The Two Black Women Helping To Reclaim & Encourage Natural Psychedelics Use In Oakland – Okayplayer

Photos courtesy of those interviewed.

One of Mac Dres most beloved lyrics is from a song titled Weekend.

The shrooms I consume are making me laugh/ Im high as the eye on a fucking giraffe, he raps on the track Weekend. The song appeared on 2006s 16 wit dre, a mix album that was released two-and-a-half years after Dres death on November 1, 2004.

The Oakland-born Dre was a fan of magic mushrooms and MDMA; he even devoted a song to the pair titled Shrooms and E-Pills.

So, its likely that he wouldve celebrated the news of Oakland decriminalizing psilocybin (the scientific name for magic or psychedelic mushrooms).In June 2019, Oakland City Council passed a local ordinance to decriminalize certain natural psychedelicslike mushrooms, ayahuasca, peyote and DMT. (Synthetic psychedelics like LSD and MDMA are still illegal, and psychedelic mushrooms and other natural hallucinogens are technically still illegal under California state law and federal law. The ordinance also doesnt legalize the sale or distribution of psychedelic mushrooms.) Approved a month prior to Denvers voter-led ballot initiative to decriminalize psilocybin, Oaklands resolution is a continuation of Californias progressive drug reform history. The state became the first in the country to legalize medical marijuana in 1996.

These are not drugs. These are healing plants We just think they should never have been made illegal to begin with, Carlos Plazola, founder of Decriminalize Nature Oakland (DNO), an advocacy group dedicated to making natural medicine accessible to Oakland, told the Guardian.

Inspired by his own experiences using psychedelic mushrooms to heal from childhood trauma, Plazola created the DNO.

This is getting the word out about the healing power, Plazola said. Many people in communities of color and communities of trauma are not getting access.

For generations, communities of color utilized natural psychedelics for medicinal purposes. Rooted in spiritual-based healing, the practices of plant-based medicine became whitewashed by Americas counterculture movement of the 1960s. Despite this, black people have continued to experiment with psychedelics. The creation of hyphy music a subgenre of rap music that came about in the Bay Area in the late 90s and rose to prominence in the mid-2000s was a byproduct of rappers using MDMA, with the late Mac Dre at the forefront of that experimentation. Countless Dre songs, like Weekend and Shrooms and E-Pills, found him referencing not only MDMA but psychedelic mushrooms. While he was alive, Dre had also coined a term not just for ecstasy but for the euphoric effects people felt from taking it thizz. Dres Thizzle Dance practically served as an explainer for the term as the rapper (alongside Chuck Beez) broke down what thizz is all about: letting your body move as fluidly and erratically as it wants. In 2012, eight years after Dres death, Thizz Entertainment his record label was implicated in a nationwide ecstasy ring. (Court records revealed that most of the people arrested in the operation had no connection to the label.)

Aware of the regions previously established relationship with usage of psychedelics and the fear of being criminalized, Plazola wants to transform the headquarters of the DNO into a consciousness community, a co-working space where people can also reflect on their psychedelic journeys and learn about natural psychedelics. Helping him with this aretwo Black women: co-founder Nicolle Greenheart and community outreach and education activist Amber Senter.

Okayplayer spoke with Greenheart and Senter about being involved with DNO, the importance of people of color reclaiming and experimenting with psychedelics and more.

Greenheart: Denver;s strategy was focused on psilocybin through a voter-centered route. DNO ensured the resolution included all plant medicine because individuals should have autonomy over what plants they use to heal. We wanted to make sure people had that choice, because there is a wealth of plants. Going the council route resulted in the consultation of professionals in the psychedelic space scientists, therapists, and input from community leaders before the resolution was presented to council.

Carlos Plazola previously worked for city council and knew how to navigate and lobby. So it was helpful to have an individual with expertise in Oakland politics. Despite the creation of our resolution being predominantly white in terms of contributions, we received support from the indigenous community, and crafted a diverse team of advocates to discuss legislation with city council members. When we presented at The Public Safety Community, we intentionality chose diverse speakers men, women, and people of color so city council witnessed the diversity of voices in the psychedelic movement.

Greenheart: Since childhood, Ive suffered from depression and underwent the traditional routes of treatment such as psycho-therapy and antidepressants, which negatively impacted my health. After that experience I asked myself, How am I going to heal myself naturally? I tried meditation, yoga, homeopathic treatments, crystals, but I was always looking for community.

I attended an all-day retreat and was intrigued by a ceremonial practice of microdosing huachuma (San Pedro cactus) to align with your higher self and open your heart chakra. Once I found out the healing plant was a psychedelic, I began a one-and-a-half year long research study on psychedelics and attended local community-centered events in the Bay Area. But I noticed I was the only Black person in the room. I questioned the lack of my community in these spaces, because we need this medicine just as much as anybody else. It gave me a new motivation to create space for establishing community for Black people in psychedelic spaces. The integration of plant-based medicine in Black communities is an offering of help and support because Ive experienced how powerful and life transforming it is.

Senter: Theres an insignificant lack of awareness and education on how medicinal plants can help Black communities. Black voices in psychedelics are obscured by those in positions of power, and I wanted to ensure my voice was heard in these political efforts to decriminalize ISA genetic plants in Oakland. From my own experience dealing with lupus (a chronic auto-immune disorder), psychedelic mushrooms have been helpful for me. Disorders such as Multiple Sclerosis and Scholar Derma are rampant in Black women and women of color communities. I reached out to Carlos and told him I wanted to be involved, because as an advocate of women of color in the cannabis spaces through Supernova Women, I know the benefits of plant-based medicine for our communities.

Greenheart: Im familiar with her work and the challenges of getting communities of color to engage with psychedelics in the clinical and/or therapeutic route. I previously held a stereotypical perception of psychedelics as a recreational hippie drug for white people. It wasnt until I started researching the medicinal purposes of psychedelics that I wanted to destigmatize psychedelics in the Black community and advocate its healing purposes. Specifically, to treat the trauma expressed by members within our community while promoting responsible usage. I want to model how to be a safe and responsible user without going the clinical route. There is a place for the therapeutic model and for individuals who want to participate within a community-based environment, while receiving support and being safe.

Senter: Im from Chicago, so theres a regional difference in reception of natural plant medicines compared to Oakland. Indigenous and Latinx communities have been very open and welcoming to the decriminalization of natural psychedelics. I expected resistance from the Black Church, but attendees have understood that God made these plants for healing purposes.

Greenheart: There needs to be collaboration between hip-hop and psychedelics. Whether the merger is a conference we need people to join in. Were a small team with limited capacity, so we need to hear from local artists to participate in this movement alongside us. Were in infancy, so everybody is waiting to see what happens.


Taylor Crumpton has written for Pitchfork, PAPER, Teen Vogue, Marie Claire, and more. You can follow her@taylorcrumpton

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Shirola: U.S. government should ease legal barriers to research and treatment with psychedelics – Daily Northwestern

Wesley Shirola, ColumnistOctober 22, 2019

This is the fourth column in Failed Policy, a series examining the history of drugs and drug policy in the United States since its founding.

When many of us think of psychedelics, we think of the 1960s, especially its music. Indeed, psychedelic rock, with its characteristic mix of electric guitars, synthesizers and sitars, was largely intended to simulate and enhance the mind-altering experiences of psychedelic drugs. Psychedelics had been around for many decades, however, before their connection to the American counterculture led to their classification as illegal.

In 1938, Swiss chemist and Sandoz employee Albert Hofmann was trying to synthesize a stimulant when he instead created lysergic acid diethylamide, or LSD. Not the stimulant that he had hoped for, Hofmann set aside LSD for five years until he re-examined it and accidentally absorbed a small dose through his fingertips in the process. He experienced a drastic shift in consciousness and eventually decided that the drug would be useful for psychotherapy.

From the 1940s through the early 1960s, research breakthroughs into LSD and psilocybin, another psychedelic, were rapid. Scientists began to better appreciate the brains neurochemistry and how therapists might effectively treat mental illness using psychedelics. An astonishing 40,000 patients were treated with LSD and traditional psychotherapy between 1950 and 1965, and more than a thousand research papers on them were published.

By the mid-1960s, though, an increasing number of young Americans were using LSD, and the drug found its way into college campuses and music festivals. As is common with many things popular among young people, stories soon emerged of psychosis and murder as a result of bad trips. Supposedly as a result of these drugs, young Americans no longer believed in authorities and the central institutions at the heart of American society; they most definitely didnt want to enlist and head to Vietnam. Sure enough, by 1966 LSD was illegal in the U.S. Psilocybin was banned in America a few years later.

Today, over half a century since LSD was banned, psychedelics are making a comeback as researchers rediscover their powerful therapeutic effects. Partly as a result of the slow, yet widespread, decriminalization of marijuana in the United States as policy makers realized that pot did not bring the moral and social destruction that many had predicted and in fact is beneficial therapeutically detractors have opened their minds to the idea that other currently illegal drugs may be therapeutically effective as well.

In 2008, a team from Johns Hopkins University reported in the Journal of Psychopharmacology that the mystical experiences provoked by psilocybin mediate the attribution of personal meaning and spiritual significance 14 months after initial administration. Furthermore, compared to methylphenidate a stimulant more commonly known as Ritalin the psilocybin treatment produced statistically significant increases in positive attitudes, mood, social effects and behavior.

Another study published in the same journal in 2010 found that the psychedelic MDMA was more effective than a placebo in easing the symptoms of treatment-resistant PTSD. Additionally, the researchers wrote that the MDMA-assisted psychotherapy can be administered to patients with PTSD safely and may be beneficial in patients resistant or tolerant to other treatments.

In early 2015, Rick Doblin of the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies and a co-author of the 2010 paper announced that he was hopeful that MDMA would be available as a prescription by 2021. While this now seems unlikely seeing that 2021 is less than two years away, Doblin has stayed at the forefront of establishing psychedelics as legitimate and effective treatments for mental illness.

Since the 1960s when LSD was made illegal, and up until today, the FDA and DEA have been stringent in their approval of clinical studies into psychedelics. While these agencies have increasingly been more receptive over the past decade, the approval process is still horrendous. Earlier this year, The Economist reported that it took Peter Hendricks, a researcher at the University of Alabama at Birmingham, six or seven years to get approval for his trials on the impact of psilocybin on cocaine addiction.

Acquiring funding has also been difficult. Due to the drugs illegality, the U.S. government is loath to distribute money for research into psychedelics. As a result, researchers have had to rely on private donors and philanthropists for much of their funding. Other countries are not much more willing in this regard.

The U.S. government must stand down and loosen these legal barriers to research and treatment with psychedelics. Scientists have realized the powerful therapeutic effects that these drugs hold largely since they were first synthesized. It is time for the U.S. government to realize the same. The longer it holds out and maintains bureaucratic hurdles, the longer it indirectly harms thousands of patients both in the U.S. and across the world each year.

Wesley Shirola is a Weinberg junior. He can be contacted at wesleyshirola2021@u.northwestern.edu. If you would like to respond publicly to this column, send a Letter to the Editor to opinion@dailynorthwestern.com. The views expressed in this piece do not necessarily reflect the views of all staff members of The Daily Northwestern.

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Shirola: U.S. government should ease legal barriers to research and treatment with psychedelics - Daily Northwestern

Molecule Catalyst and UTM to crowdfund psychedelics research with blockchain – Decrypt

The University of Toronto Mississauga (UTM) is financing a study into the psychedelic psilocybin with the help of decentralized fundraising platform Molecule Catalyst, in the first attempt to fund a clinical trial into psychedelics using decentralized finance.

According to a recent post on the Molecule blog, the effort will be a joint collaboration between Molecule Catalyst, Rotem Petranker and Thomas Anderson, directors at the University of Toronto Mississauga Psychedelic Studies Research Program (PSRP).

Through its partnership with Molecule Catalyst, UTM hope to raise an undisclosed sum to fund its planned psilocybin clinical trials.

Molecule uses blockchain technology to provide an incentive-based market for scientific research. Through Molecule Catalyst, research groups will be able to raise funds for the study of rare diseases, ageing & longevity and psychedelics, among other fields.

Be the first to get Decrypt Members. A new type of account built on blockchain.

To provide an incentive to investors, Molecule uses smart contracts to make the chemical intellectual property resulting from successful products easily tradeable on the Ethereum blockchain. In this way, funders receive a stake in the projects they supportallowing investors of all sizes to help fund potentially pioneering research and benefit from its success. Molecule uses the dollar-backed stablecoin DAI to overcome market instability.

UTM's psilocybin study is the first fund-raising project to be hosted by Molecule Catalyst, which ultimately aims to create a Web 3.0 marketplace and exchange for chemical IP.

The UTM study will investigate the effects of microdosing a psychedelic compound known as psilocybin on a variety of cognitive indicators.

Besides examining psilocybin's effect on creativity, mood and focus, the study will also measure its influence on social connection, self-efficacy and mindfulness.

Overall, UTM hopes that the data produced will help to guide global psychedelics research, by setting a new precedent that can be used to direct impactful psychedelics research.

Previously, psilocybin has been shown to effective in treating a wide variety of mental disorders, ranging from anxiety and depression, to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).However, due to its potential to be abused as a psychedelic drug, the psychoactive substance has been shelved as a potential therapeutic by most pharmaceutical research groups.

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Molecule Catalyst and UTM to crowdfund psychedelics research with blockchain - Decrypt

Psychedelic Drugs: Researchers experimenting with active agent in magic mushrooms to treat addiction, depression and anxiety – 60 Minutes – CBS News

For most of us, psychedelic drugs conjure up images of the 1960's. Hippies tripping out on LSD or magic mushrooms. But these powerful, mind-altering substances are now being studied seriously by scientists inside some of the country's foremost medical research centers. They're being used to treat depression, anxiety and addiction.

The early results are impressive, as are the experiences of the studies' volunteers who go on a six-hour, sometimes terrifying, but often life-changing psychedelic journey deep into their own minds.

Carine McLaughlin: (LAUGH) People ask me, "Do you wanna do it again?" I say, "Hell no. I don't wanna go do that again."

Anderson Cooper: It was really that bad?

Carine McLaughlin: Oh, it was awful. The entire time, other than the very end and the very beginning, I was crying.

Carine McLaughlin is talking about the hallucinogenic experience she had here at Johns Hopkins University, after being given a large dose of psilocybin, the psychedelic agent in magic mushrooms, as part of an ongoing clinical trial.

Roland Griffiths: We tell people that their experiences may vary from very positive to transcendent and lovely to literally hell realm experiences.

Anderson Cooper: Hell realm?

Roland Griffiths: As frightening an experience as you have ever had in your life.

That's scientist Roland Griffiths. For nearly two decades now, he and his colleague Matthew Johnson have been giving what they call "heroic doses" of psilocybin to more than 350 volunteers, many struggling with addiction, depression and anxiety.

Anderson Cooper: Can you tell who is going to have a bad experience, who's gonna have a transcendent experience?

Roland Griffiths: Our ability to predict that is almost none at all.

Anderson Cooper: Really?

Matthew Johnson: About a third will-- at our-- at a high dose say that they have something like that, what folks would call a bad trip. But most of those folks will actually say that that was key to the experience.

Carine McLaughlin was a smoker for 46 years and said she tried everything to quit before being given psilocybin at Johns Hopkins last year. Psilocybin itself is non-addictive.

Anderson Cooper: Do you remember what, like, specifically what you were seeing or?

Carine McLaughlin: Yes. The ceiling of this room were clouds, like, heavy rain clouds. And gradually they were lowering. And I thought I was gonna suffocate from the clouds.

That was more than a year ago; she says she hasn't smoked since. The study she took part in is still ongoing, but in an earlier, small study of just 15 long-term smokers, 80% had quit six months after taking psilocybin. That's double the rate of any over-the-counter smoking cessation product.

Roland Griffiths: They come to a profound shift of world view. And essentially, a shift in sense of self that I think--

Anderson Cooper: They-- they see their life in a different way?

Roland Griffiths: Their world view changes and-- and they are less identified with that self-narrative. People might use the term "ego." And that creates this sense of freedom.

And not just with smokers.

Jon Kostakopoulos: Beer usually, cocktails, usually vodka sodas, tequila sodas, scotch and sodas.

Jon Kostakopoulos was drinking a staggering 20 cocktails a night and had been warned he was slowly killing himself when he decided to enroll in another psilocybin trial at New York University. During one psilocybin session, he was flooded with powerful feelings and images from his past.

Jon Kostakopoulos: Stuff would come up that I haven't thought of since they happened.

Anderson Cooper: So old memories that you hadn't even remembered came back to you?

Jon Kostakopoulos: I felt, you know, a lot of shame and embarrassment throughout one of the sessions about my drinking and how bad I felt for my parents to put up with all this.

He took psilocybin in 2016. He says he hasn't had a drink since.

Anderson Cooper: Do you ever have a day where you wake up and you're like, man, I wish I could have a vodka right now or beer?

Jon Kostakopoulos: Never.

Anderson Cooper: Not at all?

Jon Kostakopoulos: Not at all, which is the craziest thing because that was my favorite thing to do.

Using psychedelic drugs in therapy is not new. There were hundreds of scientific studies done on a similar compound - LSD - in the 1950's and 60's. It was tested on more than 40,000 people, some in controlled therapeutic settings like this one. But there were also abuses. The U.S. military and CIA experimented with LSD sometimes without patients knowledge.

Fear over rampant drug use and the spread of the counterculture movement, not to mention Harvard professor Timothy Leary urging people to turn on, tune in and drop out, led to a clamp down.

In 1970, President Richard Nixon signed the controlled substances act and nearly all scientific research in the U.S. Into the effects of psychedelics on people stopped. It wasn't until 2000 that scientist Roland Griffiths won FDA approval to study psilocybin.

Roland Griffiths: This whole area of research has been in the deep freeze for 25 or 30 years. And so as a scientist, sometimes I feel like Rip Van Winkle.

Anderson Cooper: And once you saw the results

Roland Griffiths: Yeah. The red light started flashing. This is extraordinarily interesting. It's unprecedented and the capacity of the human organism to change. It just was astounding.

Anderson Cooper: It sounds like you are endorsing this for everybody.

Roland Griffiths: Yeah, let's be really clear on that. We are very aware of the risks, and would not recommend that people simply go out and do this.

Griffiths and Johnson screen out people with psychotic disorders or with close relatives who have had schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Study volunteers at Johns Hopkins are given weeks of intensive counseling before and after the six-hour psilocybin experience; the psilocybin is given in a carefully controlled setting one to three times. To date, they say there's not been a single serious adverse outcome.

We were told we couldn't record anyone participating in the study while they were on psilocybin because it might impact their experience, but we were shown how it begins without the psilocybin.You lay on a couch, with a blindfold to shut out distractions and headphones playing a mix of choral and classical music a psychedelic soundtrack with a trained guide, mary cosimano, watching over you.

Everything is done the same way it was for the LSD experiments scientists conducted in the 1950s and 60s. Some of the most dramatic results have been with terminal cancer patients struggling with anxiety and paralyzing depression.

Kerry Pappas: I start seeing the colors and the geometric designs and it's like 'oh this is so cool, and how lovely' and, and then, boom. Visions began.

Kerry Pappas was diagnosed with stage III lung cancer in 2013. During her psilocybin session, she found herself trapped in a nightmare her mind created.

Kerry Pappas: An ancient, prehistoric, barren land. And there's these men with pickaxes, just slamming on the rocks. So

Anderson Cooper: And this felt absolutely real to you?

Kerry Pappas: Absolutely real. I was being shown the truth of reality. Life is meaningless, we have no purpose. And then I look and I'm still like a witness, a beautiful, shimmering, bright jewel. And then it was sound, and it was booming, booming, booming. Right here right now.

Anderson Cooper: That was being said?

Kerry Pappas: Yes. "You are alive. Right here right now, because that's all you have." And that is my mantra to this day.

Michael Pollan: It seemed so implausible to me that a single experience caused by a molecule, right, ingested in your body could transform your outlook on something as profound as death. That's-- that's kind of amazing.

Author Michael Pollan wrote about the psilocybin studies in a bestselling book called "How to Change Your Mind." As part of his research, he tried psilocybin himself with the help of an underground guide.

Anderson Cooper: The kind of things that cancer patients were saying, like, "I touched the face of God." You were skeptical about when you hear phrases like that?

Michael Pollan: Yeah. Or, "Love is the most important thing in the universe." When someone tells me that I'm just like, "yeah, okay."

Anderson Cooper: So you don't go for some of the phrases that are used?

Michael Pollan: No. It gives me the willies as a writer. And I really struggled with that cause during one of my experiences I came to the earth-shattering conclusion that love is the most important thing in the universe. But it's, that's Hallmark card stuff, right? And um, so

Anderson Cooper: And yet while you were on it and afterward

Michael Pollan: It was profoundly true. And it is profoundly true. Guess what? Um

Anderson Cooper: There's a reason it's on a Hallmark card.

Michael Pollan: There is a reason. And one of the things psychedelics do is they peel away all those essentially protective levels of irony and, and cynicism that we, that we acquire as we get older and you're back to those kind of "Oh, my God. I forgot all about love." (Laugh)

Pollan said he also experienced what the researchers describe as ego loss, or identity loss - the quieting of the constant voice we all have in our heads.

Michael Pollan: I did have this experience of seeing my ego-- burst into-- a little cloud of Post-It notes. I know it sounds crazy.

Anderson Cooper: And what are you are without an ego?

Michael Pollan: You're, uh (Laugh) You had to be there.

Researchers believe that sensation of identity loss occurs because psilocybin quiets these two areas of the brain that normally communicate with each other. They're part of a region called the default mode network and it's especially active when we're thinking about ourselves and our lives.

Michael Pollan: And it's where you connect what happens in your life to the story of who you are.

Anderson Cooper: We all develop a story over time about what our past was like and who we are.

Michael Pollan: Right. Yeah, what kind of person we are. How we react. And the fact is that interesting things happen when the self goes quiet in the brain, including this rewiring that happens.

To see that rewiring, Johns Hopkins scientist Matthew Johnson showed us this representational chart of brain activity. The circle on the left shows normal communication between parts of the brain, on the right, what happens on psilocybin. There's an explosion of connections or crosstalk between areas of the brain that don't normally communicate.

Anderson Cooper: The difference is just startling.

Matthew Johnson: Right.

Anderson Cooper: Is that why people are having experiences of-- seeing you know, repressed memories, or past memories, or people who have died or?

Matthew Johnson: That's what we think. And even the perceptual effect, sometimes the synesthesia, like, the-- the seeing sound.

Anderson Cooper: People see sound?

Matthew Johnson: Yeah, sometimes.

Anderson Cooper: I-- I don't even know what that means.

Matthew Johnson: Right, yeah. (LAUGH) It's-- it's--

Michael Pollan: Maybe the ego is one character among many in your mind. And you don't necessarily have to listen to that voice that's chattering at you and criticizing you and telling you what to do. And that's very freeing.

It was certainly freeing for Kerry Pappas. Though her cancer has now spread to her brain, her crippling anxiety about death is gone.

Kerry Pappas: Yeah, it's amazing. I mean, I feel like death doesn't frighten me. Living doesn't frighten me. I don't frighten me. This frightens me.

Anderson Cooper: This interview frightens you, but death doesn't?

Kerry Pappas: No.

It turns out most of the 51 cancer patients in the Johns Hopkins study experienced "significant decreases in depressed mood and anxiety" after trying psilocybin. Two-thirds of them rated their psilocybin sessions as among the most meaningful experiences of their lives. For some, it was on par with the birth of their children.

Kerry Pappas: To this day, it evolves in me.

Anderson Cooper: It's still alive in you--

Kerry Pappas: It's still absolutely alive in me.

Anderson Cooper: Does it make you happier?

Kerry Pappas: Yeah. And-- and I don't necessarily use the word happy.

Kerry Pappas: Comfortable. Like, comfortable. I mean, I've suffered from anxiety my whole life. I'm comfortable. That, to me, okay. I can die. I'm comfortable. (LAUGH) I mean, it's huge. It's huge.

Produced by Sarah Koch. Associate producer, Chrissy Jones

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Psychedelic Drugs: Researchers experimenting with active agent in magic mushrooms to treat addiction, depression and anxiety - 60 Minutes - CBS News

Psilocybin: Active agent in magic mushrooms could treat addiction, depression and anxiety – 60 Minutes – CBS News

The thought of dying was killing Kerry Pappas. Then the cancer patient took a trip on psilocybin the active agent in "magic mushrooms." Ever since, she says she is perfectly comfortable with her life.Pappas is one of dozens of cancer patients whose painful anxiety over their illness was commuted to more peaceful acceptance after participating in a study that involved intensive therapy and being given a drug that was once a symbol of the 60's counterculture. She and others, who say the psychedelic experience helped them overcome other problems like depression and addiction, talk to Anderson Cooper for a report on the study of psychedelics inside some of the country's foremost medical research centers. The story will be broadcast on "60 Minutes," Sunday, October 13, at 7:30 p.m. ET and 7 p.m. PT on CBS.Pappas was being treated for lung cancer when she was given the psilocybin. This is what she tells Cooper she saw. "An ancient, prehistoric, barren land there's these men with pickaxes, just slamming on the rocks," she recalls. "I was being shown the truth of reality. Life is meaningless. We have no purpose." And then it hit her she says, "I look and I'm still like a witness with the eyes, a beautiful, shimmering bright jewel and then it was sound booming, booming, booming. Right here right now. Yes, you are alive. Right here. Right now. Because that's all you have." She tells Cooper: "That is my mantra to this day."Cooper speaks with participants and scientists who conduct clinical trials. Roland Griffiths, of Johns Hopkins University, is a pioneer in psychedelic research, which was studied extensively until former President Nixon signed the Controlled Substances Act of 1970. Thirty years later, Griffiths received FDA approval for to study psilocybin. The results amazed him. "The red light started flashing. It's unprecedented the capacity of the human organism to change. It just was astounding."The experiences of the study participants on psychedelics, even under the highly controlled conditions used, are often harrowing but still worth it in the end. Researchers screen out people with psychotic disorders or with close relatives who have schizophrenia or Bipolar Disorder. So far, none of the participants reports any serious adverse outcomes.Griffiths said he is optimistic about the potential therapeutic value of the drugs but acknowledges they can be harmful under different circumstances. "Let's be really clear on that We're very aware of the risks and would not recommend people simply go out and do this."

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Psilocybin: Active agent in magic mushrooms could treat addiction, depression and anxiety - 60 Minutes - CBS News

Psilocybin: 5 Fast Facts You Need to Know – Heavy.com

GettyA woman attends an event to decriminalize psilocybin in Denver, Colorado.

Psilocybin, more commonly known as magic mushrooms, shrooms or simply mushrooms, is a psychedelic drug which was outlawed as a substance with no legitimate medical purpose in the Controlled Substances Act of 1970.

However, the medical benefits of psilocybin were being studied before the ban, and studies were halted once the Controlled Substances Act was signed into law. Studies resumed 30 years after the law was signed by President Richard Nixon. Studies are now being conducted into whether the substance, known as a party drug from the counterculture, can help reduce death anxiety in cancer patients. In ancient times, psilocybin was considered a substance that promoted healing and spiritual connectedness. It is this quality that researchers like Roland Griffiths believe may help people in modern society, as long as risk factors are controlled.

The study, its lead researcher, Roland Griffiths of Johns Hopkins University, and one of its participants, Kerry Pappas, are featured on the October 13, 2019 episode of 60 Minutes. It airs at 7:30 p.m. EST on CBS.

Heres what you need to know:

Psilocybin and its effects were the subjects of research and studies, but those projects were effectively banned by the Controlled Substances Act, which was signed into law by President Richard Nixon.

Several studies were conducted in the late 1960s and 1970s that showed psilocybin might be effective in treating mood disorders in cancer patients, but they required further research, Johns Hopkins University researchers wrote in their study published in 2016.

Several unblinded studies in the 1960s and 70s suggested that such compounds might be effective in treating psychological distress in cancer patients (Grof et al., 1973; Kast, 1967; Richards et al., 1977); however, these studies did not include the comparison conditions that would be expected of modern psychopharmacology trials, the researchers wrote. Subsequently, human research with these compounds was halted for almost three decades because of safety and other concerns raised in response to widespread non-medical use in the 1960s. Recent resumption of clinical research with these compounds has established conditions for safe administration (Johnson et al., 2008; Studerus et al., 2011).

Research projects in other countries were being conducted, such as trials in the United Kingdom and Switzerland, according to the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies.

Such studies have been largely dormant since the Controlled Substances Act of 1970, which effectively ended most medical research on psychedelics, writes SciPol, a Duke University Science and Technology publication of studies in the United States. That, of course, came amid the fallout from widespread abuse of LSD, which had its roots partly in medical experiments that were led by the Harvard psychologist Timothy Leary.

The law classifies psilocybin as a substance with no legitimate medical purpose and high potential for abuse. Justice.gov notes that psilocybin, often called magic mushrooms or shrooms, is often abused at raves, clubs and college campuses. The effects last about six hours.

Psilocybin is a Schedule 1 controlled substance, according to Justice.gov. Schedule 1 drugs have high potential for abuse and serve no legitimate purpose. Schedule 1 drugs include heroin and LSD. Tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC, the psychoactive ingredient in marijuana, is still a Schedule 1 controlled substance under federal law, even though some states have legalized it, decriminalized it or signed laws to make medical marijuana legal.

Psilocybin is a Schedule I substance under the Controlled Substances Act, Justice.gov says. Schedule I drugs, which include heroin and LSD, have a high potential for abuse and serve no legitimate medical purpose in the United States.

Drugs are classified based on their addictive potential and dangers, potential for abuse and accepted medical uses in the country.

Justice.gov says, Psilocybin mushrooms are popular at raves, clubs and, increasingly, on college campuses and generally are abused by teenagers and young adults. It is difficult to gauge the extent of psilocybin use in the United States because most data sources that quantify drug use exclude psilocybin. The Monitoring the Future Survey, conducted by the University of Michigan, does reveal that 9.2 percent of high school seniors in the United States used hallucinogens other than LSDa category that includes psilocybinat least once in their lifetime. Two percent of high school seniors used hallucinogens other than LSD in the past month.

Johns Hopkins University and New York University conducted similar but separate studies on the effects of drugs on cancer patients who are experiencing death anxiety and depression. The NYU study used niacin. The Johns Hopkins University study was conducted by Roland Griffiths and others, and published in the Journal of Psychopharmacology November 30, 2016. You can read the full study here.

Cancer patients often develop chronic, clinically significant symptoms of depression and anxiety, the abstract says. Previous studies suggest that psilocybin may decrease depression and anxiety in cancer patients. The effects of psilocybin were studied in 51 cancer patients with life-threatening diagnoses and symptoms of depression and/or anxiety.

The study was a double-blind cross-over trial. Some participants received a very low, placebo-like dosage. The study involved multiple sessions with 5 weeks in between and a 6-month followup.

The study found there were no adverse effects on patients, the researchers wrote.

Johns Hopkins Medicine/Wikimedia CommonsRoland Griffths/psilocybin mushrooms

The Johns Hopkins University study found psilocybin produces substantial and sustained decreases in depression and anxiety in patients with life-threatening cancer following its trial. The study was published November 30, 2016, in the Journal of Phsychopharmacology. The trial involved 51 patients and included a six month followup which asked participants about their quality of life, optimism, acceptance of death and other factors.

The data show that psilocybin produced large and significant decreases in clinician-rated and self-rated measures of depression, anxiety or mood disturbance, and increases in measures of quality of life, life meaning, death acceptance, and optimism, the study said. These effects were sustained at 6 months. For the clinician-rated measures of depression and anxiety, respectively, the overall rate of clinical response at 6 months was 78% and 83% and the overall rate of symptom remission was 65% and 57%. Participants attributed to the high-dose experience positive changes in attitudes about life, self, mood, relationships and spirituality, with over 80% endorsing moderately or higher increased well-being or life satisfaction. These positive effects were reflected in significant corresponding changes in ratings by community observers (friends, family, work colleagues) of participant attitudes and behavior.

The trial was considered Phase 2 of the project. Roland Griffiths told SciPol he would like to conduct a much larger study involving many more participants at sites throughout the country. However, that trial, considered Phase 3, would cost $20 to $40 million.

Psilocybin, which is typically referred to as magic mushrooms, shrooms or mushrooms when it is being used as a recreational drug, is most commonly associated with the counterculture in the 60s and with raves and clubs. It is a psychedelic drug which can cause hallucinations and significantly altered perceptions of reality. The effects can last six hours.

The Controlled Substances Act of 1970 classified psilocybin as a Schedule 1 controlled substance, meaning it is considered to have high abuse potential and no medical benefits. Justice.gov notes it there is not evidence of chemical dependence, or addiction, but frequent users can develop a tolerance for it.

The Justice.gov page for psilocybin says:

Use of psilocybin is associated with negative physical and psychological consequences. The physical effects, which appear within 20 minutes of ingestion and last approximately 6 hours, include nausea, vomiting, muscle weakness, drowsiness, and lack of coordination. While there is no evidence that users may become physically dependent on psilocybin, tolerance for the drug does develop when it is ingested continuously over a short period of time.

The psychological consequences of psilocybin use include hallucinations and an inability to discern fantasy from reality. Panic reactions and psychosis also may occur, particularly if a user ingests a large dose.

In addition to the risks associated with ingestion of psilocybin, individuals who seek to abuse psilocybin mushrooms also risk poisoning if one of the many varieties of poisonous mushrooms is incorrectly identified as a psilocybin mushroom.

READ NEXT: Lead Psilocybin Researcher Roland Griffiths: 5 Fast Facts You Need to Know

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Psilocybin: 5 Fast Facts You Need to Know - Heavy.com

Psychedelic Toad Venom Is the New Trendy Hallucinogenic – Addiction Center

Comparable to the likes of ayahuasca, psilocybin mushrooms, and mescaline, a new mind-altering drug is hitting the US psychedelic scene toad venom. The drug comes from a rare species of toad native to the Sonoran Desert, Bufo Alvarius, which produces a venom known as 5-MeO-DMT: an extremely potent natural psychedelic. 5-MeO-DMT is about four to six times more powerful than its better-known cousin DMT (dimethyltryptamine).

The narcotic has long been ingested by licking the poisonous amphibians back but is now more commonly consumed as a smokable dust form. The liquid is extracted by milking the toads toxic venom glands and then dehydrating it into a crumbly dry paste. Shamans throughout Mexico and the southwestern US have been harvesting and smoking the substance for decades, and now thousands of people throughout the country are seeking out the powerful psychedelic.

The drugs hallucinogenic effects take hold in about five minutes after ingestion, causing a powerful religious-like trip that lasts about an hour. Individuals that have taken the toad venom described their trips as being one with the universe and feeling reborn one user said they felt a total fusion with God while under the influence. Users experience bright colors, moving environments, or recursive patterns. According to researchers, the drug often leaves users immobile and unresponsive, and can cause intense emotional reactions, euphoria, convulsions, and vomiting.

Its such an intense experience that, in most cases, doing it at a party isnt safe. Its not a recreational drug. If people get dosed too high, they can white out and disassociate from their mind and body.

In addition to the possible harmful effects users can experience while tripping, many people suffer from extreme nausea and confusion for days after. However, this hasnt stopped psychedelic drug-lovers across the nation from seeking out the Schedule 1 classified substance, which carries the threat of a 10-year prison sentence for possession. Users even hire foreign shamans to distribute the drug at parties that typically cost around $200 to $500 a head to attend.

Once the venom wears off, users say that they experience an afterglow that can trigger them to make major, positive life changes. 5-MeO-DMT appears to have a placebo analgesic effect comparable to hypnosis. The drug has shown to help break attachments to past trauma, negative behaviors, and habitual negative thought patterns.

Such beneficial psychological effects has led some researchers to believe that in a controlled setting with a well-trained professional, the venom could be useful in treating anxiety and depression. In fact, preliminary studies performed by John Hopkins University suggest that it may combat depression and anxiety just as effectively as psilocybin, in addition to requiring a much shorter duration of time to reap the therapeutic benefits.

To study the potential medicinal effects of 5-MeO-DMT, John Hopkins Psychedelics researcher Alan Davis conducted an online survey that included 362 people that routinely uses the toad venom in ceremonial group settings. Respondents reported that they had attended sessions containing between five to 12 people in which each ceremony is overseen by a sober facilitator who administers the drug. Participants took turns being dosed and then ended the experience with a closing circle where they shared their thoughts on the spiritual journeys they each took while tripping. Of the 162 individuals that self-reported as suffering from anxiety or depression, approximately 80% reported improvements in these conditions after using the drug.

Davis believes the 5-MeO-DMT found in toad venom is effective at treating these mental illnesses due to a combination of neurological changes in users brains and insights they gained through the psychedelic experience. Davis hopes that the research that is being performed at John Hopkins will inspire other people to follow suit and explore the option of using psychedelics as possible treatment options.

However, its important to note that researchers do not support recreational use of toad venom and cite that the drug should only be administered under medical supervision.

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Psychedelic Toad Venom Is the New Trendy Hallucinogenic - Addiction Center

What You Can Learn From Snorting Two Lines of LSD – TheStranger.com

In the summer of 1972, someone at a dinner party in San Francisco made a terrible error. They mixed up their cocaine with their LSD and accidentally served lines of powdered acid, two apiece, to seven of their friends.

A drop of acid can send someone into an eight-hour hallucinogenic trip. Snorting milligrams of the chemical's powdered form is unthinkable. These people had just inadvertently consumed a massive dose. Within five minutes, they were vomiting. After 10 minutes, five of the people were comatose, according to a case report in the Western Journal of Medicine. These people appeared to be on their way to sudden death.

But no one died. Within 12 hours, every single patient was conscious. After a year of follow-up exams, there were "no apparent psychologic or physical ill effects" in any of the eight individuals, according to the case report.

There's a high probability that you, now that you're in college, will come across psychedelics at least once during your higher education. Every drug has its milieu, its natural social environment. Just like meth wallows in misery and trailer parks, and cocaine mingles with mistakes and nightclubs, psychedelics (with their mind-expanding quality) fit naturally at universities where young people are regularly encouraged to challenge their usual way of thinking. So what lesson should you take from the story of the San Francisco dinner party?

To begin with, our government's classification of psychedelics as the most dangerous type of drug on earth makes no sense. Though what happened to the dinner party guests is scary, it also might be the record for most LSD ever consumed by a human. There are no known fatal human overdoses on LSD, which has led multiple scientists to determine LSD is not toxic. The theoretical lethal oral dose to humans, based on intravenously shooting mice with LSD, is somewhere around 20 milligrams, according to erowid.org, an internet hive mind for psychedelic information.

Teri Krebs, a neuroscientist at the University of Norway, has said psychedelics in their pure form are as risky as riding a bike or playing soccer.

"It is generally acknowledged that psychedelics do not elicit addiction or compulsive use and that there is little evidence for an association between psychedelic use and birth defects, chromosome damage, lasting mental illness, or toxic effects to the brain or other body organs," Krebs wrote in a letter published in the Lancet, one of the world's oldest and most prestigious medical journals.

But the story of this dinner party also illustrates a profound irony of psychedelic drugs like acid, mushrooms, or mescaline: They may not be harming your organs like a cigarette or vodka does, but the very essence of large doses of these drugs is madness. Many of the hallmarks of a "successful" psychedelic triptemporary paralysis, severe visual distortions, extreme confusionseem a lot like temporary bouts of insanity.

In fact, when researchers in the early 1900s started discovering and synthesizing these drugs, they first called them psychotomimetic, which literally means mimicking psychosis. It wasn't until 1956 that the term psychedelic, or "soul revealing," was first coined.

That renaming coincided with a massive amount of research into psychedelics, with doctors administering LSD to more than 40,000 patients from 1950 to 1965 and producing convincing evidence that psychedelics could be an effective treatment for a wide range of disorders from alcoholism to depression. That research was stunted by the American prohibition of psychedelics in 1970, but research is now restarting. Johns Hopkins University announced this year that it is launching an entire center dedicated to psychedelic research.

So how do you ensure that your trip on psychedelic drugs is revealing of your soul and not corrupting of your mental stability? Here are four tips to keep in mind if you decide you want to take these fascinating drugs.

First, consider your medical history. People with a history of mental illness are at a greater risk of developing adverse effects from psychedelics (and also from pot, by the way), and many of these drugs can create harmful interactions with antidepressants and heart medications. Anyone on prescription medicines should be wary of taking these drugs without medical supervision.

Second, consider the drug's source and purity. LSD isn't toxic by itself, but an adulterated version could easily be dangerous. Psychedelics like MDMA (aka Molly) are particularly prone to adulteration with dangerous additives like meth or even bath salts. The best way to safely consume psychedelics is by having them tested by nonprofit testing services like drugsdata.org or by buying an at-home drug testing kit.

Third, consider the dose of the drug. Microdosing, which involves taking a fraction of the dose that is required for a full hallucinogenic trip, is becoming increasingly popular because it offers a way to lightly experience the effects of psychedelics. Even if you want to feel the full weight of a mind-bending trip, it is probably a good idea to start slow by first microdosing and seeing how you respond.

Finally, consider where and when you are taking these drugs. The psychedelic experience, more than any other type of drug, is integrally tied to the context in which you take the substance. Psychiatrists specializing in psychedelics call this contextual information your set (or your mind-set when you take the drug) and your setting (the place and environment where you take the drug). For your first time, don't do it at a music festival where you're surrounded by crowds of people. Try doing it in a park with a few trusted friends, or a very comfy room in your house. Ideally, one of your friends will not get high and can help you if you start freaking out.

It's no accident that ancient uses of psychedelics, like the thousand-year-old indigenous use of the hallucinogenic substance ayahuasca, always occurred in tightly controlled religious settings where individuals were intentional with their mood before entering the trip, outside stimulus was limited, and there was an expert ready to guide them through the experience. Taking large doses of these drugs when you're in a hostile mood or in an unruly environmentsay, Pike Place Market on a Sundayis only asking for a bad trip.

And that "bad trip" might be the biggest danger from psychedelics. A powerful dose of psychedelic mushrooms probably won't kill you, but that doesn't make jumping out of a window or running into traffic while on mushrooms any less dangerous. (And eating the wrong kind of mushrooms can kill you, so don't go off into the woods just picking and eating anything that looks right.)

Psychedelics are powerful drugs that demand respect. Use them intentionally, and your understanding of reality, of the earth, of your connection to other human beings may be forever changed for the better. But disrespect them, and you're asking for a problem. So make sure you know what you are taking, have friends to guide you through the experience, and remember to never mix your cocaine with your LSD.

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What You Can Learn From Snorting Two Lines of LSD - TheStranger.com

The second coming of psychedelics in pop culture – Happy Mag

In 2018 Michael Pollan, a professor of journalism whose career had largely revolved around meditative books about the spirituality of cooking, published a bestseller about psychedelics and their place in contemporary society.

How To Change Your Mind was unique at the time. It wasnt a musician, youngster, or smoky-eyed psychonaut describing the magic of psychedelic drugs between bong rips, it was the voice of a 63-year-old professor who had lived through the War on Drugs, backed by an illustrious publishing career. What business did he have with such an unsavoury subject?

Image: Key-Z Productions

Pollan is hardly the only voice in published media whos riding the so-called second wave of psychedelics the first marked by Albert Hoffmans discovery of LSD and its subsequently world-shaking effects on popular culture. Johann Haris staunchly anti-War on Drugs novelChasing The Scream was a 2015 bestseller.

In music, psychedelic rock has cracked into the mainstream for the first measurable time since the zany peak of prog rock and total market domination of Pink Floyd in the 70s. Commercially successful musicians such as Jon Hopkins and Wayne Coyne of The Flaming Lips are forthcoming about their drug use, Chance the Rapper started his debut mixtape by declaring Raps just made me anxious, and acid made me crazy, and Father John Misty tripped balls at a Taylor Swift concert.

Mycologist Paul Stamets also one of the worlds leading experts on psilocybin mushrooms clocked almost five million views when he appeared on The Joe Rogan Experience (one of the top 10 most popular podcasts on the planet). One of 2016s most darling viral videos depicted a couple attempting to assemble IKEA furniture while high on acid.

Brad Pitt spaced out on an acid-laced cigarette during the climax of Quentin Tarantinos ninth film Once Upon A Time In Hollywood, and Shia LeBeouf tripped for 24 hours straight in preparation for his role in The Necessary Death of Charlie Countryman. Thats method, baby.

And if you believe the rumours, half of Silicon Valley and Wall Street are starting their day with a cheeky psychedelic microdose.

What caused the shift? Why are we suddenly allowed to, outside of the underground circles where these substances persisted for the last 50 years, talk about psychedelics with our mums, bosses, local members, and grandparents?

Half the reason, as weve already observed, is thanks to pop culture. The other side is legislative.

Recently, as cannabis legalisation has swept across Canada and North America, smaller pockets of positive psychedelic legislation are sprouting. This year Denver decriminalised the possession and use of hallucinogenic mushrooms, the first ever US city to do so. Oakland in California soon became the second, and the campaign is now gaining national momentum.

On the medicinal side, studies into the effects of psychedelic substances were resumed as far back as the 80s, yet a few recent experiments point to a wider change of play. Psilocybin has recently been shown to benefit patients afflicted with a number of mental health problems including PTSD and depression.

Meanwhile on Australian soil, a Melbourne hospital is treating terminally ill patients with high doses of psilocybin, an attempt to dampen anxiety as they face the end.

Both sides of this reemergence of psychedelics, legislative and populist, play essential roles in their wider acceptance. They appeal to different demographics. For instance, young people are more likely to experiment with drugs after they watch Christopher Walken take peyote inSeven Psychopaths, and Pollan has no doubt sparked psychedelic interests in a whole generation of older people. What were seeing now is all bases covered, from the little rascals who only needed a pat on the back to boomers who needed their entire perspective shattered and subsequently rebuilt.

Then of course, there are many people who would never touch a drug unless it was legal, or if they believed it was dangerous. Thats why legalisation, in your hometown or halfway across the world, has a twin benefit; it provides a safer system for those who live in legal zones, and it provides a diagram for others to follow. Think about it like getting a killer reference from your old boss, Amsterdam.

The last five years have also seen the worlds largest ever survey of drug takers emerge, the appropriately named Global Drug Survey. Reviewing 123,814 people from 30 countries in 2019, the last GDS revealed a plethora of critical data, pertaining to both the growing popularity of psychedelic substances and their relative harmlessness.

In 2014, the year of the first GDS, 10.1% of respondents had taken LSD and 10.6% of respondents had taken magic mushrooms. In 2019 those numbers had jacked up to 17.5% and 14.8% respectively. The 2019 GDS also reported that LSD, cannabis, ketamine, and magic mushrooms were the four safest drugs to take (based on the percentage of drug users who had been admitted to emergency rooms), with mushrooms being the safest overall. Only 0.4% of psilocybin users had sought medical treatment while on drugs, and 0.9% of LSD users had done the same. Alcohol, MDMA, cocaine and methamphetamine were all deemed more harmful by users.

Respondents also decreed that shrooms and LSD were the two best value-for-money drugs in the world, even though the global average price of LSD doubled (roughly $15 to $30) between 2018 and 2019. Cha-ching.

So where does this place us socially, legally, cosmically? Here we find ourselves at the precipice of a society where psychedelic drugs are treated as nonchalantly as alcohol, caffeine, or over the counter pharmaceuticals. Or cannabis, in legal states or countries. At this stage we know these drugs are getting more popular, that theyre safer to use than other substances, and that they carry potentially huge medical benefits.

But as prolific as these chemicals and their effects become in art, music, film and literature, their mostly illegal status remains. What we need is more than Seth Rogen tripping balls on the silver screen a couple more times, its a wider saturation that crosses boundaries. Its powerful works of non-fiction on the New York Times bestseller list, its peer-reviewed studies that cant be ignored, and its politicians willing to fight for something thats been demonised for most of the last half-century.

The reemergence of psychedelic drugs in popular culture is the small gear that slowly but surely turns the gigantic wheel of legalisation. Its working its little ass off down there, but in time it will cause a revolution.

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The second coming of psychedelics in pop culture - Happy Mag

Exploring the changing relationship between sex and drugs – Dazed

Annie Sprinkle, thesex worker andpornstar turned sex educator and artist, once described a beautiful summer day with a lover, when both found that their psychedelic door flew open without having taken any drugs. Our senses became heightened, time warped, colours were brighter, she said. I wondered if people who have never done any psychedelics could ever feel the same way, or if our psychedelic experiences enabled us to enhance and intensify the magical feelings of love.

For some, sex is so interconnected with drugs, that it becomes akin to an altered state. But today, when we hear about the combination of sex and drugs, its usually in the context of headline-grabbing horror stories about the casualties of days-long mephedrone and crystal meth-fuelled binges at Chemsex orgies. This is far from being the main story about sex and drugs. After all, few of us can say weve never been under the influence while under the sheets. Whether its alcohol, viagra,MDMA, or cocaine, chemicals are a mainstay of British sex lives.

So much so that 20 per cent of the 22,000 British peoplesurveyed in this yearsGlobal Drugs Survey said theyd combined MDMA with sex, either with or without forethought, (just 15 per cent of Europeans and North Americans say the same). Granted, participants are a self-selecting crowd, but it does show that combining sex with drugs is hardly a fringe activity. While not one of the most commonly used, GHB/GBL was rated most favourably for sex by men and women, mostly because its boosts sexual desire.

I like the ritual around it. I like the care that you have to take with your partner. I find all that quite erotic Sam* on GHB

The ease of fatally overdosing on G is well documented; less than one millimetre can be the difference between feeling happy and/or horny and falling unconscious. As well as this, it is perhaps best known by its suitability for spiking and rape. In high doses or mixed with alcohol it can blank events immediately following from memory. The key factor (in spiking) is being able to manipulate social trust, explains criminologist Pamela Donovan in Drink Spiking and Predatory Drugging: A Modern History. But G is also increasingly used as a club drug, enjoyed among friends and lovers on and after a night out.

Sam, 32, tells me about how GHB has become her and her long term partners favourite drug with which to augment their sexual experiences. I like the ritual around it, she says, referring to the way in which consensual partakers of G prevent overdose by measuring out a new dose on the hour, using a syringe to squirt it into a soft drink. I like the care that you have to take with your partner. I find all that quite erotic.

Sam first encountered sex on drugs through alcohol, then through cannabis. I discovered that cannabis seemed to ease my anxiety around sex... particularly anal, which Id experienced violently as a teenager, she said.

Sams use of drugs with sex seems to revolve around nurturing and intimacy, control and self-respect. Until recently there has been little in-depth research into the pleasurable and experimental dimensions of sex on drugs beyond communities of men who have sex with men. But a Wellcome Trust-funded project led by Dr Alex Dymock at Royal Holloway, University of London, entitled Pharmacosexuality, aims in part to explore exactly this through 30 in-depth interviews.

Its a curation of self, a curation of sex, and a curation of drugs, Dymock tells me at academic psychedelics conference Breaking Convention in London, referring to the ways in which some people consider the way they engage in sex on drugs. Specifically, using them with the aim of self-exploration and of staying closer with the sexual experience, rather than using them to lose control.

One participant in their study, a woman with ADHD, finds that speed, paradoxically, slows her down and creates a sense of calm that makes sex an easier situation for her.

Gen Z, who are known to be less wild with drugs, tend further towards using them in a way thats in tune with the individual drugs and what happens to your body, Tatiana, 22, tells me. They are more likely to just stay home and take some drugs for the entertainment that evening, which is less expensive than going out, she says. I think thats where the relationship between sex and drugs comes in more.

Referring to the evolution of drug culture as though each new generation builds on the maturity of its predecessor, she says, Its almost like weve passed the excitable teenage phase and into the more reflective, adult phase. Drugs arent considered so rebellious, perhaps because, to this well-informed crowd, their parents generation were the ravers of the 80s and 90s.

Others I spoke to anonymously found that sex could help calm them down when a drug experience, particularly an acid orketamine trip, became intimidatingly expansive. As Dymock says: for some participants, ketamine and acid initiated what they described as a frightening experience of ego dissolution. In a couple of instances, participants discussed the way in which sex allowed them to ground themselves and feel embodied.

For Quinn, 28, psychedelics give intimacy an extra twist: the sensation that her and her partners boundaries between our senses of self have been blurred. So much so, that there have been occasions when every touch feels like Id thought of it and asked for it in the exact moment that it magically happened. In an account of the intense acid trip taken by two lovers on the forum Blue Light, one lover describes, when I looked at my partners face I saw little bits of my face in him... It was like looking at a picture of both of us morphed into one our limbs and faces being split and mirrored into quarters of each other like a chess board of body parts. In Quinns experience, the intimate encounter deepens her understanding of the other person, amounting to 10 years worth of only seeing someone for coffee with their clothes on.

While psychedelics sharpen Quinns intuitions about another person, this can have the effect of clarifying in her mind that she is not in tune with her partner. Tripping on psilocybin with a sexual partner propelled me to a place where I eventually realised that I didnt like having sex with them... they were bringing me an off-key set of energies.

The dissociative effects of ketamine paradoxically help her to feel more involved. It makes me less focussed on us cumming, which means I can totally immerse in the sex. I wouldnt really 69 for hours with no return to penetrative sex in sight unless I was on ketamine, she says, adding, I like how, while your minds disassociate on sometimes hilariously disparate tracks, your bodies are still doing intimate things.

Its a curation of self, a curation of sex, and a curation of drugs Dr Alex Dymock, Royal Holloway, University of London

A key factor in all of this is consent: negotiating sexual consent while high and consent about which drugs and how much will be taken. Dymock says that several of their interview participants report taking drugs in an intentional effort to loosen their own control over the situation. According to the law, being highly intoxicated, can in some cases remove the capacity to consent.

For Sam, the disinhibiting effects of drugs are welcome. Theres definitely things Ive done on drugs that I probably wouldnt have done sober, she says, but also stresses that she doesnt have any regrets around them. It made me feel some things were more permissible or made me realise things I wanted.

Collectively, those who have spoken to me about their experiences demonstrate that taking substances intentionally with a preexisting understanding of their effects is a prerequisite to finding pleasure and fulfillment in combining sex with drugs. Sex is this extremely intimate act that you are doing with another person, while also having the intimacy of exploring your psyches together, Quinn says. Sex acts as a cradling activity to the exploration of the mind, while drugs peel away the layers we put on. For her, they both require trust and coalesce to invoke a deeper understanding of the other.

Liz Elliot described just this in an account of her loving-on-drugs with the psychedelic icon Timothy Leary: We could play with each others brains, stroke mental erogenous zones. Flash electric current between us.

*Some names have been changed.

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Exploring the changing relationship between sex and drugs - Dazed

Arizona Psychedelics Conference

Welcome to the first psychedelic conference of Arizona. This three-day event seeks to examine the therapeutic potential of psychedelics like psilocybin, ayahuasca, peyote, MDMA, DMT, ibogaine, ketamine, cannabis, and more. Join us to examine the role of psychedelic drugs and plant medicines in science, medicine, culture, and spirituality. Over the course of the weekend, we will explore these ...

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Arizona Psychedelics Conference

Psychedelics in problem-solving experiment – Wikipedia

Psychedelic agents in creative problem-solving experiment was a study designed to evaluate whether the use of a psychedelic substance with supportive setting can lead to improvement of performance in solving professional problems. The altered performance was measured by subjective reports, questionnaires, the obtained solutions for the professional problems and psychometric data using the ...

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Psychedelics in problem-solving experiment - Wikipedia

Horizons: Perspectives on Psychedelics


For over 150 years, The Cooper Union has been one of the countrys leading art, design, and architecture academies.

The landmarked Great Hall, built in 1859, is one of the most prestigious auditoriums in the nation, having been graced by such eminences Abraham Lincoln, Mark Twain, Frederick Douglass, Susan B. Anthony, and Barack Obama.

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Horizons: Perspectives on Psychedelics

How to Safely Use LSD – How to Use Psychedelics

LSD is the most widely studied psychedelic, with hundreds of published research papers (see below). An LSD experience is similar in many ways to psilocybin mushrooms, but often individuals feel like they are better able to direct and control the experience.

LSD studies have shown success in treating depression, anxiety, smoking cessation, and many other psychological conditions. LSD consistently produces powerful long-term improvements in these conditions, even with just a single dose.

Before you begin, be sure to read our safety section and see the special safety considerations for LSD at the bottom of this page.

LSD is a powerful chemical and taking the correct dose is essential. Because LSD is active at very, very small quantities and because it is typically delivered on small pieces of paper, it is difficult to independently assess the dose (this issue is less of a problem with mushrooms or MDMA). Taking too much LSD can lead to feelings of dissociation and alienation.

Be sure that you know the dose that you are taking. A single dose or tab of LSD can vary widely in strength, so make sure you know the quantity in micrograms. A 100ug dose is a good starting point if you have never taken LSD before and should provide a calm and opening experience. If you are interested in deeper psychological work or spiritual exploration, and have a lot of experience at lower does, you may decide to move up to 400 or 500ug, but only do so if you are very comfortable with lower doses. Do not use LSD unless you are very confident of the quality and dose that you have. Its best to use a source that someone you know has also used and can vouch for.

LSD will typically be delivered on small pieces of paper that the LSD is diffused onto. It may also be provided in liquid or pill form, or even diffused into a sugar cube.

Typically, people feel very free and open in the days following an LSD experience. Remember that you need at least 12 hours before you try to sleep, so if you begin too late in the day, you may have some trouble falling asleep and could be a little tired the next day.

Most people find that they have an afterglow from their LSD experience that can last days or weeks, improving their mood and outlook and keeping them very open to others. Ideas and issues that you explored during the experience will have a new clarity too them. Emotionally difficult topics, memories, and experiences are likely to feel much safer and will bring up less fear when you remember them. You are likely to feel better able to tackle challenging emotional experiences in your life.

LSD has been shown in many research settings to dramatically reduce anxiety, depression, and other psychological challenges with just a single dose. However, you may wish to repeat the experience a few times to further explore and address any emotional and psychological issues that you are working with.

In addition to our standard safety guidelines, there are two particularly important precautions for LSD use:

Psychedelics have been misunderstood and misrepresented for decades. That's changing. Please help us share safe, responsible information on using psychedelics by sending this page to friends, and posting to Facebook, Twitter, and Google:


How to Safely Use LSD - How to Use Psychedelics

How to Treat Depression with Psychedelics

Many people find their day to day experience of life is filled with anxiety, limiting the activities they do and the enjoyment they have in life. Psychedelics like mushrooms and LSD have been used for decades to treat anxiety disorders and to reduce anxiety levels.

In some cases, these substances seem to directly alleviate feelings of anxiety, even at very small doses (below the level at which they subjectively alter consciousness). For other people, psychedelics help them explore the root causes of their anxieties and fears and find peace with them. And for many people, psychedelics bring them to a place a spiritual peace and openness that can become a new touchstone for letting go of anxiety or learning not to identify with it so strongly.

This description of the process may sound abstract to someone suffering from anxiety day to day, but like talking therapy, the healing process of psychedelics can be a little difficult to convey until youve tried it.

Recent clinical research has shown dramatic reductions in anxiety even after a single psychedelic experience with psilocybin mushrooms. Even for patients facing the extreme anxiety of terminal illness, psilocybin allows them to embrace their fate and find peace with their loved ones.

Heres one womans story of being treated with mushrooms as she was facing death, described in a New York Times article (see below):

Before Pam Sakuda died, she described her psilocybin experience on video: I felt this lump of emotions welling up . . . almost like an entity, Sakuda said, as she spoke straight into the camera. I started to cry. . . . Everything was concentrated and came welling up and then . . . it started to dissipate, and I started to look at it differently. . . . I began to realize that all of this negative fear and guilt was such a hindrance . . . to making the most of and enjoying the healthy time that Im having. Sakuda went on to explain that, under the influence of the psilocybin, she came to a very visceral understanding that there was a present, a now, and that it was hers to have.

Two weeks after Sakudas psilocybin session, Grob (the researcher) readministered the depression and anxiety assessments. Over all among his subjects, he found that their scores on the anxiety scale at one and three months after treatment demonstrated a sustained reduction in anxiety, the researchers wrote in The Archives of General Psychiatry. They also found that their subjects scores on the Beck Depression Inventory dropped significantly at the six-month follow-up.

Whats remarkable about the research results from this and many other studies is that even a single dose of a psychedelic substance can create long lasting changes, reducing anxiety, depression, and creating more emotional openness.

LSD, MDMA, and mushrooms have all been studied for anxiety reduction. Remember that a psychedelic experience can sometimes produce anxiety or can focus the mind on sources of anxiety, as part of the process of addressing the root causes. Starting with small doses and following all the safety guidelines can help reduce anxiety.

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How to Treat Depression with Psychedelics

Arizona Psychedelics Conference

Welcome to the first psychedelic conference of Arizona. This three-day event seeks to examine the therapeutic potential of psychedelics like psilocybin, ayahuasca, peyote, MDMA, DMT, ibogaine, ketamine, cannabis, and more. Join us to examine the role of psychedelic drugs and plant medicines in science, medicine, culture, and spirituality. Over the course of the weekend, we will explore these ...


Arizona Psychedelics Conference

Can You Take Psychedelics With Antidepressants?

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Moderate doses of psychedelics have been shown to effectively treatdepression,anxiety,PTSD, andother mental health conditions and even microdoses havebeen reported to hold significant benefit. Although we dont recommend it, many people are turning to psychedelics as a form of self-treatment for mental health conditions. And this brings up the potential problem of antidepressant medication interfering with the effects of psychedelics.

Unfortunately there has been no solid research performed on the interaction between psychedelics and antidepressants. Therefore most of the advice we provide here is based on anecdotal evidence and case reports. We recommend discussing issues with your physician before making any decisions.

The classic psychedelics (includingLSD,psilocybinandDMT) work by affecting the serotonin system, and most antidepressants work by targeting serotonin signaling too. Therefore wed expect for there to be some kind of interaction between the two unfortunately we just dont know anything for sure right now.

From anecdotal reports, it looks as if the SSRI class of antidepressants weakens the effects of classic psychedelics although this absolutely doesnt mean you should take more of the psychedelic substance to compensate.

Many people advise against taking Lithium or other tricyclics with classic psychedelics, as they have been known to put people intocomatose statesorinduce seizures.Avoid this combination until we know for sure about its safety!

MAOI medications appear to haveeffectssimilar to SSRIs when combined with classic psychedelics.

Since we know so little about how classic psychedelics and antidepressants interact, we advise against taking them together. Dont risk making things worse for yourself. If you are absolutely determined to try a psychedelic, it may be wise to wean yourself off your medication first but always check with your physician.

Anecdotal reportssuggest that takingMDMAwhile on antidepressants can either numb the effects, completely abolish the effects, or cause a really unpleasant hangover! Since SSRIs mess with your serotonin system, and bind to some of the same targets as MDMA, there is the potential for unpleasant interactions. Dr Ben Sessa, an MDMA researcher, saysThe general rule is dont combine SSRIs with MDMA.

Taking MDMA while on MAOIs is alsopotentially dangerous. Its definitely best to avoid this combination, as it could lead toserotonin syndrome(which can be fatal!).

We dont know much about what you can combine withmescaline, but as its mode of action is similar to the classic psychedelics, its probably best to assume that it wont combine well with antidepressants.

Ayahuascais a little more complicated than other psychedelics when it comes to antidepressants, because the psychedelic brew contains MAOIs, which can cause fatal reactions when mixed with other drugs. We advise a total purge from all substances before taking ayahuasca, to avoid the risk of the potentially fatalserotonin syndrome.

Here is a listof all substances you should absolutely avoid if youre determined to take ayahuasca.

Ibogaineis another natural psychedelic with a potential risk of toxicity. Healthcare professionalsrecommend weaning off all medicationbefore taking a dose of ibogaine.

Be aware that ibogaine ispotentially the most dangerous psychedelic substance out there, as it can cause heart failure in seemingly safe situations. It is usually a last resort for people suffering from severe addiction.

We know nothing about interactions here although we know thatSalviaworks on a very different neurotransmitter system than most antidepressants, and we havent heard any reports of unpleasant effects resulting from mixing Salvia with antidepressants.

Were not medical doctors, and we dont pretend to be. Unfortunately the research isnt in place for anyone to give solid advice about mixing psychedelics with antidepressants. So be safe, be cautious, and always check with your physician before changing your drug-taking habits.

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Can You Take Psychedelics With Antidepressants?

How to Treat Depression with Psychedelics

Depression is a challenging and often long-term condition that can be very difficult to treat. In clinical studies, psychedelics have shown significant long-term positive impact on mood, even when used in just a single session.

Many people who have suffered from depression and later recovered find that they need a combination of approaches to stay healthy. Good nutrition, exercise, more time with friends, lower stress, and personal introspection (through therapy, psychedelics, or meditation) can be a powerful combination.

For decades, psychedelics such as psilocybin mushrooms and LSD have been used in clinical studies, private therapy, and at home to alleviate depression. More recently, the prescription medication ketamine has shown incredible results for depression.

Heres one mans story from a recent clinical study, as reported in the New York Times:

Nothing had any lasting effect until, at the age of 65, he had his first psychedelic experience. He left his home in Vancouver, Wash., to take part in an experiment at Johns Hopkins medical school involving psilocybin, the psychoactive ingredient found in certain mushrooms.

Today, more than a year later, Dr. Martin credits that six-hour experience with helping him overcome his depression and profoundly transforming his relationships with his daughter and friends. He ranks it among the most meaningful events of his life, which makes him a fairly typical member of a growing club of experimental subjects.

Clinical studies like this one that use psilocybin and LSD to study depression have a very simple protocol. Participants are invited to come to a research room that has been setup to feel comfortable and they take a dose of the substance. A researcher sits with them for the duration of the experience (typically 4-6 hours) and may talk them through any anxiety that arises. But generally, the participants simply remain quiet and feel the experience, following where their thoughts and feelings take them.

This setup can be replicated at home or in another comfortable setting. The most essential elements are a comfortable space, plenty of time to stay in the experience, and someone you trust who can support you during the experience.

The mechanism by which psychedelic experiences alleviate depression is not completely clear to researchers, but there are a few theories. One mechanism may be that the drugs directly open pathways in the brain that are normally inhibited, allowing emotions to flow more freely and helping people feel more grounded and connected. But the mental experiences and explorations that occur while taking psychedelics seem more likely to be responsible for the long term impact. This may explain why people who use psychedelics recreationally do not automatically experience the same benefits as individuals who use these substances in a more directed and focused environment. The mental experiences that consistently arise -- feeling more connected to the universe, being able to openly face fears and challenges of life, seeing your relationships more clearly, and feeling a stronger relationship to your own religious traditions -- all seem to transform an individuals perspective on their life.

If you are interested in learning how to use ketamine, mushrooms, or LSD to treat depression, please read our Ketamine Guide, Mushroom Guide, and our LSD Guide. MDMA has not received as much attention in the context of depression, but because it shows such powerful effects in enhancing psychotherapy and resolving painful memories and experiences, it should also be considered. Here is the MDMA Guide.

Psychedelics have been misunderstood and misrepresented for decades. That's changing. Please help us share safe, responsible information on using psychedelics by sending this page to friends, and posting to Facebook, Twitter, and Google:

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How to Treat Depression with Psychedelics

Beginners Guide to Microdosing Psychedelics

This is a guest post by Mansal Denton. Heis unaffiliated with Pure Nootropics and his thoughts and experiences are his own. Pure Nootropics does not condone or encourage the use of illicit or illegal substances.


Psychedelics are a big part of my personal growth and success.

The experiences with psychedelics have:

And Im not the only one

Popular writer, Michael Pollan, described The Trip Treatment of psilocybin and the potential use for treating anxiety, addiction, and depression.

Famed author and personality, Tim Ferriss, has had numerous discussions about psychedelics, such as LSD, mushrooms, and even ayahuasca. It was Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC) host and comedian, Joe Rogan, who got me interested in the subject.

But beyond using psychedelics as a mystical experience, there is a subset who are finding ways to use them for a different purpose.

Through microdosing of psychedelic drugs, many people are finding cognitive advantages to improve the execution of their work and achieve more.

Less than a month before writing this piece Rolling Stone published an article about how LSD microdosing became the hot new business trip Of course, Forbes, GQ, the Telegraph, and dozens of other outlets re-published the same popular piece (Nov 2015).

I have been saying that nootropics are used by Silicon Valley execs, Wall Street traders, and just about every other high performance individual in between, but this is the next level

Lets get started, shall we?

Austin, Texas is becoming a hub for a new kind of entrepreneur, hippie, and hipster breed. As gross as that might be to visually imagine, it actually creates an amazing environment for testing personal practices, such as microdosing.

While I have sifted through scientific research, particularly from Dr. James Fadiman in the 1970s, much of this is based on anecdotes, experiences, and interviews.

Names have been changed to protect those who shared their experiences.

Microdosing is using small doses of powerful psychedelic drugs in order to improve working conditions. In contrast, full psychedelic experiences are often mystical and not conducive to completing work-related tasks.

There are several purported advantages including:


Imagine you have been working on a problem for weeks without finding an adequate solution. You wake up every morning, put in your time, but still dont feel satisfied with your results.

That was the basis for a 1966 experiment organized by Dr. James Fadiman among others. This experiment took 27 male subjects (16 engineers, 2 mathematicians, 2 architects, 1 engineer-physicist, and others) and required them to bring a professional problem they had been working on for at least 3 months with a desire to solve it.

After providing these subjects with 200 mg of mescaline sulphate, the subjects had 4 hours to work on their professional problem. Almost all of them reported greater problem-solving ability and at least 12 had breakthrough solutions.


Eric Clough was an architect in 1966 during the same era of research who wrote The consensus among the architects interviewedseems to be that LSD, when administered under carefully controlled conditions, does enhance creativity aids in visualizing three-dimensionally, and generally heightens perceptivity. (Fadiman, 170)

Numerous microdosing practitioners report having more creativity, which often ties into problem-solving. However, for musicians and artists, the creativity may help produce exceptional work in the absence of a definitive problem that needs solving.


Many psychedelics drastically enhance mood and happiness because of their interaction with serotonin receptors. Psilocybin decreases depressive and anxiety-related symptoms. The same is true for most other psychedelic drugs through small microdoses.


In a book Tryptamine Palace, author James Oroc asserts Virtually all athletes who learn to use LSD believe that the use of these compounds improves both their stamina and their abilities. According to the combined reports of 40 years of use by the extreme sports underground, LSD can increase your re-flex time to lightning speed, improve your balance to the point of perfection, increase your concentration

It sounds nice, but I spoke with my friend Larry to get his experiences and confirmed the same phenomenon. Both LSD and o-acetylpsilocin (prodrug for psilocin) offered strong physical energy and endurance beyond the norm.

These are just a few of the benefits of microdosing specifically. Note that the heroic dose, which provides mystical and self-reflective experiences, does not provide the same problem-solving or physical endurance effects. In fact, it might be the opposite in some circumstances so be careful when microdosing.

In scientific studies, the letter n is used to refer to the sample size. If you test something in a group of 5 friends, the sample size is 5 (n=5). The term n=1 is used to describe a sample size of 1, which is you. Therefore, the popularized term in biohacking circles is meant to encourage self-testing as opposed to listening to what everyone else believes.

There are at least 3 acquaintances with whom I spoke about microdosing. Larry is an entrepreneur creating a health-food company and had the most extensive experiences with microdosing. He felt LSD had a more complete microdosing experience even though mushrooms improved his physical energy and endurance profoundly.

Both Larry and another named Josh reported cycling LSD microdoses once every 3 4 days because of tolerance and ability to connect with others. Larry concluded that 10 12 mcg is better for physical endurance and concentration, while 12 15 mcg is better for creative thinking and problem-solving.

In contrast to these generally positive experiences, there is a individual self-experiment by Gwern that showed No beneficial effects reachedLSD microdosing did not help me. He continues to show how he tested and calculated things.

Another trained pianist and composer on Reddit took 30 40 mcg microdoses and reported The experience could be described as slightly withdrawn and I felt like I had worse coordination and consequently lower accuracy in playing.

Given the mixed nature of these anecdotal experiences, I recommend taking an N=1 approach. Understand that each individual is different and the dosage and microdosing that works for one person may not work for you.

The evidence from Fadimans research in the 1960s along with other testimony leads me to be cautiously optimistic about microdosing benefits, but dont expect it to solve all your professional or personal problems.

Again, neither I nor Pure Nootropics condone or recommend using illegal or illicit drugs. This is the process for microdosing that is reported through the experiments of Dr. James Fadiman and the experiences of others.

Given that microdosing with LSD is most common. Here is a briefguide for most accurately dosing. This is called volumetric dosing and it offers the most superior and accurate result.

(Tools needed: Scale, Pipette bottle, distilled water, tab of LSD)

Here are some of the common mistakes people make when trying to microdose:

Mistake #1 Do not cut the tab of LSD into strips in order to divide the dosage. For one, this is incredibly difficult to do accurately (given the small size of most LSD tabs). It also does not account for hotspots, which are heightened concentrations and uneven distribution on the tab itself. Instead, use the volumetric dosing with distilled water method explained above.

Mistake #2 Taking the incorrect dose. While each dose will have different effects for different people, some guidance can be helpful. 20 mcg of LSD is usually considered the high end of the microdose range, but some people go as high as 50 mcg. For LSD the lower doses tend to have concentration and slight mood benefits (5 12 mcg) while 12 20 mcg is a dose for problem-solving and creativity with more felt effects.

If you are using o-acetylpsilocin for a mushroom microdose (easier than trying to weigh actual mushrooms precisely), dosage recommendations are around 3 4 mg for microdosing.

Mistake #3 Taking doses too often. Most accounts recommended once every 3 4 days maximum, but longer is also good. LSD is particularly subject to tolerance and doing it every other day can create uncomfortable relationships with reality.

Mistake #4 Obviously sourcing makes a big difference with microdosing. A poor quality product with a big dose is less impactful, but when you rely on a tiny dose to provide effects, opt for quality.

This is a guest post by Mansal Denton. Heis unaffiliated with Pure Nootropics and his thoughts and experiences are his own. Pure Nootropics does not condone or encourage the use of illicit or illegal substances.

If you have something youd like to add, wed love to hear from you, please comment below.

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Beginners Guide to Microdosing Psychedelics