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Who is Satoshi Nakamoto? A Look at the Candidates

Bitcoin was conceived as a communal project. Designed as an open-source software and released to the public in 2009, Bitcoin was conceived with openness in mind. Functioning on an open ledger that is accessible to the public, Bitcoin is an open-source project.

But despite all its openness, one grand mystery remains unsolved:

Who Created Bitcoin and Who exactly is Satoshi Nakamoto?

Finding an answer to this question isnt easy. We know that all the code that created Bitcoin originated with Satoshi Nakamoto, but that is about all we know. Satoshi Nakamoto didnt work alone on launching Bitcoin.

Some of the early Bitcoin devs have been pointed to as possible Satoshis, but there are numerous issues when it comes to proving that any specific person was the creator of Bitcoin.

First, lets detail what is known for certain. The first step was taken in 2007, when Nakamoto wrote the Bitcoin code. In November 2008, Satoshi Nakamoto published hisnow famous White Paper, which laid the groundwork for the Bitcoin protocol.

On January 3rd, 2009, the first ever Bitcoin block was mined, marking the creation of the cryptocurrency, it bore the message :

The Times 03/Jan/2009 Chancellor on brink of second bailout for banks

Satoshi was heavily involved with the Bitcoin community, and collaborated with them in order to modify the underlying bitcoin protocol. After two years of involvement, Nakamoto handed the reins to Gavin Andresen, and seized involvement with the Bitcoin project in December of 2010.

In the Spring of 2011, Nakamoto returned to leave a final message, stating in a post that he had moved on to other things, and that Bitcoin was in good hands with Gavin [Andresen] and everyone. That was the last the world heard of the secretive Bitcoin creator.

The mystery behind Nakamotos identity has only grown, as the Bitcoin community eagerly speculates who it could potentially be. Satoshi Nakamoto claims to be Japanese, born on April 5, 1975. To this day, it is unknown whether Nakamoto is male or female, or whether Nakamoto is even a single person or a group of individuals.

Today most people are familiar with digital currency, thanks to the epic crypto rally of 2017. Back in 2008 when this was all getting started, the cryptocurrency world was a lot smaller. We know for sure that some of the people we talk about below knew each other.

In the case of David Kleiman and Craig Wright, there is solid evidence that the two worked together to get bitcoin off the ground, and both had substantial amounts of the tokens. There is an ongoing saga between Kleimans estate and Wright, alleging that there could have been some kind of graft, and that Wright ended up with bitcoins that were rightfully Kleimans.

You might notice that we wrote Kleimans estate and not Kleiman. The sad fact is that some of the people who could be Satoshi Nakamoto have died, which makes a positive identification much harder.

When the first bitcoins were being mined, basically nobody cared about them. The first bitcoin transaction was a trade of 10,000 BTC for two pizzas, which should give you some idea of how playful some of the early devs were with their project. There are a lot of questions surrounding the origins of Bitcoin, and as time goes on, they may become harder to answer.

While Nakamotos identity remains unknown, This has not stopped enthusiasts from investigating his background and drawing up conclusions.

Nakamotos use of perfect English in his posts and his publication of the White Paper has raised skepticism as to his Japanese origin. Furthermore, his occasional use of British English in the code and comments has fueled speculation that he is a native English speaker of commonwealth origin.

Additionally, Stefan Thomas, a Swiss coder and active member in the Bitcoin community, graphed the time stamps of Nakamotos more than 500 posts, showing his or her complete absence of posts between midnight am and 6 am Greenwich Time, further informing investigators as to his potential whereabouts.

To date, there are several potential individuals suspected of being the mysterious Bitcoin creator. One of the first suggestions was Nick Szabo, a decentralized currency enthusiast who published a paper on Bit Gold considered to be a precursor to the first cryptocurrency.

By running a reverse textual analysis, internet researcher Skye Grey found dozens of unique phrases that linked Szabos writing style to that of the original whitepaper. This evidence is only circumstantial, however, and Szabo has repeatedly denied that he is the creator of Bitcoin.

Despite all the denials, the research into how the Bitcoin whitepaper was written shows remarkable similarities between how Szabo writes, and also what was omitted. One of the most curious things is that Satoshi Nakamoto made numerous references to ideas that had been used by Bit Gold, but never talked about Bit Gold directly.

Omitting the origin of relevant ideas strange, unless Szabo was deliberately trying to cover up his tracks. None of this is hard evidence, and to date Szabo has flatly denied being the key driver of Bitcoins launch.

Nick Szabo, Image from The-Blockchain

Another possibility is a Japanese American man living in California, named Dorian Prentice Satoshi Nakamoto, birth name Satoshi Nakamoto. First brought up in a March 2014 Newsweek article, Leah McGrath Goodman pointed to Nakamotos training as a physicist at Cal Poly University in Pomona and libertarian background as potential indicators of his identity.

Goodmans biggest piece of evidence was his response to a question regarding Bitcoin: I am no longer involved in that and I cannot discuss it. Its been turned over to other people. They are in charge of it now. I no longer have any connection.This led to a wild media frenzy, which even included a car chase.

However, in a later interview, he recanted his previous position, stating that he had misunderstood the reporters question, thinking it was related to his previous classified work as a military contractor.

Dorian Prentice Satoshi Nakamoto, Image from The Verge.

David Kleiman had an interesting life, and was certainly involved in the beginnings of Bitcoin. His involvement with Bitcoin goes back to its earliest days, and he was one of the first Bitcoin miners. Kleiman had a long standing interest in computer security, and had designed systems that were used by the highest levels of the US government to secure their digital systems.

After becoming a paraplegic in a motorcycle accident, Kleiman went barreling into the world of cryptography. He was on the Metzdowd list, which may be where he first came in contact with the Bitcoin whitepaper.

Another theory puts him and Craig Wright at the center of the project. Gizmodo cites an email that allegedly came from Wright that states,

I need your help editing a paper I am going to release later this year. I have been working on a new form of electronic money. Bit cash, Bitcoin and also, You are always there for me Dave. I want you to be a part of it all.

The email is alleged to predate the release of the Bitcoin whitepaper by a few months, which would make it a key piece of evidence in the search for Satoshi Nakamotos true identity.

Sadly, Kleiman died in 2013 under mysterious circumstances, which effectively eliminates him as a future source of information. Given his aptitude for data security, whatever digital information he left behind is also probably going to be difficult to access.

David Kleiman, Image from Gizmodo

Hal Finney is another potential candidate to be the mysterious Satoshi Nakamoto. Finney was a pre-bitcoin cryptographic pioneer and was only the second person after Nakamoto himself to make use of the software, file bug reports, and suggest improvements.

Finney was the first to ever receive Bitcoin, stating in an interview that [he] was the recipient of the first bitcoin transaction, when Satoshi sent ten coins to [him] as a test.

Forbes journalist Andy Greenberg speculated after requesting aid from writing analysis consultancy Juola & Associates that Greenberg may have been the ghostwriter for Satoshi Nakamoto.

Further adding to the speculation that Finney was involved with the creation of Bitcoin was his correspondence with the aforementioned Nick Szabo, and the fact that he lived only blocks apart from Dorian Prentice Satoshi Nakamoto.

At the time of his death on August 28, 2014, only circumstantial evidence pointed to Hal Finney being the original Satoshi Nakamoto.

Hal Finney, Image from Wired.

Yet another possible contender to be Satoshi Nakamoto is the Australian academic, computer engineering expert, and entrepreneur, Craig Wright.

In early November of 2015, Gizmodo received an anonymous email (referenced above) from an individual stating that not only did he know that Craig Wright was the creator of Bitcoin, but that he had also worked for him.

On December 9, hours afterWiredcertified that Wright was indeed Nakamoto, the Australian Federal Police raided his home, and afterwards stating the [the] matter is unrelated to recent media reporting regarding the digital currency Bitcoin.

Afterwards, Wright deleted his internet presence until May of 2016, when he stepped forward and revealed himself on Twitter as the creator of the digital currency Bitcoin, and claimed he had the proof to back up his statement. Then, amid a torrent of skepticism, Wright retracted his statement and did not offer the extraordinary proof he claimed to have, stating that he did not have the courage to prove his identity.

Craig Wright, Image from CCN.

In an era where information is widespread, Satoshi Nakamoto has managed to maintain his identity a complete secret. So why is uncovering Nakamotos identity so important? If Nakamoto is indeed a single individual, then he or she owns approximately 5% of the worlds Bitcoin supply, placing him or her as the 52nd richest person in the world as of December 12th.

The implications of this wealth are considerable, beyond even the real world implications. If Satoshi Nakamoto were ever to sell the rumored 980,000 Bitcoins in his or her possession (currently worth over $3.9 billion at todays price, as of 18th March 2019 ), the price of Bitcoincould potentially become more volatile than it already is.

A quote that is attributed to Mayer Amschel Rothschild goes like this, Permit me to issue and control the money of a nation, and I care not who makes its laws!

Like many famous quotes, the authenticity of the above statement is questionable.

On the other hand, the idea expressed is rock-solid. The power-of-the-purse is one of the most important ideas in modern political ideology. Being able to control the issuance of a popular currency gives the controller extreme amounts of power.Bitcoin undermines the idea of a central bank, or the involvement of centralized authorities at their most basic level. As the last decade has shown, the idea of decentralized money or political systems has been met with extreme opposition by many established organizations.

Satoshi Nakamoto wrote,

The root problem with conventional currency is all the trust thats required to make it work. The central bank must be trusted not to debase the currency, but the history of fiat currencies is full of breaches of that trust. Banks must be trusted to hold our money and transfer it electronically, but they lend it out in waves of credit bubbles with barely a fraction in reserve. We have to trust them with our privacy, trust them not to let identity thieves drain our accounts, in their now-famous 2009 whitepaper.

In 2008 no one would have seen Satoshi Nakamoto as a threat to global socioeconomic system. Today, that probably isnt true. Nations like China have banned cryptos outright, and the Western central banking cartel has been vocal in its opposition to widespread use of cryptos.

Whoever Satoshi Nakamoto is, they are likely wise to have dropped off the radar when they did. The idea that fiat money could be replaced with a system that marginalizes central authorities is extremely dangerous to the people that currently hold power.

Anyone who could act as a lightening-rod for a global decentralized society would probably face some pretty nasty blowback.

Furthermore, there is significant debate as to the future of Bitcoin. Heated discussions have arisen due to some of the growing pains surrounding Bitcoin, particularly the issue of how to deal with an increase in transaction volume in the Bitcoin network. As the number of blocks increases, the Bitcoin network runs the risk of becoming overloaded.

One side of the debate wants to fundamentally change the Bitcoin node by increasing the block size, in order to allow the system to process transactions more quickly. The other side of the debate sees this as a betrayal of the original concept behind Bitcoin, arguing that this would lead to increased centralization.

Identifying Bitcoins true creator would create more certainty and could potentially lay down the following steps in Bitcoins ever growing development.

The Bitcoin community will be forced to coexist with the enigma that is Satoshi Nakamoto, whether they like it or not. There are a few ways that Satoshi Nakamoto could show that they are, in fact, the creator of Bitcoin, but convincing the entire crypto community will be a challenge.

Even if a plausible Satoshi came forward, they would probably have to deal with ongoing doubts from within the crypto community, and untold difficulties from the global power structure. The raid on Craig Wright by the AFP is a small taste of the legal morass that the real Satoshi Nakamoto would find themselves facing.

Ultimately, identifying Bitcoins creator may be a quixotic endeavor. His or her complete silence since the Spring of 2011 means it is likely we will never hear from them again. Nevertheless, Bitcoin, the open source digital currency created nearly a decade ago, will continue to in spite of this mystery.

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Who is Satoshi Nakamoto? A Look at the Candidates

satoshi nakamoto – ccn.com

Almost 100,000 bitcoin transactions are currently stuck, waiting to move, with around $30,000 in fees queued for miners to pick up. The mempool backlog is above 56MB. The network

Bitcoin Foundation chief scientist and core developer Gavin Andresen believes engineers are losing sight of bitcoins bigger picture, according to a recently-posted blog. Hence, he has proposed what he

Visit link:

satoshi nakamoto – ccn.com

Satoshi Nakamoto: 9 Interesting Facts You Need To Know

Like the dramatic quest ofHollywood movieFinding Nemo,this quest of finding Satoshi Nakamoto the inventor of Bitcoin has also been dramatic.

Its fascinating to see how Bitcoin has become a multi-billion dollar thing, yet the Father of Bitcoin is still missing.

Satoshi Nakamoto made the Bitcoin software in 2008 and made it open source in January 2009.

And in 2010, Satoshi disappeared.

No one even knows what pronoun to use(he, she, or they)while referring to Satoshi Nakamoto because it is still not clear whether he/she is a person or a group of people.

Whomever Satoshi Nakamoto might be, there are some interesting facts about the entity that gave birth to this multi-billion dollar industry of cryptocurrencies.

Here are 9 interesting facts

1. Why is Satoshi Nakamoto Famous?

The name Satoshi Nakamoto is the pseudonym of the inventor of Bitcoin. In 2008, someone used this name and mailed the Bitcoin white paper to a cryptographic mailing list.

This mailing list contained renowned people who believedin decentralization and cryptography.

Thats why this name is so famous.

As is apparent from the name, its assumed that he was a Japanese man, but his flawless use of English in the white paper raises doubts about this conclusion.

2. Satoshis Net Worth

It is believed that Satoshi Nakamoto owns 1 million bitcoins(or more) which makes his present net worth at the time of writing this article to be $2.6 billion.

In 2009 January, Satoshi mined the Genesis block, andin 2010, he officially stopped communicating. Between this period, the bitcoins came into existence exist on the blockchain ledger, but they have not been used or spent. Thisproves how much Satoshi owns.

1 million BTC is a huge number which, if dumped suddenly, could wreak havoc on the crypto market. Thats why Bitcoin has also earned the title of being a Ponzi scheme-because the speculative founder owns a significant share.

3. Satoshis T-Shirts

The anonymity of Bitcoins founder has led to a mushrooming of a totally new merchandising concept. Now you can buy T-Shirts with Satoshi Nakamoto things printed on it.

Things like:

You can buy one for yourself from e-commerce sites likeZazzleandTeespring.

4. Satoshi Nakamoto is Possibly A Group Of Companies

Some even suggest that Samsung, Toshiba, Nakamichi, and Motorola together created Bitcoin, as you can tell from their names:

Satoshi Nakamoto

However, there is no official proof for such a conclusion.

5. Satoshi Nakamoto is PossiblyNick Szabo

Nick Szabo, a US computer scientist, and cryptographer is considered by some to be the founder of Bitcoin. Nick coined the concept of digital currency for the digital age by creating Bit Gold. Bit Gold was the ancestor of Bitcoin. However, it was not used by the masses because of limitations.

After analysis of Satoshis white paper, a blogger concluded that Nick Szabo was Satoshi Nakamoto. but Nick has never accepted this hypothesis.

6. Satoshi Nakamoto is PossiblyCraig Steven Wright

Craig Wright, an Australian Entrepreneur, claimed to the BBC on 2nd May 2016 to be the inventor of Bitcoin. However, when examined by core Bitcoin developers like Peter Todd, Craig was unable to provide any acceptable supporting evidence for such a claim.

Though initially, he said he would come back with relevant evidence, he failed to do so, and said on his blog that he was sorry and didnt have the courage to continue.

7. Satoshi Nakamoto is PossiblyDorian Nakamoto

In March 2014, another speculation came on the identity of Satoshi. A news source claimed that they had found Satoshi, and he lived inCalifornia, USA.

His full name, as reported, was Dorian Prentice Satoshi Nakamoto. He was aphysicist and a systems engineer who had recently been laid off by the government.

Later on, the person identified denied all such claims and said he is not the Nakamoto which everyone has been searching for.

8.Satoshi Nakamoto is PossiblyHal Finney

Hal was a cryptographer even before his involvement with Bitcoin. He was on the mailing list that received Satoshi Nakamotos Bitcoin white paper.

Hal claimed that he had been communicating with Satoshi to support his testing, which led to the speculative conclusion that he himself was Satoshi.

Hals writing style also closely resembles that of Satoshis in the Bitcoin white paper. The suspicion evaporated when he showed his email conversation with Satoshi, but that could just be a diversion tactic.

Fun fact:Hal was the first person to receive a Bitcoin transaction from Satoshi on January 12, 2009, after Satoshi mined the genesis block on3rd January 2009 at 18:15:05 GMT.

9. Fast Company Found Satoshi Nakamoto

An employee of Fast Company, a media brand, said thatNeal King, Vladimir Oksman, and Charles Bry were the group of people that created Bitcoin. This employee proved it by searching unique phrases in Satoshis white paper.

They even patented the phrase which appears on the Bitcoin white paper computationally impractical to reverse.

However, all of them have publically denied such allegations.

Whatever anyone may say or think, the anonymity factor of Satoshi Nakamoto has proven to be healthy for Bitcoin.

But theres still a big mystery here:

Where is Satoshi, what is Satoshi doing, and why is Satoshi hiding?

No one knows the truth.

I would like to end this article by quoting two very early adopters of Bitcoin, Erik Voorhees andRoger Ver(two people who are definitely worth following on Twitter).

Bitcoin is the most important invention in the history of the world since the internet.

Roger Ver, Bitcoin Jesus

Can we take a moment to reflect on the fact that the Bitcoin protocol STILL hasn’t been hacked? One of the greatest comp sci accomplishments

Erik Voorhees (@ErikVoorhees) May 13, 2015

This shows how important Bitcoin, blockchain technology, and of course, Satoshi Nakamoto all are!

And yes, Bitcoin has become more important than a single individual, but we would all love to solve this mystery once and for all.

If you know any more interesting facts that I have missed in this article, thendo let me know in the comments below!!!

And if you liked this post, dont forget to share it!

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Satoshi Nakamoto: 9 Interesting Facts You Need To Know

New Information Heightens Satoshi Nakamoto Mystery – Bitcoin News

For close to ten years many people have been on the hunt for the elusive Satoshi Nakamoto, creator of the decentralized technology called Bitcoin. This year the race to find the anonymous character, or group of individuals, who designed the peer-to-peer electronic cash system has been hotter than ever with more clues left behind Heres what we know so far.

**This is part one of a two-part story. Part two features a full-length interview with a man who claims to be a member of the Satoshi Nakamoto group, but has no verifiable proof. Part two can be read here**

Satoshi Nakamoto is the anonymous creator of the Bitcoin technology and the entire cryptocurrency economy today is based on Nakamotos words and original code. Satoshi is an unknown person or group who wrote the original white paper, launched the network, made the first transaction, communicated with software developers between 2008-2010, and possibly possesses over 1 million bitcoins. Since the creation of blockchain technology lots of people and news-outlets like Newsweek, Wired, Gizmodo, BBC, GQ, New York Times, Bloomberg, Fast Company, and many others have tried to uncover the mystery. Theres a lot of evidence, clues, and research on the subject and multiple suspects.

Some people believe knowing who Satoshi is doesnt matter. Other people believe Bitcoins creator does matter, as he could possibly help with scaling conflicts, and then theres the possibility of the alleged 1M bitcoins mined could affect the price if they were dumped on the market. Either way the hunt for Satoshi just out of mere curiosity alone has encouraged armchair sleuths and journalists to seek out the unknown person(s).

One of the first suspects in the search for Nakamoto is Hal Finney, a man who worked with Satoshi during the early days testing the protocol. Finney was an excellent cryptographer and was allegedly the first person to run the original Bitcoin protocol. Back in 2014 the journalist Andy Greenberg wrote an article called Nakamotos Neighbor: My Hunt For Bitcoins Creator Led To A Paralyzed Crypto Genius which explains that Hal Finney could have been Satoshi. According to Greenbergs article, Finney could have also helped the Satoshi group ghost write some of the writings shared online. The reason this theory is bolstered is because the well-known writing analysis organization, Juola & Associates, detailed that Nakamotos and Finneys writings had the closest resemblance.

Another accused person who many people believe is Satoshi is the computer scientist Nick Szabo. The financial author Dominic Frisby had shown some circumstantial evidence in his novel connecting Szabo to Nakamoto. Szabo has denied being Nakamoto in an email to Frisby concerning the subject. Furthermore, Szabo has been linked to Satoshi Nakamoto through a writing analysis called stylometry. A writer named Skye Grey (and others) seem to believe Szabos writings are very similar to the Bitcoin white paper.

In 2014 the reporter Leah McGrath Goodman wrote an article for the publication Newsweek which said a Japanese American man living in California was the elusive creator of Bitcoin. Dorian Prentice Satoshi Nakamoto, whose real birth name is Satoshi Nakamoto, is an engineer who worked on many classified defense projects as a contractor for multiple businesses. The Newsweek reporters evidence was when she asked Dorian about Bitcoin he replied: I am no longer involved in that and I cannot discuss it. However, after the article had published Dorian denied being involved with the creation of the Bitcoin technology and said he misinterpreted Goodmans original question. Dorian has been praised as a lovable guy who was a victim of bad journalism.

The Australian academic Craig Steven Wright first got major attention on December 8, 2015, after appearing with his partner David Kleiman in two articles written by Wired, and then Gizmodo. Allegedly a hacker had stolen emails from Wright which explain that he and Kleiman were part of the Satoshi Nakamoto group, which may also have had 1-2 more players. There are numerous other articles by Motherboard Vice, and others that have different clues to the Craig Wright case. After the articles, Wright subsequentlydeleted his online presence and wasnt heard from again until May 2, 2016.

In 2016, Wright reappeared and claimed he was Satoshi Nakamoto, and when he returned both Gavin Andresen and Jon Matonis vouched for his claim. Furthermore, Wright attempted to show cryptographic proof that he was Satoshi Nakamoto, but these claims were refuted by some researchers and called fraudulent by others.

Now this year more clues have been unraveling in regard to the Craig Wright case. Back in February 2018, Wright was sued for billions by the family of David Kleiman. The case 9:18-cv-80176-bb filed in Florida explains the plaintiff Ira Kleiman wants a settlement for 300,000BTC. According to the case, which also corroborates with the Wired and Gizmodo articles, the court documents explainthat Wright, Kleiman, and possibly others have keys to a BTC trust held in escrow in Seychelles which may unlock in 2020. The Tulip Trust will allegedly give Wright 1 million BTC, and Ira Kleiman (Davids sibling) believes his brothers estate deserves their share. Evidence online shows that Wright and Kleiman were partners in business, along with a secretary named Uyen Nguyenwhose online presence has disappeared. Other than that, the main evidence from case9:18-cv-80176-bb stems from the emails Ira Kleiman has and stories his brother David told him.

Then on August 29, a man named Phil Wilson, who has written some interesting topics on the origins of Bitcoinlast year, discussed the Tulip Trust on Twitter. Wilson claims to be a member of the Satoshi Nakamoto group, and worked with Wright and Kleiman on the project during the Genesis days. Wilson has also written about the creation of the Bitcoin logo, and explains that he was the person who designed the original symbol. However Wilson says I dont have access to any emails or IRC logs to reference and confirm specific events, actions or dates, but its not complete fiction because some of the main events took place similarly to how Ive recalled them. Wilson says his assistants/ surrogates were Dave Kleiman and Craig Wright, and they mostly knew him as Jamie. Moreover, Wilson details that on January 1, 2020, the 1 million BTC in the trust addresses will unlock and Wright will have access to the funds.

However, a few days later after Wilson tweeted about the Tulip Trust, Wright wrote four posts on Twitter specifically directed at Wilsons recent statements and origin story.

One thing I will say Phil Wilson knew nothing at all about bitcoin before 2011 and that he tried to extort me for money I shall provide sufficient evidence to enable a criminal fraud prosecution against Scronty, explains Craig Wright on August 31. This material shall be compiled and released in September It shall include his extortion attempt and far more Sorry He has nothing to do with Bitcoin, and his fall will be an example.

There is no Phil Jamie Wilson Jamie Wilson is a completely separate person to Phil Wilson. So, any emails involving myself and Jamie are unrelated to P Wilsons identity fraud.

Following this, news.Bitcoin.com discussed the Bitcoin origins story with Phil Wilson who doesnt have any hard evidence that he was part of the group, but says he has the right to express his memories. We asked him about the latest Twitter statements Craig Wright was writing publicly about him and his online alias Scronty.

Craig seems to be a tad aggressive towards a supposed no-body,’ Wilson explains to news.Bitcoin.com.

News.Bitcoin.com (BC): Ok. But you say you worked with Craig and Dave?

Phil Wilson (PW):I initially was trying to help Craig with his attempt at an electronic cash. I left his project in mid-May 2008 when it became apparent that it would never work.Then I started my own project in early June 2008 and got Dave and Craig to help me with it.

BC: That would be the original client?

PW: Yep What everyone knows as Bitcoin evolved out of my project, not Craigs.Practically nothing from his code was left. Only the generic crypto functions were taken from his codebase (which was copy/ pasted from elsewhere). The white paper hed been working on from before 2007 was effectively thrown out. It was complete junk. Just a mish-mash of other peoples white papers.

To be continued: The rest of the interview with Phil Wilson will be published in its entirety in the next part of this story. News.Bitcoin.com readers can read part two here.

What do you think about the latest clues concerning Satoshi Nakamotos identity? Do you believe any of these theories and claims? Let us know what you think in the comment section below.

Images via Shutterstock, Wiki Commons, Twitter, Gizmodo, Newsweek, and Pixabay.

At news.Bitcoin.com all comments containing links are automatically held up for moderation in the Disqus system. That means an editor has to take a look at the comment to approve it. This is due to the many, repetitive, spam and scam links people post under our articles. We do not censor any comment content based on politics or personal opinions. So, please be patient. Your comment will be published.

Jamie Redman is a financial tech journalist living in Florida. Redman has been an active member of the cryptocurrency community since 2011. He has a passion for Bitcoin, open source code, and decentralized applications. Redman has written thousands of articles for news.Bitcoin.com about the disruptive protocols emerging today.

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New Information Heightens Satoshi Nakamoto Mystery – Bitcoin News

Who is Satoshi Nakamoto? We Look at The Possible Candidates …

Bitcoin was conceived as a communal project. Designed as an open-source software and released to the public in 2009, Bitcoin was conceived with openness in mind. Functioning on an open ledger that is accessible to the public, Bitcoin is an open-source project.

But despite all its openness, one grand mystery remains unsolved:

Who Created Bitcoin and Who exactly is Satoshi Nakamoto?

Finding an answer to this question isnt easy. We know that all the code that created Bitcoin originated with Satoshi Nakamoto, but that is about all we know. Satoshi Nakamoto didnt work alone on launching Bitcoin.

Some of the early Bitcoin devs have been pointed to as possible Satoshis, but there are numerous issues when it comes to proving that any specific person was the creator of Bitcoin.

First, lets detail what is known for certain. The first step was taken in 2007, when Nakamoto wrote the Bitcoin code. In November 2008, Satoshi Nakamoto published hisnow famous White Paper, which laid the groundwork for the Bitcoin protocol.

On January 3rd, 2009, the first ever Bitcoin block was mined, marking the creation of the cryptocurrency, it bore the message :

The Times 03/Jan/2009 Chancellor on brink of second bailout for banks

Satoshi was heavily involved with the Bitcoin community, and collaborated with them in order to modify the underlying bitcoin protocol. After two years of involvement, Nakamoto handed the reins to Gavin Andresen, and seized involvement with the Bitcoin project in December of 2010.

In the Spring of 2011, Nakamoto returned to leave a final message, stating in a post that he had moved on to other things, and that Bitcoin was in good hands with Gavin [Andresen] and everyone. That was the last the world heard of the secretive Bitcoin creator.

The mystery behind Nakamotos identity has only grown, as the Bitcoin community eagerly speculates who it could potentially be. Satoshi Nakamoto claims to be Japanese, born on April 5, 1975. To this day, it is unknown whether Nakamoto is male or female, or whether Nakamoto is even a single person or a group of individuals.

Today most people are familiar with digital currency, thanks to the epic crypto rally of 2017. Back in 2008 when this was all getting started, the cryptocurrency world was a lot smaller. We know for sure that some of the people we talk about below knew each other.

In the case of David Kleiman and Craig Wright, there is solid evidence that the two worked together to get bitcoin off the ground, and both had substantial amounts of the tokens. There is an ongoing saga between Kleimans estate and Wright, alleging that there could have been some kind of graft, and that Wright ended up with bitcoins that were rightfully Kleimans.

You might notice that we wrote Kleimans estate and not Kleiman. The sad fact is that some of the people who could be Satoshi Nakamoto have died, which makes a positive identification much harder.

When the first bitcoins were being mined, basically nobody cared about them. The first bitcoin transaction was a trade of 10,000 BTC for two pizzas, which should give you some idea of how playful some of the early devs were with their project. There are a lot of questions surrounding the origins of Bitcoin, and as time goes on, they may become harder to answer.

While Nakamotos identity remains unknown, This has not stopped enthusiasts from investigating his background and drawing up conclusions.

Nakamotos use of perfect English in his posts and his publication of the White Paper has raised skepticism as to his Japanese origin. Furthermore, his occasional use of British English in the code and comments has fueled speculation that he is a native English speaker of commonwealth origin.

Additionally, Stefan Thomas, a Swiss coder and active member in the Bitcoin community, graphed the time stamps of Nakamotos more than 500 posts, showing his or her complete absence of posts between midnight am and 6 am Greenwich Time, further informing investigators as to his potential whereabouts.

To date, there are several potential individuals suspected of being the mysterious Bitcoin creator. One of the first suggestions was Nick Szabo, a decentralized currency enthusiast who published a paper on Bit Gold considered to be a precursor to the first cryptocurrency.

By running a reverse textual analysis, internet researcher Skye Grey found dozens of unique phrases that linked Szabos writing style to that of the original whitepaper. This evidence is only circumstantial, however, and Szabo has repeatedly denied that he is the creator of Bitcoin.

Despite all the denials, the research into how the Bitcoin whitepaper was written shows remarkable similarities between how Szabo writes, and also what was omitted. One of the most curious things is that Satoshi Nakamoto made numerous references to ideas that had been used by Bit Gold, but never talked about Bit Gold directly.

Omitting the origin of relevant ideas strange, unless Szabo was deliberately trying to cover up his tracks. None of this is hard evidence, and to date Szabo has flatly denied being the key driver of Bitcoins launch.

Nick Szabo, Image from The-Blockchain

Another possibility is a Japanese American man living in California, named Dorian Prentice Satoshi Nakamoto, birth name Satoshi Nakamoto. First brought up in a March 2014 Newsweek article, Leah McGrath Goodman pointed to Nakamotos training as a physicist at Cal Poly University in Pomona and libertarian background as potential indicators of his identity.

Goodmans biggest piece of evidence was his response to a question regarding Bitcoin: I am no longer involved in that and I cannot discuss it. Its been turned over to other people. They are in charge of it now. I no longer have any connection.This led to a wild media frenzy, which even included a car chase.

However, in a later interview, he recanted his previous position, stating that he had misunderstood the reporters question, thinking it was related to his previous classified work as a military contractor.

Dorian Prentice Satoshi Nakamoto, Image from The Verge.

David Kleiman had an interesting life, and was certainly involved in the beginnings of Bitcoin. His involvement with Bitcoin goes back to its earliest days, and he was one of the first Bitcoin miners. Kleiman had a long standing interest in computer security, and had designed systems that were used by the highest levels of the US government to secure their digital systems.

After becoming a paraplegic in a motorcycle accident, Kleiman went barreling into the world of cryptography. He was on the Metzdowd list, which may be where he first came in contact with the Bitcoin whitepaper.

Another theory puts him and Craig Wright at the center of the project. Gizmodo cites an email that allegedly came from Wright that states,

I need your help editing a paper I am going to release later this year. I have been working on a new form of electronic money. Bit cash, Bitcoin and also, You are always there for me Dave. I want you to be a part of it all.

The email is alleged to predate the release of the Bitcoin whitepaper by a few months, which would make it a key piece of evidence in the search for Satoshi Nakamotos true identity.

Sadly, Kleiman died in 2013 under mysterious circumstances, which effectively eliminates him as a future source of information. Given his aptitude for data security, whatever digital information he left behind is also probably going to be difficult to access.

David Kleiman, Image from Gizmodo

Hal Finney is another potential candidate to be the mysterious Satoshi Nakamoto. Finney was a pre-bitcoin cryptographic pioneer and was only the second person after Nakamoto himself to make use of the software, file bug reports, and suggest improvements.

Finney was the first to ever receive Bitcoin, stating in an interview that [he] was the recipient of the first bitcoin transaction, when Satoshi sent ten coins to [him] as a test.

Forbes journalist Andy Greenberg speculated after requesting aid from writing analysis consultancy Juola & Associates that Greenberg may have been the ghostwriter for Satoshi Nakamoto.

Further adding to the speculation that Finney was involved with the creation of Bitcoin was his correspondence with the aforementioned Nick Szabo, and the fact that he lived only blocks apart from Dorian Prentice Satoshi Nakamoto.

At the time of his death on August 28, 2014, only circumstantial evidence pointed to Hal Finney being the original Satoshi Nakamoto.

Hal Finney, Image from Wired.

Yet another possible contender to be Satoshi Nakamoto is the Australian academic, computer engineering expert, and entrepreneur, Craig Wright.

In early November of 2015, Gizmodo received an anonymous email (referenced above) from an individual stating that not only did he know that Craig Wright was the creator of Bitcoin, but that he had also worked for him.

On December 9, hours afterWiredcertified that Wright was indeed Nakamoto, the Australian Federal Police raided his home, and afterwards stating the [the] matter is unrelated to recent media reporting regarding the digital currency Bitcoin.

Afterwards, Wright deleted his internet presence until May of 2016, when he stepped forward and revealed himself on Twitter as the creator of the digital currency Bitcoin, and claimed he had the proof to back up his statement. Then, amid a torrent of skepticism, Wright retracted his statement and did not offer the extraordinary proof he claimed to have, stating that he did not have the courage to prove his identity.

Craig Wright, Image from CCN.

In an era where information is widespread, Satoshi Nakamoto has managed to maintain his identity a complete secret. So why is uncovering Nakamotos identity so important? If Nakamoto is indeed a single individual, then he or she owns approximately 5% of the worlds Bitcoin supply, placing him or her as the 52nd richest person in the world as of December 12th.

The implications of this wealth are considerable, beyond even the real world implications. If Satoshi Nakamoto were ever to sell the rumored 980,000 Bitcoins in his or her possession (currently worth over $3.9 billion at todays price, as of 18th March 2019 ), the price of Bitcoincould potentially become more volatile than it already is.

A quote that is attributed to Mayer Amschel Rothschild goes like this, Permit me to issue and control the money of a nation, and I care not who makes its laws!

Like many famous quotes, the authenticity of the above statement is questionable.

On the other hand, the idea expressed is rock-solid. The power-of-the-purse is one of the most important ideas in modern political ideology. Being able to control the issuance of a popular currency gives the controller extreme amounts of power.Bitcoin undermines the idea of a central bank, or the involvement of centralized authorities at their most basic level. As the last decade has shown, the idea of decentralized money or political systems has been met with extreme opposition by many established organizations.

Satoshi Nakamoto wrote,

The root problem with conventional currency is all the trust thats required to make it work. The central bank must be trusted not to debase the currency, but the history of fiat currencies is full of breaches of that trust. Banks must be trusted to hold our money and transfer it electronically, but they lend it out in waves of credit bubbles with barely a fraction in reserve. We have to trust them with our privacy, trust them not to let identity thieves drain our accounts, in their now-famous 2009 whitepaper.

In 2008 no one would have seen Satoshi Nakamoto as a threat to global socioeconomic system. Today, that probably isnt true. Nations like China have banned cryptos outright, and the Western central banking cartel has been vocal in its opposition to widespread use of cryptos.

Whoever Satoshi Nakamoto is, they are likely wise to have dropped off the radar when they did. The idea that fiat money could be replaced with a system that marginalizes central authorities is extremely dangerous to the people that currently hold power.

Anyone who could act as a lightening-rod for a global decentralized society would probably face some pretty nasty blowback.

Furthermore, there is significant debate as to the future of Bitcoin. Heated discussions have arisen due to some of the growing pains surrounding Bitcoin, particularly the issue of how to deal with an increase in transaction volume in the Bitcoin network. As the number of blocks increases, the Bitcoin network runs the risk of becoming overloaded.

One side of the debate wants to fundamentally change the Bitcoin node by increasing the block size, in order to allow the system to process transactions more quickly. The other side of the debate sees this as a betrayal of the original concept behind Bitcoin, arguing that this would lead to increased centralization.

Identifying Bitcoins true creator would create more certainty and could potentially lay down the following steps in Bitcoins ever growing development.

The Bitcoin community will be forced to coexist with the enigma that is Satoshi Nakamoto, whether they like it or not. There are a few ways that Satoshi Nakamoto could show that they are, in fact, the creator of Bitcoin, but convincing the entire crypto community will be a challenge.

Even if a plausible Satoshi came forward, they would probably have to deal with ongoing doubts from within the crypto community, and untold difficulties from the global power structure. The raid on Craig Wright by the AFP is a small taste of the legal morass that the real Satoshi Nakamoto would find themselves facing.

Ultimately, identifying Bitcoins creator may be a quixotic endeavor. His or her complete silence since the Spring of 2011 means it is likely we will never hear from them again. Nevertheless, Bitcoin, the open source digital currency created nearly a decade ago, will continue to in spite of this mystery.

The post Who is Satoshi Nakamoto? We Look at The Possible Candidates appeared first on Blockonomi.

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Who is Satoshi Nakamoto? We Look at The Possible Candidates …

Satoshi Nakamoto: Who is Bitcoin’s Mysterious Creator …

More Than Just a Name: Who or What Is Satoshi Nakamoto? The Facts That We Have

There are mysteries that we all have to deal with from personal to international. One of the mysteries that still hounds the cryptocurrency world is the one that surrounds one particular name: Satoshi Nakamoto, the illustrious and yet unknown figure that stood behind the creation and introduction of Bitcoin.

While the true face of Nakamoto, among other things, remain a mystery, we will be using these articles as a way to piece together all that we do know about them. From everything they had previously written, to who the media believed was the true’ Nakamoto and whether there are still people out there who once previously bore the mantel.

We may never fully know who Satoshi Nakamoto is, but with this series, we hope to, at the very least, shrink down the number of people who could resemble the illustrious figure.

Whatever could be construed as a public record of Satoshi Nakamoto can be easily condensed into a span of fewer than two years. While a brief legacy’ the amount of buzz surrounding these records have kept forums, social media pages and financial experts ensconced in the possible answer to the question.

Not only would it be one of the internets biggest mysteries being solved, but whoever rightfully claimed to be Nakamoto would gain immediate legendary status for their involvement in the development of blockchain, the technology which is (and continues to) revolutionize the world as we know it.

Not only is there a legend to claim, but a fortune as well; one that is believed to total nearly 1 million Bitcoin. This means, by today’s valuation of Bitcoin, would mean an inheritance’ of over 8 Billion dollars, not accounting for future fluctuation, however.

One of the most comprehensive profiles we have for Nakamoto comes from their P2P foundation page, Satoshi Nakamoto is (or was) a 43-year-old male originating from Japan. This suggests that he is most active during the Japanese time cycle, but upon studying their posting behavior, it implies that they follow the GMT cycle due a habit of disappearing from 5am-11am yet being active during the earlier to late afternoon.

While that isn’t evidence enough to suggest that while Nakamoto wasn’t in Japan, but could mean that they had a highly unusual sleep pattern.

Satoshi, from their philosophy, was a firm advocate for economic or social Libertarianism specific to the world of technology. This viewpoint can be construed as Crypto-Anarchism’, decentralizing the world of commerce, handing the power in the world of personal finance back to the individual consumer.

In the announcement and release of the Genesis block, otherwise known as Block 1′ or 0, included a hidden message within its Coinbase parameter giving the headline for the news from the 3rd January 2009:

the Times 03/Jan/2009 Chancellor on brink of the second bailout for banks

While the use of the newspaper headline may simply function as a time-stamp for the interest of posterity with the release of the first Bitcoin block. Many crypto-enthusiasts and anarchists alike have, however, interpreted the headline as a stab against centralized financial institutions for their part in the unfurling global financial crisis and subsequent recession.

One of the other stabs that this message demonstrates, according to Nakamoto supporters, is in creating an inbuilt scarcity for Bitcoin, while governments and financial institutions are able to print a seemingly infinite volume of money at their own discretion, creating devaluation with users being powerless to do anything about it.

While Nakamoto has been personally responsible for mining and possessing nearly a million Bitcoin, he’ only ever completed one transaction simply to demonstrate that a cryptocurrency could, and does, work.

Apart from that, Nakamoto never moved his Bitcoin from his initial mining address, but there are a number of reasons for why he would have instigated this action.

How is it we can theorize that these are the plausible scenarios as to Nakamoto’s activities? Because a number of the texts of which he drafted and wrote give these very distinct impressions:

At this point in time, Satoshi announced through a Cryptography mailing list that Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System, his officially white paper detailing the idea and function of Bitcoin, was formally published on Bitcoin.com.

Satoshi makes his first public post on the website P2P Foundation: The Foundation for Peer to Peer Alternatives’. This post consisted of a link to his recently published White Paper, including some additional insight into the paper and his reasoning for developing it.

Across this span of time when he’s active on the site, he created three posts, with the last taking place on February 14th, 2009. The same account was used in March 2014, with the post including the statement that the user is not Dorian Nakamoto after being falsely outed as Satoshi Nakamoto days earlier.

This consisted of the official, inaugural post on the website Bitcointalk.org.’ This would include a series of over 575 posts across 13 months, other contributors apart from Nakamoto consist ofMike Hearn and Jeff Garzik.

These contributors were effective in laying down the groundwork for what Bitcoin was to become. By December 12th, 2010, Nakamoto has effectively stopped operating on the site, for what reasons remains unknown.

This post is the last time that Nakamoto officially addressed the public within the forum, linking to the latest version of the Bitcoin, wallet client. Nine years on and the forum is one of the largest, most reputable forums of cryptocurrency discussion, with over 2 million users and hundreds of millions of post views.

One of the last posts from Nakamoto included the desire that Wikileaks which, at the time, had been vehemently opposed by the US governments, including banks which refused to work with them regarding providing funding.

Nakamoto stated that Bitcoin shouldn’t be used as a means of supporting the site, citing its infancy’ and fragility as some of the reasons why it is not best-suited for supporting Wikileaks.

Despite his urging against providing this support, it went on to be used, resulting in Wikileaks removing the page and description for Bitcoin. The reason for this post was to prevent Bitcoin from snuffed out by drawing too much negative press, especially in being linked to an institution which had just recently made some incredibly powerful enemies.

So who could this person be? We can get an understanding of Nakamoto’s personality from one of his email addresses when messages to and from the account were made.

His account, [emailprotected] was reportedly hacked in 2014, with one of the email exchanges being between Nakamoto and the financial expert, Wei Dai, regarding obtaining proper accreditation for the ideas of his that were used in the development of Bitcoin.

The second was to Laszlo Hanyecz, the cryptocurrency developer that is famously known for the 10,000 Bitcoin for 2 Pizzas’ challenge, which has gained a historical emphasis for being the first monetary transaction using Bitcoin.

When approached on what the exchanges between himself and Nakamoto were like, Hanyecz described them as Weird,’ describing him as a bossy’ figure who expected him to be an active contributor despite the fact that his tenure working on Bitcoin was predominantly unpaid.

Above all, Nakamoto, according to Hanyecz, tended to strongly deflect any questions about himself as a person while also demanding that the underlying code remain untampered with.

One of Bitcoins developers early on was Mike Hearn, who offered a very unique insight into what it was like to work alongside Nakamoto during the early days of the project. In one of the interactions between Nakamoto and Hearn, the latter made the email exchanges public online. The last of which was posted on April 23rd, 2011 contained the following:

Ive moved on to other things. Its in good hands with Gavin (Andresen) and everyone.

One of the final email exchanges including Nakamoto was between himself and Gavin Anderson, in which Anderson attempted to find out more about his utterly online colleague. The reply he got was laconic, direct and inciteful:

I wish you wouldnt keep talking about me as a mysterious shadowy figure, the press just turns that into a pirate currency angle. Maybe instead make it about the open source project and give more credit to your dev contributors; it helps motivate them.

The final email that Anderson sent to Nakamoto consisted of detailing an invitation to speak at an event that had direct connections with the Central Intelligence Agency. With the lack of response from Nakamoto, it could be construed that he had become, somewhat reasonably,freaked out by the sudden, meteoric rise to popularity the Bitcoin enjoyed.

Satoshi Nakamoto is one of the phantom names in the worlds of the internet and cryptocurrency that consists of a legendary status, a groundbreaking innovation and, while accompanied with a literal throne of $8 billion, the actual individual behind Satoshi Nakamoto’ remains elusive.

In this article, we put together a list of potential suspects with the profile, intelligence, or character that make them the possible man behind the mask.

While these are claims, they are unsubstantiated and theoretical, the only way to truly KNOW who Satoshi Nakamoto is through verifying their wallet address which would link the individual to the man himself.

From 2009 to 2010, Satoshi Nakamoto was directly involved in the development, coding, design, and release of what we and millions of members of the general public now know as Bitcoin’. During this same stretch of time, Nakamoto was also involved in mining a large quantity of the coins during a time that only a select number of people were involved in mining.

The only way one could prove without a shadow of a doubt that they were Nakamoto, they would simply need to complete one or a number of transactions between the accounts that the original Nakamoto used during this time.

While this has yet to happen, a great number of internet researchers, financial experts, and genuinely curious individuals have yet to cease in piecing together ideas and theorizing as to who the real Satoshi Nakamoto was and is.

So who on earth do some of these researchers believe is the real Satoshi Nakamoto? We piece together the names of those people believe are linked to the man, from the interesting to the downright unusual.

For anyone to be considered as Satoshi Nakamoto, it requires that person to have a clear understanding of computer programming, especially from the aspect of cryptocurrency development, these consist of:

By these criteria, the number of people that may be Nakamoto thins out significantly especially considering the balance, intellectually, which would need to be struck between the deeper knowledge of economics, cryptography and computer programming in general.

One of the potential candidates for being Nakamoto was the former graduate student, cryptography enthusiast but had also been involved in some level of C++ Programming since he was 10, Michael Clear.

While all of the dominoes were in place, making Clear a shoe-in for being the real Satoshi Nakamoto, when asked the question during an interview, Clear explicitly stated that he was not Nakamoto.

Im not Satoshi, but even if I was I wouldnt tell you.

While Clear, at the time, was startled by the question which to him came out of left field. He believed it to be conclusive enough to not realise any further questions, this turned out to not be the case, as he would encounter incessant questions on whether he was, in fact, Nakamoto and just wanted to protect his anonymity.

It got to the point where, in 2013, after two years of questions pertaining to Bitcoin and Nakamoto, that he published a blog post, explicitly denying any links to Bitcoin and being Nakamoto.

Josh originally contacted me at Crypto 2011 about a paper I was involved with related to p2p, and I met up with him out of curiosity as to why he would be interested. For about 20 minutes we talked about that.

When bitcoin came up, I remember we had a brief casual chat; I was naturally startled when he thought I could be Satoshi, and there was some humor and regrettable mistakes on my part.

Nick Szabo, a Hungarian-American computer scientist was theorized to be a potential candidate for Satoshi Nakamoto for a number of reasons. During late 2013, the slow collapse of MtGOX led researchers to look at Szabo as a potential candidate for being Nakamoto.

Like in a Mirror’, an anonymous blog post, listed out the reasons why Nick Szabo could be Satoshi Nakamoto. Across the two blog posts, the author lists the reasons why Szabo would be the founder of Bitcoin.

One of the reasons why this blog post, and Szabo by extension, gained so much credibility as being Nakamoto was due to the arguments provided by Like in a Mirror, but also due to Szabo’s own involvement with the distant cousin to Bitcoin, Bit Gold’.

While Bit Gold presented a very interesting concept when initially proposed in 1998, it never really gained traction with which to enter wider development and implementation. However, Bit Gold did, in fact, contain a significant number of features which made Bitcoin possible as a system of peer-to-peer transaction.

These include a method of Decentralisation, the Proof of Work’ system, and the implementation of Time Stamp Servers’ including proper network security mechanisms to provide an additional layer of security and validation behind each transaction.

The blog post continued on to provide an additional number of reasons why Szabo could be Satoshi Nakamoto:

While the blog series provides a significant amount of research and a well thought out argument, Szabo himself categorically denies being Satoshi Nakamoto.

While denying being Satoshi Nakamoto, Szabo is a regular writer on the subjects of programming, Cryptography and the uses of Bitcoin on his personal blog. Along with this, Szabo is also a prolific and frequent speaker / lecturer on the subject of Bitcoin and the state of play for it and other cryptocurrencies.

One of the more famous potential Satoshis was Dorian Satoshi Nakamoto, who shares a significant number of unique correlations with the original Satoshi Nakamoto, the name being just one of them.

Dorian Nakamoto, originally a resident of Japan, went on to attend college in California, studying and graduating with a degree in Physics. The correlation comes from Dorian’s own experiences working with several different employees, these consist of Citibank and the U.S. Government as just a couple of the examples.

As an engineer, a great degree of his work is under both legal and personal secrecy. An article, which labeled Dorian Satoshi Nakamoto as the developer of Bitcoin was based off an initial, off the cuff comment made by himself, in which he stated that he was no longer involved’ with the Bitcoin project.

While this confirmed to the reporter who he was, Dorian points out that there was a significant degree of misunderstanding on his part, believing that it was a question regarding his work with Citibank.

Five days after the interview’, Newsweek read out a letter sent to them by Dorian, lamenting the challenges he’s faced as a result of the false accusations of being Nakamoto.

I did not create, invent or otherwise work on Bitcoin. I unconditionally deny the Newsweek report The first time I heard the term bitcoin was from my son in mid-February 2014. After being contacted by a reporter, my son called me and used the word, which I had never before heard. Shortly thereafter, the reporter confronted me at my home.

I have no knowledge of nor have I ever worked on cryptography, peer to peer systems, or alternative currencies My prospects for gainful employment has been harmed because of Newsweeks article

Newsweeks false report has been the source of a great deal of confusion and stress for myself, my 93-year old mother, my siblings, and their families This will be our last public statement on this matter. I ask that you now respect our privacy.

Making a start to his career as a programmer with Atari working on video game design, Hal Finney has since become an individual considered by many to be the real Satoshi Nakamoto.

Ever since starting off on his career of computer programming, Finney became significantly interested and involved in the field of Cryptography, being on of the early joiners of the mailing list and social group, Cyberpunks.

One of the other organizations that Finney was involved in was Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) since its establishment in 1991. What tipped people off to his potential was his development of PGP 2.0, a system which incorporates features such as file encryption and authentication, as well as encrypted communications.

These features made PGP 2.0 the first truly secure version of the program, all based on the handy work of Hal Finney. Effectively, Finney had created the system we have come to know as peer-to-peer networking before there was even a name for it.

One of the reasons that Finney became heavily involved in Cryptography was due to being inspired by the developer David Chaum, a fellow Californian who wished to apply Cryptography to the world of online finance, specifically when addressing online transactions and finance management.

During his time at the University of California, Chaum had created one of the first systems of peer-to-peer transactions, called Ecash, which had some of the features we see in Bitcoin, but was tethered to the ongoing value of the US Dollar and never really gained significant traction.

Finney set about to expand upon what Ecash had attempted to be, adding a proof of work concept to the currency which was reusable back in 2004. This feature among others would be those applied in order to create Bitcoin in 2008.

Finney was a keen member of a number of cryptography forums and mailing lists, being one of the first users of the client software which Nakamoto had released. Within days of releasing this software, Finney made history by being the recipient of one of Bitcoins first transactions, in which he received 10 Bitcoin from Nakamoto.

Regrettably, Finney was later diagnosed with ALS, otherwise known as Lou Gehrig’s disease, from which he died in 2014. Until then, Finney continued to be an active participant in conversations regarding cryptocurrency, using his final post to recap on all of his personal experiences interacting with Nakamoto.

When Satoshi announced the first release of the software, I grabbed it right away. I think I was the first person besides Satoshi to run bitcoin. I mined block 70-something, and I was the recipient of the first bitcoin transaction when Satoshi sent ten coins to me as a test. I carried on an email conversation with Satoshi over the next few days, mostly me reporting bugs and him fixing them.

Today, Satoshis true identity has become a mystery. But at the time, I thought I was dealing with a young man of Japanese ancestry who was very smart and sincere. Ive had the good fortune to know many brilliant people over the course of my life, so I recognize the signs.

During the final year of his life, Finney was subjected to an unfortunate extortion attempt against him, in which he was ordered by the anonymous hacker to complete a transaction of 1,000 Bitcoin (Worth $400,000 at the time) or they would release sensitive personal information about Finney to the public.

Over the years, Finney’s family would face constant extortion attempts, all of which amounted to no payout simply because Finney was not Nakamoto and that any Bitcoin Finney had extracted and collected over the years were used up in order to pay for his burdensome medical expenses.

Unfortunately, Craig Steven Wright is one of the more infamous individuals to be on the list of potential Satoshi Nakamoto’s. The Australian computer scientist and businessman had led media outlets on an obscure hunt for after he came forward to a number of news broadcasters that he was the real Satoshi Nakamoto back in 2015.

In the past, Wright had been involved in the creation of the worlds first online casinos, including a Bitcoin-based bank which never completely materialized. This was due to a number of issues surrounding obtaining regulatory approval in order to do this, something that cryptocurrencies still face on a regular basis.

What does separate Wright from other individuals on this list is that he offered up Cryptographic proof that he was, in fact, Nakamoto, claiming to have access to the keys that he used in order to extract and complete some of the first Bitcoin transactions.

According to his interview with BBC, Wright claimed that he would provide this evidence as extraordinary proof for an extraordinary claim. Signing a message using a key known to be used by Satoshi Nakamoto.

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Satoshi Nakamoto: Who is Bitcoin’s Mysterious Creator …

Satoshi Nakamoto May Have Considered a Bitcoin Kill Switch

With so little known about the person or group behind the mysterious pseudonym Satoshi Nakamoto, its difficult to imagine the motivation behind designing and developing the first-ever peer-to-peer electronic cash system with Bitcoin.

One goal was clear: create a decentralized cryptocurrency that cannot be controlled by governments. To do that, Nakamoto built in certain fail-safes into Bitcoins blueprint, including cryptography, decentralization, a proof of work consensus, a hard-capped supply and more. And according to speculation over what Satoshi meant in a quote being shared around social media could suggest that he or she was considering ways to render Bitcoin useless if it were stolen.

Ten years ago, following the wake of the 2008 economic crisis, Satoshi Nakamoto designed what is the closest thing to a perfect currency the world has ever seen. Its deflationary, decentralized money, protected by cryptography and consensus, in order to prevent governments from ever seizing control over an individuals funds.

Related Reading | Fundamentals Grow While Bitcoin Price Stagnates, Where Does BTC Go From Here?

As long as an individual retains their private keys, no one else can control their Bitcoin. In the rare case if someone did gain control over someone elses Bitcoin, possibly by the way of theft, Satoshi may have been researching a way to render that Bitcoin useless. And if the person who rightfully owned the Bitcoin ever regained control of it, the Bitcoin would be restored to its former value and use.

A tweet from a Twitter account dedicated to Satoshi Nakamoto quotes has crypto Twitter stirring today, as top crypto speculators discuss what the mysterious entity had meant when the thought was shared.

Imagine if gold turned to lead when stolen. If the thief gives it back, it turns to gold again, the quote reads.

Satoshi appears to be using gold as an example for what might be possible with Bitcoin.

Related Reading | Precious Metals Firm Drops Crypto: Is the Bitcoin Digital Gold Narrative In Trouble?

The quote was taken from a 2010 BitcoinTalk forum post about moving funds into escrow in order to complete transactions where both parties are satisfied. In the post, Satoshi sheds more light into his thinking process.

Imagine someone stole something from you. You cant get it back, but if you could, if it had a kill switch that could be remote triggered, would you do it? Would it be a good thing for thieves to know that everything you own has a kill switch and if they steal it, itll be useless to them, although you still lose it too? If they give it back, you can re-activate it, Satoshi said.

In the months following the comment, Satoshi vanished from the Internet and ceased all communication with the public and anyone involved with Bitcoin. Given Satoshis ability to create world-changing technology, its incredible to stop and think of just how much further their development support and leadership could have taken Bitcoin. Even without him or her, its come so far in just short ten years.

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Satoshi Nakamoto May Have Considered a Bitcoin Kill Switch

Bitcoin’s Creator Satoshi Nakamoto Is Probably This Unknown …

Even as his face towered 10 feet above the crowd at the Bitcoin Investors Conference in Las Vegas, Craig Steven Wright was, to most of the audience of crypto and finance geeks, a nobody.

The 44-year-old Australian, Skyping into the D Hotel ballrooms screen, wore the bitcoin enthusiasts equivalent of camouflage: a black blazer and a tieless, rumpled shirt, his brown hair neatly parted. His name hadnt made the conferences list of “featured speakers.” Even the panels moderator, a bitcoin blogger named Michele Seven, seemed concerned the audience wouldnt know why he was there. Wright had hardly begun to introduce himself as a “former academic who does research that no one ever hears about,” when she interrupted him.

“Hold on a second, who are you?” Seven cut in, laughing. “Are you a computer scientist?”

“Im a bit of everything,” Wright responded. “I have a master’s in lawa masters in statistics, a couple doctorates…”

“How did you first learn about bitcoin?” Seven interrupted again, as if still trying to clarify Wrights significance.

Wright paused for three full seconds. “Um. Ive been involved with all this for a long time,” he stuttered. “Itry and stayI keep my head down. Um…” He seemed to suppress a smile. The panels moderator moved on. And for what must have been the thousandth time in his last seven years of obscurity, Wright did not say the words WIREDs study of Wright over the past weeks suggests he may be dying to say out loud.

“I am Satoshi Nakamoto, the creator of bitcoin.”

Either Wright invented bitcoin, or he’s a brilliant hoaxer who very badly wants us to believe he did.

Since that pseudonymous figure first released bitcoins code on January 9th, 2009, Nakamotos ingenious digital currency has grown from a nerd novelty to a kind of economic miracle. As its been adopted for everything from international money transfers to online narcotrafficking, the total value of all bitcoins has grown to nearly $5 billion. Nakamoto himself, whoever he is, appears to control a stash of bitcoins easily worth a nine-figure fortune (it rose to more than a billion at the cryptocurrencys peak exchange rate in 2014). But the true identity of bitcoins creator remains a cipher. Media outlets from the New Yorker to Fast Company to Newsweek have launched investigations into unmasking Nakamoto that were either inconclusive or, in Newsweeks case, pointed to a man who subsequently denied having anything to do with cryptography, not to mention cryptocurrency. Altogether, the worlds Satoshi-seekers have hardly put a dent in one of the most stubborn mysteries of the 21st century, one whose answer could resonate beyond a small sphere of crypto geeks and have real economic effects.

In the last weeks, WIRED has obtained the strongest evidence yet of Satoshi Nakamotos true identity. The signs point to Craig Steven Wright, a man who never even made it onto any Nakamoto hunters public list of candidates, yet fits the cryptocurrency creators profile in nearly every detail. And despite a massive trove of evidence, we still cant say with absolute certainty that the mystery is solved. But two possibilities outweigh all others: Either Wright invented bitcoin, or hes a brilliant hoaxer who very badly wants us to believe he did.

The first evidence pointing to Wright appeared in mid-November, when an anonymous source close to Wright began leaking documents to Gwern Branwen, a pseudonymous, independent security researcher and dark web analyst. Branwen provided those documents to WIRED, and they immediately led to several direct, publicly visible connections between Nakamoto and Wright:

WIRED

In addition to those three blog posts, we received a cache of leaked emails, transcripts, and accounting forms that corroborate the link. Theres a leaked message from Wright to his lawyer date June 2008 in which Wright imagines “a P2P distributed ledger”an apparent reference to bitcoins public record of transactions known as the blockchain, long before it was publicly released. The email goes on to reference a paper called “Electronic Cash Without a Trusted Third Party” that Wright expects to release in 2009.

‘I did my best to try and hide the fact that I’ve been running bitcoin since 2009. By the end of this I think half the world is going to bloody know.’

Craig Steven Wright

Another leaked email from Wright to computer forensics analyst David Kleiman, a close friend and confidant, just before bitcoins January 2009 launch discusses a paper theyd been working on together. Wright talks about taking a buyout from his job and investing in hundreds of computer processors to “get [his] idea going.” Theres also a PDF authored by Kleiman, who died in April of 2013, in which he agrees to take control of a trust fund, codenamed the “Tulip Trust,” containing 1.1 million bitcoins. The PDF is signed with Kleimans PGP signature, a cryptographic technique that ensures it couldnt have been altered post-signature.

That million-coin troveThe Tulip Trustis the same size as a mysterious bitcoin fortune thats long been visible on bitcoins blockchain and widely attributed to Satoshi Nakamoto. No one but Nakamoto is known to have assembled such a massive hoard of the cryptocurrency, and only Nakamoto could have generated so many bitcoins so early in its evolution, when a bitcoin could be mined with relatively small amounts of processing power. Only one such bitcoin megapile exists, and the closely-watched coins havent moved in bitcoins entire history.

Another clue as to Wrights bitcoin fortune wasnt leaked to WIRED but instead remains hosted on the website of the corporate advisory firm McGrathNicol: a liquidation report on one of several companies Wright founded known as Hotwire, an attempt to create a bitcoin-based bank. It shows that the startup was backed in June 2013 by $23 million in bitcoins owned by Wright. That sum would be worth more than $60 million today. At the time of the companys incorporation, Wrights investment in that one firm alone represented more than 1.5 percent of all existing bitcoins, a strangely large stash for an unknown player in the bitcoin world.

The giveaways go on: Theres a leaked email from Wright to an associate in January 2014 about a tax dispute with the Australian government. In it, he seems to consider using Nakamotos name to wield influence with New South Wales Senator Arthur Sinodinos “Would our Japanese friend have weight coming out of retirement?” Wright asks. It includes a draft email to the senator signed “Satoshi Nakamoto.” And a leaked transcript of Wrights meeting with attorneys and tax officials in February 2014 quotes him in a moment of exasperation: “I did my best to try and hide the fact that I’ve been running bitcoin since 2009,” Wright says. “By the end of this I think half the world is going to bloody know.”

On December 1st, WIRED sent an encrypted email to Wright suggesting that we knew his secret and asking for a meeting. A few hours later, we received a wary response from the address Tessier-Ashpool@AnonymousSpeech.com, a cyberpunk reference to a rich and powerful corporate dynasty in William Gibsons Sprawl trilogy. Wright had referenced the same fictional family in the bio of his private twitter profile. The emails IP showed that it came from an IP address in Panama controlled by Vistomail, the same service that Satoshi Nakamoto had used to send his emails introducing bitcoin and to run Bitcoin.org. This is a throw away account. There are ways even with [the anonymity software] Tor, but the people in Panama are exteremly [sic] good and do not violate people’s desired privacy, the email read. You are digging, the question is how deep are you? The message ended, Regards, the Director of Tessier-Ashpool

After WIRED sent an encrypted email to Wright suggesting that we knew his secret, we received a perplexing message: ‘You seem to know a few things. More than you should.’

A few hours later, we received another, even more perplexing message from the same account. The nature of this moniker is selected for a purpose. I now have resources. This makes me a we now. I am still within that early phase of learning just what my capabilities happen to be. So, even now with resources I remain vulnerable, it read. You seem to know a few things. More than you should.

When we responded by describing the three blog posts that showed Wrights clear connection to bitcoins creation and asking again for a meeting, he gave a revealing answer. Although we all desire some level of credit, I have moved past many of these things, read his response from the same Tessier-Ashpool account. Too many already know secrets, the world does not need to know. There are other means to lead change than to be a dictator.

After our second followup message asking for a chance to talk, Wright responded that he would consider our request. Then he stopped responding altogether.

Despite that overwhelming collection of clues, none of it fully proves that Wright is Nakamoto. All of it could be an elaborate hoaxperhaps orchestrated by Wright himself. The unverified leaked documents could be faked in whole or in part. And most inexplicably of all, comparisons of different archived versions of the three smoking gun posts from Wrights blog show that he did edit all threeto insert evidence of his bitcoin history. The PGP key associated with Nakamotos email address and references to an upcoming “cryptocurrency paper” and “triple entry accounting” were added sometime after 2013. Even the post noting bitcoins beta launch is questionable. While it was ostensibly posted in January 2009, it later seems to have been deleted and then undeletedor possibly even written for the first timesometime between October 2013 and June of 2014.

Wrights blog, his public records, and his verified writings on mail lists and Twitter sketch a man who matches with Satoshi Nakamoto’s known characteristics well enough to place him leagues above other candidates.

Why those breadcrumbs were dropped remains a mystery. Is Wright trying to falsely steal Nakamotos glory (or money)? Is he quietly revealing himself as bitcoins creator?

But this much is clear: If Wright is seeking to fake his Nakamoto connection, his hoax would be practically as ambitious as bitcoin itself. Some of the clues added to his blog were made more than 20 months agoa very patient deception if it were one. His references to Griggs “triple entry accounting” paper would represent an uncannily inventive lie, representing a new and obscure possible inspiration for bitcoin. And theres little doubt Wright is a certified bitcoin mogul. Even the $60 million portion of his cryptocurrency stash thats verifiable in McGrathNicols public audit record is suspiciously large.

More circumstantially, Wrights blog, his public records, and his verified writings on mail lists and Twitter sketch a man who matches with Satoshi Nakamotos known characteristics well enough to place him leagues above other candidates. Hes a former subscriber to the 1990s “cypherpunks” mailing list devoted to anti-authoritarianism and encryption, an advocate of gold as a financial tool, an accomplished C++ coder, a security professional plausibly capable of writing a tough-to-hack protocol like bitcoin, a libertarian who battled with tax authorities, and a fan of Japanese culture.

He is alsoparallels to Nakamoto asidea strange and remarkable person: an almost obsessive autodidact and double-PhD who once boasted of obtaining new graduate degrees at a rate of about one a year. Hes a climate-change denier, a serial entrepreneur who started companies ranging from security consultancies to a bitcoin bank, and an eccentric who wrote on his blog that he once accepted a challenge to create a pencil from scratch and spent years on the problem, going so far as to make his own bricks to build his own kiln in which to mix the pencils graphite.

Wrights blogging and leaked emails describe a man so committed to an unproven cryptocurrency idea that he mortgaged three properties and invested more than $1 million in computers, power, and connectivityeven going so far as to lay fiberoptic cables to his remote rural home in eastern Australia to mine the first bitcoins. His company, Tulip Trading, built two supercomputers that have officially ranked among the top 500 in the world, both seemingly related to his cryptocurrency projects. (Wright seems to enjoy tulip references, a likely taunt at those who have compared bitcoin to the Netherlands 17th century “tulip bubble.”) The first of those supercomputers he named Sukuriputo OkaneJapanese for “script money.” Another, named Co1n, holds the title of the worlds most powerful privately owned supercomputer. As Wright told the Bitcoin Investors conference, hes applying that second machine towards the mysterious task of “modeling Bitcoins scalability,” and meanwhile building an even more powerful supercomputing cluster in Iceland because of its cheap geothermal power.

Bitcoin watchers have long wondered why the giant cache of coins they attribute to Satoshi Nakamoto never moved on the bitcoins publicly visible blockchain. Wrights “Tulip” trust fund of 1.1 million bitcoins may hold the key to that mystery. The trust fund PDF signed by Wrights late friend David Kleiman keeps those coins locked in place until 2020, yet gives Wright the freedom to borrow them for applications including “research into peer-to-peer systems” and “commercial activities that enhance the value and position of bitcoin.”

Despite those exceptions to the trusts rules, the million-coin hoard has yet to budge, even after Kleimans death in 2013. That may be because Wright could be keeping the coins in place as an investment. He could be leveraging the trust in less visible ways, like legally transferring ownership of money to fund his companies while still leaving it at the same bitcoin address. Or he might still be waiting for January 1st, 2020, a countdown to a date that could take the lid off the biggest cryptocurrency fortune in history.

In spite of all the clues as to Wrights possible secret lifesome that he apparently placed himselfWright has demonstrated such a talent for obfuscation and a love of privacy that hes never even raised the suspicions of most Nakamoto-worshipping bitcoiners. “If we don’t want to go out there and say Im a billionaire, or Im running XYZ, or this is my life, I shouldn’t have to tell people that,” Wright told the Las Vegas crowd in October when an audience member asked his thoughts about what bitcoin means for property rights. “We should be able to choose how we live.”

In the leaked emails, Wright seems to bristle at the few times anyone has attempted to out bitcoins creator. “I am not from the bloody USA! Nor am I called Dorien [sic],” reads a message from Wright to a colleague dated March 6, 2014. Thats the same day as Newsweeks largely discredited story claimed the inventor of bitcoin to be the American Dorian Satoshi Nakamoto.

If Wright is bitcoin’s creator, the revelation of his work carries more importance than merely sating the curiosity of a few million geeks.

Wright seemed to take personal offense at the Newsweek story. “I do not want to be your posterboy. I am not found and I do not want to be,” he writes in another message the same day. The email, addressed to a colleague and titled “please leak,” may have been an early draft of the Nakamotos posted denial of Newsweeks story. That public denial, a rare message from Nakamoto posted from his account on the P2P Foundation forum, simply read I am not Dorian Nakamoto. But Wrights private response was far angrier. “Stop looking… Do you know what privacy means? A gift freely given is just that and no more!”

At times, however, Wright has seemed practically envious of Nakamoto. “People love my secret identity and hate me,” he complained to Kleiman in a leaked email from 2011. “I have hundreds of papers. Satoshi has one. Nothing, just one bloody paper and I [cant] associate myself with ME!”

If Wright is bitcoins creator, the revelation of his work carries more importance than merely sating the curiosity of a few million geeks. The bitcoin economy would need to consider that if his million-bitcoin trust unlocks in 2020, Wright and those to whom he may have assigned hundreds of thousands of bitcoins would be free to sell them on the open market, potentially tanking the cryptocurrencys price; debates within the bitcoin community like the current fracas over bitcoins “block size may look to long-lost Nakamoto for guidance; the world would have to grapple with the full scope of Wright’s vision when he unleashes the result of his companies’ post-bitcoin research. The other suspected Satoshis may finally get a reprieve from nosey reporters like us. And the intellectual history of cryptocurrencies would be forever rewritten.

Wright himself, despite his hostile response to Satoshi-seekers, has lately seemed to be dropping clues of a double life. In the last two years hes started to write more frequently about bitcoin on his blog; hes even peppered Twitter with hints (Though he also deleted many of those earlier this month and made his tweets private.)

“‘Identity’ is not your name. Where people go wrong is that they do not see it to be the set of shared experiences with other individuals,” he wrote in one tweet in October.

When a UCLA professor nominated Satoshi Nakamoto for a Nobel Prize earlier this monthand he was declared ineligible due to the mystery of his identityWright lashed out. “If Satoshi-chan was made for an ACM turing price [sic] or an Alfred Nobel in Economics he would let you bloody know that,” he wrote on twitter, using the Japanese “chan” suffix that indicates familiarity or a nickname.

“I never desired to be a leader but the choice is not mine,” reads a third recent tweet from Wright. “We are a product of the things we create. They change us.”

In one cryptic and meandering blog post in September in which Wright takes stock of his long career, he even seems to concede that no one can build and wield the wealth that Satoshi Nakamoto has amassed and remain hidden indefinitely. “There is a certain power and mystery in secrets,” Wright mused.

“Am slowly coming to the realisation and acceptance,” he added, “No secret remains forever.”

Update 12/14/2015 2:40pm: New clues following the publication of this story have shown inconsistencies in Wright’s academic and supercomputing claims that may point to the second, strange possibility we noted: an elaborate, long-planned hoax.

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Bitcoin’s Creator Satoshi Nakamoto Is Probably This Unknown …

Who is Satoshi Nakamoto? – CCN

Satoshi Nakamoto, creator of Bitcoin, still remains a myth to everyone. Will we ever know his true identity?

More than often, people who are newly introduced to Bitcoin have no idea that the currency is already several years old. The idea of Bitcoin was first introduced in 2008, when a man named Satoshi Nakamoto published a paper on The Cryptography Mailing list at metzdowd.com. This paper was called Bitcoin: a peer to peer electronic cash system and is still a classic among the old school Bitcoin fans. Not that much later, in 2009, he released the first Bitcoin software that enabled the world to start using Bitcoin.

[divider]CCN[/divider]

So who is Satoshi Nakamoto? This is a question that still raises eyebrows all over the cryptocurrency world. There are plenty of suggested identities, which we will tackle later in this guide. Lets take a look first at what we know about Nakamoto. The first certainty we have is that he did not work alone. He held close contact with other developers through forums and e-mails. He kept improving the source-code whilst taking advice from several other people. This continued until contacts between him and his team gradually began to fade. In the year 2010, he handed over control of the source code repository and alert key functions of the software to Gavin Andresen, another prominent figure in the Bitcoin universe. With the source code, he also gave away the Bitcoin.org domain and several other domains. After doing this, Nakamoto began to communicate less until he completely disappeared.

Nakamoto himself claims to be a 37-year old male who lives in Japan. A false statement according to many people. His use of the English language is near perfect, and the Bitcoin software was never documented in Japanese. A strange behavior for someone who claims to have lived in Japan for his entire life.

By now, you must have come to the conclusion that there is a lot of mystery surrounding Bitcoins inventor. If there is one thing the Internet likes, its mystery (or rather solving it). This led Stefan Thomas, a Swiss coder and active community member, to a great idea. He decided to look into the timestamps of Nakamotos forum posts. With over 500 posts, it had to be possible to find a pattern in it. His investigation resulted in a chart that showed a steep decline to almost no posts between the hours of 5 am, and 11 am GMT. It is very probable that Nakamoto was asleep at this time. When looking at the different time zones in the world, Nakamoto probably lives in the parts of North America that fall within the Eastern Time Zone and Central Time Zone. Parts of Central America, the Caribbean and South America are possibilities as well.

Its great to know where Nakamoto probably lives, but it still brings us nowhere closer to his real identity. Are we even talking about a single person? Some people consider him to be a team of people. A lot of prominent coders think the Bitcoin code was too well designed for one person. Dan Kaminsky, a security researcher who read the code, said that Nakamoto could either be a team of people or a pure genius.

That said, many identities have been pinned on the Bitcoin developer over the years.

Also read: Bitcoin Creator Satoshi Nakamoto Has Email Account Hacked

Satoshi Nakamotos broke a three year long silence, telling the world he is not Dorian Nakamoto (photo). Every post he made can be found in the database of the Satoshi Nakamoto Institute.

But the most well-known speculation to date came in March 2014. An article in the magazine Newsweek, written by journalist Leah McGrath Goodman, identified Dorian Satoshi Nakamoto. As a Japanese American living in California, he fits the bill for Newsweek. Unfortunately, Dorian Nakamoto immediately responded by denying everything. I did not create, invent or otherwise work on Bitcoin. I unconditionally deny the Newsweek report. He even filed a lawsuit against Newsweek as he had journalists camping out in front of his house and chasing him by car whenever he left. The Bitcoin community, led by Andreas Antonopoulos started a fundraising campaign to support Dorian Nakamoto.

The Newsweek report led to a worldwide interest in Satoshi Nakamotos identity. Maybe the greatest thing about this was that it made the real Nakamoto break his long silence. At the p2pfoundation website, Satoshi Nakamoto replied to his latest thread with the following words: I am not Dorian Nakamoto.

So if there is one thing we can be sure of, its the fact that we have no clue whatsoever as to who Satoshi Nakamoto really is. Is he a genius who is singlehandedly responsible for developing a revolutionary protocol? Or is Satoshi Nakamoto a pseudonym for a team of people? Nakamoto is believed to be in possession of roughly one million bitcoins. His identity remains one of the webs most questioned mysteries.

Also read: You Can Not Kill Bitcoins Founding Myth: Satoshi Nakamoto

Images from Shutterstock.

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Who is Satoshi Nakamoto? – CCN

Satoshi Nakamoto May Have Considered a Bitcoin Kill Switch …

With so limited identified about the person or community within the wait on of the mysterious pseudonym Satoshi Nakamoto, its sophisticated to judge the motivation within the wait on of designing and creating the first-ever peer-to-peer digital money machine with Bitcoin.

One design used to be particular: make a decentralized cryptocurrency that can no longer be managed by governments. To perform that, Nakamoto built particularly fail-safes into Bitcoins blueprint, including cryptography, decentralization, a proof of labor consensus, a onerous-capped provide and further. And according to speculation over what Satoshi supposed in a quote being shared spherical social media would possibly well per chance additionally indicate that he or she used to be occupied with concepts to render Bitcoin ineffective if it had been stolen.

Ten years within the past, following the wake of the 2008 economic disaster, Satoshi Nakamoto designed whats the closest ingredient to a finest currency the area has ever viewed. Its deflationary, decentralized money, protected by cryptography and consensus, in explain to forestall governments from ever seizing defend an eye on over an individuals funds.

Connected Reading | Fundamentals Grow Whereas Bitcoin Tag Stagnates, The assign Does BTC Scurry From Right here?

As long as an individual retains their non-public keys, no one else can defend an eye on their Bitcoin. In the rare case if any individual did make defend an eye on over any individual elses Bitcoin, maybe by the technique of theft, Satoshi would possibly well per chance additionally have been researching a formulation to render that Bitcoin ineffective. And if the one that rightfully owned the Bitcoin ever regained defend an eye on of it, the Bitcoin would be restored to its gentle price and use.

What used to be Satoshi making an are trying to bid here regarding $BTC? https://t.co/is6oDXFDl3

Popepe (@BTCDJS) March 18, 2019

A tweet from a Twitter legend dedicated to Satoshi Nakamoto quotes has crypto Twitter stirring at the unique time, as top crypto speculators discuss about what the mysterious entity had supposed when the belief used to be shared.

Factor in if gold turned to steer when stolen. If the thief presents it wait on, it turns to gold but again, the quote reads.

This Satoshi quote is terribly moving to me.

How perform you guys elaborate it? https://t.co/9Y6063pTEq

AwyeeBitcoin (@DeaterBob) March 18, 2019

Satoshi appears to be like to be using gold as an illustration for what would be doable with Bitcoin.

Connected Reading | Treasured Metals Agency Drops Crypto: Is the Bitcoin Digital Gold Anecdote In Danger?

The quote used to be taken from a 2010 BitcoinTalk discussion board submit about transferring funds into escrow in explain to whole transactions where every parties are elated. In the submit, Satoshi sheds extra gentle into his pondering direction of.

Factor in any individual stole one thing from you. That you cant salvage it wait on, but whereas you happen to would possibly well per chance additionally, if it had a murder change that would be distant induced, would you perform it? Would it no longer be a lawful ingredient for thieves to know that every little thing you delight in has a murder change and if they absorb it, itll be ineffective to them, despite the indisputable truth that you just aloof lose it too? If they give it wait on, you might per chance maybe additionally re-activate it, Satoshi acknowledged.

In the months following the comment, Satoshi vanished from the Internet and ceased all conversation with the public and any individual alive to with Bitcoin. Given Satoshis ability to make world-altering technology, its fabulous to cease and imagine licensed how powerful further their construction toughen and leadership would possibly well per chance additionally have taken Bitcoin. Even with out him or her, its come thus a long way in barely fast ten years.

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Satoshi Nakamoto May Have Considered a Bitcoin Kill Switch …

How Rich is Satoshi Nakamoto Today? – coincentral.com

One of the most innovative and shadowy figures of our lifetime has to be BTC creator Satoshi Nakamoto. Very little is known about Satoshi, and theories range widely regarding his identity. This individual, group of individuals, or AI program brought the world their first cryptocurrency, Bitcoin. Much has transpired over the last nine years since BTCs introduction to the world. Today, Mr. Nakamoto is sitting on a BTC fortune in the Genesis block, the first address on the blockchain. Lets take a deeper look at how much Satoshi is really worth.

This question has beendebated probably as much as Satoshis true identity. There have been extensivestudies conducted on this topic, and no consistent answer has been concluded. Arguably the most accuratestudy conducted so far concluded that Satoshi has around one million BTC. The researcher,Sergio Demian Lerner, utilized an extraNonce field increment technique to deduce his findings.

Chart Showing Profitability of Early BTC Mining Via Bitcointalk

Lerner was able to deduce that one computer was responsible for the majority of the first BTC mined. By tracking the Coinbase transaction, which was the creation of the new BTC, Lerner was able to show that from the Genesis block to block 36288 there was one significant miner in operation. These findings match previous research that placed the number of coins mined at 1,148,800.

Adding up Satoshis wealth is an interesting task because no one knows for sure which addresses belong to Satoshi. For the sake of argument, lets say Satoshi has the originally mined 1,148,800 BTC plus 16.7 BTC in tips. This gives us a total of 1,148,816.7 BTC ($8,807,977,638.9). Add in Satoshis BCH and you have $10,112,428,550.90. This excludes all of the hard forks which have occurred.

You must also consider all of the hard forks that have occurred when adding up Satoshis true wealth. Satoshi would have around $1,304,450,912 worth of BCH using the market value at the time of writing which is $1,135.49 per BCH. Once you start piling on the plethora of new hard forks such as Bitcoin Gold ($51,765,680.502), Bitcoin Diamond ($3,320,080.263), Bitcoin God ($26,181,532.593), Super Bitcoin, Bitcoin Platinum, etc., it only takes a quick glimpse at the market to see the profits start to get mind-blowing.

Chart Showing 2017 BTC Forks via Anton Bukov

Whats even crazier is the fact that the hard fork trend is just getting started. There are already close to 20 hard forksscheduled for this year. Now imagine in ten years. Hard forking is becoming a career for many Bitcoin enthusiasts, and Satoshi is positioned to reap the benefits.

You are probably curious what Satoshis wealth was measured at in December 2017, when the cryptomarket was showing all-time highs. Lets see what Satoshi was worth when BTC was at its all-time high of $19,783.06 so we can really grasp his potential earnings. Do the math and you will get $22,726,779,328. Not bad at all Mr. Nakamoto.

BTC would need to hit a market value of $60,000 per coin to make Nakamoto the richest man in the world. Currently, he doesnt even rank in the top 1000 richest people according to Forbes Richest People rankings.

20 Richest Billionaires via Google

Nobody knows what Satoshi will do with his prized BTCs. The only thing that anyone really knows is that these BTC have never moved. The sheer size of the holdings has many people worried about what effects these 1 million BTC could have on the market if, for example, Satoshi decided to sell them all one day.

Satoshis fortune is so large that he would tank the price of BTC if he decided to release his coins into the market. John Hopkins University cryptocurrency professor,Matt Green, has written extensively about the effects such actions would have on the market value of BTC. In his works, he expresses real concerns over the fact that Satoshis influence has not been felt in the market since his departure.

Ironically, Satoshis BTCwallet continues to grow. For some unknown reason, people keep sending Satoshi BTC. In one particularly notable incident, Mt. Gox sent Satoshi 1.23 BTC. In total, Satoshi has received an additional 16.7 BTC in tips to the Genesis address.

Due to the way that BTC is coded, these funds are unable to be spent as the Genesis block was never added to the blockchain. Consequently, this is why this block is also calledblock 0. Everyone that has sent Satoshi BTC, sent their funds into what is essentially blockchain limbo. Its the thought that counts though, right?

Whoever Satoshi really is, and wherever he or she is right now (maybe reading this?), deserves a standing ovation. The entire world is curious as to who owns the BTC fortune. Governments have even researched Satoshi. Reports vary on the results of these endeavors, with some claiming that they were able to identifyhim, but, as it stands today, no one has come forward and been able to prove that they are the true owner of the BTC fortune.

Blockchain technology is transforming the global economy by providing a secure and efficient means in which to conduct business. Its hard to say if this technology, or the price of BTC, would have developed at the same pace had Satoshi revealed his or her identity from the start. The only thing you can be absolutely sure of is that the day one of those BTC moves from Satoshis wallet, the entire world will be watching.

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How Rich is Satoshi Nakamoto Today? – coincentral.com

Who is Satoshi Nakamoto? We Look at The Possible Candidates …

This article was originally posted on The Bitcoin News – a trusted site covering numerous topics related to Bitcoin since 2012.

Bitcoin was conceived as a communal project. Designed as an open-source software and released to the public in 2009, Bitcoin was conceived with openness in mind. Functioning on an open ledger that is accessible to the public, Bitcoin is an open-source project.

But despite all its openness, one grand mystery remains unsolved:

Who Created Bitcoin and Who exactly is Satoshi Nakamoto?

Finding an answer to this question isnt easy. We know that all the code that created Bitcoin originated with Satoshi Nakamoto, but that is about all we know. Satoshi Nakamoto didnt work alone on launching Bitcoin.

Some of the early Bitcoin devs have been pointed to as possible Satoshis, but there are numerous issues when it comes to proving that any specific person was the creator of Bitcoin.

First, lets detail what is known for certain. The first step was taken in 2007, when Nakamoto wrote the Bitcoin code. In November 2008, Satoshi Nakamoto published hisnow famous White Paper, which laid the groundwork for the Bitcoin protocol.

On January 3rd, 2009, the first ever Bitcoin block was mined, marking the creation of the cryptocurrency, it bore the message :

The Times 03/Jan/2009 Chancellor on brink of second bailout for banks

Satoshi was heavily involved with the Bitcoin community, and collaborated with them in order to modify the underlying bitcoin protocol. After two years of involvement, Nakamoto handed the reins to Gavin Andresen, and seized involvement with the Bitcoin project in December of 2010.

In the Spring of 2011, Nakamoto returned to leave a final message, stating in a post that he had moved on to other things, and that Bitcoin was in good hands with Gavin [Andresen] and everyone. That was the last the world heard of the secretive Bitcoin creator.

The mystery behind Nakamotos identity has only grown, as the Bitcoin community eagerly speculates who it could potentially be. Satoshi Nakamoto claims to be Japanese, born on April 5, 1975. To this day, it is unknown whether Nakamoto is male or female, or whether Nakamoto is even a single person or a group of individuals.

Today most people are familiar with digital currency, thanks to the epic crypto rally of 2017. Back in 2008 when this was all getting started, the cryptocurrency world was a lot smaller. We know for sure that some of the people we talk about below knew each other.

In the case of David Kleiman and Craig Wright, there is solid evidence that the two worked together to get bitcoin off the ground, and both had substantial amounts of the tokens. There is an ongoing saga between Kleimans estate and Wright, alleging that there could have been some kind of graft, and that Wright ended up with bitcoins that were rightfully Kleimans.

You might notice that we wrote Kleimans estate and not Kleiman. The sad fact is that some of the people who could be Satoshi Nakamoto have died, which makes a positive identification much harder.

When the first bitcoins were being mined, basically nobody cared about them. The first bitcoin transaction was a trade of 10,000 BTC for two pizzas, which should give you some idea of how playful some of the early devs were with their project. There are a lot of questions surrounding the origins of Bitcoin, and as time goes on, they may become harder to answer.

While Nakamotos identity remains unknown, This has not stopped enthusiasts from investigating his background and drawing up conclusions.

Nakamotos use of perfect English in his posts and his publication of the White Paper has raised skepticism as to his Japanese origin. Furthermore, his occasional use of British English in the code and comments has fueled speculation that he is a native English speaker of commonwealth origin.

Additionally, Stefan Thomas, a Swiss coder and active member in the Bitcoin community, graphed the time stamps of Nakamotos more than 500 posts, showing his or her complete absence of posts between midnight am and 6 am Greenwich Time, further informing investigators as to his potential whereabouts.

To date, there are several potential individuals suspected of being the mysterious Bitcoin creator. One of the first suggestions was Nick Szabo, a decentralized currency enthusiast who published a paper on Bit Gold considered to be a precursor to the first cryptocurrency.

By running a reverse textual analysis, internet researcher Skye Grey found dozens of unique phrases that linked Szabos writing style to that of the original whitepaper. This evidence is only circumstantial, however, and Szabo has repeatedly denied that he is the creator of Bitcoin.

Despite all the denials, the research into how the Bitcoin whitepaper was written shows remarkable similarities between how Szabo writes, and also what was omitted. One of the most curious things is that Satoshi Nakamoto made numerous references to ideas that had been used by Bit Gold, but never talked about Bit Gold directly.

Omitting the origin of relevant ideas strange, unless Szabo was deliberately trying to cover up his tracks. None of this is hard evidence, and to date Szabo has flatly denied being the key driver of Bitcoins launch.

Nick Szabo, Image from The-Blockchain

Another possibility is a Japanese American man living in California, named Dorian Prentice Satoshi Nakamoto, birth name Satoshi Nakamoto. First brought up in a March 2014 Newsweek article, Leah McGrath Goodman pointed to Nakamotos training as a physicist at Cal Poly University in Pomona and libertarian background as potential indicators of his identity.

Goodmans biggest piece of evidence was his response to a question regarding Bitcoin: I am no longer involved in that and I cannot discuss it. Its been turned over to other people. They are in charge of it now. I no longer have any connection.This led to a wild media frenzy, which even included a car chase.

However, in a later interview, he recanted his previous position, stating that he had misunderstood the reporters question, thinking it was related to his previous classified work as a military contractor.

Dorian Prentice Satoshi Nakamoto, Image from The Verge.

David Kleiman had an interesting life, and was certainly involved in the beginnings of Bitcoin. His involvement with Bitcoin goes back to its earliest days, and he was one of the first Bitcoin miners. Kleiman had a long standing interest in computer security, and had designed systems that were used by the highest levels of the US government to secure their digital systems.

After becoming a paraplegic in a motorcycle accident, Kleiman went barreling into the world of cryptography. He was on the Metzdowd list, which may be where he first came in contact with the Bitcoin whitepaper.

Another theory puts him and Craig Wright at the center of the project. Gizmodo cites an email that allegedly came from Wright that states,

I need your help editing a paper I am going to release later this year. I have been working on a new form of electronic money. Bit cash, Bitcoin and also, You are always there for me Dave. I want you to be a part of it all.

The email is alleged to predate the release of the Bitcoin whitepaper by a few months, which would make it a key piece of evidence in the search for Satoshi Nakamotos true identity.

Sadly, Kleiman died in 2013 under mysterious circumstances, which effectively eliminates him as a future source of information. Given his aptitude for data security, whatever digital information he left behind is also probably going to be difficult to access.

David Kleiman, Image from Gizmodo

Hal Finney is another potential candidate to be the mysterious Satoshi Nakamoto. Finney was a pre-bitcoin cryptographic pioneer and was only the second person after Nakamoto himself to make use of the software, file bug reports, and suggest improvements.

Finney was the first to ever receive Bitcoin, stating in an interview that [he] was the recipient of the first bitcoin transaction, when Satoshi sent ten coins to [him] as a test.

Forbes journalist Andy Greenberg speculated after requesting aid from writing analysis consultancy Juola & Associates that Greenberg may have been the ghostwriter for Satoshi Nakamoto.

Further adding to the speculation that Finney was involved with the creation of Bitcoin was his correspondence with the aforementioned Nick Szabo, and the fact that he lived only blocks apart from Dorian Prentice Satoshi Nakamoto.

At the time of his death on August 28, 2014, only circumstantial evidence pointed to Hal Finney being the original Satoshi Nakamoto.

Hal Finney, Image from Wired.

Yet another possible contender to be Satoshi Nakamoto is the Australian academic, computer engineering expert, and entrepreneur, Craig Wright.

In early November of 2015, Gizmodo received an anonymous email (referenced above) from an individual stating that not only did he know that Craig Wright was the creator of Bitcoin, but that he had also worked for him.

On December 9, hours afterWiredcertified that Wright was indeed Nakamoto, the Australian Federal Police raided his home, and afterwards stating the [the] matter is unrelated to recent media reporting regarding the digital currency Bitcoin.

Afterwards, Wright deleted his internet presence until May of 2016, when he stepped forward and revealed himself on Twitter as the creator of the digital currency Bitcoin, and claimed he had the proof to back up his statement. Then, amid a torrent of skepticism, Wright retracted his statement and did not offer the extraordinary proof he claimed to have, stating that he did not have the courage to prove his identity.

Craig Wright, Image from CCN.

In an era where information is widespread, Satoshi Nakamoto has managed to maintain his identity a complete secret. So why is uncovering Nakamotos identity so important? If Nakamoto is indeed a single individual, then he or she owns approximately 5% of the worlds Bitcoin supply, placing him or her as the 52nd richest person in the world as of December 12th.

The implications of this wealth are considerable, beyond even the real world implications. If Satoshi Nakamoto were ever to sell the rumored 980,000 Bitcoins in his or her possession (currently worth over $3.9 billion at todays price, as of 18th March 2019 ), the price of Bitcoincould potentially become more volatile than it already is.

A quote that is attributed to Mayer Amschel Rothschild goes like this, Permit me to issue and control the money of a nation, and I care not who makes its laws!

Like many famous quotes, the authenticity of the above statement is questionable.

On the other hand, the idea expressed is rock-solid. The power-of-the-purse is one of the most important ideas in modern political ideology. Being able to control the issuance of a popular currency gives the controller extreme amounts of power.Bitcoin undermines the idea of a central bank, or the involvement of centralized authorities at their most basic level. As the last decade has shown, the idea of decentralized money or political systems has been met with extreme opposition by many established organizations.

Satoshi Nakamoto wrote,

The root problem with conventional currency is all the trust thats required to make it work. The central bank must be trusted not to debase the currency, but the history of fiat currencies is full of breaches of that trust. Banks must be trusted to hold our money and transfer it electronically, but they lend it out in waves of credit bubbles with barely a fraction in reserve. We have to trust them with our privacy, trust them not to let identity thieves drain our accounts, in their now-famous 2009 whitepaper.

In 2008 no one would have seen Satoshi Nakamoto as a threat to global socioeconomic system. Today, that probably isnt true. Nations like China have banned cryptos outright, and the Western central banking cartel has been vocal in its opposition to widespread use of cryptos.

Whoever Satoshi Nakamoto is, they are likely wise to have dropped off the radar when they did. The idea that fiat money could be replaced with a system that marginalizes central authorities is extremely dangerous to the people that currently hold power.

Anyone who could act as a lightening-rod for a global decentralized society would probably face some pretty nasty blowback.

Furthermore, there is significant debate as to the future of Bitcoin. Heated discussions have arisen due to some of the growing pains surrounding Bitcoin, particularly the issue of how to deal with an increase in transaction volume in the Bitcoin network. As the number of blocks increases, the Bitcoin network runs the risk of becoming overloaded.

One side of the debate wants to fundamentally change the Bitcoin node by increasing the block size, in order to allow the system to process transactions more quickly. The other side of the debate sees this as a betrayal of the original concept behind Bitcoin, arguing that this would lead to increased centralization.

Identifying Bitcoins true creator would create more certainty and could potentially lay down the following steps in Bitcoins ever growing development.

The Bitcoin community will be forced to coexist with the enigma that is Satoshi Nakamoto, whether they like it or not. There are a few ways that Satoshi Nakamoto could show that they are, in fact, the creator of Bitcoin, but convincing the entire crypto community will be a challenge.

Even if a plausible Satoshi came forward, they would probably have to deal with ongoing doubts from within the crypto community, and untold difficulties from the global power structure. The raid on Craig Wright by the AFP is a small taste of the legal morass that the real Satoshi Nakamoto would find themselves facing.

Ultimately, identifying Bitcoins creator may be a quixotic endeavor. His or her complete silence since the Spring of 2011 means it is likely we will never hear from them again. Nevertheless, Bitcoin, the open source digital currency created nearly a decade ago, will continue to in spite of this mystery.

The post Who is Satoshi Nakamoto? We Look at The Possible Candidates appeared first on Blockonomi.

source: https://blockonomi.com/who-is-satoshi-nakamoto/

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Who is Satoshi Nakamoto? We Look at The Possible Candidates …

Who is Satoshi Nakamoto? A Look at the Candidates

Bitcoin was conceived as a communal project. Designed as an open-source software and released to the public in 2009, Bitcoin was conceived with openness in mind. Functioning on an open ledger that is accessible to the public, Bitcoin is an open-source project. But for all its openness, one grand mystery remains unsolved:

Who Created Bitcoin and Who exactly is Satoshi Nakamoto?

First, lets detail what is known for certain. The first step was taken in 2007, when Nakamoto wrote the Bitcoin code1. In November 2008, Satoshi Nakamoto published his now famous White Paper, which laid the groundwork for the Bitcoin protocol2.

On January 3rd, 2009, the first ever Bitcoin block was mined, marking the creation of the cryptocurrency, it bore the message :

The Times 03/Jan/2009 Chancellor on brink of second bailout for banks

Satoshi was heavily involved with the Bitcoin community, and collaborated with them in order to modify the underlying bitcoin protocol. After two years of involvement, Nakamoto handed the reins to Gavin Andresen, and seized involvement with the Bitcoin project in December of 2010. Then, in the Spring of 2011, Nakamoto returned to leave a final message, stating in a post that he had moved on to other things, and that Bitcoin was in good hands with Gavin [Andresen] and everyone. That was the last the world heard of the secretive Bitcoin creator.

The mystery behind Nakamotos identity has only grown, as the Bitcoin community eagerly speculates who it could potentially be. Satoshi Nakamoto claims to be Japanese, born on April 5, 19753. It is unknown whether Nakamoto is male or female, or whether Nakamoto is even a single person or a group of individuals.

While Nakamotos identity remains unknown, This has not stopped enthusiasts from investigating his background and drawing up conclusions. Nakamotos use of perfect English in his posts and his publication of the White Paper has raised skepticism as to his Japanese origin. Furthermore, his occasional use of British English in the code and comments has fueled speculation that he is a native English speaker of commonwealth origin4. Additionally, Stefan Thomas, a Swiss coder and active member in the Bitcoin community, graphed the time stamps of Nakamotos more than 500 posts, showing his or her complete absence of posts between midnight am and 6 am Greenwich Time, further informing investigators as to his potential whereabouts5.

To date, there are several potential individuals suspected of being the mysterious Bitcoin creator. One of the first suggestions was Nick Szabo, a decentralized currency enthusiast who published a paper on bit gold considered to be a precursor to the first cryptocurrency. Running a reverse textual analysis, internet researcher Skye Grey found dozens of unique phrases that linked Szabos writing style to that of the original White Paper6. This evidence is only circumstantial, however, and Szabo has repeatedly denied that he is the creator of Bitcoin.

Nick Szabo, Image from The-Blockchain

Another possibility is a Japanese American man living in California, named Dorian Prentice Satoshi Nakamoto, birth name Satoshi Nakamoto. First brought up in a March 2014 Newsweek article, Leah McGrath Goodman pointed to Nakamotos training as a physicist at Cal Poly University in Pomona and libertarian background as potential indicators of his identity. Her biggest piece of evidence was his response to a question regarding Bitcoin: I am no longer involved in that and I cannot discuss it. Its been turned over to other people. They are in charge of it now. I no longer have any connection.7 This led to a wild media frenzy, which even included a car chase. However, in a later interview, he recanted his previous position, stating that he had misunderstood the reporters question, thinking it was related to his previous classified work as a military contractor8.

Dorian Prentice Satoshi Nakamoto, Image from The Verge.

Hal Finney is another potential candidate to be the mysterious Satoshi Nakamoto. Finney was a pre-bitcoin cryptographic pioneer and was only the second person after Nakamoto himself to make use of the software, file bug reports, and suggest improvements.

Furthermore, he was the first to ever receive Bitcoin, stating in an interview that [he] was the recipient of the first bitcoin transaction, when Satoshi sent ten coins to [him] as a test.9

Forbes journalist Andy Greenberg speculated after requesting aid from writing analysis consultancy Juola & Associates that Greenberg may have been the ghostwriter for Satoshi Nakamoto. Further adding to the speculation that Finney was involved with the creation of Bitcoin was his correspondence with the aforementioned Nick Szabo, and the fact that he lived only blocks apart from Dorian Prentice Satoshi Nakamoto10. At the time of his death on August 28, 2014, only circumstantial evidence pointed to Hal Finney being the original Satoshi Nakamoto.

Hal Finney, Image from Wired.

Yet another possible contender to be Satoshi Nakamoto is the Australian academic, computer engineering expert, and entrepreneur, Craig Wright. In early November of 2015, Gizmodo received an anonymous email from an individual stating that not only did he know that Craig Wright was the creator of Bitcoin, but that he had also worked for him11. On December 9, hours after Wired certified that Wright was indeed Nakamoto, the Australian Federal Police raided his home, and afterwards stating the [the] matter is unrelated to recent media reporting regarding the digital currency Bitcoin. Afterwards, Wright deleted his internet presence until May of 2016, when he stepped forward and revealed himself on Twitter as the creator of the digital currency Bitcoin12, and claimed he had the proof to back up his statement. Then, amid a torrent of skepticism, Wright retracted his statement and did not offer the extraordinary proof he claimed to have, stating that he did not have the courage to prove his identity13.

Craig Wright, Image from CCN.

In an era where information is widespread, Satoshi Nakamoto has managed to maintain his identity a complete secret. So why is uncovering Nakamotos identity so important? If Nakamoto is indeed a single individual, then he or she owns approximately 5% of the worlds Bitcoin supply, placing him or her as the 52nd richest person in the world as of December 12th14.

The implications of this wealth are considerable, beyond even the real world implications. If Satoshi Nakamoto were ever to sell the rumored 980,000 Bitcoins in his or her possession ( currently worth over $16 billion at todays price, as of 5th Jan 2018 ), the price of Bitcoin could potentially become more volatile than it already is.

Furthermore, there is significant debate as to the future of Bitcoin. Heated discussions have arisen due to some of the growing pains surrounding Bitcoin, particularly the issue of how to deal with an increase in transaction volume in the Bitcoin network. As the number of blocks increases, the Bitcoin network runs the risk of becoming overloaded. One side of the debate wants to fundamentally change the Bitcoin node by increasing the block size, in order to allow the system to process transactions more quickly. The other side of the debate sees this as a betrayal of the original concept behind Bitcoin, arguing that this would lead to increased centralization15. Identifying Bitcoins true creator would create more certainty and could potentially lay down the following steps in Bitcoins ever growing development.

Ultimately, identifying Bitcoins creator may be a quixotic endeavor. His or her complete silence since the Spring of 2011 means it is likely we will never hear from them again. Nevertheless, Bitcoin, the open source digital currency created nearly a decade ago, will continue to in spite of this mystery. The Bitcoin community will be forced to coexist with the enigma that is Satoshi Nakamoto, for the better or for the worst.

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Who is Satoshi Nakamoto? A Look at the Candidates

Satoshi Nakamoto: Who is Bitcoin’s Mysterious Creator …

More Than Just a Name: Who or What Is Satoshi Nakamoto? The Facts That We Have

There are mysteries that we all have to deal with from personal to international. One of the mysteries that still hounds the cryptocurrency world is the one that surrounds one particular name: Satoshi Nakamoto, the illustrious and yet unknown figure that stood behind the creation and introduction of Bitcoin.

While the true face of Nakamoto, among other things, remain a mystery, we will be using these articles as a way to piece together all that we do know about them. From everything they had previously written, to who the media believed was the true’ Nakamoto and whether there are still people out there who once previously bore the mantel.

We may never fully know who Satoshi Nakamoto is, but with this series, we hope to, at the very least, shrink down the number of people who could resemble the illustrious figure.

Whatever could be construed as a public record of Satoshi Nakamoto can be easily condensed into a span of fewer than two years. While a brief legacy’ the amount of buzz surrounding these records have kept forums, social media pages and financial experts ensconced in the possible answer to the question.

Not only would it be one of the internets biggest mysteries being solved, but whoever rightfully claimed to be Nakamoto would gain immediate legendary status for their involvement in the development of blockchain, the technology which is (and continues to) revolutionize the world as we know it.

Not only is there a legend to claim, but a fortune as well; one that is believed to total nearly 1 million Bitcoin. This means, by today’s valuation of Bitcoin, would mean an inheritance’ of over 8 Billion dollars, not accounting for future fluctuation, however.

One of the most comprehensive profiles we have for Nakamoto comes from their P2P foundation page, Satoshi Nakamoto is (or was) a 43-year-old male originating from Japan. This suggests that he is most active during the Japanese time cycle, but upon studying their posting behavior, it implies that they follow the GMT cycle due a habit of disappearing from 5am-11am yet being active during the earlier to late afternoon.

While that isn’t evidence enough to suggest that while Nakamoto wasn’t in Japan, but could mean that they had a highly unusual sleep pattern.

Satoshi, from their philosophy, was a firm advocate for economic or social Libertarianism specific to the world of technology. This viewpoint can be construed as Crypto-Anarchism’, decentralizing the world of commerce, handing the power in the world of personal finance back to the individual consumer.

In the announcement and release of the Genesis block, otherwise known as Block 1′ or 0, included a hidden message within its Coinbase parameter giving the headline for the news from the 3rd January 2009:

the Times 03/Jan/2009 Chancellor on brink of the second bailout for banks

While the use of the newspaper headline may simply function as a time-stamp for the interest of posterity with the release of the first Bitcoin block. Many crypto-enthusiasts and anarchists alike have, however, interpreted the headline as a stab against centralized financial institutions for their part in the unfurling global financial crisis and subsequent recession.

One of the other stabs that this message demonstrates, according to Nakamoto supporters, is in creating an inbuilt scarcity for Bitcoin, while governments and financial institutions are able to print a seemingly infinite volume of money at their own discretion, creating devaluation with users being powerless to do anything about it.

While Nakamoto has been personally responsible for mining and possessing nearly a million Bitcoin, he’ only ever completed one transaction simply to demonstrate that a cryptocurrency could, and does, work.

Apart from that, Nakamoto never moved his Bitcoin from his initial mining address, but there are a number of reasons for why he would have instigated this action.

How is it we can theorize that these are the plausible scenarios as to Nakamoto’s activities? Because a number of the texts of which he drafted and wrote give these very distinct impressions:

At this point in time, Satoshi announced through a Cryptography mailing list that Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System, his officially white paper detailing the idea and function of Bitcoin, was formally published on Bitcoin.com.

Satoshi makes his first public post on the website P2P Foundation: The Foundation for Peer to Peer Alternatives’. This post consisted of a link to his recently published White Paper, including some additional insight into the paper and his reasoning for developing it.

Across this span of time when he’s active on the site, he created three posts, with the last taking place on February 14th, 2009. The same account was used in March 2014, with the post including the statement that the user is not Dorian Nakamoto after being falsely outed as Satoshi Nakamoto days earlier.

This consisted of the official, inaugural post on the website Bitcointalk.org.’ This would include a series of over 575 posts across 13 months, other contributors apart from Nakamoto consist ofMike Hearn and Jeff Garzik.

These contributors were effective in laying down the groundwork for what Bitcoin was to become. By December 12th, 2010, Nakamoto has effectively stopped operating on the site, for what reasons remains unknown.

This post is the last time that Nakamoto officially addressed the public within the forum, linking to the latest version of the Bitcoin, wallet client. Nine years on and the forum is one of the largest, most reputable forums of cryptocurrency discussion, with over 2 million users and hundreds of millions of post views.

One of the last posts from Nakamoto included the desire that Wikileaks which, at the time, had been vehemently opposed by the US governments, including banks which refused to work with them regarding providing funding.

Nakamoto stated that Bitcoin shouldn’t be used as a means of supporting the site, citing its infancy’ and fragility as some of the reasons why it is not best-suited for supporting Wikileaks.

Despite his urging against providing this support, it went on to be used, resulting in Wikileaks removing the page and description for Bitcoin. The reason for this post was to prevent Bitcoin from snuffed out by drawing too much negative press, especially in being linked to an institution which had just recently made some incredibly powerful enemies.

So who could this person be? We can get an understanding of Nakamoto’s personality from one of his email addresses when messages to and from the account were made.

His account, [emailprotected] was reportedly hacked in 2014, with one of the email exchanges being between Nakamoto and the financial expert, Wei Dai, regarding obtaining proper accreditation for the ideas of his that were used in the development of Bitcoin.

The second was to Laszlo Hanyecz, the cryptocurrency developer that is famously known for the 10,000 Bitcoin for 2 Pizzas’ challenge, which has gained a historical emphasis for being the first monetary transaction using Bitcoin.

When approached on what the exchanges between himself and Nakamoto were like, Hanyecz described them as Weird,’ describing him as a bossy’ figure who expected him to be an active contributor despite the fact that his tenure working on Bitcoin was predominantly unpaid.

Above all, Nakamoto, according to Hanyecz, tended to strongly deflect any questions about himself as a person while also demanding that the underlying code remain untampered with.

One of Bitcoins developers early on was Mike Hearn, who offered a very unique insight into what it was like to work alongside Nakamoto during the early days of the project. In one of the interactions between Nakamoto and Hearn, the latter made the email exchanges public online. The last of which was posted on April 23rd, 2011 contained the following:

Ive moved on to other things. Its in good hands with Gavin (Andresen) and everyone.

One of the final email exchanges including Nakamoto was between himself and Gavin Anderson, in which Anderson attempted to find out more about his utterly online colleague. The reply he got was laconic, direct and inciteful:

I wish you wouldnt keep talking about me as a mysterious shadowy figure, the press just turns that into a pirate currency angle. Maybe instead make it about the open source project and give more credit to your dev contributors; it helps motivate them.

The final email that Anderson sent to Nakamoto consisted of detailing an invitation to speak at an event that had direct connections with the Central Intelligence Agency. With the lack of response from Nakamoto, it could be construed that he had become, somewhat reasonably,freaked out by the sudden, meteoric rise to popularity the Bitcoin enjoyed.

Satoshi Nakamoto is one of the phantom names in the worlds of the internet and cryptocurrency that consists of a legendary status, a groundbreaking innovation and, while accompanied with a literal throne of $8 billion, the actual individual behind Satoshi Nakamoto’ remains elusive.

In this article, we put together a list of potential suspects with the profile, intelligence, or character that make them the possible man behind the mask.

While these are claims, they are unsubstantiated and theoretical, the only way to truly KNOW who Satoshi Nakamoto is through verifying their wallet address which would link the individual to the man himself.

From 2009 to 2010, Satoshi Nakamoto was directly involved in the development, coding, design, and release of what we and millions of members of the general public now know as Bitcoin’. During this same stretch of time, Nakamoto was also involved in mining a large quantity of the coins during a time that only a select number of people were involved in mining.

The only way one could prove without a shadow of a doubt that they were Nakamoto, they would simply need to complete one or a number of transactions between the accounts that the original Nakamoto used during this time.

While this has yet to happen, a great number of internet researchers, financial experts, and genuinely curious individuals have yet to cease in piecing together ideas and theorizing as to who the real Satoshi Nakamoto was and is.

So who on earth do some of these researchers believe is the real Satoshi Nakamoto? We piece together the names of those people believe are linked to the man, from the interesting to the downright unusual.

For anyone to be considered as Satoshi Nakamoto, it requires that person to have a clear understanding of computer programming, especially from the aspect of cryptocurrency development, these consist of:

By these criteria, the number of people that may be Nakamoto thins out significantly especially considering the balance, intellectually, which would need to be struck between the deeper knowledge of economics, cryptography and computer programming in general.

One of the potential candidates for being Nakamoto was the former graduate student, cryptography enthusiast but had also been involved in some level of C++ Programming since he was 10, Michael Clear.

While all of the dominoes were in place, making Clear a shoe-in for being the real Satoshi Nakamoto, when asked the question during an interview, Clear explicitly stated that he was not Nakamoto.

Im not Satoshi, but even if I was I wouldnt tell you.

While Clear, at the time, was startled by the question which to him came out of left field. He believed it to be conclusive enough to not realise any further questions, this turned out to not be the case, as he would encounter incessant questions on whether he was, in fact, Nakamoto and just wanted to protect his anonymity.

It got to the point where, in 2013, after two years of questions pertaining to Bitcoin and Nakamoto, that he published a blog post, explicitly denying any links to Bitcoin and being Nakamoto.

Josh originally contacted me at Crypto 2011 about a paper I was involved with related to p2p, and I met up with him out of curiosity as to why he would be interested. For about 20 minutes we talked about that.

When bitcoin came up, I remember we had a brief casual chat; I was naturally startled when he thought I could be Satoshi, and there was some humor and regrettable mistakes on my part.

Nick Szabo, a Hungarian-American computer scientist was theorized to be a potential candidate for Satoshi Nakamoto for a number of reasons. During late 2013, the slow collapse of MtGOX led researchers to look at Szabo as a potential candidate for being Nakamoto.

Like in a Mirror’, an anonymous blog post, listed out the reasons why Nick Szabo could be Satoshi Nakamoto. Across the two blog posts, the author lists the reasons why Szabo would be the founder of Bitcoin.

One of the reasons why this blog post, and Szabo by extension, gained so much credibility as being Nakamoto was due to the arguments provided by Like in a Mirror, but also due to Szabo’s own involvement with the distant cousin to Bitcoin, Bit Gold’.

While Bit Gold presented a very interesting concept when initially proposed in 1998, it never really gained traction with which to enter wider development and implementation. However, Bit Gold did, in fact, contain a significant number of features which made Bitcoin possible as a system of peer-to-peer transaction.

These include a method of Decentralisation, the Proof of Work’ system, and the implementation of Time Stamp Servers’ including proper network security mechanisms to provide an additional layer of security and validation behind each transaction.

The blog post continued on to provide an additional number of reasons why Szabo could be Satoshi Nakamoto:

While the blog series provides a significant amount of research and a well thought out argument, Szabo himself categorically denies being Satoshi Nakamoto.

While denying being Satoshi Nakamoto, Szabo is a regular writer on the subjects of programming, Cryptography and the uses of Bitcoin on his personal blog. Along with this, Szabo is also a prolific and frequent speaker / lecturer on the subject of Bitcoin and the state of play for it and other cryptocurrencies.

One of the more famous potential Satoshis was Dorian Satoshi Nakamoto, who shares a significant number of unique correlations with the original Satoshi Nakamoto, the name being just one of them.

Dorian Nakamoto, originally a resident of Japan, went on to attend college in California, studying and graduating with a degree in Physics. The correlation comes from Dorian’s own experiences working with several different employees, these consist of Citibank and the U.S. Government as just a couple of the examples.

As an engineer, a great degree of his work is under both legal and personal secrecy. An article, which labeled Dorian Satoshi Nakamoto as the developer of Bitcoin was based off an initial, off the cuff comment made by himself, in which he stated that he was no longer involved’ with the Bitcoin project.

While this confirmed to the reporter who he was, Dorian points out that there was a significant degree of misunderstanding on his part, believing that it was a question regarding his work with Citibank.

Five days after the interview’, Newsweek read out a letter sent to them by Dorian, lamenting the challenges he’s faced as a result of the false accusations of being Nakamoto.

I did not create, invent or otherwise work on Bitcoin. I unconditionally deny the Newsweek report The first time I heard the term bitcoin was from my son in mid-February 2014. After being contacted by a reporter, my son called me and used the word, which I had never before heard. Shortly thereafter, the reporter confronted me at my home.

I have no knowledge of nor have I ever worked on cryptography, peer to peer systems, or alternative currencies My prospects for gainful employment has been harmed because of Newsweeks article

Newsweeks false report has been the source of a great deal of confusion and stress for myself, my 93-year old mother, my siblings, and their families This will be our last public statement on this matter. I ask that you now respect our privacy.

Making a start to his career as a programmer with Atari working on video game design, Hal Finney has since become an individual considered by many to be the real Satoshi Nakamoto.

Ever since starting off on his career of computer programming, Finney became significantly interested and involved in the field of Cryptography, being on of the early joiners of the mailing list and social group, Cyberpunks.

One of the other organizations that Finney was involved in was Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) since its establishment in 1991. What tipped people off to his potential was his development of PGP 2.0, a system which incorporates features such as file encryption and authentication, as well as encrypted communications.

These features made PGP 2.0 the first truly secure version of the program, all based on the handy work of Hal Finney. Effectively, Finney had created the system we have come to know as peer-to-peer networking before there was even a name for it.

One of the reasons that Finney became heavily involved in Cryptography was due to being inspired by the developer David Chaum, a fellow Californian who wished to apply Cryptography to the world of online finance, specifically when addressing online transactions and finance management.

During his time at the University of California, Chaum had created one of the first systems of peer-to-peer transactions, called Ecash, which had some of the features we see in Bitcoin, but was tethered to the ongoing value of the US Dollar and never really gained significant traction.

Finney set about to expand upon what Ecash had attempted to be, adding a proof of work concept to the currency which was reusable back in 2004. This feature among others would be those applied in order to create Bitcoin in 2008.

Finney was a keen member of a number of cryptography forums and mailing lists, being one of the first users of the client software which Nakamoto had released. Within days of releasing this software, Finney made history by being the recipient of one of Bitcoins first transactions, in which he received 10 Bitcoin from Nakamoto.

Regrettably, Finney was later diagnosed with ALS, otherwise known as Lou Gehrig’s disease, from which he died in 2014. Until then, Finney continued to be an active participant in conversations regarding cryptocurrency, using his final post to recap on all of his personal experiences interacting with Nakamoto.

When Satoshi announced the first release of the software, I grabbed it right away. I think I was the first person besides Satoshi to run bitcoin. I mined block 70-something, and I was the recipient of the first bitcoin transaction when Satoshi sent ten coins to me as a test. I carried on an email conversation with Satoshi over the next few days, mostly me reporting bugs and him fixing them.

Today, Satoshis true identity has become a mystery. But at the time, I thought I was dealing with a young man of Japanese ancestry who was very smart and sincere. Ive had the good fortune to know many brilliant people over the course of my life, so I recognize the signs.

During the final year of his life, Finney was subjected to an unfortunate extortion attempt against him, in which he was ordered by the anonymous hacker to complete a transaction of 1,000 Bitcoin (Worth $400,000 at the time) or they would release sensitive personal information about Finney to the public.

Over the years, Finney’s family would face constant extortion attempts, all of which amounted to no payout simply because Finney was not Nakamoto and that any Bitcoin Finney had extracted and collected over the years were used up in order to pay for his burdensome medical expenses.

Unfortunately, Craig Steven Wright is one of the more infamous individuals to be on the list of potential Satoshi Nakamoto’s. The Australian computer scientist and businessman had led media outlets on an obscure hunt for after he came forward to a number of news broadcasters that he was the real Satoshi Nakamoto back in 2015.

In the past, Wright had been involved in the creation of the worlds first online casinos, including a Bitcoin-based bank which never completely materialized. This was due to a number of issues surrounding obtaining regulatory approval in order to do this, something that cryptocurrencies still face on a regular basis.

What does separate Wright from other individuals on this list is that he offered up Cryptographic proof that he was, in fact, Nakamoto, claiming to have access to the keys that he used in order to extract and complete some of the first Bitcoin transactions.

According to his interview with BBC, Wright claimed that he would provide this evidence as extraordinary proof for an extraordinary claim. Signing a message using a key known to be used by Satoshi Nakamoto.

See the rest here:

Satoshi Nakamoto: Who is Bitcoin’s Mysterious Creator …

From Dorian Nakamoto to Elon Musk: The Incomplete List of …

Ten years ago, on Jan. 3, 2009, the Bitcoin (BTC) network was created as Satoshi Nakamoto mined the genesis block, also known as block number zero.

However, the identity behind the Bitcoin creator has remained one of the biggest mysteries in the crypto community since the original white paper was published by Satoshi in October 2008.

Various journalistic investigations have attempted to unveil the person or group of individuals responsible for creating the top digital currency, but Satoshis real identity remains unknown to date. On his P2P Foundation profile which went inactive in late 2010 Nakamoto identifies as a 43-year-old male who lives in Japan, but he almost never posted on the Bitcoin forum during local daytime. Other clues, like the British spelling of words like colour and optimise, suggest he was of Commonwealth origin.

So far, the media and community have come up with numerous results of who might be the real Satoshi, none of which have been confirmed. On June 14, 2018 the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) said that it could neither confirm nor deny the existence of Nakamoto after a Motherboard journalist requested information on his identity through the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA).

Heres the (incomplete) list of potential candidates.

Suspect credentials: a 38 year-old Finnish professor at the Helsinki Institute for Information Technology

Source: Joshua Davis, The New Yorker

One of the first attempts to reveal Satoshis identity dates back to October 2011, when journalist Joshua Davis wrote a piece for the New Yorker. During his quest to identify the Bitcoin creator, Davis found Michael Clear, a young graduate student in cryptography at Trinity College in Dublin, who had worked at Allied Irish Banks to improve its currency-trading software and co-authored an academic paper on peer-to-peer technology. Clear denied he was Satoshi, but offered the journalist the name of a solid fit for Nakamoto a thirty-one-year-old Finnish researcher at the Helsinki Institute for Information Technology named Vili Lehdonvirta, who used to be a video game programmer and studied virtual currencies.

However, after being contacted by Davis, Lehdonvirta also claimed he was not Satoshi. You need to be a crypto expert to build something as sophisticated as bitcoin, he said. There arent many of those people, and Im definitely not one of them.

Suspect credentials: a 49 year-old Japanese mathematician at Kyoto University

Source: Ted Nelson

On May 17, 2013, American IT pioneer, sociologist and philosopher Ted Nelson suggested that Nakamoto could be Japanese mathematician Shinichi Mochizuki of Kyoto University, who worked mostly in number theory and geometry. Nelsons evidence was largely circumstantial, however, as it mostly rested on how Mochizuki released his solution to the ABC Conjecture, one of the biggest unsolved problems in mathematics.

A few days later, Nelson told Quartz that he would donate to charity if Mochizuki denied being Satoshi Nakamoto:

If that person denies being Satoshi, I will humbly give one bitcoin (at this instant worth about $123) to any charity he selects. If he is Satoshi and denies it, at least he will feel guilty. (One month time limit on denial bitcoins are going UP.)

In July 2013, The Age reported that Mochizuki denied Nelsons claims, but did not specify the source.

Suspect credentials: a 68-year-old Japanese American man who has done classified work for major corporations and the U.S. military

Source: Leah McGrath Goodman, Newsweek

On March 6, 2014, Newsweek published a lengthy article written by journalist Leah McGrath Goodman, who identified Dorian Prentice Satoshi Nakamoto, a Japanese American male living in California as the original Bitcoin creator.

Goodman learned that Nakamoto worked as a systems engineer on classified defense projects and computer engineer for technology and financial information services companies. Nakamoto reportedly turned libertarian after being laid off from his job twice in the early 1990s.

There were other clues besides his birth name. Goodman argues that Nakamoto confirmed his identity as the Bitcoin founder after she asked him about the cryptocurrency during a face-to-face interview. “I am no longer involved in that and I cannot discuss it, he allegedly replied. It’s been turned over to other people. They are in charge of it now. I no longer have any connection.”

However, in a following full-length interview with The Associated Press, Dorian Nakamoto denied all connection to Bitcoin. He said that he had never heard of it before, and that he thought that Goodman was asking about his previous work for military contractors, which was largely classified. Interestingly, in a Reddit “Ask Me Anything” interview, he stated he had misinterpreted Goodman’s question as being related to his work for Citibank. Later on the same day, the Nakamoto’s P2P Foundation account posted its first message in several years, stating: “I am not Dorian Nakamoto.”

Suspect credentials: (supposedly) a 55 year-old American man of Hungarian descent and creator of BitGold, a predecessor of Bitcoin

Sources: Skye Grey, researcher; Dominic Frisby, financial writer

In December 2013, researcher Skye Grey published results of his stylometric analysis, which indicated that the person behind Satoshi Nakamoto was a computer scientist and cryptographer named Nick Szabo.

Essentially, Grey searched for unusual turns of phrase and vocabulary patterns in particular places which you would expect a cryptography researcher to contribute to, and then evaluated the fitness of each match found by running textual similarity metrics on several pages of their writing.

Szabo is a decentralized currency enthusiast who developed the concept of “BitGold,” a pre-Bitcoin, privacy-focused digital currency, back in 1998. In his May 2011 article on Bitcoin, Szabo wrote:

“Myself, Wei Dai, and Hal Finney were the only people I know of who liked the idea (or in Dai’s case his related idea) enough to pursue it to any significant extent until Nakamoto (assuming Nakamoto is not really Finney or Dai).”

Additional research carried out by financial author Dominic Frisby, which he describes in his 2014 book titled Bitcoin: The Future of Money? also suggests that Nick Szabo is the real Satoshi. In an interview on Russia Today, Frisby said: “I’ve concluded there is only one person in the whole world that has the sheer breadth but also the specificity of knowledge and it is this chap [Nick Szabo].”

Nevertheless, Szabo has denied being Satoshi. In a July 2014 email to Frisby, he reportedly stated:

Thanks for letting me know. I’m afraid you got it wrong doxing me as Satoshi, but I’m used to it.

Suspect credentials: an American cryptographic pioneer who died in 2014 at the age of 58

Source: Andy Greenberg, Forbes (who eventually denied his own assumption)

On March 25, 2014, Forbes journalist Andy Greenberg published an article on Dorian Nakamotos alleged neighbor, a pre-Bitcoin cryptographic pioneer named Hal Finney, who received the very first BTC transaction from Nakamoto.

Interestingly, Greenberg reached out to the writing analysis consultancy Juola & Associates and asked them to compare a sample of Finney’s writing to that of Satoshi Nakamoto. Reportedly, they found that it was the closest resemblance they had yet come across including the other candidates suggested by Newsweek, Fast Company and New Yorker journalists, along with Ted Nelson and Skye Grey. However, the company established that Nakamoto’s emails to Finney more closely resemble the style that the original white paper was written in when compared to Finney’s emails.

Greenberg suggested that Finney may have been a ghostwriter for Nakamoto, or that he used his neighbor Dorian’s identity as cover. Finney denied he was Satoshi. Greenberg, after meeting Finney in person, seeing the email exchanges between him and Nakamoto, and his Bitcoin wallet’s history, concluded that Finney was telling the truth.

On Aug. 28, 2014, Hal Finney died at his home in Phoenix at the age of 58 after five years of battling amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Suspect credentials: a 48 year-old Australian computer scientist and businessman

Sources: Andy Greenberg, Gwern Branwen, Wired; Craig Wright (himself)

On Dec. 8, 2015, Wired published an article written by Andy Greenberg and Gwern Branwen that argued an Australian academic named Craig Steven Wright “either invented bitcoin or is a brilliant hoaxer who very badly wants us to believe he did.”

On the same day, Gizmodo ran a story that featured documents allegedly obtained by a hacker who broke into Wright’s email accounts, claiming that Satoshi Nakamoto was a joint pseudonym for Craig Steven Wright and his friend, computer forensics analyst and cyber-security expert David Kleiman, who died in 2013.

Wright promptly took down his online accounts and disappeared for several months until May 2, 2016, when he publicly declared that he is the creator of Bitcoin. Later on the same month, Wright published an apology along with a refusal to publish the proof of access to one of the earliest Bitcoin keys. Cointelegraph has published several articles on why Wright is most likely not Satoshi. Nevertheless, Wright continues to claim that he is Satoshi to this day.

In February 2018, the estate of Dave Kleiman filed a lawsuit against Wright over the rights to $5 billion worth of BTC, claiming that Wright defrauded Kleiman of virtual currency and intellectual property rights.

Suspects credentials: U.S. and German residents, occupancy and age unknown

Source: Adam Penenberg, Fast Company

In October 2013, journalist Adam Penenberg penned an article for Fast Company, where he cited circumstantial evidence suggesting that Neal King, Vladimir Oksman and Charles Bry could be Nakamoto. King and Bry reportedly live in Germany while Oksman was claimed to be based in the U.S.

Penenbergs theory revolves around the claim that King, Oksman and Bry jointly filed a patent application that contained the phrase “computationally impractical to reverse” in August 2008, which was also used in the white paper published by Nakamoto in October that year. Moreover, the domain name bitcoin.org was registered three days after the patent was filed.

All three men denied being Nakamoto when contacted by Penenberg.

Suspect credentials: a 47 year-old American technology entrepreneur

Source: Sahil Gupta, SpaceX intern

In what seems as one of the most absurd Nakamoto theories to date, Sahil Gupta, who claims to be a former intern at SpaceX, wrote a Hacker Noon post speculating that Elon Musk was probably Satoshi Nakamoto. Gupta emphasized Elon Musk’s background in economics, experience in production-level software and history of innovation to speculate that Musk could have invented Bitcoin.

The post was published in November 2017 and was soon disproved by Musk himself, who tweeted that Guptas suggestion is not true.

While there is no actual evidence that Nakamoto is a government agency, it makes for a great conspiracy theory that contains a vast amount of reasons as to why the U.S. (or any other state) would want to create Bitcoin. For instance, a 2013 Motherboard article theorized: Bitcoin could be used as a weapon against the US dollar. It could be used to fund black ops.

It then suggested a theory that Bitcoin is actually an Orwellian vehicle that would allow governments to monitor all financial transactions.

See the original post:

From Dorian Nakamoto to Elon Musk: The Incomplete List of …

BitMEX Thanks Satoshi Nakamoto on the Front Page of The Times

The advertisement says Thanks, Satoshi. We owe you one. Happy 10th birthday, Bitcoin! and includes the hash of the Bitcoin block 554.509.

The first cryptocurrency was launched with the 2008/9 crisis in mind. This financial crisis affected individuals from all over the world and also financial institutions. In order to avoid this traditional financial world, Satoshi Nakamoto decided to create Bitcoin (BTC) something that was discussed in the past by cypherpunks and other crypto enthusiasts. No one knows exactly who Satoshi Nakamoto is.

Read the original:

BitMEX Thanks Satoshi Nakamoto on the Front Page of The Times

Satoshi Nakamoto: 9 Interesting Facts You Need To Know

Like the dramatic quest ofHollywood movieFinding Nemo,this quest of finding Satoshi Nakamoto the inventor of Bitcoin has also been dramatic.

Its fascinating to see how Bitcoin has become a multi-billion dollar thing, yet the Father of Bitcoin is still missing.

Satoshi Nakamoto made the Bitcoin software in 2008 and made it open source in January 2009.

And in 2010, Satoshi disappeared.

No one even knows what pronoun to use(he, she, or they)while referring to Satoshi Nakamoto because it is still not clear whether he/she is a person or a group of people.

Whomever Satoshi Nakamoto might be, there are some interesting facts about the entity that gave birth to this multi-billion dollar industry of cryptocurrencies.

Here are 9 interesting facts

1. Why is Satoshi Nakamoto Famous?

The name Satoshi Nakamoto is the pseudonym of the inventor of Bitcoin. In 2008, someone used this name and mailed the Bitcoin white paper to a cryptographic mailing list.

This mailing list contained renowned people who believedin decentralization and cryptography.

Thats why this name is so famous.

As is apparent from the name, its assumed that he was a Japanese man, but his flawless use of English in the white paper raises doubts about this conclusion.

2. Satoshis Net Worth

It is believed that Satoshi Nakamoto owns 1 million bitcoins(or more) which makes his present net worth at the time of writing this article to be $2.6 billion.

In 2009 January, Satoshi mined the Genesis block, andin 2010, he officially stopped communicating. Between this period, the bitcoins came into existence exist on the blockchain ledger, but they have not been used or spent. Thisproves how much Satoshi owns.

1 million BTC is a huge number which, if dumped suddenly, could wreak havoc on the crypto market. Thats why Bitcoin has also earned the title of being a Ponzi scheme-because the speculative founder owns a significant share.

3. Satoshis T-Shirts

The anonymity of Bitcoins founder has led to a mushrooming of a totally new merchandising concept. Now you can buy T-Shirts with Satoshi Nakamoto things printed on it.

Things like:

You can buy one for yourself from e-commerce sites likeZazzleandTeespring.

4. Satoshi Nakamoto is Possibly A Group Of Companies

Some even suggest that Samsung, Toshiba, Nakamichi, and Motorola together created Bitcoin, as you can tell from their names:

Satoshi Nakamoto

However, there is no official proof for such a conclusion.

5. Satoshi Nakamoto is PossiblyNick Szabo

Nick Szabo, a US computer scientist, and cryptographer is considered by some to be the founder of Bitcoin. Nick coined the concept of digital currency for the digital age by creating Bit Gold. Bit Gold was the ancestor of Bitcoin. However, it was not used by the masses because of limitations.

After analysis of Satoshis white paper, a blogger concluded that Nick Szabo was Satoshi Nakamoto. but Nick has never accepted this hypothesis.

6. Satoshi Nakamoto is PossiblyCraig Steven Wright

Craig Wright, an Australian Entrepreneur, claimed to the BBC on 2nd May 2016 to be the inventor of Bitcoin. However, when examined by core Bitcoin developers like Peter Todd, Craig was unable to provide any acceptable supporting evidence for such a claim.

Though initially, he said he would come back with relevant evidence, he failed to do so, and said on his blog that he was sorry and didnt have the courage to continue.

7. Satoshi Nakamoto is PossiblyDorian Nakamoto

In March 2014, another speculation came on the identity of Satoshi. A news source claimed that they had found Satoshi, and he lived inCalifornia, USA.

His full name, as reported, was Dorian Prentice Satoshi Nakamoto. He was aphysicist and a systems engineer who had recently been laid off by the government.

Later on, the person identified denied all such claims and said he is not the Nakamoto which everyone has been searching for.

8.Satoshi Nakamoto is PossiblyHal Finney

Hal was a cryptographer even before his involvement with Bitcoin. He was on the mailing list that received Satoshi Nakamotos Bitcoin white paper.

Hal claimed that he had been communicating with Satoshi to support his testing, which led to the speculative conclusion that he himself was Satoshi.

Hals writing style also closely resembles that of Satoshis in the Bitcoin white paper. The suspicion evaporated when he showed his email conversation with Satoshi, but that could just be a diversion tactic.

Fun fact:Hal was the first person to receive a Bitcoin transaction from Satoshi on January 12, 2009, after Satoshi mined the genesis block on3rd January 2009 at 18:15:05 GMT.

9. Fast Company Found Satoshi Nakamoto

An employee of Fast Company, a media brand, said thatNeal King, Vladimir Oksman, and Charles Bry were the group of people that created Bitcoin. This employee proved it by searching unique phrases in Satoshis white paper.

They even patented the phrase which appears on the Bitcoin white paper computationally impractical to reverse.

However, all of them have publically denied such allegations.

Whatever anyone may say or think, the anonymity factor of Satoshi Nakamoto has proven to be healthy for Bitcoin.

But theres still a big mystery here:

Where is Satoshi, what is Satoshi doing, and why is Satoshi hiding?

No one knows the truth.

I would like to end this article by quoting two very early adopters of Bitcoin, Erik Voorhees andRoger Ver(two people who are definitely worth following on Twitter).

Bitcoin is the most important invention in the history of the world since the internet.

Roger Ver, Bitcoin Jesus

Can we take a moment to reflect on the fact that the Bitcoin protocol STILL hasn’t been hacked? One of the greatest comp sci accomplishments

Erik Voorhees (@ErikVoorhees) May 13, 2015

This shows how important Bitcoin, blockchain technology, and of course, Satoshi Nakamoto all are!

And yes, Bitcoin has become more important than a single individual, but we would all love to solve this mystery once and for all.

If you know any more interesting facts that I have missed in this article, thendo let me know in the comments below!!!

And if you liked this post, dont forget to share it!

Here are hand-picked articles to read next:

Original post:

Satoshi Nakamoto: 9 Interesting Facts You Need To Know

Will The Real Satoshi Nakamoto Please Stand Up – bitcoinist.com

He just doesnt give up, does he? Self-proclaimed creator of Bitcoin, Craig Wright, now appears willing to testify under oath that he is Satoshi Nakamoto. Or thats the conclusion Ran NeuNer draws, following Wrightsresponse to a comment request from the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC).

In December 2018, the CFTC published a Request For Input (RFI) on Crypto-Assets Mechanics and Markets. This was primarily to understand more about Ethereum, and the differences between Ether and Bitcoin. As the CFTC is a federal agency, responses to RFIs should be well, not fraudulent, at any rate.

On 15th February 2019, Wright posted his response, introducing himself and stating:

under the pseudonym of Satoshi Nakamoto I completed a project I started in 1997 that was filed with the Australian government as BlackNet.

He goes on to claim that the amount of misunderstanding and fallacious information around blockchain systems (including Ethereum) has resulted in his decision to become more public.

It isnt particularly relevant to the RFI, really serving only to repeat the claim to be Satoshi Nakamoto albeit in a Federal forum.

At this point, Wrights claims are becoming a farce of Monty Pythons Life Of Brian proportions. After he first came out as Satoshi Nakamoto, and the crypto-world widely coughed *bullshit* under its breath, he let it lie.

But now frontrunning his own project Bitcoin SV (Satoshis Vision), his alleged amendments to historical documents seems to be going into overdrive. Only last week he was pulled up by WikiLeaks for altering a 2008 blog-post to make it look like hed been working on crypto back then.

Mere hours prior, he was accused of using aforged a 2001 research paperas evidence of his lineage. It was a word-for-word copy of the October 2008 Bitcoin whitepaper. It even already had amendments that he (as Satoshi Nakamoto) made from the August 2008 draft of the same document. Oops Or perhaps incredibly prescient?

Now, its alleged that even his 1997 BlackNet project was being worked on by Tim May several years before that.

Just imagine, if all of this time, Wright has been telling the truth. What would the consequences of that be?

Obviously, Wright is such an unpopular figure that we arent all going to start believing (and investing) in Bitcoin SV. Although one can only imagine that this is the point of all this alleged forgery.

Why carefully protect your identity only to then come out to the world via GQ telling the critics to piss off! and reminding entire countries that hes got more money than them?

But would we all eschew Bitcoin if we found out that he had actually been the inventor?

No, of course not. Even Coldplay had a decent single before they sunk into the mire of smug, self-satisfied, insipid, irrelevance that they became. And we can still listen to that as long as nobody else finds out.

What do you think of Wrights latest claims? Share your thoughts below!

Images courtesy of Shutterstock, Bitcoinist archives

See the article here:

Will The Real Satoshi Nakamoto Please Stand Up – bitcoinist.com

Who Is Satoshi Nakamoto? The Top 4 Candidates Revealed …

Everyone knows Satoshi Nakamoto invented Bitcoin, and yet no one knows the true identity of the personor personsbehind the name.

Instead, were reduced to guesswork. As youd expect, a few potential candidates top the list. Heres our take on the situation.

Nick Szabo is many peoples most likely contender to be Satoshi Nakamoto.

The most commonly cited piece of evidence in the case for Nick Szabo is his work on Bit Gold. Designed in 1998, Szabos idea is credited with laying the groundwork for Bitcoin.

Bit Gold was a decentralized digital currency. Like Bitcoin, it relied on computer power to solve cryptographic puzzles. The answer would then form part of the question of the next puzzle, thus removing the danger of double spending. The currency was never implemented.

I was trying to mimic as closely as possible in cyberspace the security and trust characteristics of gold, and chief among those is that it doesnt depend on a trusted central authority.

The big clue came in spring 2008. Szabo posted a message on his personal blog in which he rekindled the idea of Bit Gold and put out an open plea for people to help him build it.

[Bit Gold] would greatly benefit from a demonstration [in] an experimental market . . . Anybody want to help me code one up?

The post initially went live on 17 May. Szabo later changed the date on his own site to show December, but you can still see the original on archive.org.

Bitcoins whitepaper was published on 31 October, and Nakamoto mined the genesis block on 3 January 2009.

It is also known that Szabo was interested in using pseudonyms as long ago as October 1993. You can still read an old message thread on cypherpunks.venona.com, in which he says:

Ive had several years to establish a net.reputation for Nick Szabo, and it might take a long time for any of my pseudonyms to catch up.

Szabo was born and raised California and graduated from the University of Washington. It would be fair to assume, therefore, that he would use American English spellings and phrases in his work.

In practice, there are numerous examples of British Englishboth in the original whitepaper and in Bitcoins code.

In the whitepaper, -our (for example, favourite) spellings are common. Theres also references to maths instead of math and flat instead of apartment. In the code itself (and in forum postings on Bitcointalk.org, Nakamoto uses the British colloquialism bloody hard on several occasions.

Finallyin what will become a reoccurring themeSzabo himself has repeatedly denied any suggestion that is Nakamoto.

The second candidate on our list is Hal Finney. Finney sadly passed away from ALS 2014.

Finney received the first ever Bitcoin transaction from Nakamoto.

Some people have speculated that Nakamoto was a secondary account that Finney used to distance himself from his creation. He was also the first person other than Nakamoto to file bug reports and exchanged numerous emails with Szabo.

In more recent times, handwriting studies that compared Finneys work and that of the purported Nakamoto have shown considerable correlation.

But perhaps the most compelling evidence of all is the presence of a man named Dorian Satoshi Nakamoto who lived just blocks from Finneys residence.

Around the time of Bitcoins launch (and remember, in the midst of the fallout from the 2008 financial crash), Dorian Nakamotos home was being foreclosed by a bank. It seems highly possible that Nakamotos name provided Finney with the inspiration for the name of the symbolic anti-establishment figurehead of the coin.

When asked, Dorian Nakamoto denied all knowledge of Bitcoin:

I have nothing to do with Bitcoin. I never worked for the company, I dont know any people there, I never had a contract there or anything like that. I wasnt even aware of the product.

Prior to his death, Finney said in a blog post that he was still unsure of Nakamotos true identity.

I thought I was dealing with a young man of Japanese ancestry who was very smart and sincere. Ive had the good fortune to know many brilliant people over the course of my life, so I recognize the signs.

The British question also raises its head again. Hal Finney was born in California and studied at the California Institute of Technology. It is unlikely he would use British-isms in his day-to-day life.

A couple of other peoples names pop up occasionally, but the cases are not as compelling.

In December 2015, both Gizmodo and Wired published independent investigations that claimed Australian Craig Wright was the creator of Bitcoin.

Wright immediately confessed and appeared to provide cryptographic proof of the claims. A closer analysis of the claims, however, raised significant question marks.

Its now widely accepted that Wrights confession was an elaborate hoax.

The final candidate is Wei Dai. Dai had been part of several crypto projects before Bitcoin, including b-moneyan anonymous, distributed electronic cash system that was referenced in the Bitcoin whitepaper.

Dai has also been name-dropped by both Szabo and Finney during interviews. In a post on his own website, Szabo said the following:

Myself, Wei Dai, and Hal Finney were the only people I know of who liked the idea (or in Dais case his related idea) enough to pursue it to any significant extent until Nakamoto.

Once again, Dai has denied all the speculation. Heres what he said in a post on lesswrong.com:

My understanding is that the creator of Bitcoin, who goes by the name Satoshi Nakamoto, didnt even read my article before reinventing the idea himself. He learned about it afterward and credited me in his paper. So, my connection with the project is quite limited.

Okay, so what do the rest of the BlocksDecoded team think? Lets ask them.

I think its Hal Finney, or hes at least heavily involved with the group that identifies as Nakamoto. The fact that his handwriting is so similar (and its been compared in true Unabomber style) is quite compelling.

I think its a combination of Szabo and Finney, and maybe others. There are just too many coincidences for it to be anyone else.

Any myself? I think it was a joint project between Finney and Szabo.

The British vernacular can be explained away with Szabos love of pseudonyms; a time zone analysis showed that Nakamoto made almost no posts on Bitcointalk.org made between 10 pm and 4 am in California, suggesting a presence on the U.S. west coast.

The name has surely come from Finney.

Who do you think is Satoshi Nakamoto? Was it Hal Finney, Nick Szabo, or a well-mannered Japanese man with bizarre sleeping patterns?!

Let us know in the comments below.

Originally posted here:

Who Is Satoshi Nakamoto? The Top 4 Candidates Revealed …


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