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Travel – Wikipedia

Travel is the movement of people between distant geographical locations. Travel can be done by foot, bicycle, automobile, train, boat, bus, airplane, ship or other means, with or without luggage, and can be one way or round trip.[1][2] Travel can also include relatively short stays between successive movements.

The origin of the word “travel” is most likely lost to history. The term “travel” may originate from the Old French word travail, which means ‘work’.[3] According to the Merriam Webster dictionary, the first known use of the word travel was in the 14th century. It also states that the word comes from Middle English travailen, travelen (which means to torment, labor, strive, journey) and earlier from Old French travailler (which means to work strenuously, toil). In English we still occasionally use the words “travail”, which means struggle. According to Simon Winchester in his book The Best Travelers’ Tales (2004), the words “travel” and “travail” both share an even more ancient root: a Roman instrument of torture called the tripalium (in Latin it means “three stakes”, as in to impale). This link may reflect the extreme difficulty of travel in ancient times. Today, travel may or may not be much easier depending upon the destination you choose (e.g. Mt. Everest, the Amazon rainforest), how you plan to get there (tour bus, cruise ship, or oxcart), and whether you decide to “rough it” (see extreme tourism and adventure travel). “There’s a big difference between simply being a tourist and being a true world traveler”, notes travel writer Michael Kasum. This is, however, a contested distinction as academic work on the cultures and sociology of travel has noted.[4]

Reasons for traveling include recreation,[5] tourism[5] or vacationing,[5] research travel,[5] the gathering of information, visiting people, volunteer travel for charity, migration to begin life somewhere else, religious pilgrimages[5] and mission trips, business travel,[5] trade,[5] commuting, and other reasons, such as to obtain health care[5] or waging or fleeing war or for the enjoyment of traveling. Travellers may use human-powered transport such as walking or bicycling; or vehicles, such as public transport, automobiles, trains and airplanes.

Motives for travel include:

Travel dates back to antiquity where wealthy Greeks and Romans would travel for leisure to their summer homes and villas in cities such as Pompeii and Baiae.[7]While early travel tended to be slower, more dangerous, and more dominated by trade and migration, cultural and technological advances over many years have tended to mean that travel has become easier and more accessible.[8] Mankind has come a long way in transportation since Christopher Columbus sailed to the new world from Spain in 1492, an expedition which took over 10 weeks to arrive at the final destination; to the 21st century where aircraft allow travel from Spain to the United States overnight.

Travel in the Middle Ages offered hardships and challenges, however, it was important to the economy and to society. The wholesale sector depended (for example) on merchants dealing with/through caravans or sea-voyagers, end-user retailing often demanded the services of many itinerant peddlers wandering from village to hamlet, gyrovagues (Wandering Monks) and wandering friars brought theology and pastoral support to neglected areas, travelling minstrels practiced the never-ending tour, and armies ranged far and wide in various crusades and in sundry other wars.[7]Pilgrimages were common in both the European and Islamic world and involved streams of travellers both locally (Canterbury Tales-style) and internationally.[9]

In the late 16th century it became fashionable for young European aristocrats and wealthy upper class men to travel to significant European cities as part of their education in the arts and literature. This was known as the Grand Tour, it included cities such as London, Paris, Venice, Florence and Rome.However, The French revolution brought with it the end of the Grand Tour.[7]

Travel by water often provided more comfort and speed than land-travel, at least until the advent of a network of railways in the 19th century. Travel for the purpose of tourism is reported to have started around this time when people began to travel for fun as travel was no longer a hard and challenging task. This was capitalised on by people like Thomas Cook selling tourism packages where trains and hotels were booked together.[10] Airships and airplanes took over much of the role of long-distance surface travel in the 20th century, notably after the second World War where there was a surplus of both aircraft and pilots.[7]

Travel may be local, regional, national (domestic) or international. In some countries, non-local internal travel may require an internal passport, while international travel typically requires a passport and visa. A trip may also be part of a round-trip, which is a particular type of travel whereby a person moves from one location to another and returns.[11]

Authorities emphasize the importance of taking precautions to ensure travel safety.[12] When traveling abroad, the odds favor a safe and incident-free trip, however, travelers can be subject to difficulties, crime and violence.[13] Some safety considerations include being aware of one’s surroundings,[12] avoiding being the target of a crime,[12] leaving copies of one’s passport and itinerary information with trusted people,[12] obtaining medical insurance valid in the country being visited[12] and registering with one’s national embassy when arriving in a foreign country.[12] Many countries do not recognize drivers’ licenses from other countries; however most countries accept international driving permits.[14] Automobile insurance policies issued in one’s own country are often invalid in foreign countries, and it is often a requirement to obtain temporary auto insurance valid in the country being visited.[14] It is also advisable to become oriented with the driving-rules and -regulations of destination countries.[14] Wearing a seat belt is highly advisable for safety reasons; many countries have penalties for violating seatbelt laws.[14]

There are three main statistics which may be used to compare the safety of various forms of travel (based on a DETR survey in October 2000):[15]

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Travel – Wikipedia

World Tourism

If youre looking to travel this Labor Day weekend (and lets be honest, who isnt?), you may be in for a surprise when you hit airport security and baggage check lines. According to industry analysts, an expected 2 million passengers per day will fly between Wednesday September 2nd and Tuesday September 8th. If you traveled last year around the same time, experts say to expect even heavier traffic this year. Apparently, travel this year will see a 3% increase over the same time last year, which means about an extra 60,000 passengers per day using airline services. [Read more]

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World Tourism

South African Cuisine: Smiley (Fire-Roasted Goat Head) and …

Oct 5, 2012

Johanna Read /Africa Travel, Food Travel, Namibia, South Africa, Travel Abroad /

Leopard (not on the menu). Photo by Johanna Read

Smiley. A lovely word. A not so lovely dish.

Im in southern Africa. This is more of a seeing animals trip than an eating animals trip, but how can I resist the opportunity to eat something Ive never had before?

Many people have told me to keep an eye out for smiley. Cool Im a smiley person, I say. Whats smiley?Im thinking of foodsthat make me smile:dark chocolate and raspberries; lamb-sicles; gelato fromIl Crispinoin Rome; street food in Luang Prabang, Laos; passion fruit anything, twice-fried French fries with truffled ketchup ..

Then Im told smiley is the head of a sheep or a goat, brains and eyeballs included, that is cooked over a fire so that its lips pull back into a smile. Yum.

Hmmmm. Maybe Im not as much of a smiley person as I thought.

Biltong

Biltongis dried beef (sometimes oryx, kudu or ostrich), similar to beef jerky.Photo by Johanna Read

I meet up with LaurenCohen a new friend originallymet on Twitter to have dinner at one of the many fine restaurants in Cape TownsVictoria and Alfred Waterfront. The Waterfront is both a workingharborand a hub for eating, shopping and entertainment, for tourists and locals alike.Tonight we tryTasca De Belem, which serves authentic Portuguese and Turkish mains and tapas / meze. We sit outside with a view of the quay (with heat lamps and blankets available it is July, i.e. mid-winter,after all). I eat fabulous tuna, barely seared as ordered, with a delicious Portuguese prego sauce garlic, cumin and chili pepper goodness. I love that the sustainability and source of each fish aredescribed on the menu.

Of course the discussion is a lot about food, and about South Africanspecialties and Lauren mentions biltong. Bull tongue?! I ask, thinking of a variation of smiley. No. If youve ever had beef jerky, then youve eaten the very poor cousin of biltong. Biltong is dried beef (sometimes oryx, kudu or ostrich) and comes insausage form as well as thinly sliced. It is way moreflavorfuland much better-textured than beef jerky. Lauren treats us to both from theCity Grill Steakhouse, a couple doors down.

Having gorged myself at dinner, I save the biltong for the next dayspatkos Afrikaans for road food for my trip to the Cape of Good Hope.It is much appreciated after the 159 meter stair climb up to the lighthouse on an empty stomach.

Game

It is surprisingly not that hard to spend your days in Namibian animal reserves looking at game and spend your evenings eating it. No, I didnt eat leopard, cheetah, elephant or anything like that. But oryx, kudu and eland are all delicious. They are all beautiful too (and raisedsustainably).

What do they taste like? No not like chicken! But a lot like beef. The oryx is the most delicious like a dry-aged steak, both lean and juicy at the same time. Maybe a bit like lamb chops. Kudu is similar, but not asflavorfuland drier. And eland even more so.

Ill order oryx again if I ever see it on a menu, but will probably skip the kudu and eland. Theyre better lion food anyway.

Malva pudding from Tasca restaurant. Photo by Johanna Read

Malva pudding

Pudding nothing to be nervous about with dessert! Malva pudding a traditional South African dish, adopted from the Dutch is a pudding in the English sense of the word. It is a cake with sauce, served warm,resembling sticky toffee pudding.

Every Malva pudding I try (and there are several)is different. I preferthe warmer stickier ones to the cooler drier ones. The taste is somewhat like a caramel cake. I had to check recipes to see what givesit that uniqueflavor apricot jam of all things. Regardless of where you are in the world, you should be able to find the ingredients to make this one at home (see recipe below).

And the smiley?

Well, lucky for me I never did come across the smiley. After seeing photos I cant say Im too upset over it.

Maggies Malva Pudding (serves 6)

Michael Olivier, Cape Towns Wine and Food Guru, says that this is the benchmark malva pudding recipe. It is by Maggie Pepler and served at the Boschendal Restaurant. For more info see hissite.

Cake:1 cup flour1 tablespoon bicarbonate of soda (baking soda)1 cup sugar1 egg1 tablespoon apricot jam1 tablespoon vinegar1 talespoon melted butter1 cup milk

Sauce: cup cream cup milk1 cup sugar cup hot water cup butter

Preheat oven to 180C / 350F.With butter, grease an ovenproof dish approximately 30cm X 20cm X 5cm. Glass or ceramic best do not use an aluminium, enamel or metal container. Cut a piece of aluminium foil to cover the dish, and grease it well with butter on one side.

Sift the flour and the baking soda into a bowl and stir in the sugar.In another bowl beat the egg very well and add the remaining wet cake ingredients one by one, beating well between each addition.Using a wooden spoon beat the wet ingredients into the dry ingredients and mix well.

Pour the batter into the prepared dish, cover with the foil, greased side down, and bake 45 minutes until well risen and brown. Bake a further five minutes without the foil if not sufficiently brown. Be careful not to under-bake: if not sufficiently baked the dessert will not soak up all the sauce.When the pudding is almost done, heat the ingredients for the sauce, ensuring that you melt all the sugar and butter.When the pudding is done, remove from the oven, take off the foil and pour over the sauce.

Serve hot, warm or at room temperature, though the warmer the better. If desired, serve with some whipped cream or vanilla custard.

TravelEater, aka Johanna Read, is a Canadian who loves travelling and loves eating, but hates eating tourist food. She collects — and shares — advice about eating around the world (and about what to do between snacks). Johanna is World Travel Buzz’s new International Eating Expert and will be writing a monthly column.

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South African Cuisine: Smiley (Fire-Roasted Goat Head) and …

50 Awesome Travel Blog Name Ideas – This World Rocks

When I was getting ready to launch mytravel blog, I had a really tough time picking a name for the blog. In reality, the name of a travel blog isnt as important as you might think. It isnt as important as quality writing, a well-designed site, a good brand, and a lot of content. However, your name is still a big piece of the puzzle, and should be something you like and can live with. To come up with my blogs name, I did an exercise to come up with as many awesome travel blog names as possible and then slowly narrowed it down to my current name. I thought I would share this list with any future travel bloggers who are currently brainstorming for a name. Not all of these were from my original list, as I have added more since, so go ahead and use this list as a starting point for your own brainstorming.UPDATE: Feel free to use any of these names for your own travel blog. People have been emailing me a lot asking if they can use a name on the list. You dont need my permission to use any of these names since I dont own any of them. I also dont own any of the domain names, so if its already taken there isnt anything I can do. Good luck in your search!

1. Out of the Office For a former cubicle worker who wants to quit and to put up anindefiniteemail out of office notification.

2. Binge Travelers BingeTravelers.com is available too, which is a great domain.

3. Tweet Pray Love The digital version of famous book/movie. Thanks to @AndyMonfre for this one!

4.Losing Sight of the ShoreHow does the saying go? You cant discover a new ocean until you have the courage to lose sight of the shore.

5. Forks In The Road For a traveler who loves food and decisions!

6. Corners of the World This is a good domain name that is available: CornersoftheWorld.com

7. Navigatio No, I didnt forget the N, Navigatio is actually Latin forVoyage.

8. The Hum of the Earth Instead of looking for the scum of the Earth, you seek the good, or what makes us hum. Domain is available: HumoftheEarth.com

9. Tray Tables & Seat Backs Travel bloggers can recite this entire speech by memory.

10. Mice Will Play When the cats away

11. Uneven Pavement The types of roads travelers crave

12. Loose Gravel Same idea as above

13. Cats and Dogs Living Together Are you planning on having chaotic travels? Heres a salute toBill Murrays description of chaos in Ghostbusters.

14. Get Busy Livin ForShawshank fans. Instead of Livin you could replace it with your name, like Get Busy Jenny

15. Someday This Day Make your own meaning of it.

16. Showering in the Ocean For the beach lover.

17. Bathing in the Ocean Variation of above.

18. Both Paths For a traveler like us who likes mixing in both the beaten path and unbeaten path.

19. Where the Heart Is Home is

20. The Long and Winding One of my favorite Beatles songs.

21. Cark Muban Mark Cuban once did a gap year, so pay homage to him by creating his alter ego and doing your own trip.

22. All Systems Whoa There are a lot of names you can create by changing the word go to whoa in popular catch phrases.

23. Away We Whoa See above

24. Ready, Set, Whoa See above

25. On the Whoa Ok, you get the idea by now

26. Here Goes Here goes nothing!

27. One Point Five Billion Inches The circumference of the Earth is 1.5 billion inches.

28. Around the Tellus Tellus is Latin for Earth

29. Around the Orbis Orbis is Latin for World

30. Turn Turn Turn Referring to the constant turning while traveling, both good turns and bad.

31. YOUR NAME on Earth This works really well if your name rhymes with heaven, i.e. Kevin, Devin, Gavin, Evan, Melvin, etc

32. Cold Turkey This could be for a blogger who had to quit something addictive in order to travel. i.e. shopping, alcohol, drugs, video games, over-working, etc.

33. Like Nothing Ive Seen A blog about seeing and experiencing new, exotic adventures.

34. Salt of the Earth This sounds a bit Biblical, but thats because it is a Bible phrase. However, it can still apply the our natural world. Domain available: SaltoftheEarth.com

35. Off the Face Basically letting people know youve fallen(jumped) off the face of the Earth.

36. Reset ReBoot Record Someone who left home to get a fresh start, and is recording the progress in the blog. You could do a cool logo with the three Rs.

37. Re* Re* Record Replace the first two re-words with any two words on this list. Find two words that fit your situation the best.

38. One Big Rock Thats all Earth is right?

39. Off and Running For all the travel runners out there.

40. Travel Travel Travel Pizza Pizza

41. Text Me Later Im gone for a while.

42. My Final Frontier Star trek fan?

43. Each City a Rhapsody For the musically inclined.

44. Jet Set Brunette Sorry blondes, this one isnt for you.

45. Redefined Timeline Define the change of pace and scenery in your life.

46. Every Corner a Story Awesome stories are everywhere you look, all over the globe.

47. Miles and Smiles Away Miles, and miles, and miles, and miles, away.

48. Roam Sweet Roam Roam is the new Home (apparently there was a documentary with this title in 1996)

49. Why Dont You Babe A play on the Supremes song

50. No Particular Place to Go For the wandering blogger.

51. So This is How I Die From Stetson at Sergios Samba

52. WanderingOmies.com From Brandon at TheYogaNomads.com

These are from Brian at Blancette:

53.Three If By Sky modern twist on an old classic, nobody suspected the British of coming through the air.

54. Traveling Like LeBron Ah ah ahtoo many steps

55. Hostel Takeover no hostilities on this blog

56. Bloggers Without Borders give back to the world and do some pro bono blogging.

57. Boats and Phos: A Maritime Tour of Southeast Asia

58. The Gumshoes some of us never gave up chasing Carmen Sandiego

59. The Planeteers which one are you? Earth, wind, water, fire, or heart?

60. SergeantPlanet cause nobody out ranks the Captain

These are from Tina at GypsySpirit.com:

61. Nowhere in Particular

62. Gypsy Soul

63. Riding the Waves

64. Smells Like Gypsy

65. Gypsy Rhapsody

66. Gone Traveling

67. Life in a Bag

68. Hugging the Road

69. [yourname] Pilgrim

70. [yourname] Supertramp

These are from WildWanderess.com:

71.The Runaway Girl

72. Gypsy Girl Travels

73. The Simple Sojourn

74. Rooftops and Flipflops

75. Edge of the Sand

76. The Lost Gurl

77. Gutsy Girl Travel

.

good travel blog namessocial mediatravel blog nametravel blog name ideas

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50 Awesome Travel Blog Name Ideas – This World Rocks

Time and Date

Total Lunar Eclipse on January 20-21

Watch as the Super Full Moon turns blood red in the sky above North and South America, Europe, and parts of Africa on the evening of Sunday, January 20 or early morning on Monday, January 21 depending on the time zone. Check your local times, eclipse maps, animations, and the weather. We will LIVE stream the eclipse. Full Story

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Time and Date

We make travel planning easy and affordable | World Travel

Travel planning made easy and affordable

Sometimes making travel arrangements are simple. Sometimes its clear how to save money for your business travel. Sometimes it may seem easy to find the best vacation package for your family.

But these days its not always clear. Do you really have the best vacation deal available out of all the options out there? Are your business travelers making good buying decisions? Can we save more money? Can I trust what I read? Can I trust the pictures I see on the hotel website? And what happens if I have a problem while traveling? Whos going to be there to help?

At World Travel we understand. And thats where we come in. Whether you are looking for innovative corporate travel management, sophisticated group and meeting solutions or exclusive vacation travel planning, we provide honest, creative and real world answers that help clients manage to their corporate budgets, implement flawless meetings and experience vacations that stay with them for a lifetime.

We are headquartered in Tulsa, Oklahoma and are a nationally recognized travel company thats been in business over 60 years.

Please take a moment to look through our site and learn more about us. If youd like to learn even more about our unique travel services or if youd like to schedule your next trip, please call our team of corporate travel and vacation planning experts at 918-743-8856 or click here to contact us now.

We look forward to hearing from you.

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We make travel planning easy and affordable | World Travel

World Travel – Official Site

At World Travel, we utilize the latest and most advanced technology systems offered in order to ensure complete accuracy, efficiency and savings for our clients.

Our fully automated quality control system, performs over 150 quality control checks based on our clients specific profile and preferences. This system will alert your agent of any adjustments that need to be made prior to ticketing.

We execute daily searches for the lowest available fares, waitlist clearance, preferred seat availability and upgrade availability up until the time of departure.

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World Travel – Official Site

World Travel, Inc. – TMC Preferred Partner – SAP Concur

World Travel Inc.

corporate.worldtravelinc.com

World Travel, Inc. provides customized travel management services for mid-market clients who recognize the importance of a seamless business travel experience. We proactively invest in client success, offering superior customer service, technology and proactive consultation to meet business needs. WTI was ranked the 4th largest independently-owned US-based Travel Management Company by BTN Magazine in 2013. With over 30 years in business, it continues to grow both nationally and internationally

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World Travel, Inc. – TMC Preferred Partner – SAP Concur

Country Guides – World Travel Guide

About The World Travel Guide

The World Travel Guide (WTG) is the flagship digital consumer brand within the Columbus Travel Media portfolio. A comprehensive guide to the worlds best travel destinations, its print heritage stretches back 30 years, with the online portal reaching its 15-year anniversary in 2014. Available in English, German, French and Spanish versions, the WTG provides detailed and accurate travel content designed to inspire global travellers. It covers all aspects, from cities to airports, cruise ports to ski and beach resorts, attractions to events, and it also includes weekly travel news, features and quizzes. Updated every day by a dedicated global editorial team, the portal logs 1 million+ unique users monthly.

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Country Guides – World Travel Guide

WorldTravelService – Business and Leisure Travel Agency …

With eight agency locations throughout Washington DC, Maryland, and Virginia, WorldTravelService serves a number of large corporate clients throughout the Mid-Atlantic region, including Delaware, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia. As part of a worldwide system of affiliates and partners, we are able to leverage our economies of scale to provide our clientsboth corporate and leisurewith a wide range of benefits, discounts, amenities, and conveniences that they would not otherwise be able to access. We are also the largest independent, Veteran-owned agency in the Mid-Atlantic!

WorldTravelService uses the most sophisticated travel technology available to ensure complete accuracy, cost efficiency, and security. Our quality assurance programs, fare checks, and other tools are constantly running in order to give our clients the absolute best service. And since these tools are nothing without the right people to use them, we place utmost importance on hiring and retaining the most talented and dedicated professionals in the travel industry. Your complete satisfaction in every aspect of your experience with us is our highest goal.

Call us at 800-676-3796 to learn why thousands of companies and luxury travelers entrusts their travel plans to WorldTravelService, the mid-Atlantics leading full-service travel concierge to VIPs, business professionals, and serious travel connoisseurs.

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WorldTravelService – Business and Leisure Travel Agency …

World Travel

At World Travel, we utilize the latest and most advanced technology systems offered in order to ensure complete accuracy, efficiency and savings for our clients.

Our fully automated quality control system, performs over 150 quality control checks based on our clients specific profile and preferences. This system will alert your agent of any adjustments that need to be made prior to ticketing.

We execute daily searches for the lowest available fares, waitlist clearance, preferred seat availability and upgrade availability up until the time of departure.

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World Travel

World Travel, Inc. – TMC Preferred Partner – SAP Concur

World Travel Inc.

corporate.worldtravelinc.com

World Travel, Inc. provides customized travel management services for mid-market clients who recognize the importance of a seamless business travel experience. We proactively invest in client success, offering superior customer service, technology and proactive consultation to meet business needs. WTI was ranked the 4th largest independently-owned US-based Travel Management Company by BTN Magazine in 2013. With over 30 years in business, it continues to grow both nationally and internationally

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World Travel, Inc. – TMC Preferred Partner – SAP Concur

We make travel planning easy and affordable | World Travel

Travel planning made easy and affordable

Sometimes making travel arrangements are simple. Sometimes its clear how to save money for your business travel. Sometimes its easy to find the best vacation package for your family.

But these days its not always clear. Do you really have the best vacation deal? Are your business travelers making good buying decisions? Can we save more money? Can I trust what I read? And what happens if I have a problem while traveling? Whos going to be there to help?

At World Travel we understand. And thats where we come in. Whether you are looking for innovative corporate travel management, sophisticated group and meeting solutions or exclusive vacation travel planning, we provide honest, creative and real world answers that help clients manage to their corporate budgets, implement flawless meetings and experience vacations that stay with them for a lifetime.

We are headquartered in Tulsa, Oklahoma and are a nationally recognized travel company thats been in business over 50 years.

Please take a moment to look through our site and learn more about us. If youd like to learn even more about our unique travel services or if youd like to schedule your next trip, please call our team of corporate travel and vacation planning experts at 918-743-8856 or click here to contact us now.

We look forward to hearing from you.

Read more here:

We make travel planning easy and affordable | World Travel

World Travel Awards

Worlds finest travel brands revealed at World Travel Awards Grand Final 2018 in Lisbon

The finest travel brands in the world have been unveiled at a star-studded gala ceremony in Lisbon, Portugal. The elite of the travel industry gathered for the World Travel Awards Grand Final Gala Ceremony 2018 at the historic Ptio da Gal to find out who amongst them had been crowned the finest in the world.

The finest travel brands in Africa and the Indian Ocean have been unveiled at a star-studded gala ceremony in Durban, South Africa. The elite of the travel industry assembled for the World Travel Awards Africa & Indian Ocean Gala Ceremony 2018 at the Durban International Convention Centre to find out who amongst them would be crowned best of the best.

The finest travel brands in the Caribbean and North America have been unveiled at a star-studded gala ceremony in Jamaica. The whos who of the travel industry gathered for the World Travel Awards Caribbean & North America Gala Ceremony 2018 at Sandals Montego Bay to find out who amongst them would be crowned best of the best.

The finest travel brands in South and Central America have been unveiled at the World Travel Awards Latin America Ceremony 2018 in Guayaquil, Ecuador. Hundreds of the leading figures of South and Central’s travel and tourism industries attended the red-carpet ceremony, which was staged at Guayaquil’s historic Palacio de Cristal.

Asia and Australasia’s finest travel brands have been unveiled at World Travel Awards Asia & Australasia Gala Ceremony 2018 in Hong Kong. Hundreds of the leading figures from Asia and Australasia’s travel and tourism industries attended the red-carpet ceremony, which was staged at the newly-refurbished InterContinental Grand Stanford Hong Kong.

Madeira has been revealed as the host for the World Travel Awards (WTA) Europe Gala Ceremony 2019. The Portuguese destination, which has taken the title of Europes Leading Island Destination for the past five years, will use the event to boost its profile on the international stage.

Europe’s finest travel brands have been unveiled at World Travel Awards Europe Gala Ceremony 2018 in Athens, Greece. Hundreds of the leading figures of Europe’s travel and tourism industry attended the ceremony, which was staged at the historic Zappeion Megaron Hall.

Ras al Khaimah has welcomed the World Travel Awards Middle East Gala Ceremony for the first time, with the best of regional hospitality recognised at the event.

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World Travel Awards

World Travel Inc – Contact

Managing travel can be a daunting andtime-consuming task. We would lovethe opportunity to demonstrate what World Travel, Inc. can do for you to improve the efficiency of your travel program.

Fill out the form below to find out how World Travel, Inc. can begin helping you with your travel management needs.

DO NOT MAKE TRAVEL REQUESTSOR CHANGES USING THE FORM BELOW. SUBMISSIONS ARE NOT MONITORED BY TRAVEL COUNSELORS.

All travel requests should be made through your dedicated counselor, through your dedicated phone line or email address.

DO NOT MAKE TRAVEL REQUESTS OR CHANGES USING THE FORM BELOW.

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World Travel Inc – Contact

Stem cell

STEM CELL SUPPLEMENTS

Stem cells are cells with the ability to divide for indefinite periods in culture and to give rise to specialized cells.

Stem Cell Supplements are developed based on the merits of stem cells and they are applied for degenerative diseases treatments and to stimulate the formation of all the different tissues of the body: muscle, cartilage, tendon, ligament, bone, blood,nerve, organs, etc. Stem Cell Supplements bring essential health & antiaging benefits by providing necessary elements to the body to improve cellular rejuvenation, organ regeneration and tissue healing.

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Stem cell

Stem Cell Treatment | Arizona | Stem Cell Rejuvenation Center

ADIPOSE STEM CELL THERAPIES AND TREATMENTS

PHOENIX ARIZONA | (602) 439-0000

WE PLAY AN ESSENTIALROLE IN IMPROVING THE LIVESOF PATIENTS FROM AROUND THE WORLD

For Immediate Assistance please fill out he form below:

TREATABLE CONDITIONS

HAVE GENERAL QUESTIONS

Please Note: Although we have supplied links to the research journals above on the use of stem cells for specific conditions, we are not saying that any of these studies would relate to your particular condition, nor that it would even be an effective treatment. OurAutologousStem Cell Therapy is not an FDA approved treatment for any condition. We provide stem cell therapy (less than manipulated) as a service &as a practice of medicine only. Please see theFAQ pagefor more information. Thesejournal articlesare for educational purposes only &are not intended to be used to sell or promote our therapy.

MAKING A POSITIVE IMPACT AROUND THE WORLD

2017 Stem Cell Rejuvenation Center

7600 N 15th St. Suite 102Phoenix, AZ 85020 USA

Telephone:(602) 439-0000Fax: (602) 439-0021

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Stem Cell Treatment | Arizona | Stem Cell Rejuvenation Center

Stem cell – Wikipedia

Stem cells are biological cells that can differentiate into other types of cells and can divide to produce more of the same type of stem cells. They are always and only found in the multicellular organisms.

In mammals, there are two broad types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells, which are isolated from the inner cell mass of blastocysts, and adult stem cells, which are found in various tissues. In adult organisms, stem cells and progenitor cells act as a repair system for the body, replenishing adult tissues. In a developing embryo, stem cells can differentiate into all the specialized cellsectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm (see induced pluripotent stem cells)but also maintain the normal turnover of regenerative organs, such as blood, skin, or intestinal tissues.

There are three known accessible sources of autologous adult stem cells in humans:

Stem cells can also be taken from umbilical cord blood just after birth. Of all stem cell types, autologous harvesting involves the least risk. By definition, autologous cells are obtained from one’s own body, just as one may bank his or her own blood for elective surgical procedures.

Adult stem cells are frequently used in various medical therapies (e.g., bone marrow transplantation). Stem cells can now be artificially grown and transformed (differentiated) into specialized cell types with characteristics consistent with cells of various tissues such as muscles or nerves. Embryonic cell lines and autologous embryonic stem cells generated through somatic cell nuclear transfer or dedifferentiation have also been proposed as promising candidates for future therapies.[2] Research into stem cells grew out of findings by Ernest A. McCulloch and James E. Till at the University of Toronto in the 1960s.[3][4]

The classical definition of a stem cell requires that it possesses two properties:

Two mechanisms exist to ensure that a stem cell population is maintained:

1. Obligatory asymmetric replication: a stem cell divides into one mother cell that is identical to the original stem cell, and another daughter cell that is differentiated.

When a stem cell self-renews it divides and does not disrupt the undifferentiated state. This self-renewal demands control of cell cycle as well as upkeep of multipotency or pluripotency, which all depends on the stem cell.[5]

2. Stochastic differentiation: when one stem cell develops into two differentiated daughter cells, another stem cell undergoes mitosis and produces two stem cells identical to the original.

Potency specifies the differentiation potential (the potential to differentiate into different cell types) of the stem cell.[6]

In practice, stem cells are identified by whether they can regenerate tissue. For example, the defining test for bone marrow or hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is the ability to transplant the cells and save an individual without HSCs. This demonstrates that the cells can produce new blood cells over a long term. It should also be possible to isolate stem cells from the transplanted individual, which can themselves be transplanted into another individual without HSCs, demonstrating that the stem cell was able to self-renew.

Properties of stem cells can be illustrated in vitro, using methods such as clonogenic assays, in which single cells are assessed for their ability to differentiate and self-renew.[9][10] Stem cells can also be isolated by their possession of a distinctive set of cell surface markers. However, in vitro culture conditions can alter the behavior of cells, making it unclear whether the cells shall behave in a similar manner in vivo. There is considerable debate as to whether some proposed adult cell populations are truly stem cells.[11]

Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are the cells of the inner cell mass of a blastocyst, an early-stage embryo.[12] Human embryos reach the blastocyst stage 45 days post fertilization, at which time they consist of 50150 cells. ESCs are pluripotent and give rise during development to all derivatives of the three primary germ layers: ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm. In other words, they can develop into each of the more than 200 cell types of the adult body when given sufficient and necessary stimulation for a specific cell type. They do not contribute to the extra-embryonic membranes or the placenta.

During embryonic development these inner cell mass cells continuously divide and become more specialized. For example, a portion of the ectoderm in the dorsal part of the embryo specializes as ‘neurectoderm’, which will become the future central nervous system.[13] Later in development, neurulation causes the neurectoderm to form the neural tube. At the neural tube stage, the anterior portion undergoes encephalization to generate or ‘pattern’ the basic form of the brain. At this stage of development, the principal cell type of the CNS is considered a neural stem cell. These neural stem cells are pluripotent, as they can generate a large diversity of many different neuron types, each with unique gene expression, morphological, and functional characteristics. The process of generating neurons from stem cells is called neurogenesis. One prominent example of a neural stem cell is the radial glial cell, so named because it has a distinctive bipolar morphology with highly elongated processes spanning the thickness of the neural tube wall, and because historically it shared some glial characteristics, most notably the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP).[14][15] The radial glial cell is the primary neural stem cell of the developing vertebrate CNS, and its cell body resides in the ventricular zone, adjacent to the developing ventricular system. Neural stem cells are committed to the neuronal lineages (neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes), and thus their potency is restricted.[13]

Nearly all research to date has made use of mouse embryonic stem cells (mES) or human embryonic stem cells (hES) derived from the early inner cell mass. Both have the essential stem cell characteristics, yet they require very different environments in order to maintain an undifferentiated state. Mouse ES cells are grown on a layer of gelatin as an extracellular matrix (for support) and require the presence of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) in serum media. A drug cocktail containing inhibitors to GSK3B and the MAPK/ERK pathway, called 2i, has also been shown to maintain pluripotency in stem cell culture.[16] Human ESCs are grown on a feeder layer of mouse embryonic fibroblasts and require the presence of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF or FGF-2).[17] Without optimal culture conditions or genetic manipulation,[18] embryonic stem cells will rapidly differentiate.

A human embryonic stem cell is also defined by the expression of several transcription factors and cell surface proteins. The transcription factors Oct-4, Nanog, and Sox2 form the core regulatory network that ensures the suppression of genes that lead to differentiation and the maintenance of pluripotency.[19] The cell surface antigens most commonly used to identify hES cells are the glycolipids stage specific embryonic antigen 3 and 4 and the keratan sulfate antigens Tra-1-60 and Tra-1-81. By using human embryonic stem cells to produce specialized cells like nerve cells or heart cells in the lab, scientists can gain access to adult human cells without taking tissue from patients. They can then study these specialized adult cells in detail to try and catch complications of diseases, or to study cells reactions to potentially new drugs. The molecular definition of a stem cell includes many more proteins and continues to be a topic of research.[20]

There are currently no approved treatments using embryonic stem cells. The first human trial was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in January 2009.[21] However, the human trial was not initiated until October 13, 2010 in Atlanta for spinal cord injury research. On November 14, 2011 the company conducting the trial (Geron Corporation) announced that it will discontinue further development of its stem cell programs.[22] ES cells, being pluripotent cells, require specific signals for correct differentiationif injected directly into another body, ES cells will differentiate into many different types of cells, causing a teratoma. Differentiating ES cells into usable cells while avoiding transplant rejection are just a few of the hurdles that embryonic stem cell researchers still face.[23] Due to ethical considerations, many nations currently have moratoria or limitations on either human ES cell research or the production of new human ES cell lines. Because of their combined abilities of unlimited expansion and pluripotency, embryonic stem cells remain a theoretically potential source for regenerative medicine and tissue replacement after injury or disease.[24]

Human embryonic stem cell colony on mouse embryonic fibroblast feeder layer

The primitive stem cells located in the organs of fetuses are referred to as fetal stem cells.[25]There are two types of fetal stem cells:

Adult stem cells, also called somatic (from Greek , “of the body”) stem cells, are stem cells which maintain and repair the tissue in which they are found.[27] They can be found in children, as well as adults.[28]

Pluripotent adult stem cells are rare and generally small in number, but they can be found in umbilical cord blood and other tissues.[29] Bone marrow is a rich source of adult stem cells,[30] which have been used in treating several conditions including liver cirrhosis,[31] chronic limb ischemia [32] and endstage heart failure.[33] The quantity of bone marrow stem cells declines with age and is greater in males than females during reproductive years.[34] Much adult stem cell research to date has aimed to characterize their potency and self-renewal capabilities.[35] DNA damage accumulates with age in both stem cells and the cells that comprise the stem cell environment. This accumulation is considered to be responsible, at least in part, for increasing stem cell dysfunction with aging (see DNA damage theory of aging).[36]

Most adult stem cells are lineage-restricted (multipotent) and are generally referred to by their tissue origin (mesenchymal stem cell, adipose-derived stem cell, endothelial stem cell, dental pulp stem cell, etc.).[37][38] Muse cells (multi-lineage differentiating stress enduring cells) are a recently discovered pluripotent stem cell type found in multiple adult tissues, including adipose, dermal fibroblasts, and bone marrow. While rare, muse cells are identifiable by their expression of SSEA-3, a marker for undifferentiated stem cells, and general mesenchymal stem cells markers such as CD105. When subjected to single cell suspension culture, the cells will generate clusters that are similar to embryoid bodies in morphology as well as gene expression, including canonical pluripotency markers Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog.[39]

Adult stem cell treatments have been successfully used for many years to treat leukemia and related bone/blood cancers through bone marrow transplants.[40] Adult stem cells are also used in veterinary medicine to treat tendon and ligament injuries in horses.[41]

The use of adult stem cells in research and therapy is not as controversial as the use of embryonic stem cells, because the production of adult stem cells does not require the destruction of an embryo. Additionally, in instances where adult stem cells are obtained from the intended recipient (an autograft), the risk of rejection is essentially non-existent. Consequently, more US government funding is being provided for adult stem cell research.[42]

Multipotent stem cells are also found in amniotic fluid. These stem cells are very active, expand extensively without feeders and are not tumorigenic. Amniotic stem cells are multipotent and can differentiate in cells of adipogenic, osteogenic, myogenic, endothelial, hepatic and also neuronal lines.[43]Amniotic stem cells are a topic of active research.

Use of stem cells from amniotic fluid overcomes the ethical objections to using human embryos as a source of cells. Roman Catholic teaching forbids the use of embryonic stem cells in experimentation; accordingly, the Vatican newspaper “Osservatore Romano” called amniotic stem cells “the future of medicine”.[44]

It is possible to collect amniotic stem cells for donors or for autologuous use: the first US amniotic stem cells bank [45][46] was opened in 2009 in Medford, MA, by Biocell Center Corporation[47][48][49] and collaborates with various hospitals and universities all over the world.[50]

Adult stem cells have limitations with their potency; unlike embryonic stem cells (ESCs), they are not able to differentiate into cells from all three germ layers. As such, they are deemed multipotent.

However, reprogramming allows for the creation of pluripotent cells, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), from adult cells. These are not adult stem cells, but adult cells (e.g. epithelial cells) reprogrammed to give rise to cells with pluripotent capabilities. Using genetic reprogramming with protein transcription factors, pluripotent stem cells with ESC-like capabilities have been derived.[51][52][53] The first demonstration of induced pluripotent stem cells was conducted by Shinya Yamanaka and his colleagues at Kyoto University.[54] They used the transcription factors Oct3/4, Sox2, c-Myc, and Klf4 to reprogram mouse fibroblast cells into pluripotent cells.[51][55] Subsequent work used these factors to induce pluripotency in human fibroblast cells.[56] Junying Yu, James Thomson, and their colleagues at the University of WisconsinMadison used a different set of factors, Oct4, Sox2, Nanog and Lin28, and carried out their experiments using cells from human foreskin.[51][57] However, they were able to replicate Yamanaka’s finding that inducing pluripotency in human cells was possible.

Induced pluripotent stem cells differ from embryonic stem cells. They share many similar properties, such as pluripotency and differentiation potential, the expression of pluripotency genes, epigenetic patterns, embryoid body and teratoma formation, and viable chimera formation,[54][55] but there are many differences within these properties. The chromatin of iPSCs appears to be more “closed” or methylated than that of ESCs.[54][55] Similarly, the gene expression pattern between ESCs and iPSCs, or even iPSCs sourced from different origins.[54] There are thus questions about the “completeness” of reprogramming and the somatic memory of induced pluripotent stem cells. Despite this, inducing adult cells to be pluripotent appears to be viable.

As a result of the success of these experiments, Ian Wilmut, who helped create the first cloned animal Dolly the Sheep, has announced that he will abandon somatic cell nuclear transfer as an avenue of research.[58]

Furthermore, induced pluripotent stem cells provide several therapeutic advantages. Like ESCs, they are pluripotent. They thus have great differentiation potential; theoretically, they could produce any cell within the human body (if reprogramming to pluripotency was “complete”).[54] Moreover, unlike ESCs, they potentially could allow doctors to create a pluripotent stem cell line for each individual patient.[59] Frozen blood samples can be used as a valuable source of induced pluripotent stem cells.[60] Patient specific stem cells allow for the screening for side effects before drug treatment, as well as the reduced risk of transplantation rejection.[59] Despite their current limited use therapeutically, iPSCs hold create potential for future use in medical treatment and research.

To ensure self-renewal, stem cells undergo two types of cell division (see Stem cell division and differentiation diagram). Symmetric division gives rise to two identical daughter cells both endowed with stem cell properties. Asymmetric division, on the other hand, produces only one stem cell and a progenitor cell with limited self-renewal potential. Progenitors can go through several rounds of cell division before terminally differentiating into a mature cell. It is possible that the molecular distinction between symmetric and asymmetric divisions lies in differential segregation of cell membrane proteins (such as receptors) between the daughter cells.[61]

An alternative theory is that stem cells remain undifferentiated due to environmental cues in their particular niche. Stem cells differentiate when they leave that niche or no longer receive those signals. Studies in Drosophila germarium have identified the signals decapentaplegic and adherens junctions that prevent germarium stem cells from differentiating.[62][63]

Stem cell therapy is the use of stem cells to treat or prevent a disease or condition. Bone marrow transplant is a form of stem cell therapy that has been used for many years without controversy.[64][65]

Stem cell treatments may lower symptoms of the disease or condition that is being treated. The lowering of symptoms may allow patients to reduce the drug intake of the disease or condition. Stem cell treatment may also provide knowledge for society to further stem cell understanding and future treatments.[66]

Stem cell treatments may require immunosuppression because of a requirement for radiation before the transplant to remove the person’s previous cells, or because the patient’s immune system may target the stem cells. One approach to avoid the second possibility is to use stem cells from the same patient who is being treated.

Pluripotency in certain stem cells could also make it difficult to obtain a specific cell type. It is also difficult to obtain the exact cell type needed, because not all cells in a population differentiate uniformly. Undifferentiated cells can create tissues other than desired types.[67]

Some stem cells form tumors after transplantation;[68] pluripotency is linked to tumor formation especially in embryonic stem cells, fetal proper stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells. Fetal proper stem cells form tumors despite multipotency.[69]

Some of the fundamental patents covering human embryonic stem cells are owned by the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation (WARF) they are patents 5,843,780, 6,200,806, and 7,029,913 invented by James A. Thomson. WARF does not enforce these patents against academic scientists, but does enforce them against companies.[70]

In 2006, a request for the US Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) to re-examine the three patents was filed by the Public Patent Foundation on behalf of its client, the non-profit patent-watchdog group Consumer Watchdog (formerly the Foundation for Taxpayer and Consumer Rights).[70] In the re-examination process, which involves several rounds of discussion between the USPTO and the parties, the USPTO initially agreed with Consumer Watchdog and rejected all the claims in all three patents,[71] however in response, WARF amended the claims of all three patents to make them more narrow, and in 2008 the USPTO found the amended claims in all three patents to be patentable. The decision on one of the patents (7,029,913) was appealable, while the decisions on the other two were not.[72][73] Consumer Watchdog appealed the granting of the ‘913 patent to the USPTO’s Board of Patent Appeals and Interferences (BPAI) which granted the appeal, and in 2010 the BPAI decided that the amended claims of the ‘913 patent were not patentable.[74] However, WARF was able to re-open prosecution of the case and did so, amending the claims of the ‘913 patent again to make them more narrow, and in January 2013 the amended claims were allowed.[75]

In July 2013, Consumer Watchdog announced that it would appeal the decision to allow the claims of the ‘913 patent to the US Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit (CAFC), the federal appeals court that hears patent cases.[76] At a hearing in December 2013, the CAFC raised the question of whether Consumer Watchdog had legal standing to appeal; the case could not proceed until that issue was resolved.[77]

Diseases and conditions where stem cell treatment is being investigated include:

Research is underway to develop various sources for stem cells, and to apply stem cell treatments for neurodegenerative diseases and conditions, diabetes, heart disease, and other conditions.[93] Research is also underway in generating organoids using stem cells, which would allow for further understanding of human development, organogenesis, and modeling of human diseases.[94]

In more recent years, with the ability of scientists to isolate and culture embryonic stem cells, and with scientists’ growing ability to create stem cells using somatic cell nuclear transfer and techniques to create induced pluripotent stem cells, controversy has crept in, both related to abortion politics and to human cloning.

Hepatotoxicity and drug-induced liver injury account for a substantial number of failures of new drugs in development and market withdrawal, highlighting the need for screening assays such as stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells, that are capable of detecting toxicity early in the drug development process.[95]

Link:

Stem cell – Wikipedia

Stem Cell Therapy for Osteoarthritis – StemGenex

Stem Cell Therapy for Osteoarthritis

New treatments and advances in research are giving new hope to people affected by Osteoarthritis pain and symptoms. StemGenex provides stem cell therapy for Osteoarthritis to help those with unmet clinical needs achieve optimum health and better quality of life.

Stem cell therapy for Osteoarthritis is being studied for efficacy in improving the complications in patients through the use of their own stem cells. These procedures may help patients who dont respond to typical drug treatment, want to reduce their reliance on medication, or are looking to try stem cell therapy before starting drug treatment.

To learn more about becoming a patient and receiving stem cell therapy for Osteoarthritis through StemGenex, please contact one of our patient advocates at (800) 609-7795 or fill out the contact form on this page.Below are some frequently asked questions about stem cell treatment for Osteoarthritis.

The majority of complications in Osteoarthritis patients are related to the deterioration of cartilage that cushions the ends of bones in your joints. Cartilage is a firm, slippery tissue that permits nearly frictionless joint motion. In Osteoarthritis, this surface become rough. Eventually, if the cartilage wears down completely, patients will be left with bone rubbing on bone.

Stem cell treatment provided by StemGenex is designed to target these areas within the joints to help with the creation of new cartilage cells. Mesenchymal stem cells are multipotent and have the ability to differentiate into cartilage called (chondrytes). The goal of each stem cell treatment is to inject the stem cells into the joint to create cartilage (chondryte cells). Stem cells are a natural anti-inflammatories which can assist with Osteoarthritis pain and swelling in the joint area.

Stem cells are the basic building blocks of human tissue and have the ability to repair, rebuild, and rejuvenate tissues in the body. When a disease or injury strikes, stem cells respond to specific signals and set about to facilitate the healing process by differentiating into specialized cells required for the bodys repair.

There are four known types of stem cells which include:

StemGenex provides autologous adult stem cells (from fat tissue) where the stem cells come from the person receiving treatment.

StemGenex provides autologous adult adipose-derived stem cells (from fat tissue) where the stem cells come from the person receiving treatment.

We tap into our bodys stem cell reserve daily to repair and replace damaged or diseased tissue. When the bodys reserve is limited and as it becomes depleted, the regenerative power of our body decreases and we succumb to disease and injury.

Three sources of stem cells from a patients body are used clinically which include adipose tissue (fat), bone marrow and peripheral blood.

Performed by Board Certified Physicians, dormant stem cells are extracted from the patients adipose tissue (fat) through a minimally invasive mini-liposuction procedure with little to no downtime.

During the liposuction procedure, a small area (typically the abdomen) is numbed with an anesthetic and patients receive mild to moderate sedation. Next, the extracted dormant stem cells are isolated from the fat and activated, and then comfortably infused back into the patient intravenously (IV) and via other directly targeted methods of administration. The out-patient procedure takes approximately four to five hours.

StemGenex provides multiple administration methods for Osteoarthritis patients to best target the disease related conditions and symptoms which include:

Since each condition and patient are unique, there is no guarantee of what results will be achieved or how quickly they may be observed. According to patient feedback, many patients report results in one to three months, however, it may take as long as six to nine months. Individuals interested in stem cell therapy are urged to consult with their physician before choosing investigational autologous adipose-derived stem cell therapy as a treatment option.

In order to determine if you are a good candidate for adult stem cell treatment, you will need to complete a medical history form which will be provided by your StemGenex Patient Advocate. Once you complete and submit your medical history form, our medical team will review your records and determine if you are a qualified candidate for adult stem cell therapy.

StemGenex team members are here to help assist and guide you through the patient process.

Patients travel to StemGenex treatment center located in San Diego, California for stem cell treatment from all over the United States, Canada and around the globe. Treatment will consist of one visit lasting a total of three days. The therapy is minimally invasive and there is little to no down time. Majority of patients fly home the day after treatment.

We provide stem cell therapy for a wide variety of diseases and conditions for which traditional treatment offers less than optimal options. Some conditions include Multiple Sclerosis, Parkinson’s Disease, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Osteoarthritis and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD).

The side effects of the mini-liposuction procedure are minimal and may include but are not limited to: minor swelling, bruising and redness at the procedure site, minor fever, headache, or nausea. However, these side effects typically last no longer than 24 hours and are experienced mostly by people with sensitivity to mild anesthesia. No long-term negative side effects or risks have been reported.

The side effects of adipose-derived stem cell therapy are minimal and may include but are not limited to: infection, minor bleeding at the treatment sites and localized pain. However, these side effects typically last no longer than 24 hours. No long-term negative side effects or risks have been reported.

StemGenex provides adult stem cell treatment with mesenchymal stem cells which come from the person receiving treatment. Embryonic stem cells are typically associated with ethical and political controversies.

Stem cell treatment is not FDA approved.

Stem cell for arthritis treatment is not covered by health insurance at this time. The cost for standard preoperative labs are included. Additional specific labs may be requested at the patients expense.

Osteoarthritis, or degenerative joint disease, is the most common type of arthritis. It is caused by the degradation of a joints cartilage. Cartilage is a firm, rubbery material that covers and cushions the ends of bones in normal joints. Its main function is to reduce friction in the joints and serve as an intermediary or cushion.

Over time, the cartilage may wear away in some areas, greatly decreasing its ability to act as a shock absorber. As the cartilage wears away, tendons and ligaments stretch, causing pain. In advanced cases, the bones could rub against each other, causing even more pain and loss of movement.

Osteoarthritis is very common in middle-aged and older people, and its symptoms can range from very mild to very severe. The disorder most often affects hands and weight-bearing joints such as knees, hips, feet and shoulders, but can affect almost any joint in the body.

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Stem Cell Therapy for Osteoarthritis – StemGenex


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