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The Progress

Its right around the corner. Thats right flu season. And like clockwork, the familiar muscle aches, coughs, chills, headaches, runny noses, sneezes and sore throats return, too. With the kids back in school, theres also a much greater chance that they could catch a bug and bring it home to share with the rest of the family.

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The Progress

Progress Synonyms, Progress Antonyms | Thesaurus.com

If one were not a scientist one might be tempted to say there is no progress.

Prehistoric man, as I just told you, was on a fair way to progress.

From this point the progress will be best narrated by extracts from my Diary.

We talked of progress; but progress, like the philosopher’s stone, could not be easily attained.

From this strength we have contributed to the recovery and progress of the world.

Progress may be slowmeasured in inches and feet, not milesbut we will progress.

In no nation are the institutions of progress more advanced.

It was characterized as “a policy of which peace, progress and retrenchment were the watchwords.”

We do not dread, rather do we welcome, their progress in education and industry.

Start on this journey of progress and justice, and America will walk at your side.

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Progress Synonyms, Progress Antonyms | Thesaurus.com

Progress Synonyms, Progress Antonyms | Thesaurus.com

If one were not a scientist one might be tempted to say there is no progress.

Prehistoric man, as I just told you, was on a fair way to progress.

From this point the progress will be best narrated by extracts from my Diary.

We talked of progress; but progress, like the philosopher’s stone, could not be easily attained.

From this strength we have contributed to the recovery and progress of the world.

Progress may be slowmeasured in inches and feet, not milesbut we will progress.

In no nation are the institutions of progress more advanced.

It was characterized as “a policy of which peace, progress and retrenchment were the watchwords.”

We do not dread, rather do we welcome, their progress in education and industry.

Start on this journey of progress and justice, and America will walk at your side.

Go here to read the rest:

Progress Synonyms, Progress Antonyms | Thesaurus.com

The Progress

HAWK RUN The biennial Sura reunion was held July 28 at St. Johns Orthodox church hall in Hawk Run for the descendants of Anna, Helen and Vasil Sura. Nearly 100 relatives and friends attended from Pennsylvania, Alaska, Colorado, Indiana, New York, New Jersey, Ohio and Virginia.

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The Progress

The Progress

Heartburn is a common ailment, and often people treat it on their own, never discuss it with their doctor and go on to live completely normal, healthy lives. However, heartburn can be a serious problem if left untreated, and its important to recognize when this issue has gone from an occasi

Read the rest here:

The Progress

Progress – Wikipedia

Modernization was promoted by classical liberals in the 19th and 20th centuries, who called for the rapid modernization of the economy and society to remove the traditional hindrances to free markets and free movements of people.[10] During the Enlightenment in Europe social commentators and philosophers began to realize that people themselves could change society and change their way of life. Instead of being made completely by gods, there was increasing room for the idea that people themselves made their own societyand not only that, as Giambattista Vico argued, because people made their own society, they could also fully comprehend it. This gave rise to new sciences, or proto-sciences, which claimed to provide new scientific knowledge about what society was like, and how one may change it for the better.[11]

In turn, this gave rise to progressive opinion, in contrast with conservational opinion. The social conservationists were skeptical about panaceas for social ills. According to conservatives, attempts to radically remake society normally make things worse. Edmund Burke was the leading exponent of this, although later-day liberals like Hayek have espoused similar views. They argue that society changes organically and naturally, and that grand plans for the remaking of society, like the French Revolution, National Socialism and Communism hurt society by removing the traditional constraints on the exercise of power.

The scientific advances of the 16th and 17th centuries provided a basis for Francis Bacon’s book the New Atlantis. In the 17th century, Bernard le Bovier de Fontenelle described progress with respect to arts and the sciences, saying that each age has the advantage of not having to rediscover what was accomplished in preceding ages. The epistemology of John Locke provided further support and was popularized by the Encyclopedists Diderot, Holbach, and Condorcet. Locke had a powerful influence on the American Founding Fathers.[12] The first complete statement of progress is that of Turgot, in his “A Philosophical Review of the Successive Advances of the Human Mind” (1750). For Turgot, progress covers not only the arts and sciences but, on their base, the whole of culturemanner, mores, institutions, legal codes, economy, and society. Condorcet predicted the disappearance of slavery, the rise of literacy, the lessening of inequalities between the sexes, reforms of harsh prisons and the decline of poverty.[13]

John Stuart Mill’s (18061873) ethical and political thought demonstrated faith in the power of ideas and of intellectual education for improving human nature or behavior. For those who do not share this faith the idea of progress becomes questionable.[14]

Alfred Marshall (18421924), a British economist of the early 20th century, was a proponent of classical liberalism. In his highly influential Principles of Economics (1890), he was deeply interested in human progress and in what is now called sustainable development. For Marshall, the importance of wealth lay in its ability to promote the physical, mental, and moral health of the general population.[15] After World War II, the modernization and development programs undertaken in the Third World were typically based on the idea of progress.[16]

In Russia the notion of progress was first imported from the West by Peter the Great (16721725). An absolute ruler, he used the concept to modernize Russia and to legitimize his monarchy (unlike its usage in Western Europe, where it was primarily associated with political opposition). By the early 19th century, the notion of progress was being taken up by Russian intellectuals and was no longer accepted as legitimate by the tsars. Four schools of thought on progress emerged in 19th-century Russia: conservative (reactionary), religious, liberal, and socialistthe latter winning out in the form of Bolshevist materialism.[17]

The intellectual leaders of the American Revolution, such as Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Paine, Thomas Jefferson and John Adams, were immersed in Enlightenment thought and believed the idea of progress meant that they could reorganize the political system to the benefit of the human condition; both for Americans and also, as Jefferson put it, for an “Empire of Liberty” that would benefit all mankind.[18]

Juan Bautista Alberdi (18101884) was one of the most influential political theorists in Argentina. Economic liberalism was the key to his idea of progress. He promoted faith in progress, while chiding fellow Latin Americans for blind copying of American and European models. He hoped for progress through promotion of immigration, education, and a moderate type of federalism and republicanism that might serve as a transition in Argentina to true democracy.[19]

In Mexico, Jose Mora (17951856) was a leader of classical liberalism in the first generation after independence, leading the battle against the conservative trinity of the army, the church, and the hacendados. He envisioned progress as both a process of human development by the search for philosophical truth and as the introduction of an era of material prosperity by technological advancement. His plan for Mexican reform demanded a republican government bolstered by widespread popular education free of clerical control, confiscation and sale of ecclesiastical lands as a means of redistributing income and clearing government debts, and effective control of a reduced military force by the government. Mora also demanded the establishment of legal equality between native Mexicans and foreign residents. His program, untried in his lifetime, became the key element in the Mexican Constitution of 1857.[20]

In Italy, the idea that progress in science and technology would lead to solutions for human ills was connected to the nationalism that united the country in 1860. The Piedmontese Prime Minister Camillo Cavour envisaged the railways as a major factor in the modernization and unification of the Italian peninsula. The new Kingdom of Italy, formed in 1861, worked to speed up the processes of modernization and industrialization that had begun in the north, but were slow to arrive in the Papal States and central Italy, and were nowhere in sight in the “Mezzogiorno” (that is, Southern Italy, Sicily, and Sardinia). The government sought to combat the backwardness of the poorer regions in the south and work towards augmenting the size and quality of the newly created Italian army so that it could compete on an equal footing with the powerful nations of Europe. In the same period, the government was legislating in favour of public education to fight the great problem of illiteracy, upgrade the teaching classes, improve existing schools, and procure the funds needed for social hygiene and care of the body as factors in the physical and moral regeneration of the race.[21]

In China, in the 20th century the KMT or Nationalist party, which ruled from the 1920s to the 1940s, advocated progress. The Communists under Mao Zedong adopted western models and their ruinous projects caused mass famines. After Mao’s death, however, the new regime led by Deng Xiaoping (19041997) and his successors aggressively promoted modernization of the economy using capitalist models and imported western technology.[22]

Among environmentalists, there is a continuum between two opposing poles. The one pole is optimistic, progressive, and business-oriented, and endorses the classic idea of progress. For example, bright green environmentalism endorses the idea that new designs, social innovations and green technologies can solve critical environmental challenges. The other is pessimistic in respect of technological solutions,[23] warning of impending global crisis (through climate change or peak oil, for example) and tends to reject the very idea of modernity and the myth of progress that is so central to modernization thinking.[24] Similarly, Kirkpatrick Sale, wrote about progress as a myth benefiting the few, and a pending environmental doomsday for everyone.[25] An example is the philosophy of Deep Ecology.

Sociologist Robert Nisbet said that “No single idea has been more important than … the Idea of Progress in Western civilization for three thousand years”,[26] and defines five “crucial premises” of the idea of progress:

Sociologist P. A. Sorokin said, “The ancient Chinese, Babylonian, Hindu, Greek, Roman, and most of the medieval thinkers supporting theories of rhythmical, cyclical or trendless movements of social processes were much nearer to reality than the present proponents of the linear view”.[27] Unlike Confucianism and to a certain extent Taoism, that both search for an ideal past, the Judeo-Christian-Islamic tradition believes in the fulfillment of history, which was translated into the idea of progress in the modern age. Therefore, Chinese proponents of modernization have looked to western models. According to Thompson, the late Qing dynasty reformer, Kang Youwei, believed he had found a model for reform and “modernisation” in the Ancient Chinese Classics.[28]

Philosopher Karl Popper said that progress was not fully adequate as a scientific explanation of social phenomena.[29]More recently, Kirkpatrick Sale, a self-proclaimed neo-luddite author, wrote exclusively about progress as a myth, in an essay entitled “Five Facets of a Myth”.[30]

Iggers (1965) says that proponents of progress underestimated the extent of man’s destructiveness and irrationality, while critics misunderstand the role of rationality and morality in human behavior.[31]

In 1946, psychoanalyst Charles Baudouin claimed modernity has retained the “corollary” of the progress myth, the idea that the present is superior to the past, while at the same time insisting that it is free of the myth:

The last two centuries were familiar with the myth of progress. Our own century has adopted the myth of modernity. The one myth has replaced the other. …

Men ceased to believe in progress; but only to pin their faith to more tangible realities, whose sole original significance had been that they were the instruments of progress. ..

This exaltation of the present … is a corollary of that very faith in progress which people claim to have discarded. The present is superior to the past, by definition, only in a mythology of progress. Thus one retains the corollary while rejecting the principle. There is only one way of retaining a position of whose instability one is conscious. One must simply refrain from thinking.[32]

A cyclical theory of history was adopted by Oswald Spengler (18801936), a German historian who wrote The Decline of the West in 1920. World War I, World War II, and the rise of totalitarianism demonstrated that progress was not automatic and that technological improvement did not necessarily guarantee democracy and moral advancement. British historian Arnold J. Toynbee (18891975) felt that Christianity would help modern civilization overcome its challenges.[33]

The Jeffersonians said that history is not exhausted but that man may begin again in a new world. Besides rejecting the lessons of the past, they Americanized the idea of progress by democratizing and vulgarizing it to include the welfare of the common man as a form of republicanism. As Romantics deeply concerned with the past, collecting source materials and founding historical societies, the Founding Fathers were animated by clear principles. They saw man in control of his destiny, saw virtue as a distinguishing characteristic of a republic, and were concerned with happiness, progress, and prosperity. Thomas Paine, combining the spirit of rationalism and romanticism, pictured a time when America’s innocence would sound like a romance, and concluded that the fall of America could mark the end of ‘the noblest work of human wisdom.'[34]

Historian J. B. Bury wrote in 1920:[35]

To the minds of most people the desirable outcome of human development would be a condition of society in which all the inhabitants of the planet would enjoy a perfectly happy existence….It cannot be proved that the unknown destination towards which man is advancing is desirable. The movement may be Progress, or it may be in an undesirable direction and therefore not Progress….. The Progress of humanity belongs to the same order of ideas as Providence or personal immortality. It is true or it is false, and like them it cannot be proved either true or false. Belief in it is an act of faith.

In the postmodernist thought steadily gaining ground from the 1980s, the grandiose claims of the modernizers are steadily eroded, and the very concept of social progress is again questioned and scrutinized. In the new vision, radical modernizers like Joseph Stalin and Mao Zedong appear as totalitarian despots, whose vision of social progress is held to be totally deformed. Postmodernists question the validity of 19th century and 20th century notions of progressboth on the capitalist and the Marxist side of the spectrum. They argue that both capitalism and Marxism over-emphasize technological achievements and material prosperity while ignoring the value of inner happiness and peace of mind. Postmodernism posits that both dystopia and utopia are one and the same, overarching grand narratives with impossible conclusions.

Some 20th-century authors refer to the “Myth of Progress” to refer to the idea that the human condition will inevitably improve. In 1932, English physician Montague David Eder wrote: “The myth of progress states that civilization has moved, is moving, and will move in a desirable direction. Progress is inevitable… Philosophers, men of science and politicians have accepted the idea of the inevitability of progress.”[36] Eder argues that the advancement of civilization is leading to greater unhappiness and loss of control in the environment. The strongest critics of the idea of progress complain that it remains a dominant idea in the 21st century, and shows no sign of diminished influence. As one fierce critic, British historian John Gray (b. 1948), concludes:[37]

Faith in the liberating power of knowledge is encrypted into modern life. Drawing on some of Europe’s most ancient traditions, and daily reinforced by the quickening advance of science, it cannot be given up by an act of will. The interaction of quickening scientific advance with unchanging human needs is a fate that we may perhaps temper, but cannot overcome… Those who hold to the possibility of progress need not fear. The illusion that through science humans can remake the world is an integral part of the modern condition. Renewing the eschatological hopes of the past, progress is an illusion with a future.

Recently the idea of progress has been generalized to psychology, being related with the concept of a goal, that is, progress is understood as “what counts as a means of advancing towards the end result of a given defined goal.”[38]

Historian J. B. Bury said that thought in ancient Greece was dominated by the theory of world-cycles or the doctrine of eternal return, and was steeped in a belief parallel to the Judaic “fall of man,” but rather from a preceding “Golden Age” of innocence and simplicity. Time was generally regarded as the enemy of humanity which depreciates the value of the world. He credits the Epicureans with having had a potential for leading to the foundation of a theory of progress through their materialistic acceptance of the atomism of Democritus as the explanation for a world without an intervening deity.

Robert Nisbet and Gertrude Himmelfarb have attributed a notion of progress to other Greeks. Xenophanes said “The gods did not reveal to men all things in the beginning, but men through their own search find in the course of time that which is better.” Plato’s Book III of The Laws depicts humanity’s progress from a state of nature to the higher levels of culture, economy, and polity. Plato’s The Statesman also outlines a historical account of the progress of mankind.

During the Medieval period, science was to a large extent based on Scholastic (a method of thinking and learning from the Middle Ages) interpretations of Aristotle’s work. The Renaissance of the 15th, 16th and 17th Centuries changed the mindset in Europe towards an empirical view, based on a pantheistic interpretation of Plato. This induced a revolution in curiosity about nature in general and scientific advance, which opened the gates for technical and economic advance. Furthermore, the individual potential was seen as a never-ending quest for being God-like, paving the way for a view of Man based on unlimited perfection and progress.[39]

In the Enlightenment, French historian and philosopher Voltaire (16941778) was a major proponent.[citation needed] At first Voltaire’s thought was informed by the idea of progress coupled with rationalism. His subsequent notion of the historical idea of progress saw science and reason as the driving forces behind societal advancement.

Immanuel Kant (17241804) argued that progress is neither automatic nor continuous and does not measure knowledge or wealth, but is a painful and largely inadvertent passage from barbarism through civilization toward enlightened culture and the abolition of war. Kant called for education, with the education of humankind seen as a slow process whereby world history propels mankind toward peace through war, international commerce, and enlightened self-interest.[40]

Scottish theorist Adam Ferguson (17231816) defined human progress as the working out of a divine plan, though he rejected predestination. The difficulties and dangers of life provided the necessary stimuli for human development, while the uniquely human ability to evaluate led to ambition and the conscious striving for excellence. But he never adequately analyzed the competitive and aggressive consequences stemming from his emphasis on ambition even though he envisioned man’s lot as a perpetual striving with no earthly culmination. Man found his happiness only in effort.[41]

Some scholars consider the idea of progress that was affirmed with the Enlightenment, as a secularization of ideas from early Christianity, and a reworking of ideas from ancient Greece.[42][43][44]

In the 19th century, Romantic critics charged that progress did not automatically better the human condition, and in some ways could make it worse.[45] Thomas Malthus (17661834) reacted against the concept of progress as set forth by William Godwin and Condorcet because he believed that inequality of conditions is “the best (state) calculated to develop the energies and faculties of man”. He said, “Had population and food increased in the same ratio, it is probable that man might never have emerged from the savage state”. He argued that man’s capacity for improvement has been demonstrated by the growth of his intellect, a form of progress which offsets the distresses engendered by the law of population.[46]

German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche (18441900) criticized the idea of progress as the ‘weakling’s doctrines of optimism,’ and advocated undermining concepts such as faith in progress, to allow the strong individual to stand above the plebeian masses. An important part of his thinking consists of the attempt to use the classical model of ‘eternal recurrence of the same’ to dislodge the idea of progress.[47]

Iggers (1965) argues there was general agreement in the late 19th century that the steady accumulation of knowledge and the progressive replacement of conjectural, that is, theological or metaphysical, notions by scientific ones was what created progress. Most scholars concluded this growth of scientific knowledge and methods led to the growth of industry and the transformation of warlike societies into an industrial and pacific one. They agreed as well that there had been a systematic decline of coercion in government, and an increasing role of liberty and of rule by consent. There was more emphasis on impersonal social and historical forces; progress was increasingly seen as the result of an inner logic of society.[48]

Marx developed a theory of historical materialism. He describes the mid-19th century condition in The Communist Manifesto as follows:

The bourgeoisie cannot exist without constantly revolutionizing the instruments of production, and thereby the relations of production, and with them the whole relations of society. Conservation of the old modes of production in unaltered form, was, on the contrary, the first condition of existence for all earlier industrial classes. Constant revolutionizing of production, uninterrupted disturbance of all social conditions, everlasting uncertainty, and agitation distinguish the bourgeois epoch from all earlier ones. All fixed, fast frozen relations, with their train of ancient and venerable prejudices and opinions, are swept away, all new-formed ones become antiquated before they can ossify. All that is solid melts into air, all which is holy is profaned, and man is at last compelled to face with sober senses his real condition of life and his relations with his kind.[49]

Furthermore, Marx described the process of social progress, which in his opinion is based on the interaction between the productive forces and the relations of production:

No social order is ever destroyed before all the productive forces for which it is sufficient have been developed, and new superior relations of production never replace older ones before the material conditions for their existence have matured within the framework of the old society.[50]

Capitalism is thought by Marx as a process of continual change, in which the growth of markets dissolve all fixities in human life, and Marx admits that capitalism is progressive and non-reactionary. Marxism further states that capitalism, in its quest for higher profits and new markets, will inevitably sow the seeds of its own destruction. Marxists believe that, in the future, capitalism will be replaced by socialism and eventually communism.

Many advocates of capitalism such as Schumpeter agreed with Marx’s analysis of capitalism as a process of continual change through creative destruction, but, unlike Marx, believed and hoped that capitalism could essentially go on forever.

Thus, by the beginning of the 20th century, two opposing schools of thoughtMarxism and liberalismbelieved in the possibility and the desirability of continual change and improvement. Marxists strongly opposed capitalism and the liberals strongly supported it, but the one concept they could both agree on was modernism, a trend of thought which affirms the power of human beings to make, improve and reshape their society, with the aid of scientific knowledge, technology and practical experimentation.

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Progress – Wikipedia

Progress Synonyms, Progress Antonyms | Thesaurus.com

If one were not a scientist one might be tempted to say there is no progress.

Prehistoric man, as I just told you, was on a fair way to progress.

From this point the progress will be best narrated by extracts from my Diary.

We talked of progress; but progress, like the philosopher’s stone, could not be easily attained.

From this strength we have contributed to the recovery and progress of the world.

Progress may be slowmeasured in inches and feet, not milesbut we will progress.

In no nation are the institutions of progress more advanced.

We do not dread, rather do we welcome, their progress in education and industry.

Start on this journey of progress and justice, and America will walk at your side.

It was characterized as “a policy of which peace, progress and retrenchment were the watchwords.”

Continued here:

Progress Synonyms, Progress Antonyms | Thesaurus.com

NAEP Nations Report Card – National Assessment of …

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Going Digital: NAEP Assessments for the Future

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NAEP Technology and Engineering Literacy Assessment Tutorial

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How to Use the NAEP Questions Tool

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NAEP 2016 Arts Overview and Results: Grade 8

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NAEP 2015 Science Results: Grades 4, 8, & 12

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Technology and Engineering Literacy: An Overview at Grade 8

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Students’ Experiences with Technology and Engineering Literacy (TEL)

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Technology and Engineering Literacy Scores by School Location

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Why NAEP Measures Technology and Engineering Literacy

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NAEP 2015 Mathematics and Reading Results: An Overview for Grade 12

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Private Schools and NAEP: A National Conversation

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An Introduction to the National Indian Education Study

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2013 Trial Urban District Assessment Summary

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2013 Trial Urban District Assessment Video Site Tour

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Are Students Making Progress in Mathematics and Reading?

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How Are State Performing in Mathematics and Reading?

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An Introduction to the NAEP 2013 Mathematics and Reading Results

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What Knowledge and Skills Do Students Have in Mathematics and Reading?

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2013 NAEP Mathematics and Reading: A Preview

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Exploring a TEL Task

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Inside America’s Math Courses

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An Introduction to the NAEP Technology and Engineering Literacy Assessment

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What Every Parent Should Know About NAEP

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NAEP 2011 Writing Computer-Based Assessment Results

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NAEP Writing Computer-Based Assessment Tutorial

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Science Takes Flight at NAEP Report Release

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Introducing NAEP to Teachers (2012)

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NAEP Science Hands-on Task Demonstration

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NAEP 2009 Science In Action Results

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Introducing NAEP to Students

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NAEP Data Explorer Overview

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NAEP 2009 Science TUDA Release Q&A

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NAEP for Teachers – 4th and 8th grade (2006)

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NAEP for Teachers – 12th grade (2006)

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NAEP Nations Report Card – National Assessment of …

The Progress

Heartburn is a common ailment, and often people treat it on their own, never discuss it with their doctor and go on to live completely normal, healthy lives. However, heartburn can be a serious problem if left untreated, and its important to recognize when this issue has gone from an occasi

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The Progress

Homepage – Center for American Progress

Building a Better Energy Future in Puerto Rico

A year after Hurricane Maria devastated Puerto Ricos electric grid, the commonwealth should adopt best practices for reliability, affordability, and emissions reductions from leading states.

The Effects of Universal Preschool in Washington, D.C.

In an era of skyrocketing child care prices, the District of Columbias offer of two years of free, high-quality preschool has been a game changer for working families.

A Snapshot of Turkish Public Opinion Toward the European Union

Turkish public opinion is hostile toward the European Union and may limit the potential of Ankaras recent attempts to reset relations with the Euro bloc.

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Homepage – Center for American Progress

Molecular Medicine – Graduate School of Biomedical …

The Department of Molecular Medicine in the Institute of Biotechnology (IBT) was established in 1994 to administer a program to train graduate students at the interface of basic and clinical sciences with an emphasis on biomedical research focused on discovering the molecular mechanisms underlying human disease and to serve as a platform for the development of novel treatment or prevention approaches. To date, our program has awarded over 120 doctoral degrees. Our graduates are placed in top-tier research universities and pharmaceutical companies across the United States and Europe. Our faculty have been successful in securing tens of millions of dollars from private and federal agencies including the National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, and the Department of Defense.

Now also located in the South Texas Research Facility (STRF), we offer a research-oriented, interdisciplinary program of study in the areas of cancer and aging and their prevention. Specific areas of study include: cell (and hormone) signaling, gene expression, epigenetics, cell cycle and checkpoint controls, DNA damage repair and associated stress responses, and regulated protein turnover. Under new leadership, Dr. Tim Huang is expanding our research to include a Systems approach to molecular medicine that offers students an integrated training program spanning molecular and cellular biology, quantitative biology, computational biology, and genomics.

Our goal is to educate and train the next generation of graduate students who will change the face of biomedical research and invent new ways to treat and prevent human diseases.

Molecular Medicine in the News

Graduate School Launches a New Masters in Personalized Molecular Medicine

The Masters program in Personalized Molecular Medicine (PMM) will uniquely position new graduates to join the work force with the skills necessary to participate fully in the next generation of patient-powered research and treatment. The PMM program will train students in current personalized medicine approaches as well as teach students the knowledge and skills required to explore molecular medicine pathways that will be targeted in the future to expand and refine personalized treatment strategies.

For more information, click here.

Dr. Thomas Boyer awarded NIH grants to study uterine fibroids

Thomas G. Boyer, Ph.D., professor of molecular medicine at UT Health San Antonio, has received two related NIH R01 grants to study uterine leiomyomas, also called uterine fibroids.

The first grant was for $1.56 million; the most recent, a five-year award for $3.8 million, was a multi-PI grant to Dr. Boyer and Ayman Al-Hendy, M.D., Ph.D., a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of Illinois at Chicago.

Both awards have been made possible by a productive, ongoing collaboration with Dr. Robert Schenken and his team in the Department of OB/GYN here at UT Health San Antonio, said Dr. Boyer.

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Uncovering clues in BRCA1 breast cancer gene

Dr. Rong Li and his colleagues are changing the paradigm of how BRCA1 suppresses tumors

When Rong Li, Ph.D., transferred his laboratory to UT Health San Antonio, he finally felt he was making real progress in breast cancer research.

I was trained as a molecular biologist, and I studied the fundamental cellular processes in a lab setting, says Li, a professor of molecular medicine who left his faculty position at the University of Virginia in 2007. But I felt unsatisfied because I wanted to connect my lab findings more closely to human health.

At UT Health, he found the opportunity to collaborate with physician scientists, both at the international level and closer to home. UT Health breast oncologists Ismail Jatoi, M.D., and Richard Elledge, M.D., as well as plastic and reconstructive surgeon Dr. Howard Wang, M.D., have offered cross-disciplinary support, and some of their patients donate breast tissue samples for Lis research.

The story is continued here.

Recent Publications with High Impact Factors

*L. Hulea, *S.P. Gravel, *M. Morita, M. Cargnello, O. Uchenunu, Y.K. Im, C. Lehud, E.H. Ma, M. Leibovitch, S. McLaughlan, M.J. Blouin, M. Parisotto, V. Papavasiliou, C. Lavoie, O. Larsson, M. Ohh, T. Ferreira, C. Greenwood, G. Bridon, D. Avizonis, G. Ferbeyre, P. Siegel, R.G. Jones, W. Muller, J. Ursini-Siegel, J. St-Pierre, M. Pollak, I. Topisirovic. (2018) Translational and HIF-1-Dependent Metabolic Reprogramming Underpin Metabolic Plasticity and Responses to Kinase Inhibitors and Biguanides, Cell Metabolism. 2018 September 20. Online. *Co-First authors.

Seol JH, Holland C, Li X, Kim C, Li F, Medina-Rivera M, Eichmiller R, Gallardo IF, Finkelstein IJ, Hasty P, Shim EY, Surtees JA, Lee SE. (2018) Distinct roles of XPF-ERCC1 and Rad1-Rad10-Saw1 in replication-coupled and uncoupled inter-strand crosslink repair. Nat Commun. 2018 May 23;9(1):2025. doi:10.1038/s41467-018-04327-0. PubMed PMID: 29795289.

Patel MJ, Tripathy S, De Mukhopadhyay K, Wangjam T, Cabang AB, Morris J, Wargovich MJ. (2018) A Supercritical Co2 Extract of Neem Leaf (A. indica) and its Bioactive Liminoid, Nimbolide, Suppresses Colon Cancer in Preclinical Models by Modulating Pro-inflammatory Pathways. Mol Carcinogenesis. 2018 Apr 26. doi: 10.1002/mc.22832. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 29697164

Park MJ, Shen H, Spaeth JM, Tolvanen JH, Failor C, Knudtson JF, McLaughlin J, Halder SK, Yang Q, Bulun SE, Al-Hendy A, Schenken RS, Aaltonen LA, Boyer TG. (2018) Oncogenic exon 2 mutations in Mediator subunit MED12 disrupt allosteric activation of cyclin C-CDK8/19. J Biol Chem. 2018 Mar 30; 293(13):4870-4882. doi: 10.1074/jbc.RA118.001725. Epub 2018 Feb 13.

Chen H, Shen F, Sherban A, Nocon A, Li Y, Wang H, Xu MJ, Rui X, Han J, Jiang B, Lee D, Li N, Keyhani-Nejad F, Fan JG, Liu F, Kamat A, Musi N, Guarente L, Pacher P, Gao B, Zang M. (2018) DEP domain-containing mTOR-interacting protein suppresses lipogenesis and ameliorates hepatic steatosis and acute-on-chronic liver injury in alcoholic liver disease. Hepatology. 2018 Feb 19. doi: 10.1002/hep.29849. [Epub ahead of print]

Recently Awarded Grants

Early Detection of Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer by Assessing Interactions Between Circulating Tumor Cells and Accompanying Immune CellsDOD (CDMRP-PCRP), 9/1/18, $915,000Tim Huang, Ph.D., Maria Gaczynska, Ph.D.

Mechanisms of Error Prone Repair of DNA breaksNIH – National Institute of General Medical Sciences, 8/1/18, $1,250,500Sang Eun Lee, Ph.D.

2018 Young Investigator AwardThe Max and Minnie Tomerlin Voelcker Fund, 6/30/2018, $450,000Myron Ignatius, Ph.D.

Combating protein-misfolding diseasesWilliam & Ella Owens Foundation of America, 3/1/18, $100,000Hai Rao, Ph.D.

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Molecular Medicine – Graduate School of Biomedical …

Molecular medicine – Wikipedia

Molecular medicine is a broad field, where physical, chemical, biological, bioinformatics and medical techniques are used to describe molecular structures and mechanisms, identify fundamental molecular and genetic errors of disease, and to develop molecular interventions to correct them.[1] The molecular medicine perspective emphasizes cellular and molecular phenomena and interventions rather than the previous conceptual and observational focus on patients and their organs.[2]

In November 1949, with the seminal paper, “Sickle Cell Anemia, a Molecular Disease”,[3] in Science magazine, Linus Pauling, Harvey Itano and their collaborators laid the groundwork for establishing the field of molecular medicine.[4] In 1956, Roger J. Williams wrote Biochemical Individuality,[5] a prescient book about genetics, prevention and treatment of disease on a molecular basis, and nutrition which is now variously referred to as individualized medicine[6] and orthomolecular medicine.[7] Another paper in Science by Pauling in 1968,[8] introduced and defined this view of molecular medicine that focuses on natural and nutritional substances used for treatment and prevention.

Published research and progress was slow until the 1970s’ “biological revolution” that introduced many new techniques and commercial applications.[9]

Some researchers separate molecular surgery as a compartment of molecular medicine.[10]

Molecular medicine is a new scientific discipline in European universities.[citation needed] Combining contemporary medical studies with the field of biochemistry, it offers a bridge between the two subjects. At present only a handful of universities offer the course to undergraduates. With a degree in this discipline the graduate is able to pursue a career in medical sciences, scientific research, laboratory work and postgraduate medical degrees.

Core subjects are similar to biochemistry courses and typically include gene expression, research methods, proteins, cancer research, immunology, biotechnology and many more. In some universities molecular medicine is combined with another discipline such as chemistry, functioning as an additional study to enrich the undergraduate program.

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Molecular medicine – Wikipedia

Progress – definition of progress by The Free Dictionary

Ah, yes, I see,” said the Attorney, thoughtfully, “we are making progress – we are getting on famously.Objection That The Number of Members Will Not Be Augmented as the Progress of Population Demands Considered For the Independent Journal Wednesday, February 20, 1788All the well-known people of that period, from Alexander and Napoleon to Madame de Stael, Photius, Schelling, Fichte, Chateaubriand, and the rest, pass before their stern judgment seat and are acquitted or condemned according to whether they conduced to progress or to reaction.Three years later he was again imprisoned for six months, and it was at that time that he composed the first part of ‘The Pilgrim’s Progress,’ which was published in 1678.To his intense chagrin he soon found that his leg was more badly injured than he had thought, and that its condition seriously impeded his progress.An incorrigible mankind hardens its heart in the progress of its own perfectability.President and Directors, the sentiment of the masses of my race when I say that in no way have the value and manhood of the American Negro been more fittingly and generously recognized than by the managers of this magnificent Exposition at every stage of its progress.Bold in his conceptions, he contributed powerfully to the progress of that arm and gave an immense impetus to experimental researches.The disciplined armies always kept on foot on the continent of Europe, though they bear a malignant aspect to liberty and economy, have, notwithstanding, been productive of the signal advantage of rendering sudden conquests impracticable, and of preventing that rapid desolation which used to mark the progress of war prior to their introduction.Real progress was made and the boy’s calculations were faultless.One would have thought he must have understood that society was closed for him and Anna; but now some vague ideas had sprung up in his brain that this was only the case in old-fashioned days, and that now with the rapidity of modern progress (he had unconsciously become by now a partisan of every sort of progress) the views of society had changed, and that the question whether they would be received in society was not a foregone conclusion.Without premeditation, without sorrow, without rejoicing, and almost without noticing it, I stepped into the very different atmosphere of “An Outpost of Progress.

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Progress – definition of progress by The Free Dictionary

Progress Synonyms, Progress Antonyms | Thesaurus.com

If one were not a scientist one might be tempted to say there is no progress.

Prehistoric man, as I just told you, was on a fair way to progress.

From this point the progress will be best narrated by extracts from my Diary.

We talked of progress; but progress, like the philosopher’s stone, could not be easily attained.

From this strength we have contributed to the recovery and progress of the world.

Progress may be slowmeasured in inches and feet, not milesbut we will progress.

In no nation are the institutions of progress more advanced.

We do not dread, rather do we welcome, their progress in education and industry.

It was characterized as “a policy of which peace, progress and retrenchment were the watchwords.”

Start on this journey of progress and justice, and America will walk at your side.

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Progress Synonyms, Progress Antonyms | Thesaurus.com

Progress – Wikipedia

Progress is the idea that advances in technology, science, and social organization can produce an improvement in the human condition, and therefore that entire societies, and humanity in general, can improve in terms of their social, political, and economic structures. This may happen as a result of direct human action, as in social enterprise or through activism, or as a natural part of sociocultural evolution.

The concept of progress was introduced in the early 19th century social theories, especially social evolution as described by Auguste Comte and Herbert Spencer. It was present in the Enlightenment’s philosophies of history. As a goal, social progress has been advocated by varying realms of political ideologies with different theories on how it is to be achieved.

Specific indicators for measuring progress can range from economic data, technical innovations, change in the political or legal system, and questions bearing on individual life chances, such as life expectancy and risk of disease and disability.

GDP growth has become a key orientation for politics and is often taken as a key figure to evaluate a politician’s performance. However, GDP has a number of flaws that make it a bad measure of progress, especially for developed countries. For example, environmental damage is not taken into account nor is the sustainability of economic activity. Wikiprogress has been set up to share information on evaluating societal progress. It aims to facilitate the exchange of ideas, initiatives and knowledge. HumanProgress.org is another online resource that seeks to compile data on different measures of societal progress.

The Social Progress Index is a tool developed by the International Organization Imperative Social Progress, which measures the extent to which countries cover social and environmental needs of its citizenry. There are fifty-two indicators in three areas or dimensions: Basic Human Needs, and Foundations of Wellbeing and Opportunities which show the relative performance of nations.

Indices that can be used to measure progress include:

Scientific progress is the idea that the scientific community learns more over time, which causes a body of scientific knowledge to accumulate.[1] The chemists in the 19th century knew less about chemistry than the chemists in the 20th century, and they in turn knew less than the chemists in the 21st century. Looking forward, today’s chemists reasonably expect that chemists in future centuries will know more than they do.[1]

This process differs from non-science fields, such as human languages or history: the people who spoke a now-extinct language, or who lived through a historical time period, can be said to have known different things from the scholars who studied it later, but they cannot be said to know less about their lives than the modern scholars.[1] Some valid knowledge is lost through the passage of time, and other knowledge is gained, with the result that the non-science fields do not make scientific progress towards understanding their subject areas.[1]

From the 18th century through late 20th century, the history of science, especially of the physical and biological sciences, was often presented as a progressive accumulation of knowledge, in which true theories replaced false beliefs.[2] Some more recent historical interpretations, such as those of Thomas Kuhn, tend to portray the history of science in terms of competing paradigms or conceptual systems in a wider matrix of intellectual, cultural, economic and political trends. These interpretations, however, have met with opposition for they also portray the history of science as an incoherent system of incommensurable paradigms, not leading to any scientific progress, but only to the illusion of progress.[3]

Aspects of social progress, as described by Condorcet, have included the disappearance of slavery, the rise of literacy, the lessening of inequalities between the sexes, reforms of harsh prisons and the decline of poverty.[4]

How progress improved the degraded status of women in traditional society was a major theme of historians starting in the Enlightenment and continuing to today.[5] British theorists William Robertson (17211793) and Edmund Burke (17291797), along with many of their contemporaries, remained committed to Christian- and republican-based conceptions of virtue, while working within a new Enlightenment paradigm. The political agenda related beauty, taste, and morality to the imperatives and needs of modern societies of a high level of sophistication and differentiation. Two themes in the work of Robertson and Burkethe nature of women in ‘savage’ and ‘civilized’ societies and ‘beauty in distress’reveals how long-held convictions about the character of women, especially with regard to their capacity and right to appear in the public domain, were modified and adjusted to the idea of progress and became central to an enlightened affirmation of modern European civilization.[6]

Classics experts have examined the status of women in the ancient world, concluding that in the Roman Empire, with its superior social organization, internal peace, and rule of law, allowed women to enjoy a somewhat better standing than in ancient Greece, where women were distinctly inferior.[7] The inferior status of women in traditional China has raised the issue of whether the idea of progress requires a thoroughgoing reject of traditionalisma belief held by many Chinese reformers in the early 20th century.[8]

Historians Leo Marx and Bruce Mazlish asking, “Should we in fact abandon the idea of progress as a view of the past,” answer that there is no doubt “that the status of women has improved markedly” in cultures that have adopted the Enlightenment idea of progress.[9]

Modernization was promoted by classical liberals in the 19th and 20th centuries, who called for the rapid modernization of the economy and society to remove the traditional hindrances to free markets and free movements of people.[10] During the Enlightenment in Europe social commentators and philosophers began to realize that people themselves could change society and change their way of life. Instead of being made completely by gods, there was increasing room for the idea that people themselves made their own societyand not only that, as Giambattista Vico argued, because people made their own society, they could also fully comprehend it. This gave rise to new sciences, or proto-sciences, which claimed to provide new scientific knowledge about what society was like, and how one may change it for the better.[11]

In turn, this gave rise to progressive opinion, in contrast with conservational opinion. The social conservationists were skeptical about panaceas for social ills. According to conservatives, attempts to radically remake society normally make things worse. Edmund Burke was the leading exponent of this, although later-day liberals like Hayek have espoused similar views. They argue that society changes organically and naturally, and that grand plans for the remaking of society, like the French Revolution, National Socialism and Communism hurt society by removing the traditional constraints on the exercise of power.

The scientific advances of the 16th and 17th centuries provided a basis for Francis Bacon’s book the New Atlantis. In the 17th century, Bernard le Bovier de Fontenelle described progress with respect to arts and the sciences, saying that each age has the advantage of not having to rediscover what was accomplished in preceding ages. The epistemology of John Locke provided further support and was popularized by the Encyclopedists Diderot, Holbach, and Condorcet. Locke had a powerful influence on the American Founding Fathers.[12] The first complete statement of progress is that of Turgot, in his “A Philosophical Review of the Successive Advances of the Human Mind” (1750). For Turgot, progress covers not only the arts and sciences but, on their base, the whole of culturemanner, mores, institutions, legal codes, economy, and society. Condorcet predicted the disappearance of slavery, the rise of literacy, the lessening of inequalities between the sexes, reforms of harsh prisons and the decline of poverty.[13]

John Stuart Mill’s (18061873) ethical and political thought demonstrated faith in the power of ideas and of intellectual education for improving human nature or behavior. For those who do not share this faith the idea of progress becomes questionable.[14]

Alfred Marshall (18421924), a British economist of the early 20th century, was a proponent of classical liberalism. In his highly influential Principles of Economics (1890), he was deeply interested in human progress and in what is now called sustainable development. For Marshall, the importance of wealth lay in its ability to promote the physical, mental, and moral health of the general population.[15] After World War II, the modernization and development programs undertaken in the Third World were typically based on the idea of progress.[16]

In Russia the notion of progress was first imported from the West by Peter the Great (16721725). An absolute ruler, he used the concept to modernize Russia and to legitimize his monarchy (unlike its usage in Western Europe, where it was primarily associated with political opposition). By the early 19th century, the notion of progress was being taken up by Russian intellectuals and was no longer accepted as legitimate by the tsars. Four schools of thought on progress emerged in 19th-century Russia: conservative (reactionary), religious, liberal, and socialistthe latter winning out in the form of Bolshevist materialism.[17]

The intellectual leaders of the American Revolution, such as Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Paine, Thomas Jefferson and John Adams, were immersed in Enlightenment thought and believed the idea of progress meant that they could reorganize the political system to the benefit of the human condition; both for Americans and also, as Jefferson put it, for an “Empire of Liberty” that would benefit all mankind.[18]

Juan Bautista Alberdi (18101884) was one of the most influential political theorists in Argentina. Economic liberalism was the key to his idea of progress. He promoted faith in progress, while chiding fellow Latin Americans for blind copying of American and European models. He hoped for progress through promotion of immigration, education, and a moderate type of federalism and republicanism that might serve as a transition in Argentina to true democracy.[19]

In Mexico, Jose Mora (17951856) was a leader of classical liberalism in the first generation after independence, leading the battle against the conservative trinity of the army, the church, and the hacendados. He envisioned progress as both a process of human development by the search for philosophical truth and as the introduction of an era of material prosperity by technological advancement. His plan for Mexican reform demanded a republican government bolstered by widespread popular education free of clerical control, confiscation and sale of ecclesiastical lands as a means of redistributing income and clearing government debts, and effective control of a reduced military force by the government. Mora also demanded the establishment of legal equality between native Mexicans and foreign residents. His program, untried in his lifetime, became the key element in the Mexican Constitution of 1857.[20]

In Italy, the idea that progress in science and technology would lead to solutions for human ills was connected to the nationalism that united the country in 1860. The Piedmontese Prime Minister Camillo Cavour envisaged the railways as a major factor in the modernization and unification of the Italian peninsula. The new Kingdom of Italy, formed in 1861, worked to speed up the processes of modernization and industrialization that had begun in the north, but were slow to arrive in the Papal States and central Italy, and were nowhere in sight in the “Mezzogiorno” (that is, Southern Italy, Sicily, and Sardinia). The government sought to combat the backwardness of the poorer regions in the south and work towards augmenting the size and quality of the newly created Italian army so that it could compete on an equal footing with the powerful nations of Europe. In the same period, the government was legislating in favour of public education to fight the great problem of illiteracy, upgrade the teaching classes, improve existing schools, and procure the funds needed for social hygiene and care of the body as factors in the physical and moral regeneration of the race.[21]

In China, in the 20th century the KMT or Nationalist party, which ruled from the 1920s to the 1940s, advocated progress. The Communists under Mao Zedong adopted western models and their ruinous projects caused mass famines. After Mao’s death, however, the new regime led by Deng Xiaoping (19041997) and his successors aggressively promoted modernization of the economy using capitalist models and imported western technology.[22]

Among environmentalists, there is a continuum between two opposing poles. The one pole is optimistic, progressive, and business-oriented, and endorses the classic idea of progress. For example, bright green environmentalism endorses the idea that new designs, social innovations and green technologies can solve critical environmental challenges. The other is pessimistic in respect of technological solutions,[23] warning of impending global crisis (through climate change or peak oil, for example) and tends to reject the very idea of modernity and the myth of progress that is so central to modernization thinking.[24] Similarly, Kirkpatrick Sale, wrote about progress as a myth benefiting the few, and a pending environmental doomsday for everyone.[25] An example is the philosophy of Deep Ecology.

Sociologist Robert Nisbet said that “No single idea has been more important than … the Idea of Progress in Western civilization for three thousand years”,[26] and defines five “crucial premises” of the idea of progress:

Sociologist P. A. Sorokin said, “The ancient Chinese, Babylonian, Hindu, Greek, Roman, and most of the medieval thinkers supporting theories of rhythmical, cyclical or trendless movements of social processes were much nearer to reality than the present proponents of the linear view”.[27] Unlike Confucianism and to a certain extent Taoism, that both search for an ideal past, the Judeo-Christian-Islamic tradition believes in the fulfillment of history, which was translated into the idea of progress in the modern age. Therefore, Chinese proponents of modernization have looked to western models. According to Thompson, the late Qing dynasty reformer, Kang Youwei, believed he had found a model for reform and “modernisation” in the Ancient Chinese Classics.[28]

Philosopher Karl Popper said that progress was not fully adequate as a scientific explanation of social phenomena.[29]More recently, Kirkpatrick Sale, a self-proclaimed neo-luddite author, wrote exclusively about progress as a myth, in an essay entitled “Five Facets of a Myth”.[30]

Iggers (1965) says that proponents of progress underestimated the extent of man’s destructiveness and irrationality, while critics misunderstand the role of rationality and morality in human behavior.[31]

In 1946, psychoanalyst Charles Baudouin claimed modernity has retained the “corollary” of the progress myth, the idea that the present is superior to the past, while at the same time insisting that it is free of the myth:

The last two centuries were familiar with the myth of progress. Our own century has adopted the myth of modernity. The one myth has replaced the other. …

Men ceased to believe in progress; but only to pin their faith to more tangible realities, whose sole original significance had been that they were the instruments of progress. ..

This exaltation of the present … is a corollary of that very faith in progress which people claim to have discarded. The present is superior to the past, by definition, only in a mythology of progress. Thus one retains the corollary while rejecting the principle. There is only one way of retaining a position of whose instability one is conscious. One must simply refrain from thinking.[32]

A cyclical theory of history was adopted by Oswald Spengler (18801936), a German historian who wrote The Decline of the West in 1920. World War I, World War II, and the rise of totalitarianism demonstrated that progress was not automatic and that technological improvement did not necessarily guarantee democracy and moral advancement. British historian Arnold J. Toynbee (18891975) felt that Christianity would help modern civilization overcome its challenges.[33]

The Jeffersonians said that history is not exhausted but that man may begin again in a new world. Besides rejecting the lessons of the past, they Americanized the idea of progress by democratizing and vulgarizing it to include the welfare of the common man as a form of republicanism. As Romantics deeply concerned with the past, collecting source materials and founding historical societies, the Founding Fathers were animated by clear principles. They saw man in control of his destiny, saw virtue as a distinguishing characteristic of a republic, and were concerned with happiness, progress, and prosperity. Thomas Paine, combining the spirit of rationalism and romanticism, pictured a time when America’s innocence would sound like a romance, and concluded that the fall of America could mark the end of ‘the noblest work of human wisdom.'[34]

Historian J. B. Bury wrote in 1920:[35]

To the minds of most people the desirable outcome of human development would be a condition of society in which all the inhabitants of the planet would enjoy a perfectly happy existence….It cannot be proved that the unknown destination towards which man is advancing is desirable. The movement may be Progress, or it may be in an undesirable direction and therefore not Progress….. The Progress of humanity belongs to the same order of ideas as Providence or personal immortality. It is true or it is false, and like them it cannot be proved either true or false. Belief in it is an act of faith.

In the postmodernist thought steadily gaining ground from the 1980s, the grandiose claims of the modernizers are steadily eroded, and the very concept of social progress is again questioned and scrutinized. In the new vision, radical modernizers like Joseph Stalin and Mao Zedong appear as totalitarian despots, whose vision of social progress is held to be totally deformed. Postmodernists question the validity of 19th century and 20th century notions of progressboth on the capitalist and the Marxist side of the spectrum. They argue that both capitalism and Marxism over-emphasize technological achievements and material prosperity while ignoring the value of inner happiness and peace of mind. Postmodernism posits that both dystopia and utopia are one and the same, overarching grand narratives with impossible conclusions.

Some 20th-century authors refer to the “Myth of Progress” to refer to the idea that the human condition will inevitably improve. In 1932, English physician Montague David Eder wrote: “The myth of progress states that civilization has moved, is moving, and will move in a desirable direction. Progress is inevitable… Philosophers, men of science and politicians have accepted the idea of the inevitability of progress.”[36] Eder argues that the advancement of civilization is leading to greater unhappiness and loss of control in the environment. The strongest critics of the idea of progress complain that it remains a dominant idea in the 21st century, and shows no sign of diminished influence. As one fierce critic, British historian John Gray (b. 1948), concludes:[37]

Faith in the liberating power of knowledge is encrypted into modern life. Drawing on some of Europe’s most ancient traditions, and daily reinforced by the quickening advance of science, it cannot be given up by an act of will. The interaction of quickening scientific advance with unchanging human needs is a fate that we may perhaps temper, but cannot overcome… Those who hold to the possibility of progress need not fear. The illusion that through science humans can remake the world is an integral part of the modern condition. Renewing the eschatological hopes of the past, progress is an illusion with a future.

Recently the idea of progress has been generalized to psychology, being related with the concept of a goal, that is, progress is understood as “what counts as a means of advancing towards the end result of a given defined goal.”[38]

Historian J. B. Bury said that thought in ancient Greece was dominated by the theory of world-cycles or the doctrine of eternal return, and was steeped in a belief parallel to the Judaic “fall of man,” but rather from a preceding “Golden Age” of innocence and simplicity. Time was generally regarded as the enemy of humanity which depreciates the value of the world. He credits the Epicureans with having had a potential for leading to the foundation of a theory of progress through their materialistic acceptance of the atomism of Democritus as the explanation for a world without an intervening deity.

Robert Nisbet and Gertrude Himmelfarb have attributed a notion of progress to other Greeks. Xenophanes said “The gods did not reveal to men all things in the beginning, but men through their own search find in the course of time that which is better.” Plato’s Book III of The Laws depicts humanity’s progress from a state of nature to the higher levels of culture, economy, and polity. Plato’s The Statesman also outlines a historical account of the progress of mankind.

During the Medieval period, science was to a large extent based on Scholastic (a method of thinking and learning from the Middle Ages) interpretations of Aristotle’s work. The Renaissance of the 15th, 16th and 17th Centuries changed the mindset in Europe towards an empirical view, based on a pantheistic interpretation of Plato. This induced a revolution in curiosity about nature in general and scientific advance, which opened the gates for technical and economic advance. Furthermore, the individual potential was seen as a never-ending quest for being God-like, paving the way for a view of Man based on unlimited perfection and progress.[39]

In the Enlightenment, French historian and philosopher Voltaire (16941778) was a major proponent.[citation needed] At first Voltaire’s thought was informed by the idea of progress coupled with rationalism. His subsequent notion of the historical idea of progress saw science and reason as the driving forces behind societal advancement.

Immanuel Kant (17241804) argued that progress is neither automatic nor continuous and does not measure knowledge or wealth, but is a painful and largely inadvertent passage from barbarism through civilization toward enlightened culture and the abolition of war. Kant called for education, with the education of humankind seen as a slow process whereby world history propels mankind toward peace through war, international commerce, and enlightened self-interest.[40]

Scottish theorist Adam Ferguson (17231816) defined human progress as the working out of a divine plan, though he rejected predestination. The difficulties and dangers of life provided the necessary stimuli for human development, while the uniquely human ability to evaluate led to ambition and the conscious striving for excellence. But he never adequately analyzed the competitive and aggressive consequences stemming from his emphasis on ambition even though he envisioned man’s lot as a perpetual striving with no earthly culmination. Man found his happiness only in effort.[41]

Some scholars consider the idea of progress that was affirmed with the Enlightenment, as a secularization of ideas from early Christianity, and a reworking of ideas from ancient Greece.[42][43][44]

In the 19th century, Romantic critics charged that progress did not automatically better the human condition, and in some ways could make it worse.[45] Thomas Malthus (17661834) reacted against the concept of progress as set forth by William Godwin and Condorcet because he believed that inequality of conditions is “the best (state) calculated to develop the energies and faculties of man”. He said, “Had population and food increased in the same ratio, it is probable that man might never have emerged from the savage state”. He argued that man’s capacity for improvement has been demonstrated by the growth of his intellect, a form of progress which offsets the distresses engendered by the law of population.[46]

German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche (18441900) criticized the idea of progress as the ‘weakling’s doctrines of optimism,’ and advocated undermining concepts such as faith in progress, to allow the strong individual to stand above the plebeian masses. An important part of his thinking consists of the attempt to use the classical model of ‘eternal recurrence of the same’ to dislodge the idea of progress.[47]

Iggers (1965) argues there was general agreement in the late 19th century that the steady accumulation of knowledge and the progressive replacement of conjectural, that is, theological or metaphysical, notions by scientific ones was what created progress. Most scholars concluded this growth of scientific knowledge and methods led to the growth of industry and the transformation of warlike societies into an industrial and pacific one. They agreed as well that there had been a systematic decline of coercion in government, and an increasing role of liberty and of rule by consent. There was more emphasis on impersonal social and historical forces; progress was increasingly seen as the result of an inner logic of society.[48]

Marx developed a theory of historical materialism. He describes the mid-19th century condition in The Communist Manifesto as follows:

The bourgeoisie cannot exist without constantly revolutionizing the instruments of production, and thereby the relations of production, and with them the whole relations of society. Conservation of the old modes of production in unaltered form, was, on the contrary, the first condition of existence for all earlier industrial classes. Constant revolutionizing of production, uninterrupted disturbance of all social conditions, everlasting uncertainty, and agitation distinguish the bourgeois epoch from all earlier ones. All fixed, fast frozen relations, with their train of ancient and venerable prejudices and opinions, are swept away, all new-formed ones become antiquated before they can ossify. All that is solid melts into air, all which is holy is profaned, and man is at last compelled to face with sober senses his real condition of life and his relations with his kind.[49]

Furthermore, Marx described the process of social progress, which in his opinion is based on the interaction between the productive forces and the relations of production:

No social order is ever destroyed before all the productive forces for which it is sufficient have been developed, and new superior relations of production never replace older ones before the material conditions for their existence have matured within the framework of the old society.[50]

Capitalism is thought by Marx as a process of continual change, in which the growth of markets dissolve all fixities in human life, and Marx admits that capitalism is progressive and non-reactionary. Marxism further states that capitalism, in its quest for higher profits and new markets, will inevitably sow the seeds of its own destruction. Marxists believe that, in the future, capitalism will be replaced by socialism and eventually communism.

Many advocates of capitalism such as Schumpeter agreed with Marx’s analysis of capitalism as a process of continual change through creative destruction, but, unlike Marx, believed and hoped that capitalism could essentially go on forever.

Thus, by the beginning of the 20th century, two opposing schools of thoughtMarxism and liberalismbelieved in the possibility and the desirability of continual change and improvement. Marxists strongly opposed capitalism and the liberals strongly supported it, but the one concept they could both agree on was modernism, a trend of thought which affirms the power of human beings to make, improve and reshape their society, with the aid of scientific knowledge, technology and practical experimentation.

The history of the idea of Progress has been treated briefly and partially by various French writers; e.g. Comte, Cours de philosophie positive, vi. 321 sqq.; Buchez, Introduction a la science de l’histoire, i. 99 sqq. (ed. 2, 1842); Javary, De l’idee de progres (1850); Rigault, Histoire de la querelle des Anciens et des Modernes (1856); Bouillier, Histoire de la philosophie cartesienne (1854); Caro, Problemes de la morale sociale (1876); Brunetiere, “La Formation de l’idee de progres”, in Etudes critiques, 5e serie. More recently M. Jules Delvaille has attempted to trace its history fully, down to the end of the eighteenth century. His Histoire de l’idee de progres (1910) is planned on a large scale; he is erudite and has read extensively. But his treatment is lacking in the power of discrimination. He strikes one as anxious to bring within his net, as theoriciens du progres, as many distinguished thinkers as possible; and so, along with a great deal that is useful and relevant, we also find in his book much that is irrelevant. He has not clearly seen that the distinctive idea of Progress was not conceived in antiquity or in the Middle Ages, or even in the Renaissance period; and when he comes to modern times he fails to bring out clearly the decisive steps of its growth. And he does not seem to realize that a man might be “progressive” without believing in, or even thinking about, the doctrine of Progress. Leonardo da Vinci and Berkeley are examples. In my Ancient Greek Historians (1909) I dwelt on the modern origin of the idea (p. 253 sqq.). Recently Mr. R. H. Murray, in a learned appendix to his Erasmus and Luther, has developed the thesis that Progress was not grasped in antiquity (though he makes an exception of Seneca),a welcome confirmation.

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Progress – Wikipedia

The Progress – Official Site

…TROPICAL REMNANTS OF FLORENCE TO RENEW FLOOD RISK ACROSSCENTRAL PENNSYLVANIA THROUGH TUESDAY MORNING……FLASH FLOOD WATCH REMAINS IN EFFECT THROUGH TUESDAY MORNING…THE FLASH FLOOD WATCH CONTINUES FOR* A PORTION OF CENTRAL PENNSYLVANIA, INCLUDING THE FOLLOWINGAREAS, BEDFORD, BLAIR, CAMBRIA, CAMERON, CLEARFIELD, ELK,FULTON, HUNTINGDON, MCKEAN, NORTHERN CENTRE, NORTHERN CLINTON,NORTHERN LYCOMING, POTTER, SOMERSET, SOUTHERN CENTRE, SOUTHERNCLINTON, AND TIOGA.* THROUGH TUESDAY MORNING* WIDESPREAD MODERATE TO LOCALLY HEAVY RAIN IS EXPECTED THROUGHMONDAY NIGHT. RAINFALL AMOUNTS OF 1 TO 2 INCHES ARE EXPECTED BYTUESDAY MORNING, WITH LOCALLY HIGHER AMOUNTS OVER 3 INCHESPOSSIBLE.* THE COMBINATION OF VERY WET PRECEDING CONDITIONS WITH HIGHSTREAMFLOWS AND FORECAST RAINFALL WILL SUPPORT AN INCREASED RISKOF FLOODING, ESPECIALLY FOR URBAN AREAS, SMALL STREAMS ANDCREEKS, AND AREAS THAT HAVE EXPERIENCED FLOODING IN RECENTWEEKS.PRECAUTIONARY/PREPAREDNESS ACTIONS…REVIEW FLOOD SAFETY AND PREPAREDNESS INFORMATION ATWEATHER.GOV/FLOOD.&&

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The Progress – Official Site

Progress | Definition of Progress by Merriam-Webster

1a(1) : a royal journey marked by pomp and pageant

(2) : a state procession

b : a tour or circuit made by an official (such as a judge)

c : an expedition, journey, or march through a region

2 : a forward or onward movement (as to an objective or to a goal) : advance

3 : gradual betterment especially : the progressive development of humankind

progressed; progressing; progresses

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Progress | Definition of Progress by Merriam-Webster

Progress Synonyms, Progress Antonyms | Thesaurus.com

If one were not a scientist one might be tempted to say there is no progress.

Prehistoric man, as I just told you, was on a fair way to progress.

From this point the progress will be best narrated by extracts from my Diary.

We talked of progress; but progress, like the philosopher’s stone, could not be easily attained.

From this strength we have contributed to the recovery and progress of the world.

Progress may be slowmeasured in inches and feet, not milesbut we will progress.

In no nation are the institutions of progress more advanced.

We do not dread, rather do we welcome, their progress in education and industry.

Start on this journey of progress and justice, and America will walk at your side.

It was characterized as “a policy of which peace, progress and retrenchment were the watchwords.”

Original post:

Progress Synonyms, Progress Antonyms | Thesaurus.com

Progress Synonyms, Progress Antonyms | Thesaurus.com

If one were not a scientist one might be tempted to say there is no progress.

Prehistoric man, as I just told you, was on a fair way to progress.

From this point the progress will be best narrated by extracts from my Diary.

We talked of progress; but progress, like the philosopher’s stone, could not be easily attained.

From this strength we have contributed to the recovery and progress of the world.

Progress may be slowmeasured in inches and feet, not milesbut we will progress.

In no nation are the institutions of progress more advanced.

It was characterized as “a policy of which peace, progress and retrenchment were the watchwords.”

We do not dread, rather do we welcome, their progress in education and industry.

Start on this journey of progress and justice, and America will walk at your side.

Read the original post:

Progress Synonyms, Progress Antonyms | Thesaurus.com


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