous Nakamoto’s P2P Foundation account posted its first message in five years, stating: “I am not Dorian Nakamoto.”[43][44] However, it is generally believed that Nakamoto’s P2P Foundation account had been hacked, and the message was not sent by him.[45][46][47]

Hal Finney (4 May 1956 28 August 2014) was a pre-bitcoin cryptographic pioneer and the first person (other than Nakamoto himself) to use the software, file bug reports, and make improvements.[48] He also lived a few blocks from Dorian Nakamoto’s family home, according to Forbes journalist Andy Greenberg.[49] Greenberg asked the writing analysis consultancy Juola & Associates to compare a sample of Finney’s writing to Satoshi Nakamoto’s, and they found that it was the closest resemblance they had yet come across (including the candidates suggested by Newsweek, Fast Company, The New Yorker, Ted Nelson and Skye Grey).[49] Greenberg theorized that Finney may have been a ghostwriter on behalf of Nakamoto, or that he simply used his neighbor Dorian’s identity as a “drop” or “patsy whose personal information is used to hide online exploits”. However, after meeting Finney, seeing the emails between him and Nakamoto and his bitcoin wallet’s history (including the very first bitcoin transaction from Nakamoto to him, which he forgot to pay back) and hearing his denial, Greenberg concluded that Finney was telling the truth. Juola & Associates also found that Nakamoto’s emails to Finney more closely resemble Nakamoto’s other writings than Finney’s do. Finney’s fellow extropian and sometimes co-blogger Robin Hanson assigned a subjective probability of “at least” 15% that “Hal was more involved than hes said”, before further evidence suggested that was not the case.[50]

On 8 December 2015, Wired wrote that Craig Steven Wright, an Australian academic, “either invented bitcoin or is a brilliant hoaxer who very badly wants us to believe he did”.[51] Craig Wright took down his Twitter account and neither he nor his ex-wife responded to press inquiries. The same day, Gizmodo published a story with evidence obtained by a hacker who supposedly broke into Wright’s email accounts, claiming that Satoshi Nakamoto was a joint pseudonym for Craig Steven Wright and computer forensics analyst David Kleiman, who died in 2013.[52] A number of prominent bitcoin promoters remained unconvinced by the reports.[53] Subsequent reports also raised the possibility that the evidence provided was an elaborate hoax,[54][55] which Wired acknowledged “cast doubt” on their suggestion that Wright was Nakamoto.[56]

On 9 December, only hours after Wired claimed Wright was Nakamoto, Wright’s home in Gordon, New South Wales was raided by at least ten police officers. His business premises in Ryde, New South Wales were also searched by police. The Australian Federal Police stated they conducted searches to assist the Australian Taxation Office and that “This matter is unrelated to recent media reporting regarding the digital currency bitcoin.”[57] According to a document released by Gizmodo alleged to be a transcript of a meeting between Wright and the ATO, he had been involved in a taxation dispute with them for several years.[52]

On 2 May 2016, Craig Wright posted on his blog publicly claiming to be Satoshi Nakamoto. In articles released on the same day, journalists from the BBC and The Economist stated that they saw Wright signing a message using the private key associated with the first bitcoin transaction.[58][59] During his BBC interview (which was also video recorded, aired and published by BBC News) Wright said:

Some people will believe, some people won’t, and to tell you the truth, I don’t really care. (…) I didn’t decide [to reveal my identity now]. People decided this matter for me. And they’re making life difficult not for me but my friends, my family, my staff. (…) They want to be private. They don’t want all of this to affect them. And I don’t want any of them to be impacted by this. None of it’s true. There are lots of stories out there that have been made up. And I don’t like it hurting those people I care about. So I am going to do this thing only once. And once only. I am going to come in front of a camera once. And I will never, ever, be on the camera ever again for any TV station, or any media, ever.

Wright’s claim was supported by Jon Matonis (former director of the Bitcoin Foundation) and bitcoin developer Gavin Andresen, both of whom met Wright and witnessed a similar signing demonstration.[60]

However, bitcoin developer Peter Todd said that Wright’s blog post, which appeared to contain cryptographic proof, actually contained nothing of the sort.[61] The Bitcoin Core project released a statement on Twitter saying “There is currently no publicly available cryptographic proof that anyone in particular is bitcoin’s creator.”[62][63] Bitcoin developer Jeff Garzik agreed that evidence publicly provided by Wright does not prove anything, and security researcher Dan Kaminsky concluded Wright’s claim was “intentional scammery”.[64][65]

On 4 May 2016, Wright made another post on his blog intimating his intentions to publish “a series of pieces that will lay the foundations for this extraordinary claim”.[66][67] But the following day, he deleted all his blog posts and replaced them with a notice entitled “I’m Sorry”, which read in part:

I believed that I could put the years of anonymity and hiding behind me. But, as the events of this week unfolded and I prepared to publish the proof of access to the earliest keys, I broke. I do not have the courage. I cannot.[68][69]

On Thursday 5 May 2016 shortly before closing his blog, Wright sent around an email link to a news story from an impostor site resembling SiliconAngle saying “Craig Wright faces criminal charges and serious jail time in UK”. Wright stated that “I am the source of terrorist funds as bitcoin creator or I am a fraud to the world. At least a fraud is able to see his family. There is nothing I can do.”[70].

In June 2016, the London Review of Books published an article by Andrew O’Hagan about the events, based on his book “The Secret Life: Three True Stories” in which O’Hagan spends several weeks with Wright at the request of Wright’s public relations team; which, as revealed in the book, was set up as a result of a business deal between Wright and various individuals including Calvin Ayre after bitcoin was created. All of those involved in the described business deal seemed to agree that they wanted a significant event in human history to be documented by a writer with complete impartiality and freedom to investigate. O’Hagan was with Wright during the time of his various media interviews. O’Hagan also interviews Wright’s wife, colleagues and many of the other people involved in his claims.[71][72][73] It also reveals that the Canadian company nTrust was behind Wright’s claim made in May 2016 (perhaps referencing nTrust as being the same entity which created the public relations team for Wright). Further, O’Hagan suggests that Wright provided an invalid private key because he was legally unable to provide the valid one as a result of legal obligations agreed as part of a Seychelles trust deal previously reached. O’Hagan’s book also corroborates the suggestion that both Wright and David Kleiman were the identies of the moniker “Satoshi Nakamoto”.

Following O’Hagan’s article, BBC journalist Rory Cellan-Jones (who interviewed Wright on camera for the BBC) wrote a follow up article citing O’Hagan’s account as the possible reasons for Wright’s apparent unwillingness to declare himself as Nakamoto:

To me, the key revelation is about this motivation.

He had told the BBC that he had not wanted to come out into the spotlight but needed to dispel damaging rumours affecting his family, friends and colleagues.

But O’Hagan shows us something rather different – a man under intense pressure from business associates who stood to profit from him if he could be shown to be Nakamoto.[74]

This is in reference to O’Hagan’s firsthand account, which describes business associates as being furious when they learned that Wright had provided invalid proof (despite showing them valid proof privately) and for his failure to disclose the details of the Seychelles Trust deal which meant that he could neither provide said proof publicly or yet gain access to the bitcoin attributed to Nakamoto. Cellan-Jones concludes his article by expressing doubts about Wright but admits “It seems very likely he was involved, perhaps as part of a team that included Dave Kleiman and Hal Finney, the recipient of the first transaction with the currency.”

The 2017 Netflix documentary titled Banking on Bitcoin concluded with an extract of Wright’s 2016 interview with the BBC.[75][76]

On February 14, 2018 a suit against Wright (said to be living in London) for more than US$10bn was lodged in a Florida court on behalf of David Kleiman’s estate, alleging that Wright has fraudulently appropriated Kleiman’s share of the bitcoins that he and Kleiman mined together.[77][78] The suit sets out much detail of the collaboration between Wright and Kleiman, but does not speculate on whether they or either of them created bitcoin.[79]

Ian Grigg, who is credited with inventing triple entry accounting [80]describes the events as follows[81]:

Firstly, Satoshi Nakamoto is not one human being. It is or was a team. Craig Wright named one person in his recent communications, being the late Dave Kleinman. Craig did not name others, nor should I. While he was the quintessential genius who had the original idea for Bitcoin and wrote the lion’s share of the code, Craig could not have done it alone. Satoshi Nakamoto was a team effort.

New Liberty Dollar issuer Joseph VaughnPerling says he met Wright at a conference in Amsterdam three years before publication of the Bitcoin paper and that Wright introduced himself as Satoshi Nakamoto at that time. [82][83]

In a 2011 article in The New Yorker, Joshua Davis claimed to have narrowed down the identity of Nakamoto to a number of possible individuals, including the Finnish economic sociologist Dr. Vili Lehdonvirta and Irish student Michael Clear,[84] then a graduate student in cryptography at Trinity College Dublin and now a post-doctoral student at Georgetown University.[85] Clear strongly denied he was Nakamoto,[86] as did Lehdonvirta.[87]

In October 2011, writing for Fast Company, investigative journalist Adam Penenberg cited circumstantial evidence suggesting Neal King, Vladimir Oksman and Charles Bry could be Nakamoto.[88] They jointly filed a patent application that contained the phrase “computationally impractical to reverse” in 2008, which was also used in the bitcoin white paper by Nakamoto.[89] The domain name bitcoin.org was registered three days after the patent was filed. All three men denied being Nakamoto when contacted by Penenberg.[88]

The late Dave Kleiman has been also named as a possible candidate, and Craig Wright claimed an association with him as well.[90]

In May 2013, Ted Nelson speculated that Nakamoto is really Japanese mathematician Shinichi Mochizuki.[91] Later, an article was published in The Age newspaper that claimed that Mochizuki denied these speculations, but without attributing a source for the denial.[92]

A 2013 article[93] in Vice listed Gavin Andresen, Jed McCaleb, or a government agency as possible candidates to be Nakamoto. Dustin D. Trammell, a Texas-based security researcher, was suggested as Nakamoto, but he publicly denied it.[94]

In 2013, two Israeli mathematicians, Dorit Ron and Adi Shamir, published a paper claiming a link between Nakamoto and Ross William Ulbricht. The two based their suspicion on an analysis of the network of bitcoin transactions,[95] but later retracted their claim.[96]

Some have considered that Nakamoto might be a team of people: Dan Kaminsky, a security researcher who read the bitcoin code,[97] said that Nakamoto could either be a “team of people” or a “genius”;[21] Laszlo Hanyecz, a former Bitcoin Core developer who had emailed Nakamoto, had the feeling the code was too well designed for one person.[4]

A 2017 article[98] published by a former SpaceX intern espoused the possibility of SpaceX and Tesla CEO Elon Musk being the real Satoshi, based on Musk’s technical expertise with financial software and history of publishing whitepapers. However, in a tweet on November 28th, Musk denied the claim.[99]

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Satoshi Nakamoto – Wikipedia

Satoshi Nakamoto Institute

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Satoshi Nakamoto Institute