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Who is Satoshi Nakamoto? A Look at the Candidates

Bitcoin was conceived as a communal project. Designed as an open-source software and released to the public in 2009, Bitcoin was conceived with openness in mind. Functioning on an open ledger that is accessible to the public, Bitcoin is an open-source project. But for all its openness, one grand mystery remains unsolved:

Who Created Bitcoin and Who exactly is Satoshi Nakamoto?

First, lets detail what is known for certain. The first step was taken in 2007, when Nakamoto wrote the Bitcoin code1. In November 2008, Satoshi Nakamoto published his now famous White Paper, which laid the groundwork for the Bitcoin protocol2.

On January 3rd, 2009, the first ever Bitcoin block was mined, marking the creation of the cryptocurrency, it bore the message :

The Times 03/Jan/2009 Chancellor on brink of second bailout for banks

Satoshi was heavily involved with the Bitcoin community, and collaborated with them in order to modify the underlying bitcoin protocol. After two years of involvement, Nakamoto handed the reins to Gavin Andresen, and seized involvement with the Bitcoin project in December of 2010. Then, in the Spring of 2011, Nakamoto returned to leave a final message, stating in a post that he had moved on to other things, and that Bitcoin was in good hands with Gavin [Andresen] and everyone. That was the last the world heard of the secretive Bitcoin creator.

The mystery behind Nakamotos identity has only grown, as the Bitcoin community eagerly speculates who it could potentially be. Satoshi Nakamoto claims to be Japanese, born on April 5, 19753. It is unknown whether Nakamoto is male or female, or whether Nakamoto is even a single person or a group of individuals.

While Nakamotos identity remains unknown, This has not stopped enthusiasts from investigating his background and drawing up conclusions. Nakamotos use of perfect English in his posts and his publication of the White Paper has raised skepticism as to his Japanese origin. Furthermore, his occasional use of British English in the code and comments has fueled speculation that he is a native English speaker of commonwealth origin4. Additionally, Stefan Thomas, a Swiss coder and active member in the Bitcoin community, graphed the time stamps of Nakamotos more than 500 posts, showing his or her complete absence of posts between midnight am and 6 am Greenwich Time, further informing investigators as to his potential whereabouts5.

To date, there are several potential individuals suspected of being the mysterious Bitcoin creator. One of the first suggestions was Nick Szabo, a decentralized currency enthusiast who published a paper on bit gold considered to be a precursor to the first cryptocurrency. Running a reverse textual analysis, internet researcher Skye Grey found dozens of unique phrases that linked Szabos writing style to that of the original White Paper6. This evidence is only circumstantial, however, and Szabo has repeatedly denied that he is the creator of Bitcoin.

Nick Szabo, Image from The-Blockchain

Another possibility is a Japanese American man living in California, named Dorian Prentice Satoshi Nakamoto, birth name Satoshi Nakamoto. First brought up in a March 2014 Newsweek article, Leah McGrath Goodman pointed to Nakamotos training as a physicist at Cal Poly University in Pomona and libertarian background as potential indicators of his identity. Her biggest piece of evidence was his response to a question regarding Bitcoin: I am no longer involved in that and I cannot discuss it. Its been turned over to other people. They are in charge of it now. I no longer have any connection.7 This led to a wild media frenzy, which even included a car chase. However, in a later interview, he recanted his previous position, stating that he had misunderstood the reporters question, thinking it was related to his previous classified work as a military contractor8.

Dorian Prentice Satoshi Nakamoto, Image from The Verge.

Hal Finney is another potential candidate to be the mysterious Satoshi Nakamoto. Finney was a pre-bitcoin cryptographic pioneer and was only the second person after Nakamoto himself to make use of the software, file bug reports, and suggest improvements.

Furthermore, he was the first to ever receive Bitcoin, stating in an interview that [he] was the recipient of the first bitcoin transaction, when Satoshi sent ten coins to [him] as a test.9

Forbes journalist Andy Greenberg speculated after requesting aid from writing analysis consultancy Juola & Associates that Greenberg may have been the ghostwriter for Satoshi Nakamoto. Further adding to the speculation that Finney was involved with the creation of Bitcoin was his correspondence with the aforementioned Nick Szabo, and the fact that he lived only blocks apart from Dorian Prentice Satoshi Nakamoto10. At the time of his death on August 28, 2014, only circumstantial evidence pointed to Hal Finney being the original Satoshi Nakamoto.

Hal Finney, Image from Wired.

Yet another possible contender to be Satoshi Nakamoto is the Australian academic, computer engineering expert, and entrepreneur, Craig Wright. In early November of 2015, Gizmodo received an anonymous email from an individual stating that not only did he know that Craig Wright was the creator of Bitcoin, but that he had also worked for him11. On December 9, hours after Wired certified that Wright was indeed Nakamoto, the Australian Federal Police raided his home, and afterwards stating the [the] matter is unrelated to recent media reporting regarding the digital currency Bitcoin. Afterwards, Wright deleted his internet presence until May of 2016, when he stepped forward and revealed himself on Twitter as the creator of the digital currency Bitcoin12, and claimed he had the proof to back up his statement. Then, amid a torrent of skepticism, Wright retracted his statement and did not offer the extraordinary proof he claimed to have, stating that he did not have the courage to prove his identity13.

Craig Wright, Image from CCN.

In an era where information is widespread, Satoshi Nakamoto has managed to maintain his identity a complete secret. So why is uncovering Nakamotos identity so important? If Nakamoto is indeed a single individual, then he or she owns approximately 5% of the worlds Bitcoin supply, placing him or her as the 52nd richest person in the world as of December 12th14.

The implications of this wealth are considerable, beyond even the real world implications. If Satoshi Nakamoto were ever to sell the rumored 980,000 Bitcoins in his or her possession ( currently worth over $16 billion at todays price, as of 5th Jan 2018 ), the price of Bitcoin could potentially become more volatile than it already is.

Furthermore, there is significant debate as to the future of Bitcoin. Heated discussions have arisen due to some of the growing pains surrounding Bitcoin, particularly the issue of how to deal with an increase in transaction volume in the Bitcoin network. As the number of blocks increases, the Bitcoin network runs the risk of becoming overloaded. One side of the debate wants to fundamentally change the Bitcoin node by increasing the block size, in order to allow the system to process transactions more quickly. The other side of the debate sees this as a betrayal of the original concept behind Bitcoin, arguing that this would lead to increased centralization15. Identifying Bitcoins true creator would create more certainty and could potentially lay down the following steps in Bitcoins ever growing development.

Ultimately, identifying Bitcoins creator may be a quixotic endeavor. His or her complete silence since the Spring of 2011 means it is likely we will never hear from them again. Nevertheless, Bitcoin, the open source digital currency created nearly a decade ago, will continue to in spite of this mystery. The Bitcoin community will be forced to coexist with the enigma that is Satoshi Nakamoto, for the better or for the worst.

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Who is Satoshi Nakamoto? A Look at the Candidates

Satoshi Nakamoto Institute

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Satoshi Nakamoto was interested in joining Trons Atlas …

The CEO and founder of Tron foundation has revealed that the unknown person who developed bitcoin, Satoshi Nakamoto, himself was interested in joining hands with the Atlas project of Tron.

Sun wrote on Twitter on Wednesday, “It seems that Satoshi Nakamoto himself was interested in joining our Atlas project since Nov. 03 2008.”

The CEO revealed Tron’s secret project, Atlas, on July 30. Every Tron enthusiasts had been anticipating for its announcement for quite sometime.

Sources report that the Atlas project is an amalgamation of both BitTorrent and Tron. Its initial phase has been completed and a route map for the upcoming three months has been charted out. Further details will be revealed by the end of August.

The CEO revealed, Finally, I would like to say a few things about our project, our secret project, now we name it Atlas, after the BitTorrent acquisition.

Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System created by Santoshi Nakamoto says: “for transferrable proof of work tokens to have value, they must have monetary value. To have monetary value, they must be transferred within a very large network- for example a file-trading network akin to BitTorrent.”

In order to make the lifespan of BitTorrent swarms faster and durable the foundation is exploring the opportunity to add more features to the BitTorrent protocol with the help of Tron protocol. The network will act as an online protocol for the Atlas project.

The Founder and CEO of the Foundation said, Starting from today, Tron will enter a new phase of expanding our current ecosystem. We are grateful for what we have achieved in the past and we are looking forward to seeingwhat the future holds for us.

Tron has witnessed a series of new developments in the past few weeks. In fact, on July 30,Tron launched Tron Virtual Machine and introduced a new project known as Project Atlas withBitTorrent. Now, the blockchain founder Justin Suns next move is to set up an office in India,South China Morning Postreported.

Sun recently moved to his new office in Beijing and he is already making expansion plans. Hisnext move is to set up an office in India. Currently, crypto enthusiasts in India are waiting for Supreme Court of Indias final verdict on the fate of cryptocurrency exchanges in the country.

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Satoshi Nakamoto was interested in joining Trons Atlas …

Satoshi Nakamoto: 9 Interesting Facts You Need To Know

Like the dramatic quest ofHollywood movieFinding Nemo,this quest of finding Satoshi Nakamoto the inventor of Bitcoin has also been dramatic.

Its fascinating to see how Bitcoin has become a multi-billion dollar thing, yet the Father of Bitcoin is still missing.

Satoshi Nakamoto made the Bitcoin software in 2008 and made it open source in January 2009.

And in 2010, Satoshi disappeared.

No one even knows what pronoun to use(he, she, or they)while referring to Satoshi Nakamoto because it is still not clear whether he/she is a person or a group of people.

Whomever Satoshi Nakamoto might be, there are some interesting facts about the entity that gave birth to this multi-billion dollar industry of cryptocurrencies.

Here are 9 interesting facts

1. Why is Satoshi Nakamoto Famous?

The name Satoshi Nakamoto is the pseudonym of the inventor of Bitcoin. In 2008, someone used this name and mailed the Bitcoin white paper to a cryptographic mailing list.

This mailing list contained renowned people who believedin decentralization and cryptography.

Thats why this name is so famous.

As is apparent from the name, its assumed that he was a Japanese man, but his flawless use of English in the white paper raises doubts about this conclusion.

Satoshis Mail

2. Satoshis Net Worth

It is believed that Satoshi Nakamoto owns 1 million bitcoins(or more) which makes his present net worth at the time of writing this article to be $2.6 billion.

In 2009 January, Satoshi mined the Genesis block, andin 2010, he officially stopped communicating. Between this period, the bitcoins came into existence exist on the blockchain ledger, but they have not been used or spent. Thisproves how much Satoshi owns.

1 million BTC is a huge number which, if dumped suddenly, could wreak havoc on the crypto market. Thats why Bitcoin has also earned the title of being a Ponzi scheme-because the speculative founder owns a significant share.

3. Satoshis T-Shirts

The anonymity of Bitcoins founder has led to a mushrooming of a totally new merchandising concept. Now you can buy T-Shirts with Satoshi Nakamoto things printed on it.

Things like:

You can buy one for yourself from e-commerce sites likeZazzleandTeespring.

4. Satoshi Nakamoto is Possibly A Group Of Companies

Some even suggest that Samsung, Toshiba, Nakamichi, and Motorola together created Bitcoin, as you can tell from their names:

Satoshi Nakamoto

However, there is no official proof for such conclusion.

5. Satoshi Nakamoto is PossiblyNick Szabo

Nick Szabo, a US computer scientist, and cryptographer is considered by some to be the founder of Bitcoin. Nick coined the concept of digital currency for the digital age by creating Bit Gold. Bit Gold was the ancestor of Bitcoin. However, it was not used by the masses because of limitations.

After analysis of Satoshis white paper, a blogger concluded that Nick Szabo was Satoshi Nakamoto. but Nick has never accepted this hypothesis.

6. Satoshi Nakamoto is PossiblyCraig Steven Wright

Craig Wright, an Australian Entrepreneur, claimed to the BBC on 2nd May 2016 to be the inventor of Bitcoin. However, when examined by core Bitcoin developers like Peter Todd, Craig was unable to provide any acceptable supporting evidence for such a claim.

Though initially, he said he would come back with relevant evidence, he failed to do so, and said on his blog that he was sorry and didnt have the courage to continue.

7. Satoshi Nakamoto is PossiblyDorian Nakamoto

In March 2014, another speculation came on the identity of Satoshi. A news source claimed that they had found Satoshi, and he lived inCalifornia, USA.

His full name, as reported, was Dorian Prentice Satoshi Nakamoto. He was aphysicist and a systems engineer who had recently been laid off by the government.

Later on, the person identified denied all such claims and said he is not the Nakamoto which everyone has been searching for.

8.Satoshi Nakamoto is PossiblyHal Finney

Hal was a cryptographer even before his involvement with Bitcoin. He was on the mailing list that received Satoshi Nakamotos Bitcoin white paper.

Hal claimed that he had been communicating with Satoshi to support his testing, which led to the speculative conclusion that he himself was Satoshi.

Hals writing style also closely resembles that of Satoshis in the Bitcoin white paper. The suspicion evaporated when he showed his email conversation with Satoshi, but that could just be a diversion tactic.

Fun fact:Hal was the first person to receive a Bitcoin transaction from Satoshi on January 12, 2009, after Satoshi mined the genesis block on3rd January 2009 at 18:15:05 GMT.

9. Fast Company Found Satoshi Nakamoto

An employee of Fast Company, a media brand, said thatNeal King, Vladimir Oksman, and Charles Bry were the group of people that created Bitcoin. This employee proved it by searching unique phrases in Satoshis white paper.

They even patented the phrase which appears on the Bitcoin white paper computationally impractical to reverse.

However, all of them have publically denied such allegations.

Whatever anyone may say or think, the anonymity factor of Satoshi Nakamoto has proven to be healthy for Bitcoin.

But theres still a big mystery here:

Where is Satoshi, what is Satoshi doing, and why is Satoshi hiding?

No one knows the truth.

I would like to end this article by quoting two very early adopters of Bitcoin, Erik Voorhees andRoger Ver(two people who are definitely worth following on Twitter).

Bitcoin is the most important invention in the history of the world since the internet.

Roger Ver, Bitcoin Jesus

Can we take a moment to reflect on the fact that the Bitcoin protocol STILL hasn’t been hacked? One of the greatest comp sci accomplishments

Erik Voorhees (@ErikVoorhees) May 13, 2015

This shows how important Bitcoin, blockchain technology, and of course, Satoshi Nakamoto all are!

And yes, Bitcoin has become more important than a single individual, but we would all love to solve this mystery once and for all.

If you know any more interesting facts that I have missed in this article, thendo let me know in the comments below!!!

And if you liked this post, dont forget to share it!

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Satoshi Nakamoto: 9 Interesting Facts You Need To Know

Satoshi Nakamoto Institute

>[Lengthy exposition of vulnerability of a systm to use-of-force>monopolies ellided.]>>You will not find a solution to political problems in cryptography.

Yes, but we can win a major battle in the arms race and gain a new territory of freedom for several years.

Governments are good at cutting off the heads of a centrally controlled networks like Napster, but pure P2P networks like Gnutella and Tor seem to be holding their own.

Satoshi

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Satoshi Nakamoto Institute

Satoshi Nakamoto Institute

>[Lengthy exposition of vulnerability of a systm to use-of-force>monopolies ellided.]>>You will not find a solution to political problems in cryptography.

Yes, but we can win a major battle in the arms race and gain a new territory of freedom for several years.

Governments are good at cutting off the heads of a centrally controlled networks like Napster, but pure P2P networks like Gnutella and Tor seem to be holding their own.

Satoshi

———————————————————————The Cryptography Mailing ListUnsubscribe by sending “unsubscribe cryptography” to [EMAIL PROTECTED]

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Satoshi Nakamoto Institute

Satoshi Nakamoto Institute

Announcing the first release of Bitcoin, a new electronic cashsystem that uses a peer-to-peer network to prevent double-spending.It’s completely decentralized with no server or central authority.

See bitcoin.org for screenshots.

Download link:http://downloads.sourceforge.net/bitcoin/bitcoin-0.1.0.rar

Windows only for now. Open source C++ code is included.

– Unpack the files into a directory- Run BITCOIN.EXE- It automatically connects to other nodes

If you can keep a node running that accepts incoming connections,you’ll really be helping the network a lot. Port 8333 on yourfirewall needs to be open to receive incoming connections.

The software is still alpha and experimental. There’s no guaranteethe system’s state won’t have to be restarted at some point if itbecomes necessary, although I’ve done everything I can to build inextensibility and versioning.

You can get coins by getting someone to send you some, or turn onOptions->Generate Coins to run a node and generate blocks. I madethe proof-of-work difficulty ridiculously easy to start with, sofor a little while in the beginning a typical PC will be able togenerate coins in just a few hours. It’ll get a lot harder whencompetition makes the automatic adjustment drive up the difficulty.Generated coins must wait 120 blocks to mature before they can bespent.

There are two ways to send money. If the recipient is online, youcan enter their IP address and it will connect, get a new publickey and send the transaction with comments. If the recipient isnot online, it is possible to send to their Bitcoin address, whichis a hash of their public key that they give you. They’ll receivethe transaction the next time they connect and get the block it’sin. This method has the disadvantage that no comment informationis sent, and a bit of privacy may be lost if the address is usedmultiple times, but it is a useful alternative if both users can’tbe online at the same time or the recipient can’t receive incomingconnections.

Total circulation will be 21,000,000 coins. It’ll be distributedto network nodes when they make blocks, with the amount cut in halfevery 4 years.

first 4 years: 10,500,000 coinsnext 4 years: 5,250,000 coinsnext 4 years: 2,625,000 coinsnext 4 years: 1,312,500 coinsetc…

When that runs out, the system can support transaction fees ifneeded. It’s based on open market competition, and there willprobably always be nodes willing to process transactions for free.

Satoshi Nakamoto

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Satoshi Nakamoto – Bitcoin Wiki

For the unit, see satoshi (unit).

Satoshi Nakamoto is the founder of Bitcoin and initial creator of the Original Bitcoin client. He has said in a P2P foundation profile[1] that he is from Japan. Beyond that, not much else is known about him and his identity. He has been working on the Bitcoin project since 2007.[2]

His involvement in the Bitcoin project had tapered and by late 2010 it has ended. The most recent messages reportedly indicate that Satoshi is “gone for good”[3].

He left some clues about why he is doing this project with the inclusion of the following text in the Genesis block, “The Times 03/Jan/2009 Chancellor on brink of second bailout for banks”.

Some interesting quotes:

Yes, [we will not find a solution to political problems in cryptography,] but we can win a major battle in the arms race and gain a new territory offreedom for several years.

Governments are good at cutting off the heads of a centrally controllednetworks like Napster, but pure P2P networks like Gnutella and Tor seem to beholding their own.[4]

His identity and nationality are unknown.

He is entirely unknown outside of Bitcoin as far as anyone can tell, and his (never used) PGP key was created just months prior to the date of the genesis block. He seems to be very familiar with the cryptography mailing list, but there are no non-Bitcoin posts from him on it. He has used an email address from an anonymous mail hosting service (vistomail) as well as one from a free webmail account (gmx.com) and sends mail when connected via Tor. Some have speculated that his entire identity was created in advance in order to protect himself or the network. Perhaps he chose the name Satoshi because it can mean “wisdom” or “reason” and Nakamoto can mean “Central source”.

Ultimately the design of Bitcoin and its use of cryptographic proof and fully open implementation is one that makes its creator, in a sense, irrelevant and only of interest for historical reasons.

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Satoshi Nakamoto – Bitcoin Wiki

Who is Satoshi Nakamoto? A Look at the Candidates

Bitcoin was conceived as a communal project. Designed as an open-source software and released to the public in 2009, Bitcoin was conceived with openness in mind. Functioning on an open ledger that is accessible to the public, Bitcoin is an open-source project. But for all its openness, one grand mystery remains unsolved:

Who Created Bitcoin and Who exactly is Satoshi Nakamoto?

First, lets detail what is known for certain. The first step was taken in 2007, when Nakamoto wrote the Bitcoin code1. In November 2008, Satoshi Nakamoto published his now famous White Paper, which laid the groundwork for the Bitcoin protocol2.

On January 3rd, 2009, the first ever Bitcoin block was mined, marking the creation of the cryptocurrency, it bore the message :

The Times 03/Jan/2009 Chancellor on brink of second bailout for banks

Satoshi was heavily involved with the Bitcoin community, and collaborated with them in order to modify the underlying bitcoin protocol. After two years of involvement, Nakamoto handed the reins to Gavin Andresen, and seized involvement with the Bitcoin project in December of 2010. Then, in the Spring of 2011, Nakamoto returned to leave a final message, stating in a post that he had moved on to other things, and that Bitcoin was in good hands with Gavin [Andresen] and everyone. That was the last the world heard of the secretive Bitcoin creator.

The mystery behind Nakamotos identity has only grown, as the Bitcoin community eagerly speculates who it could potentially be. Satoshi Nakamoto claims to be Japanese, born on April 5, 19753. It is unknown whether Nakamoto is male or female, or whether Nakamoto is even a single person or a group of individuals.

While Nakamotos identity remains unknown, This has not stopped enthusiasts from investigating his background and drawing up conclusions. Nakamotos use of perfect English in his posts and his publication of the White Paper has raised skepticism as to his Japanese origin. Furthermore, his occasional use of British English in the code and comments has fueled speculation that he is a native English speaker of commonwealth origin4. Additionally, Stefan Thomas, a Swiss coder and active member in the Bitcoin community, graphed the time stamps of Nakamotos more than 500 posts, showing his or her complete absence of posts between midnight am and 6 am Greenwich Time, further informing investigators as to his potential whereabouts5.

To date, there are several potential individuals suspected of being the mysterious Bitcoin creator. One of the first suggestions was Nick Szabo, a decentralized currency enthusiast who published a paper on bit gold considered to be a precursor to the first cryptocurrency. Running a reverse textual analysis, internet researcher Skye Grey found dozens of unique phrases that linked Szabos writing style to that of the original White Paper6. This evidence is only circumstantial, however, and Szabo has repeatedly denied that he is the creator of Bitcoin.

Nick Szabo, Image from The-Blockchain

Another possibility is a Japanese American man living in California, named Dorian Prentice Satoshi Nakamoto, birth name Satoshi Nakamoto. First brought up in a March 2014 Newsweek article, Leah McGrath Goodman pointed to Nakamotos training as a physicist at Cal Poly University in Pomona and libertarian background as potential indicators of his identity. Her biggest piece of evidence was his response to a question regarding Bitcoin: I am no longer involved in that and I cannot discuss it. Its been turned over to other people. They are in charge of it now. I no longer have any connection.7 This led to a wild media frenzy, which even included a car chase. However, in a later interview, he recanted his previous position, stating that he had misunderstood the reporters question, thinking it was related to his previous classified work as a military contractor8.

Dorian Prentice Satoshi Nakamoto, Image from The Verge.

Hal Finney is another potential candidate to be the mysterious Satoshi Nakamoto. Finney was a pre-bitcoin cryptographic pioneer and was only the second person after Nakamoto himself to make use of the software, file bug reports, and suggest improvements.

Furthermore, he was the first to ever receive Bitcoin, stating in an interview that [he] was the recipient of the first bitcoin transaction, when Satoshi sent ten coins to [him] as a test.9

Forbes journalist Andy Greenberg speculated after requesting aid from writing analysis consultancy Juola & Associates that Greenberg may have been the ghostwriter for Satoshi Nakamoto. Further adding to the speculation that Finney was involved with the creation of Bitcoin was his correspondence with the aforementioned Nick Szabo, and the fact that he lived only blocks apart from Dorian Prentice Satoshi Nakamoto10. At the time of his death on August 28, 2014, only circumstantial evidence pointed to Hal Finney being the original Satoshi Nakamoto.

Hal Finney, Image from Wired.

Yet another possible contender to be Satoshi Nakamoto is the Australian academic, computer engineering expert, and entrepreneur, Craig Wright. In early November of 2015, Gizmodo received an anonymous email from an individual stating that not only did he know that Craig Wright was the creator of Bitcoin, but that he had also worked for him11. On December 9, hours after Wired certified that Wright was indeed Nakamoto, the Australian Federal Police raided his home, and afterwards stating the [the] matter is unrelated to recent media reporting regarding the digital currency Bitcoin. Afterwards, Wright deleted his internet presence until May of 2016, when he stepped forward and revealed himself on Twitter as the creator of the digital currency Bitcoin12, and claimed he had the proof to back up his statement. Then, amid a torrent of skepticism, Wright retracted his statement and did not offer the extraordinary proof he claimed to have, stating that he did not have the courage to prove his identity13.

Craig Wright, Image from CCN.

In an era where information is widespread, Satoshi Nakamoto has managed to maintain his identity a complete secret. So why is uncovering Nakamotos identity so important? If Nakamoto is indeed a single individual, then he or she owns approximately 5% of the worlds Bitcoin supply, placing him or her as the 52nd richest person in the world as of December 12th14.

The implications of this wealth are considerable, beyond even the real world implications. If Satoshi Nakamoto were ever to sell the rumored 980,000 Bitcoins in his or her possession ( currently worth over $16 billion at todays price, as of 5th Jan 2018 ), the price of Bitcoin could potentially become more volatile than it already is.

Furthermore, there is significant debate as to the future of Bitcoin. Heated discussions have arisen due to some of the growing pains surrounding Bitcoin, particularly the issue of how to deal with an increase in transaction volume in the Bitcoin network. As the number of blocks increases, the Bitcoin network runs the risk of becoming overloaded. One side of the debate wants to fundamentally change the Bitcoin node by increasing the block size, in order to allow the system to process transactions more quickly. The other side of the debate sees this as a betrayal of the original concept behind Bitcoin, arguing that this would lead to increased centralization15. Identifying Bitcoins true creator would create more certainty and could potentially lay down the following steps in Bitcoins ever growing development.

Ultimately, identifying Bitcoins creator may be a quixotic endeavor. His or her complete silence since the Spring of 2011 means it is likely we will never hear from them again. Nevertheless, Bitcoin, the open source digital currency created nearly a decade ago, will continue to in spite of this mystery. The Bitcoin community will be forced to coexist with the enigma that is Satoshi Nakamoto, for the better or for the worst.

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Who is Satoshi Nakamoto? A Look at the Candidates

Satoshi Nakamoto: Who is Bitcoin’s Mysterious Creator …

More Than Just a Name: Who or What Is Satoshi Nakamoto? The Facts That We Have

There are mysteries that we all have to deal with from personal to international. One of the mysteries that still hounds the cryptocurrency world is the one that surrounds one particular name: Satoshi Nakamoto, the illustrious and yet unknown figure that stood behind the creation and introduction of Bitcoin.

While the true face of Nakamoto, among other things, remain a mystery, we will be using these articles as a way to piece together all that we do know about them. From everything they had previously written, to who the media believed was the true’ Nakamoto and whether there are still people out there who once previously bore the mantel.

We may never fully know who Satoshi Nakamoto is, but with this series, we hope to, at the very least, shrink down the number of people who could resemble the illustrious figure.

Whatever could be construed as a public record of Satoshi Nakamoto can be easily condensed into a span of fewer than two years. While a brief legacy’ the amount of buzz surrounding these records have kept forums, social media pages and financial experts ensconced in the possible answer to the question.

Not only would it be one of the internets biggest mysteries being solved, but whoever rightfully claimed to be Nakamoto would gain immediate legendary status for their involvement in the development of blockchain, the technology which is (and continues to) revolutionize the world as we know it.

Not only is there a legend to claim, but a fortune as well; one that is believed to total nearly 1 million Bitcoin. This means, by today’s valuation of Bitcoin, would mean an inheritance’ of over 8 Billion dollars, not accounting for future fluctuation, however.

One of the most comprehensive profiles we have for Nakamoto comes from their P2P foundation page, Satoshi Nakamoto is (or was) a 43-year-old male originating from Japan. This suggests that he is most active during the Japanese time cycle, but upon studying their posting behavior, it implies that they follow the GMT cycle due a habit of disappearing from 5am-11am yet being active during the earlier to late afternoon.

While that isn’t evidence enough to suggest that while Nakamoto wasn’t in Japan, but could mean that they had a highly unusual sleep pattern.

Satoshi, from their philosophy, was a firm advocate for economic or social Libertarianism specific to the world of technology. This viewpoint can be construed as Crypto-Anarchism’, decentralizing the world of commerce, handing the power in the world of personal finance back to the individual consumer.

In the announcement and release of the Genesis block, otherwise known as Block 1′ or 0, included a hidden message within its Coinbase parameter giving the headline for the news from the 3rd January 2009:

the Times 03/Jan/2009 Chancellor on brink of the second bailout for banks

While the use of the newspaper headline may simply function as a time-stamp for the interest of posterity with the release of the first Bitcoin block. Many crypto-enthusiasts and anarchists alike have, however, interpreted the headline as a stab against centralized financial institutions for their part in the unfurling global financial crisis and subsequent recession.

One of the other stabs that this message demonstrates, according to Nakamoto supporters, is in creating an inbuilt scarcity for Bitcoin, while governments and financial institutions are able to print a seemingly infinite volume of money at their own discretion, creating devaluation with users being powerless to do anything about it.

While Nakamoto has been personally responsible for mining and possessing nearly a million Bitcoin, he’ only ever completed one transaction simply to demonstrate that a cryptocurrency could, and does, work.

Apart from that, Nakamoto never moved his Bitcoin from his initial mining address, but there are a number of reasons for why he would have instigated this action.

How is it we can theorize that these are the plausible scenarios as to Nakamoto’s activities? Because a number of the texts of which he drafted and wrote give these very distinct impressions:

At this point in time, Satoshi announced through a Cryptography mailing list that Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System, his officially white paper detailing the idea and function of Bitcoin, was formally published on Bitcoin.com.

Satoshi makes his first public post on the website P2P Foundation: The Foundation for Peer to Peer Alternatives’. This post consisted of a link to his recently published White Paper, including some additional insight into the paper and his reasoning for developing it.

Across this span of time when he’s active on the site, he created three posts, with the last taking place on February 14th, 2009. The same account was used in March 2014, with the post including the statement that the user is not Dorian Nakamoto after being falsely outed as Satoshi Nakamoto days earlier.

This consisted of the official, inaugural post on the website Bitcointalk.org.’ This would include a series of over 575 posts across 13 months, other contributors apart from Nakamoto consist ofMike Hearn and Jeff Garzik.

These contributors were effective in laying down the groundwork for what Bitcoin was to become. By December 12th, 2010, Nakamoto has effectively stopped operating on the site, for what reasons remains unknown.

This post is the last time that Nakamoto officially addressed the public within the forum, linking to the latest version of the Bitcoin, wallet client. Nine years on and the forum is one of the largest, most reputable forums of cryptocurrency discussion, with over 2 million users and hundreds of millions of post views.

One of the last posts from Nakamoto included the desire that Wikileaks which, at the time, had been vehemently opposed by the US governments, including banks which refused to work with them regarding providing funding.

Nakamoto stated that Bitcoin shouldn’t be used as a means of supporting the site, citing its infancy’ and fragility as some of the reasons why it is not best-suited for supporting Wikileaks.

Despite his urging against providing this support, it went on to be used, resulting in Wikileaks removing the page and description for Bitcoin. The reason for this post was to prevent Bitcoin from snuffed out by drawing too much negative press, especially in being linked to an institution which had just recently made some incredibly powerful enemies.

So who could this person be? We can get an understanding of Nakamoto’s personality from one of his email addresses when messages to and from the account were made.

His account, [emailprotected] was reportedly hacked in 2014, with one of the email exchanges being between Nakamoto and the financial expert, Wei Dai, regarding obtaining proper accreditation for the ideas of his that were used in the development of Bitcoin.

The second was to Laszlo Hanyecz, the cryptocurrency developer that is famously known for the 10,000 Bitcoin for 2 Pizzas’ challenge, which has gained a historical emphasis for being the first monetary transaction using Bitcoin.

When approached on what the exchanges between himself and Nakamoto were like, Hanyecz described them as Weird,’ describing him as a bossy’ figure who expected him to be an active contributor despite the fact that his tenure working on Bitcoin was predominantly unpaid.

Above all, Nakamoto, according to Hanyecz, tended to strongly deflect any questions about himself as a person while also demanding that the underlying code remain untampered with.

One of Bitcoins developers early on was Mike Hearn, who offered a very unique insight into what it was like to work alongside Nakamoto during the early days of the project. In one of the interactions between Nakamoto and Hearn, the latter made the email exchanges public online. The last of which was posted on April 23rd, 2011 contained the following:

Ive moved on to other things. Its in good hands with Gavin (Andresen) and everyone.

One of the final email exchanges including Nakamoto was between himself and Gavin Anderson, in which Anderson attempted to find out more about his utterly online colleague. The reply he got was laconic, direct and inciteful:

I wish you wouldnt keep talking about me as a mysterious shadowy figure, the press just turns that into a pirate currency angle. Maybe instead make it about the open source project and give more credit to your dev contributors; it helps motivate them.

The final email that Anderson sent to Nakamoto consisted of detailing an invitation to speak at an event that had direct connections with the Central Intelligence Agency. With the lack of response from Nakamoto, it could be construed that he had become, somewhat reasonably,freaked out by the sudden, meteoric rise to popularity the Bitcoin enjoyed.

Satoshi Nakamoto is one of the phantom names in the worlds of the internet and cryptocurrency that consists of a legendary status, a groundbreaking innovation and, while accompanied with a literal throne of $8 billion, the actual individual behind Satoshi Nakamoto’ remains elusive.

In this article, we put together a list of potential suspects with the profile, intelligence, or character that make them the possible man behind the mask.

While these are claims, they are unsubstantiated and theoretical, the only way to truly KNOW who Satoshi Nakamoto is through verifying their wallet address which would link the individual to the man himself.

From 2009 to 2010, Satoshi Nakamoto was directly involved in the development, coding, design, and release of what we and millions of members of the general public now know as Bitcoin’. During this same stretch of time, Nakamoto was also involved in mining a large quantity of the coins during a time that only a select number of people were involved in mining.

The only way one could prove without a shadow of a doubt that they were Nakamoto, they would simply need to complete one or a number of transactions between the accounts that the original Nakamoto used during this time.

While this has yet to happen, a great number of internet researchers, financial experts, and genuinely curious individuals have yet to cease in piecing together ideas and theorizing as to who the real Satoshi Nakamoto was and is.

So who on earth do some of these researchers believe is the real Satoshi Nakamoto? We piece together the names of those people believe are linked to the man, from the interesting to the downright unusual.

For anyone to be considered as Satoshi Nakamoto, it requires that person to have a clear understanding of computer programming, especially from the aspect of cryptocurrency development, these consist of:

By these criteria, the number of people that may be Nakamoto thins out significantly especially considering the balance, intellectually, which would need to be struck between the deeper knowledge of economics, cryptography and computer programming in general.

One of the potential candidates for being Nakamoto was the former graduate student, cryptography enthusiast but had also been involved in some level of C++ Programming since he was 10, Michael Clear.

While all of the dominoes were in place, making Clear a shoe-in for being the real Satoshi Nakamoto, when asked the question during an interview, Clear explicitly stated that he was not Nakamoto.

Im not Satoshi, but even if I was I wouldnt tell you.

While Clear, at the time, was startled by the question which to him came out of left field. He believed it to be conclusive enough to not realise any further questions, this turned out to not be the case, as he would encounter incessant questions on whether he was, in fact, Nakamoto and just wanted to protect his anonymity.

It got to the point where, in 2013, after two years of questions pertaining to Bitcoin and Nakamoto, that he published a blog post, explicitly denying any links to Bitcoin and being Nakamoto.

Josh originally contacted me at Crypto 2011 about a paper I was involved with related to p2p, and I met up with him out of curiosity as to why he would be interested. For about 20 minutes we talked about that.

When bitcoin came up, I remember we had a brief casual chat; I was naturally startled when he thought I could be Satoshi, and there was some humor and regrettable mistakes on my part.

Nick Szabo, a Hungarian-American computer scientist was theorized to be a potential candidate for Satoshi Nakamoto for a number of reasons. During late 2013, the slow collapse of MtGOX led researchers to look at Szabo as a potential candidate for being Nakamoto.

Like in a Mirror’, an anonymous blog post, listed out the reasons why Nick Szabo could be Satoshi Nakamoto. Across the two blog posts, the author lists the reasons why Szabo would be the founder of Bitcoin.

One of the reasons why this blog post, and Szabo by extension, gained so much credibility as being Nakamoto was due to the arguments provided by Like in a Mirror, but also due to Szabo’s own involvement with the distant cousin to Bitcoin, Bit Gold’.

While Bit Gold presented a very interesting concept when initially proposed in 1998, it never really gained traction with which to enter wider development and implementation. However, Bit Gold did, in fact, contain a significant number of features which made Bitcoin possible as a system of peer-to-peer transaction.

These include a method of Decentralisation, the Proof of Work’ system, and the implementation of Time Stamp Servers’ including proper network security mechanisms to provide an additional layer of security and validation behind each transaction.

The blog post continued on to provide an additional number of reasons why Szabo could be Satoshi Nakamoto:

While the blog series provides a significant amount of research and a well thought out argument, Szabo himself categorically denies being Satoshi Nakamoto.

While denying being Satoshi Nakamoto, Szabo is a regular writer on the subjects of programming, Cryptography and the uses of Bitcoin on his personal blog. Along with this, Szabo is also a prolific and frequent speaker / lecturer on the subject of Bitcoin and the state of play for it and other cryptocurrencies.

One of the more famous potential Satoshis was Dorian Satoshi Nakamoto, who shares a significant number of unique correlations with the original Satoshi Nakamoto, the name being just one of them.

Dorian Nakamoto, originally a resident of Japan, went on to attend college in California, studying and graduating with a degree in Physics. The correlation comes from Dorian’s own experiences working with several different employees, these consist of Citibank and the U.S. Government as just a couple of the examples.

As an engineer, a great degree of his work is under both legal and personal secrecy. An article, which labeled Dorian Satoshi Nakamoto as the developer of Bitcoin was based off an initial, off the cuff comment made by himself, in which he stated that he was no longer involved’ with the Bitcoin project.

While this confirmed to the reporter who he was, Dorian points out that there was a significant degree of misunderstanding on his part, believing that it was a question regarding his work with Citibank.

Five days after the interview’, Newsweek read out a letter sent to them by Dorian, lamenting the challenges he’s faced as a result of the false accusations of being Nakamoto.

I did not create, invent or otherwise work on Bitcoin. I unconditionally deny the Newsweek report The first time I heard the term bitcoin was from my son in mid-February 2014. After being contacted by a reporter, my son called me and used the word, which I had never before heard. Shortly thereafter, the reporter confronted me at my home.

I have no knowledge of nor have I ever worked on cryptography, peer to peer systems, or alternative currencies My prospects for gainful employment has been harmed because of Newsweeks article

Newsweeks false report has been the source of a great deal of confusion and stress for myself, my 93-year old mother, my siblings, and their families This will be our last public statement on this matter. I ask that you now respect our privacy.

Making a start to his career as a programmer with Atari working on video game design, Hal Finney has since become an individual considered by many to be the real Satoshi Nakamoto.

Ever since starting off on his career of computer programming, Finney became significantly interested and involved in the field of Cryptography, being on of the early joiners of the mailing list and social group, Cyberpunks.

One of the other organizations that Finney was involved in was Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) since its establishment in 1991. What tipped people off to his potential was his development of PGP 2.0, a system which incorporates features such as file encryption and authentication, as well as encrypted communications.

These features made PGP 2.0 the first truly secure version of the program, all based on the handy work of Hal Finney. Effectively, Finney had created the system we have come to know as peer-to-peer networking before there was even a name for it.

One of the reasons that Finney became heavily involved in Cryptography was due to being inspired by the developer David Chaum, a fellow Californian who wished to apply Cryptography to the world of online finance, specifically when addressing online transactions and finance management.

During his time at the University of California, Chaum had created one of the first systems of peer-to-peer transactions, called Ecash, which had some of the features we see in Bitcoin, but was tethered to the ongoing value of the US Dollar and never really gained significant traction.

Finney set about to expand upon what Ecash had attempted to be, adding a proof of work concept to the currency which was reusable back in 2004. This feature among others would be those applied in order to create Bitcoin in 2008.

Finney was a keen member of a number of cryptography forums and mailing lists, being one of the first users of the client software which Nakamoto had released. Within days of releasing this software, Finney made history by being the recipient of one of Bitcoins first transactions, in which he received 10 Bitcoin from Nakamoto.

Regrettably, Finney was later diagnosed with ALS, otherwise known as Lou Gehrig’s disease, from which he died in 2014. Until then, Finney continued to be an active participant in conversations regarding cryptocurrency, using his final post to recap on all of his personal experiences interacting with Nakamoto.

When Satoshi announced the first release of the software, I grabbed it right away. I think I was the first person besides Satoshi to run bitcoin. I mined block 70-something, and I was the recipient of the first bitcoin transaction when Satoshi sent ten coins to me as a test. I carried on an email conversation with Satoshi over the next few days, mostly me reporting bugs and him fixing them.

Today, Satoshis true identity has become a mystery. But at the time, I thought I was dealing with a young man of Japanese ancestry who was very smart and sincere. Ive had the good fortune to know many brilliant people over the course of my life, so I recognize the signs.

During the final year of his life, Finney was subjected to an unfortunate extortion attempt against him, in which he was ordered by the anonymous hacker to complete a transaction of 1,000 Bitcoin (Worth $400,000 at the time) or they would release sensitive personal information about Finney to the public.

Over the years, Finney’s family would face constant extortion attempts, all of which amounted to no payout simply because Finney was not Nakamoto and that any Bitcoin Finney had extracted and collected over the years were used up in order to pay for his burdensome medical expenses.

Unfortunately, Craig Steven Wright is one of the more infamous individuals to be on the list of potential Satoshi Nakamoto’s. The Australian computer scientist and businessman had led media outlets on an obscure hunt for after he came forward to a number of news broadcasters that he was the real Satoshi Nakamoto back in 2015.

In the past, Wright had been involved in the creation of the worlds first online casinos, including a Bitcoin-based bank which never completely materialized. This was due to a number of issues surrounding obtaining regulatory approval in order to do this, something that cryptocurrencies still face on a regular basis.

What does separate Wright from other individuals on this list is that he offered up Cryptographic proof that he was, in fact, Nakamoto, claiming to have access to the keys that he used in order to extract and complete some of the first Bitcoin transactions.

According to his interview with BBC, Wright claimed that he would provide this evidence as extraordinary proof for an extraordinary claim. Signing a message using a key known to be used by Satoshi Nakamoto.

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Satoshi Nakamoto: Who is Bitcoin’s Mysterious Creator …

Satoshi Nakamoto: 9 Interesting Facts You Need To Know

Like the dramatic quest ofHollywood movieFinding Nemo,this quest of finding Satoshi Nakamoto the inventor of Bitcoin has also been dramatic.

Its fascinating to see how Bitcoin has become a multi-billion dollar thing, yet the Father of Bitcoin is still missing.

Satoshi Nakamoto made the Bitcoin software in 2008 and made it open source in January 2009.

And in 2010, Satoshi disappeared.

No one even knows what pronoun to use(he, she, or they)while referring to Satoshi Nakamoto because it is still not clear whether he/she is a person or a group of people.

Whomever Satoshi Nakamoto might be, there are some interesting facts about the entity that gave birth to this multi-billion dollar industry of cryptocurrencies.

Here are 9 interesting facts

1. Why is Satoshi Nakamoto Famous?

The name Satoshi Nakamoto is the pseudonym of the inventor of Bitcoin. In 2008, someone used this name and mailed the Bitcoin white paper to a cryptographic mailing list.

This mailing list contained renowned people who believedin decentralization and cryptography.

Thats why this name is so famous.

As is apparent from the name, its assumed that he was a Japanese man, but his flawless use of English in the white paper raises doubts about this conclusion.

Satoshis Mail

2. Satoshis Net Worth

It is believed that Satoshi Nakamoto owns 1 million bitcoins(or more) which makes his present net worth at the time of writing this article to be $2.6 billion.

In 2009 January, Satoshi mined the Genesis block, andin 2010, he officially stopped communicating. Between this period, the bitcoins came into existence exist on the blockchain ledger, but they have not been used or spent. Thisproves how much Satoshi owns.

1 million BTC is a huge number which, if dumped suddenly, could wreak havoc on the crypto market. Thats why Bitcoin has also earned the title of being a Ponzi scheme-because the speculative founder owns a significant share.

3. Satoshis T-Shirts

The anonymity of Bitcoins founder has led to a mushrooming of a totally new merchandising concept. Now you can buy T-Shirts with Satoshi Nakamoto things printed on it.

Things like:

You can buy one for yourself from e-commerce sites likeZazzleandTeespring.

4. Satoshi Nakamoto is Possibly A Group Of Companies

Some even suggest that Samsung, Toshiba, Nakamichi, and Motorola together created Bitcoin, as you can tell from their names:

Satoshi Nakamoto

However, there is no official proof for such conclusion.

5. Satoshi Nakamoto is PossiblyNick Szabo

Nick Szabo, a US computer scientist, and cryptographer is considered by some to be the founder of Bitcoin. Nick coined the concept of digital currency for the digital age by creating Bit Gold. Bit Gold was the ancestor of Bitcoin. However, it was not used by the masses because of limitations.

After analysis of Satoshis white paper, a blogger concluded that Nick Szabo was Satoshi Nakamoto. but Nick has never accepted this hypothesis.

6. Satoshi Nakamoto is PossiblyCraig Steven Wright

Craig Wright, an Australian Entrepreneur, claimed to the BBC on 2nd May 2016 to be the inventor of Bitcoin. However, when examined by core Bitcoin developers like Peter Todd, Craig was unable to provide any acceptable supporting evidence for such a claim.

Though initially, he said he would come back with relevant evidence, he failed to do so, and said on his blog that he was sorry and didnt have the courage to continue.

7. Satoshi Nakamoto is PossiblyDorian Nakamoto

In March 2014, another speculation came on the identity of Satoshi. A news source claimed that they had found Satoshi, and he lived inCalifornia, USA.

His full name, as reported, was Dorian Prentice Satoshi Nakamoto. He was aphysicist and a systems engineer who had recently been laid off by the government.

Later on, the person identified denied all such claims and said he is not the Nakamoto which everyone has been searching for.

8.Satoshi Nakamoto is PossiblyHal Finney

Hal was a cryptographer even before his involvement with Bitcoin. He was on the mailing list that received Satoshi Nakamotos Bitcoin white paper.

Hal claimed that he had been communicating with Satoshi to support his testing, which led to the speculative conclusion that he himself was Satoshi.

Hals writing style also closely resembles that of Satoshis in the Bitcoin white paper. The suspicion evaporated when he showed his email conversation with Satoshi, but that could just be a diversion tactic.

Fun fact:Hal was the first person to receive a Bitcoin transaction from Satoshi on January 12, 2009, after Satoshi mined the genesis block on3rd January 2009 at 18:15:05 GMT.

9. Fast Company Found Satoshi Nakamoto

An employee of Fast Company, a media brand, said thatNeal King, Vladimir Oksman, and Charles Bry were the group of people that created Bitcoin. This employee proved it by searching unique phrases in Satoshis white paper.

They even patented the phrase which appears on the Bitcoin white paper computationally impractical to reverse.

However, all of them have publically denied such allegations.

Whatever anyone may say or think, the anonymity factor of Satoshi Nakamoto has proven to be healthy for Bitcoin.

But theres still a big mystery here:

Where is Satoshi, what is Satoshi doing, and why is Satoshi hiding?

No one knows the truth.

I would like to end this article by quoting two very early adopters of Bitcoin, Erik Voorhees andRoger Ver(two people who are definitely worth following on Twitter).

Bitcoin is the most important invention in the history of the world since the internet.

Roger Ver, Bitcoin Jesus

Can we take a moment to reflect on the fact that the Bitcoin protocol STILL hasn’t been hacked? One of the greatest comp sci accomplishments

Erik Voorhees (@ErikVoorhees) May 13, 2015

This shows how important Bitcoin, blockchain technology, and of course, Satoshi Nakamoto all are!

And yes, Bitcoin has become more important than a single individual, but we would all love to solve this mystery once and for all.

If you know any more interesting facts that I have missed in this article, thendo let me know in the comments below!!!

And if you liked this post, dont forget to share it!

Here are hand-picked articles to read next:

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Satoshi Nakamoto: 9 Interesting Facts You Need To Know

Bootstrapped Gavin: Satoshi Nakamotos identity revealed …

We identified Bitcoin Cash developer Gavin Andresen as being the real Satoshi Nakamoto using Eders bootstrapped stylometry method. This finding supports our previous article on the topic that also identified Gavin as Satoshi using Principal Component Analysis and Burrows delta.

Stylometry is a set of methods that aim to identify an unknown author by statistically deciphering their style using statistics. A famous example recently occurred with JK Rowlings pen name Robert Galbraith being uncovered thanks to stylometry methods.

Satoshi Nakamoto is an assumed pseudonym which the inventor of Bitcoin gave himself as to disguise his identity. There have been many attempts to uncover his identity but there remains no concrete evidence to this date. A big part of this failure can be attributed to the lack of convergence validity in the stylometry field.

Joseph Rudman, a linguist at Carnegie Mellon university, wrote an excellent paper on the faults of stylometry titled The state of non-traditional authorship attribution studies 2012: Some problems and solutions. This paper pointed out that stylometrics often cherry pick results due to their algorithms producing vastly different results when slightly tweaked.

Our previous study had elements of cherry picking in that we would get different results when we changed our model from using correlations to covariances. Overwhelmingly our model clustered Gavin Andresen with Satoshi but when we used covariances our model would load the Satoshi whitepaper onto a paper by Wei Dai.

Maciej Eder created a bootstrapping method specifically designed to overcome the problem of cherry picking elements like Most Frequent Words (MFW). The approach uses Burrows delta to find a difference between two texts, but also uses random sampling of MFW ranges so as to output more robust results. Burrows delta is basically a manhattan distance of z-scores which is sourced from a list of top words used in an entire corpus.

We used Eders bootstrapped delta to see if it would uncover the identity of Satoshi Nakamoto. We generated the z-score table using means and standard deviations sourced from 20,000 English texts from the Gutenberg corpus. We then calculated the random samples for the manhattan distance algorithm for MFWs between 1 and 5,000 .

This was calculated by comparing a list of authors associated with Bitcoin against the original Bitcoin whitepaper. Finally, we used a kNN approach to sort the mean distances in order so that we could see who had the most similar writing style to Satoshi in our experiment.

We found that the first nearest neighbour was Satoshis email texts followed by 3 of Gavin Andresens GitHub documents and then followed by Satoshis forum texts. These findings are quite reasonable because not only do they validate the links between the Satoshi whitepaper-emails-forums but they also cluster Gavin as the likely author. Its also of interest that Gavins style was so much like Satoshis whitepaper that he beat Satoshi himself with the forum texts!

A limitation of the current study is that it could be measuring the style of genre rather than that of authorship. We may need to come up with a way to standardise the datasets to remove any noise that may come from such a systematic bias. One way could be to remove pronouns from the analysis because these could correlate with the style of an academic paper.

Also, weve already started work on our code stylometry machine that will analyse Satoshis C++ style of programming. Weve already found using Most Frequent Character (MFC) n-grams that Gavin also has a similar programming style to Satoshi.

A comparison of some of the texts show clearly that Gavins GitHub blogs have similar low distances to the whitepaper as does Satoshis emails/forums. This chart also shows that Gavins GitHub posts #4 has a low volatility and even beats the Satoshi email texts on many occasions.

We discretized the distances to analyse the different patterns in the heatmaps. One can clearly see Gavins GitHub blogs having low distances. You can also see that Gavins regular blog posts (sorted by year) do not load onto the whitepaper. But its also worth mentioning that with the heavily discretized heatmap (top-right) shows that only Gavin and Satoshi reach the high pink level (~0.7) of having a low distance with the whitepaper.

The heatmap below shows more clearly the Bitcoin texts we analysed. Our columns are numbered x_y with x being the iteration number and y the number of MFWs used. The column 49_2728 means that it was the 49th bootstrapped iteration and it used 2,728 MFWs for each textual comparison with the whitepaper. This chart only shows 49 iterations but our final analysis used 2,500 iterations to maximise our estimates of the population.

Our final result shows a table of z-scores of means and standard deviations of the 2,500 samples that were collected for each textual comparison with the whitepaper. The chart shows that Gavins GitHub blog #4 not only has the 2nd lowest distance to the whitepaper but also has one of the lowest sds in the entire corpus, suggesting that such a position is accurate in our knn methodology. One can not ignore that Eders bootrapped delta not only validates the connection between all 3 Satoshi texts but also loads Gavin Andresen in the top 5 results above Satoshis forum posts.

See the article here:

Bootstrapped Gavin: Satoshi Nakamotos identity revealed …

Satoshi Nakamoto: Who is Bitcoin’s Mysterious Creator …

More Than Just a Name: Who or What Is Satoshi Nakamoto? The Facts That We Have

There are mysteries that we all have to deal with from personal to international. One of the mysteries that still hounds the cryptocurrency world is the one that surrounds one particular name: Satoshi Nakamoto, the illustrious and yet unknown figure that stood behind the creation and introduction of Bitcoin.

While the true face of Nakamoto, among other things, remain a mystery, we will be using these articles as a way to piece together all that we do know about them. From everything they had previously written, to who the media believed was the true’ Nakamoto and whether there are still people out there who once previously bore the mantel.

We may never fully know who Satoshi Nakamoto is, but with this series, we hope to, at the very least, shrink down the number of people who could resemble the illustrious figure.

Whatever could be construed as a public record of Satoshi Nakamoto can be easily condensed into a span of fewer than two years. While a brief legacy’ the amount of buzz surrounding these records have kept forums, social media pages and financial experts ensconced in the possible answer to the question.

Not only would it be one of the internets biggest mysteries being solved, but whoever rightfully claimed to be Nakamoto would gain immediate legendary status for their involvement in the development of blockchain, the technology which is (and continues to) revolutionize the world as we know it.

Not only is there a legend to claim, but a fortune as well; one that is believed to total nearly 1 million Bitcoin. This means, by today’s valuation of Bitcoin, would mean an inheritance’ of over 8 Billion dollars, not accounting for future fluctuation, however.

One of the most comprehensive profiles we have for Nakamoto comes from their P2P foundation page, Satoshi Nakamoto is (or was) a 43-year-old male originating from Japan. This suggests that he is most active during the Japanese time cycle, but upon studying their posting behavior, it implies that they follow the GMT cycle due a habit of disappearing from 5am-11am yet being active during the earlier to late afternoon.

While that isn’t evidence enough to suggest that while Nakamoto wasn’t in Japan, but could mean that they had a highly unusual sleep pattern.

Satoshi, from their philosophy, was a firm advocate for economic or social Libertarianism specific to the world of technology. This viewpoint can be construed as Crypto-Anarchism’, decentralizing the world of commerce, handing the power in the world of personal finance back to the individual consumer.

In the announcement and release of the Genesis block, otherwise known as Block 1′ or 0, included a hidden message within its Coinbase parameter giving the headline for the news from the 3rd January 2009:

the Times 03/Jan/2009 Chancellor on brink of the second bailout for banks

While the use of the newspaper headline may simply function as a time-stamp for the interest of posterity with the release of the first Bitcoin block. Many crypto-enthusiasts and anarchists alike have, however, interpreted the headline as a stab against centralized financial institutions for their part in the unfurling global financial crisis and subsequent recession.

One of the other stabs that this message demonstrates, according to Nakamoto supporters, is in creating an inbuilt scarcity for Bitcoin, while governments and financial institutions are able to print a seemingly infinite volume of money at their own discretion, creating devaluation with users being powerless to do anything about it.

While Nakamoto has been personally responsible for mining and possessing nearly a million Bitcoin, he’ only ever completed one transaction simply to demonstrate that a cryptocurrency could, and does, work.

Apart from that, Nakamoto never moved his Bitcoin from his initial mining address, but there are a number of reasons for why he would have instigated this action.

How is it we can theorize that these are the plausible scenarios as to Nakamoto’s activities? Because a number of the texts of which he drafted and wrote give these very distinct impressions:

At this point in time, Satoshi announced through a Cryptography mailing list that Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System, his officially white paper detailing the idea and function of Bitcoin, was formally published on Bitcoin.com.

Satoshi makes his first public post on the website P2P Foundation: The Foundation for Peer to Peer Alternatives’. This post consisted of a link to his recently published White Paper, including some additional insight into the paper and his reasoning for developing it.

Across this span of time when he’s active on the site, he created three posts, with the last taking place on February 14th, 2009. The same account was used in March 2014, with the post including the statement that the user is not Dorian Nakamoto after being falsely outed as Satoshi Nakamoto days earlier.

This consisted of the official, inaugural post on the website Bitcointalk.org.’ This would include a series of over 575 posts across 13 months, other contributors apart from Nakamoto consist ofMike Hearn and Jeff Garzik.

These contributors were effective in laying down the groundwork for what Bitcoin was to become. By December 12th, 2010, Nakamoto has effectively stopped operating on the site, for what reasons remains unknown.

This post is the last time that Nakamoto officially addressed the public within the forum, linking to the latest version of the Bitcoin, wallet client. Nine years on and the forum is one of the largest, most reputable forums of cryptocurrency discussion, with over 2 million users and hundreds of millions of post views.

One of the last posts from Nakamoto included the desire that Wikileaks which, at the time, had been vehemently opposed by the US governments, including banks which refused to work with them regarding providing funding.

Nakamoto stated that Bitcoin shouldn’t be used as a means of supporting the site, citing its infancy’ and fragility as some of the reasons why it is not best-suited for supporting Wikileaks.

Despite his urging against providing this support, it went on to be used, resulting in Wikileaks removing the page and description for Bitcoin. The reason for this post was to prevent Bitcoin from snuffed out by drawing too much negative press, especially in being linked to an institution which had just recently made some incredibly powerful enemies.

So who could this person be? We can get an understanding of Nakamoto’s personality from one of his email addresses when messages to and from the account were made.

His account, [emailprotected] was reportedly hacked in 2014, with one of the email exchanges being between Nakamoto and the financial expert, Wei Dai, regarding obtaining proper accreditation for the ideas of his that were used in the development of Bitcoin.

The second was to Laszlo Hanyecz, the cryptocurrency developer that is famously known for the 10,000 Bitcoin for 2 Pizzas’ challenge, which has gained a historical emphasis for being the first monetary transaction using Bitcoin.

When approached on what the exchanges between himself and Nakamoto were like, Hanyecz described them as Weird,’ describing him as a bossy’ figure who expected him to be an active contributor despite the fact that his tenure working on Bitcoin was predominantly unpaid.

Above all, Nakamoto, according to Hanyecz, tended to strongly deflect any questions about himself as a person while also demanding that the underlying code remain untampered with.

One of Bitcoins developers early on was Mike Hearn, who offered a very unique insight into what it was like to work alongside Nakamoto during the early days of the project. In one of the interactions between Nakamoto and Hearn, the latter made the email exchanges public online. The last of which was posted on April 23rd, 2011 contained the following:

Ive moved on to other things. Its in good hands with Gavin (Andresen) and everyone.

One of the final email exchanges including Nakamoto was between himself and Gavin Anderson, in which Anderson attempted to find out more about his utterly online colleague. The reply he got was laconic, direct and inciteful:

I wish you wouldnt keep talking about me as a mysterious shadowy figure, the press just turns that into a pirate currency angle. Maybe instead make it about the open source project and give more credit to your dev contributors; it helps motivate them.

The final email that Anderson sent to Nakamoto consisted of detailing an invitation to speak at an event that had direct connections with the Central Intelligence Agency. With the lack of response from Nakamoto, it could be construed that he had become, somewhat reasonably,freaked out by the sudden, meteoric rise to popularity the Bitcoin enjoyed.

Satoshi Nakamoto is one of the phantom names in the worlds of the internet and cryptocurrency that consists of a legendary status, a groundbreaking innovation and, while accompanied with a literal throne of $8 billion, the actual individual behind Satoshi Nakamoto’ remains elusive.

In this article, we put together a list of potential suspects with the profile, intelligence, or character that make them the possible man behind the mask.

While these are claims, they are unsubstantiated and theoretical, the only way to truly KNOW who Satoshi Nakamoto is through verifying their wallet address which would link the individual to the man himself.

From 2009 to 2010, Satoshi Nakamoto was directly involved in the development, coding, design, and release of what we and millions of members of the general public now know as Bitcoin’. During this same stretch of time, Nakamoto was also involved in mining a large quantity of the coins during a time that only a select number of people were involved in mining.

The only way one could prove without a shadow of a doubt that they were Nakamoto, they would simply need to complete one or a number of transactions between the accounts that the original Nakamoto used during this time.

While this has yet to happen, a great number of internet researchers, financial experts, and genuinely curious individuals have yet to cease in piecing together ideas and theorizing as to who the real Satoshi Nakamoto was and is.

So who on earth do some of these researchers believe is the real Satoshi Nakamoto? We piece together the names of those people believe are linked to the man, from the interesting to the downright unusual.

For anyone to be considered as Satoshi Nakamoto, it requires that person to have a clear understanding of computer programming, especially from the aspect of cryptocurrency development, these consist of:

By these criteria, the number of people that may be Nakamoto thins out significantly especially considering the balance, intellectually, which would need to be struck between the deeper knowledge of economics, cryptography and computer programming in general.

One of the potential candidates for being Nakamoto was the former graduate student, cryptography enthusiast but had also been involved in some level of C++ Programming since he was 10, Michael Clear.

While all of the dominoes were in place, making Clear a shoe-in for being the real Satoshi Nakamoto, when asked the question during an interview, Clear explicitly stated that he was not Nakamoto.

Im not Satoshi, but even if I was I wouldnt tell you.

While Clear, at the time, was startled by the question which to him came out of left field. He believed it to be conclusive enough to not realise any further questions, this turned out to not be the case, as he would encounter incessant questions on whether he was, in fact, Nakamoto and just wanted to protect his anonymity.

It got to the point where, in 2013, after two years of questions pertaining to Bitcoin and Nakamoto, that he published a blog post, explicitly denying any links to Bitcoin and being Nakamoto.

Josh originally contacted me at Crypto 2011 about a paper I was involved with related to p2p, and I met up with him out of curiosity as to why he would be interested. For about 20 minutes we talked about that.

When bitcoin came up, I remember we had a brief casual chat; I was naturally startled when he thought I could be Satoshi, and there was some humor and regrettable mistakes on my part.

Nick Szabo, a Hungarian-American computer scientist was theorized to be a potential candidate for Satoshi Nakamoto for a number of reasons. During late 2013, the slow collapse of MtGOX led researchers to look at Szabo as a potential candidate for being Nakamoto.

Like in a Mirror’, an anonymous blog post, listed out the reasons why Nick Szabo could be Satoshi Nakamoto. Across the two blog posts, the author lists the reasons why Szabo would be the founder of Bitcoin.

One of the reasons why this blog post, and Szabo by extension, gained so much credibility as being Nakamoto was due to the arguments provided by Like in a Mirror, but also due to Szabo’s own involvement with the distant cousin to Bitcoin, Bit Gold’.

While Bit Gold presented a very interesting concept when initially proposed in 1998, it never really gained traction with which to enter wider development and implementation. However, Bit Gold did, in fact, contain a significant number of features which made Bitcoin possible as a system of peer-to-peer transaction.

These include a method of Decentralisation, the Proof of Work’ system, and the implementation of Time Stamp Servers’ including proper network security mechanisms to provide an additional layer of security and validation behind each transaction.

The blog post continued on to provide an additional number of reasons why Szabo could be Satoshi Nakamoto:

While the blog series provides a significant amount of research and a well thought out argument, Szabo himself categorically denies being Satoshi Nakamoto.

While denying being Satoshi Nakamoto, Szabo is a regular writer on the subjects of programming, Cryptography and the uses of Bitcoin on his personal blog. Along with this, Szabo is also a prolific and frequent speaker / lecturer on the subject of Bitcoin and the state of play for it and other cryptocurrencies.

One of the more famous potential Satoshis was Dorian Satoshi Nakamoto, who shares a significant number of unique correlations with the original Satoshi Nakamoto, the name being just one of them.

Dorian Nakamoto, originally a resident of Japan, went on to attend college in California, studying and graduating with a degree in Physics. The correlation comes from Dorian’s own experiences working with several different employees, these consist of Citibank and the U.S. Government as just a couple of the examples.

As an engineer, a great degree of his work is under both legal and personal secrecy. An article, which labeled Dorian Satoshi Nakamoto as the developer of Bitcoin was based off an initial, off the cuff comment made by himself, in which he stated that he was no longer involved’ with the Bitcoin project.

While this confirmed to the reporter who he was, Dorian points out that there was a significant degree of misunderstanding on his part, believing that it was a question regarding his work with Citibank.

Five days after the interview’, Newsweek read out a letter sent to them by Dorian, lamenting the challenges he’s faced as a result of the false accusations of being Nakamoto.

I did not create, invent or otherwise work on Bitcoin. I unconditionally deny the Newsweek report The first time I heard the term bitcoin was from my son in mid-February 2014. After being contacted by a reporter, my son called me and used the word, which I had never before heard. Shortly thereafter, the reporter confronted me at my home.

I have no knowledge of nor have I ever worked on cryptography, peer to peer systems, or alternative currencies My prospects for gainful employment has been harmed because of Newsweeks article

Newsweeks false report has been the source of a great deal of confusion and stress for myself, my 93-year old mother, my siblings, and their families This will be our last public statement on this matter. I ask that you now respect our privacy.

Making a start to his career as a programmer with Atari working on video game design, Hal Finney has since become an individual considered by many to be the real Satoshi Nakamoto.

Ever since starting off on his career of computer programming, Finney became significantly interested and involved in the field of Cryptography, being on of the early joiners of the mailing list and social group, Cyberpunks.

One of the other organizations that Finney was involved in was Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) since its establishment in 1991. What tipped people off to his potential was his development of PGP 2.0, a system which incorporates features such as file encryption and authentication, as well as encrypted communications.

These features made PGP 2.0 the first truly secure version of the program, all based on the handy work of Hal Finney. Effectively, Finney had created the system we have come to know as peer-to-peer networking before there was even a name for it.

One of the reasons that Finney became heavily involved in Cryptography was due to being inspired by the developer David Chaum, a fellow Californian who wished to apply Cryptography to the world of online finance, specifically when addressing online transactions and finance management.

During his time at the University of California, Chaum had created one of the first systems of peer-to-peer transactions, called Ecash, which had some of the features we see in Bitcoin, but was tethered to the ongoing value of the US Dollar and never really gained significant traction.

Finney set about to expand upon what Ecash had attempted to be, adding a proof of work concept to the currency which was reusable back in 2004. This feature among others would be those applied in order to create Bitcoin in 2008.

Finney was a keen member of a number of cryptography forums and mailing lists, being one of the first users of the client software which Nakamoto had released. Within days of releasing this software, Finney made history by being the recipient of one of Bitcoins first transactions, in which he received 10 Bitcoin from Nakamoto.

Regrettably, Finney was later diagnosed with ALS, otherwise known as Lou Gehrig’s disease, from which he died in 2014. Until then, Finney continued to be an active participant in conversations regarding cryptocurrency, using his final post to recap on all of his personal experiences interacting with Nakamoto.

When Satoshi announced the first release of the software, I grabbed it right away. I think I was the first person besides Satoshi to run bitcoin. I mined block 70-something, and I was the recipient of the first bitcoin transaction when Satoshi sent ten coins to me as a test. I carried on an email conversation with Satoshi over the next few days, mostly me reporting bugs and him fixing them.

Today, Satoshis true identity has become a mystery. But at the time, I thought I was dealing with a young man of Japanese ancestry who was very smart and sincere. Ive had the good fortune to know many brilliant people over the course of my life, so I recognize the signs.

During the final year of his life, Finney was subjected to an unfortunate extortion attempt against him, in which he was ordered by the anonymous hacker to complete a transaction of 1,000 Bitcoin (Worth $400,000 at the time) or they would release sensitive personal information about Finney to the public.

Over the years, Finney’s family would face constant extortion attempts, all of which amounted to no payout simply because Finney was not Nakamoto and that any Bitcoin Finney had extracted and collected over the years were used up in order to pay for his burdensome medical expenses.

Unfortunately, Craig Steven Wright is one of the more infamous individuals to be on the list of potential Satoshi Nakamoto’s. The Australian computer scientist and businessman had led media outlets on an obscure hunt for after he came forward to a number of news broadcasters that he was the real Satoshi Nakamoto back in 2015.

In the past, Wright had been involved in the creation of the worlds first online casinos, including a Bitcoin-based bank which never completely materialized. This was due to a number of issues surrounding obtaining regulatory approval in order to do this, something that cryptocurrencies still face on a regular basis.

What does separate Wright from other individuals on this list is that he offered up Cryptographic proof that he was, in fact, Nakamoto, claiming to have access to the keys that he used in order to extract and complete some of the first Bitcoin transactions.

According to his interview with BBC, Wright claimed that he would provide this evidence as extraordinary proof for an extraordinary claim. Signing a message using a key known to be used by Satoshi Nakamoto.

Here is the original post:

Satoshi Nakamoto: Who is Bitcoin’s Mysterious Creator …

Satoshi Nakamoto, bitcoins enigmatic creator – Brain scan

print-edition icon Print edition | Technology QuarterlySep 1st 2018

ON PAPERor at least on the blockchainSatoshi Nakamoto is one of the richest people on the planet. Bitcoin is a semi-anonymous currency and Mr Nakamoto is a pseudonymous person, so it is hard to be sure; but he is generally reckoned to own around 1.1m bitcoin, or around 5% of the total number that will ever exist. When bitcoin hit its peak of over $19,000, that made him worth around $20bn.

But Mr Nakamoto, though actively involved with his brainchild in its early history, has been silent since 2011. An army of amateur detectives has been trying to work out who he really is, but there is frustratingly little to go on. While developing bitcoin he claimed to be male, in his late 30s and living in Japan, but even that information is suspect. There are indications that he may have lived in an American time zone, but his English occasionally contains British idioms. Some of his goldbug-like comments about central banks that debase the currency and the evils of fractional-reserve banking led early cyber-libertarian bitcoin enthusiasts to claim him as one of their own. One thing is certain: he values his privacy. To register Bitcoin.org he used Tor, an online track-covering tool used by black-marketeers, journalists and political dissidents.

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Still, the legions of sleuths have turned up various candidates, ranging from Japanese mathematicians to Irish graduate students. In 2014 Newsweek, a business magazine, fingered Dorian Prentice Satoshi Nakamoto, an American engineer. He emphatically denied the story, and the next day a forum account previously used by Mr Nakamoto posted, for the first time in five years, to say, I am not Dorian Nakamotothough there are doubts about that account, too.

Attention also focused on Hal Finney, an expert in cryptography, an experienced programmer and a dedicated cypherpunk. He was the recipient in the first-ever transaction conducted in bitcoin, with Mr Nakamoto as the sender. He died in 2014. Andy Greenberg, a journalist, who studied private e-mails between Mr Finney and Mr Nakamoto, concluded that he was probably not bitcoins creator. And Mr Finney himself always denied that he was Mr Nakamoto.

Conversely, in 2016 Craig Wright, an Australian computer scientist, explicitly claimed that he was the man everyone was looking for. He invited several news organisations, including The Economist, to witness him prove his claim by using cryptographic keys that supposedly belonged to Mr Nakamoto. He did not convince his audience, so he said he would settle the matter by moving a bitcoin from Mr Nakamotos stash. He later decided against it when an online story suggested he could face arrest if he confirmed he was bitcoins creator, on the ground of enabling terrorism. But the story turned out to be a fake.

According to another theory, Mr Nakamoto is actually a group of people. But for now his, or their, identity remains a mystery. Some think his withdrawal was a matter of principle, to underline the point of a decentralised currency. Perhaps he simply wants a quiet life.

Read on: Dividing the cryptocurrency sheep from the blockchain goats>>

Originally posted here:

Satoshi Nakamoto, bitcoins enigmatic creator – Brain scan

Satoshi Nakamoto – Bitcoin Wiki

For the unit, see satoshi (unit).

Satoshi Nakamoto is the founder of Bitcoin and initial creator of the Original Bitcoin client. He has said in a P2P foundation profile[1] that he is from Japan. Beyond that, not much else is known about him and his identity. He has been working on the Bitcoin project since 2007.[2]

His involvement in the Bitcoin project had tapered and by late 2010 it has ended. The most recent messages reportedly indicate that Satoshi is “gone for good”[3].

He left some clues about why he is doing this project with the inclusion of the following text in the Genesis block, “The Times 03/Jan/2009 Chancellor on brink of second bailout for banks”.

Some interesting quotes:

Yes, [we will not find a solution to political problems in cryptography,] but we can win a major battle in the arms race and gain a new territory offreedom for several years.

Governments are good at cutting off the heads of a centrally controllednetworks like Napster, but pure P2P networks like Gnutella and Tor seem to beholding their own.[4]

His identity and nationality are unknown.

He is entirely unknown outside of Bitcoin as far as anyone can tell, and his (never used) PGP key was created just months prior to the date of the genesis block. He seems to be very familiar with the cryptography mailing list, but there are no non-Bitcoin posts from him on it. He has used an email address from an anonymous mail hosting service (vistomail) as well as one from a free webmail account (gmx.com) and sends mail when connected via Tor. Some have speculated that his entire identity was created in advance in order to protect himself or the network. Perhaps he chose the name Satoshi because it can mean “wisdom” or “reason” and Nakamoto can mean “Central source”.

Ultimately the design of Bitcoin and its use of cryptographic proof and fully open implementation is one that makes its creator, in a sense, irrelevant and only of interest for historical reasons.

See the original post:

Satoshi Nakamoto – Bitcoin Wiki

Who is Satoshi Nakamoto? A Look at the Candidates

Bitcoin was conceived as a communal project. Designed as an open-source software and released to the public in 2009, Bitcoin was conceived with openness in mind. Functioning on an open ledger that is accessible to the public, Bitcoin is an open-source project. But for all its openness, one grand mystery remains unsolved:

Who Created Bitcoin and Who exactly is Satoshi Nakamoto?

First, lets detail what is known for certain. The first step was taken in 2007, when Nakamoto wrote the Bitcoin code1. In November 2008, Satoshi Nakamoto published his now famous White Paper, which laid the groundwork for the Bitcoin protocol2.

On January 3rd, 2009, the first ever Bitcoin block was mined, marking the creation of the cryptocurrency, it bore the message :

The Times 03/Jan/2009 Chancellor on brink of second bailout for banks

Satoshi was heavily involved with the Bitcoin community, and collaborated with them in order to modify the underlying bitcoin protocol. After two years of involvement, Nakamoto handed the reins to Gavin Andresen, and seized involvement with the Bitcoin project in December of 2010. Then, in the Spring of 2011, Nakamoto returned to leave a final message, stating in a post that he had moved on to other things, and that Bitcoin was in good hands with Gavin [Andresen] and everyone. That was the last the world heard of the secretive Bitcoin creator.

The mystery behind Nakamotos identity has only grown, as the Bitcoin community eagerly speculates who it could potentially be. Satoshi Nakamoto claims to be Japanese, born on April 5, 19753. It is unknown whether Nakamoto is male or female, or whether Nakamoto is even a single person or a group of individuals.

While Nakamotos identity remains unknown, This has not stopped enthusiasts from investigating his background and drawing up conclusions. Nakamotos use of perfect English in his posts and his publication of the White Paper has raised skepticism as to his Japanese origin. Furthermore, his occasional use of British English in the code and comments has fueled speculation that he is a native English speaker of commonwealth origin4. Additionally, Stefan Thomas, a Swiss coder and active member in the Bitcoin community, graphed the time stamps of Nakamotos more than 500 posts, showing his or her complete absence of posts between midnight am and 6 am Greenwich Time, further informing investigators as to his potential whereabouts5.

To date, there are several potential individuals suspected of being the mysterious Bitcoin creator. One of the first suggestions was Nick Szabo, a decentralized currency enthusiast who published a paper on bit gold considered to be a precursor to the first cryptocurrency. Running a reverse textual analysis, internet researcher Skye Grey found dozens of unique phrases that linked Szabos writing style to that of the original White Paper6. This evidence is only circumstantial, however, and Szabo has repeatedly denied that he is the creator of Bitcoin.

Nick Szabo, Image from The-Blockchain

Another possibility is a Japanese American man living in California, named Dorian Prentice Satoshi Nakamoto, birth name Satoshi Nakamoto. First brought up in a March 2014 Newsweek article, Leah McGrath Goodman pointed to Nakamotos training as a physicist at Cal Poly University in Pomona and libertarian background as potential indicators of his identity. Her biggest piece of evidence was his response to a question regarding Bitcoin: I am no longer involved in that and I cannot discuss it. Its been turned over to other people. They are in charge of it now. I no longer have any connection.7 This led to a wild media frenzy, which even included a car chase. However, in a later interview, he recanted his previous position, stating that he had misunderstood the reporters question, thinking it was related to his previous classified work as a military contractor8.

Dorian Prentice Satoshi Nakamoto, Image from The Verge.

Hal Finney is another potential candidate to be the mysterious Satoshi Nakamoto. Finney was a pre-bitcoin cryptographic pioneer and was only the second person after Nakamoto himself to make use of the software, file bug reports, and suggest improvements.

Furthermore, he was the first to ever receive Bitcoin, stating in an interview that [he] was the recipient of the first bitcoin transaction, when Satoshi sent ten coins to [him] as a test.9

Forbes journalist Andy Greenberg speculated after requesting aid from writing analysis consultancy Juola & Associates that Greenberg may have been the ghostwriter for Satoshi Nakamoto. Further adding to the speculation that Finney was involved with the creation of Bitcoin was his correspondence with the aforementioned Nick Szabo, and the fact that he lived only blocks apart from Dorian Prentice Satoshi Nakamoto10. At the time of his death on August 28, 2014, only circumstantial evidence pointed to Hal Finney being the original Satoshi Nakamoto.

Hal Finney, Image from Wired.

Yet another possible contender to be Satoshi Nakamoto is the Australian academic, computer engineering expert, and entrepreneur, Craig Wright. In early November of 2015, Gizmodo received an anonymous email from an individual stating that not only did he know that Craig Wright was the creator of Bitcoin, but that he had also worked for him11. On December 9, hours after Wired certified that Wright was indeed Nakamoto, the Australian Federal Police raided his home, and afterwards stating the [the] matter is unrelated to recent media reporting regarding the digital currency Bitcoin. Afterwards, Wright deleted his internet presence until May of 2016, when he stepped forward and revealed himself on Twitter as the creator of the digital currency Bitcoin12, and claimed he had the proof to back up his statement. Then, amid a torrent of skepticism, Wright retracted his statement and did not offer the extraordinary proof he claimed to have, stating that he did not have the courage to prove his identity13.

Craig Wright, Image from CCN.

In an era where information is widespread, Satoshi Nakamoto has managed to maintain his identity a complete secret. So why is uncovering Nakamotos identity so important? If Nakamoto is indeed a single individual, then he or she owns approximately 5% of the worlds Bitcoin supply, placing him or her as the 52nd richest person in the world as of December 12th14.

The implications of this wealth are considerable, beyond even the real world implications. If Satoshi Nakamoto were ever to sell the rumored 980,000 Bitcoins in his or her possession ( currently worth over $16 billion at todays price, as of 5th Jan 2018 ), the price of Bitcoin could potentially become more volatile than it already is.

Furthermore, there is significant debate as to the future of Bitcoin. Heated discussions have arisen due to some of the growing pains surrounding Bitcoin, particularly the issue of how to deal with an increase in transaction volume in the Bitcoin network. As the number of blocks increases, the Bitcoin network runs the risk of becoming overloaded. One side of the debate wants to fundamentally change the Bitcoin node by increasing the block size, in order to allow the system to process transactions more quickly. The other side of the debate sees this as a betrayal of the original concept behind Bitcoin, arguing that this would lead to increased centralization15. Identifying Bitcoins true creator would create more certainty and could potentially lay down the following steps in Bitcoins ever growing development.

Ultimately, identifying Bitcoins creator may be a quixotic endeavor. His or her complete silence since the Spring of 2011 means it is likely we will never hear from them again. Nevertheless, Bitcoin, the open source digital currency created nearly a decade ago, will continue to in spite of this mystery. The Bitcoin community will be forced to coexist with the enigma that is Satoshi Nakamoto, for the better or for the worst.

Read more:

Who is Satoshi Nakamoto? A Look at the Candidates

Who is Satoshi Nakamoto? A Look at the Candidates

Bitcoin was conceived as a communal project. Designed as an open-source software and released to the public in 2009, Bitcoin was conceived with openness in mind. Functioning on an open ledger that is accessible to the public, Bitcoin is an open-source project. But for all its openness, one grand mystery remains unsolved:

Who Created Bitcoin and Who exactly is Satoshi Nakamoto?

First, lets detail what is known for certain. The first step was taken in 2007, when Nakamoto wrote the Bitcoin code1. In November 2008, Satoshi Nakamoto published his now famous White Paper, which laid the groundwork for the Bitcoin protocol2.

On January 3rd, 2009, the first ever Bitcoin block was mined, marking the creation of the cryptocurrency, it bore the message :

The Times 03/Jan/2009 Chancellor on brink of second bailout for banks

Satoshi was heavily involved with the Bitcoin community, and collaborated with them in order to modify the underlying bitcoin protocol. After two years of involvement, Nakamoto handed the reins to Gavin Andresen, and seized involvement with the Bitcoin project in December of 2010. Then, in the Spring of 2011, Nakamoto returned to leave a final message, stating in a post that he had moved on to other things, and that Bitcoin was in good hands with Gavin [Andresen] and everyone. That was the last the world heard of the secretive Bitcoin creator.

The mystery behind Nakamotos identity has only grown, as the Bitcoin community eagerly speculates who it could potentially be. Satoshi Nakamoto claims to be Japanese, born on April 5, 19753. It is unknown whether Nakamoto is male or female, or whether Nakamoto is even a single person or a group of individuals.

While Nakamotos identity remains unknown, This has not stopped enthusiasts from investigating his background and drawing up conclusions. Nakamotos use of perfect English in his posts and his publication of the White Paper has raised skepticism as to his Japanese origin. Furthermore, his occasional use of British English in the code and comments has fueled speculation that he is a native English speaker of commonwealth origin4. Additionally, Stefan Thomas, a Swiss coder and active member in the Bitcoin community, graphed the time stamps of Nakamotos more than 500 posts, showing his or her complete absence of posts between midnight am and 6 am Greenwich Time, further informing investigators as to his potential whereabouts5.

To date, there are several potential individuals suspected of being the mysterious Bitcoin creator. One of the first suggestions was Nick Szabo, a decentralized currency enthusiast who published a paper on bit gold considered to be a precursor to the first cryptocurrency. Running a reverse textual analysis, internet researcher Skye Grey found dozens of unique phrases that linked Szabos writing style to that of the original White Paper6. This evidence is only circumstantial, however, and Szabo has repeatedly denied that he is the creator of Bitcoin.

Nick Szabo, Image from The-Blockchain

Another possibility is a Japanese American man living in California, named Dorian Prentice Satoshi Nakamoto, birth name Satoshi Nakamoto. First brought up in a March 2014 Newsweek article, Leah McGrath Goodman pointed to Nakamotos training as a physicist at Cal Poly University in Pomona and libertarian background as potential indicators of his identity. Her biggest piece of evidence was his response to a question regarding Bitcoin: I am no longer involved in that and I cannot discuss it. Its been turned over to other people. They are in charge of it now. I no longer have any connection.7 This led to a wild media frenzy, which even included a car chase. However, in a later interview, he recanted his previous position, stating that he had misunderstood the reporters question, thinking it was related to his previous classified work as a military contractor8.

Dorian Prentice Satoshi Nakamoto, Image from The Verge.

Hal Finney is another potential candidate to be the mysterious Satoshi Nakamoto. Finney was a pre-bitcoin cryptographic pioneer and was only the second person after Nakamoto himself to make use of the software, file bug reports, and suggest improvements.

Furthermore, he was the first to ever receive Bitcoin, stating in an interview that [he] was the recipient of the first bitcoin transaction, when Satoshi sent ten coins to [him] as a test.9

Forbes journalist Andy Greenberg speculated after requesting aid from writing analysis consultancy Juola & Associates that Greenberg may have been the ghostwriter for Satoshi Nakamoto. Further adding to the speculation that Finney was involved with the creation of Bitcoin was his correspondence with the aforementioned Nick Szabo, and the fact that he lived only blocks apart from Dorian Prentice Satoshi Nakamoto10. At the time of his death on August 28, 2014, only circumstantial evidence pointed to Hal Finney being the original Satoshi Nakamoto.

Hal Finney, Image from Wired.

Yet another possible contender to be Satoshi Nakamoto is the Australian academic, computer engineering expert, and entrepreneur, Craig Wright. In early November of 2015, Gizmodo received an anonymous email from an individual stating that not only did he know that Craig Wright was the creator of Bitcoin, but that he had also worked for him11. On December 9, hours after Wired certified that Wright was indeed Nakamoto, the Australian Federal Police raided his home, and afterwards stating the [the] matter is unrelated to recent media reporting regarding the digital currency Bitcoin. Afterwards, Wright deleted his internet presence until May of 2016, when he stepped forward and revealed himself on Twitter as the creator of the digital currency Bitcoin12, and claimed he had the proof to back up his statement. Then, amid a torrent of skepticism, Wright retracted his statement and did not offer the extraordinary proof he claimed to have, stating that he did not have the courage to prove his identity13.

Craig Wright, Image from CCN.

In an era where information is widespread, Satoshi Nakamoto has managed to maintain his identity a complete secret. So why is uncovering Nakamotos identity so important? If Nakamoto is indeed a single individual, then he or she owns approximately 5% of the worlds Bitcoin supply, placing him or her as the 52nd richest person in the world as of December 12th14.

The implications of this wealth are considerable, beyond even the real world implications. If Satoshi Nakamoto were ever to sell the rumored 980,000 Bitcoins in his or her possession ( currently worth over $16 billion at todays price, as of 5th Jan 2018 ), the price of Bitcoin could potentially become more volatile than it already is.

Furthermore, there is significant debate as to the future of Bitcoin. Heated discussions have arisen due to some of the growing pains surrounding Bitcoin, particularly the issue of how to deal with an increase in transaction volume in the Bitcoin network. As the number of blocks increases, the Bitcoin network runs the risk of becoming overloaded. One side of the debate wants to fundamentally change the Bitcoin node by increasing the block size, in order to allow the system to process transactions more quickly. The other side of the debate sees this as a betrayal of the original concept behind Bitcoin, arguing that this would lead to increased centralization15. Identifying Bitcoins true creator would create more certainty and could potentially lay down the following steps in Bitcoins ever growing development.

Ultimately, identifying Bitcoins creator may be a quixotic endeavor. His or her complete silence since the Spring of 2011 means it is likely we will never hear from them again. Nevertheless, Bitcoin, the open source digital currency created nearly a decade ago, will continue to in spite of this mystery. The Bitcoin community will be forced to coexist with the enigma that is Satoshi Nakamoto, for the better or for the worst.

Read the original:

Who is Satoshi Nakamoto? A Look at the Candidates

Satoshi Nakamoto – Bitcoin Wiki

For the unit, see satoshi (unit).

Satoshi Nakamoto is the founder of Bitcoin and initial creator of the Original Bitcoin client. He has said in a P2P foundation profile[1] that he is from Japan. Beyond that, not much else is known about him and his identity. He has been working on the Bitcoin project since 2007.[2]

His involvement in the Bitcoin project had tapered and by late 2010 it has ended. The most recent messages reportedly indicate that Satoshi is “gone for good”[3].

He left some clues about why he is doing this project with the inclusion of the following text in the Genesis block, “The Times 03/Jan/2009 Chancellor on brink of second bailout for banks”.

Some interesting quotes:

Yes, [we will not find a solution to political problems in cryptography,] but we can win a major battle in the arms race and gain a new territory offreedom for several years.

Governments are good at cutting off the heads of a centrally controllednetworks like Napster, but pure P2P networks like Gnutella and Tor seem to beholding their own.[4]

His identity and nationality are unknown.

He is entirely unknown outside of Bitcoin as far as anyone can tell, and his (never used) PGP key was created just months prior to the date of the genesis block. He seems to be very familiar with the cryptography mailing list, but there are no non-Bitcoin posts from him on it. He has used an email address from an anonymous mail hosting service (vistomail) as well as one from a free webmail account (gmx.com) and sends mail when connected via Tor. Some have speculated that his entire identity was created in advance in order to protect himself or the network. Perhaps he chose the name Satoshi because it can mean “wisdom” or “reason” and Nakamoto can mean “Central source”.

Ultimately the design of Bitcoin and its use of cryptographic proof and fully open implementation is one that makes its creator, in a sense, irrelevant and only of interest for historical reasons.

Read the original:

Satoshi Nakamoto – Bitcoin Wiki

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Satoshi Nakamoto Institute

Satoshi Nakamoto – Bitcoin Wiki

For the unit, see satoshi (unit).

Satoshi Nakamoto is the founder of Bitcoin and initial creator of the Original Bitcoin client. He has said in a P2P foundation profile[1] that he is from Japan. Beyond that, not much else is known about him and his identity. He has been working on the Bitcoin project since 2007.[2]

His involvement in the Bitcoin project had tapered and by late 2010 it has ended. The most recent messages reportedly indicate that Satoshi is “gone for good”[3].

He left some clues about why he is doing this project with the inclusion of the following text in the Genesis block, “The Times 03/Jan/2009 Chancellor on brink of second bailout for banks”.

Some interesting quotes:

Yes, [we will not find a solution to political problems in cryptography,] but we can win a major battle in the arms race and gain a new territory offreedom for several years.

Governments are good at cutting off the heads of a centrally controllednetworks like Napster, but pure P2P networks like Gnutella and Tor seem to beholding their own.[4]

His identity and nationality are unknown.

He is entirely unknown outside of Bitcoin as far as anyone can tell, and his (never used) PGP key was created just months prior to the date of the genesis block. He seems to be very familiar with the cryptography mailing list, but there are no non-Bitcoin posts from him on it. He has used an email address from an anonymous mail hosting service (vistomail) as well as one from a free webmail account (gmx.com) and sends mail when connected via Tor. Some have speculated that his entire identity was created in advance in order to protect himself or the network. Perhaps he chose the name Satoshi because it can mean “wisdom” or “reason” and Nakamoto can mean “Central source”.

Ultimately the design of Bitcoin and its use of cryptographic proof and fully open implementation is one that makes its creator, in a sense, irrelevant and only of interest for historical reasons.

Go here to read the rest:

Satoshi Nakamoto – Bitcoin Wiki


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