12345...102030...


human genetics | Description, Chromosomes, & Inheritance …

Human genetics, study of the inheritance of characteristics by children from parents. Inheritance in humans does not differ in any fundamental way from that in other organisms.

The study of human heredity occupies a central position in genetics. Much of this interest stems from a basic desire to know who humans are and why they are as they are. At a more practical level, an understanding of human heredity is of critical importance in the prediction, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases that have a genetic component. The quest to determine the genetic basis of human health has given rise to the field of medical genetics. In general, medicine has given focus and purpose to human genetics, so the terms medical genetics and human genetics are often considered synonymous.

A new era in cytogenetics, the field of investigation concerned with studies of the chromosomes, began in 1956 with the discovery by Jo Hin Tjio and Albert Levan that human somatic cells contain 23 pairs of chromosomes. Since that time the field has advanced with amazing rapidity and has demonstrated that human chromosome aberrations rank as major causes of fetal death and of tragic human diseases, many of which are accompanied by intellectual disability. Since the chromosomes can be delineated only during mitosis, it is necessary to examine material in which there are many dividing cells. This can usually be accomplished by culturing cells from the blood or skin, since only the bone marrow cells (not readily sampled except during serious bone marrow disease such as leukemia) have sufficient mitoses in the absence of artificial culture. After growth, the cells are fixed on slides and then stained with a variety of DNA-specific stains that permit the delineation and identification of the chromosomes. The Denver system of chromosome classification, established in 1959, identified the chromosomes by their length and the position of the centromeres. Since then the method has been improved by the use of special staining techniques that impart unique light and dark bands to each chromosome. These bands permit the identification of chromosomal regions that are duplicated, missing, or transposed to other chromosomes.

Micrographs showing the karyotypes (i.e., the physical appearance of the chromosome) of a male and a female have been produced. In a typical micrograph the 46 human chromosomes (the diploid number) are arranged in homologous pairs, each consisting of one maternally derived and one paternally derived member. The chromosomes are all numbered except for the X and the Y chromosomes, which are the sex chromosomes. In humans, as in all mammals, the normal female has two X chromosomes and the normal male has one X chromosome and one Y chromosome. The female is thus the homogametic sex, as all her gametes normally have one X chromosome. The male is heterogametic, as he produces two types of gametesone type containing an X chromosome and the other containing a Y chromosome. There is good evidence that the Y chromosome in humans, unlike that in Drosophila, is necessary (but not sufficient) for maleness.

A human individual arises through the union of two cells, an egg from the mother and a sperm from the father. Human egg cells are barely visible to the naked eye. They are shed, usually one at a time, from the ovary into the oviducts (fallopian tubes), through which they pass into the uterus. Fertilization, the penetration of an egg by a sperm, occurs in the oviducts. This is the main event of sexual reproduction and determines the genetic constitution of the new individual.

Human sex determination is a genetic process that depends basically on the presence of the Y chromosome in the fertilized egg. This chromosome stimulates a change in the undifferentiated gonad into that of the male (a testicle). The gonadal action of the Y chromosome is mediated by a gene located near the centromere; this gene codes for the production of a cell surface molecule called the H-Y antigen. Further development of the anatomic structures, both internal and external, that are associated with maleness is controlled by hormones produced by the testicle. The sex of an individual can be thought of in three different contexts: chromosomal sex, gonadal sex, and anatomic sex. Discrepancies between these, especially the latter two, result in the development of individuals with ambiguous sex, often called hermaphrodites. Homosexuality is unrelated to the above sex-determining factors. It is of interest that in the absence of a male gonad (testicle) the internal and external sex anatomy is always female, even in the absence of a female ovary. A female without ovaries will, of course, be infertile and will not experience any of the female developmental changes normally associated with puberty. Such a female will often have Turner syndrome.

If X-containing and Y-containing sperm are produced in equal numbers, then according to simple chance one would expect the sex ratio at conception (fertilization) to be half boys and half girls, or 1 : 1. Direct observation of sex ratios among newly fertilized human eggs is not yet feasible, and sex-ratio data are usually collected at the time of birth. In almost all human populations of newborns, there is a slight excess of males; about 106 boys are born for every100 girls. Throughout life, however, there is a slightly greater mortality of males; this slowly alters the sex ratio until, beyond the age of about 50 years, there is an excess of females. Studies indicate that male embryos suffer a relatively greater degree of prenatal mortality, so the sex ratio at conception might be expected to favour males even more than the 106 : 100 ratio observed at birth would suggest. Firm explanations for the apparent excess of male conceptions have not been established; it is possible that Y-containing sperm survive better within the female reproductive tract, or they may be a little more successful in reaching the egg in order to fertilize it. In any case, the sex differences are small, the statistical expectation for a boy (or girl) at any single birth still being close to one out of two.

During gestationthe period of nine months between fertilization and the birth of the infanta remarkable series of developmental changes occur. Through the process of mitosis, the total number of cells changes from 1 (the fertilized egg) to about 2 1011. In addition, these cells differentiate into hundreds of different types with specific functions (liver cells, nerve cells, muscle cells, etc.). A multitude of regulatory processes, both genetically and environmentally controlled, accomplish this differentiation. Elucidation of the exquisite timing of these processes remains one of the great challenges of human biology.

Excerpt from:

human genetics | Description, Chromosomes, & Inheritance ...

Human genetics – Wikipedia

Human genetics is the study of inheritance as it occurs in human beings. Human genetics encompasses a variety of overlapping fields including: classical genetics, cytogenetics, molecular genetics, biochemical genetics, genomics, population genetics, developmental genetics, clinical genetics, and genetic counseling.

Genes are the common factor of the qualities of most human-inherited traits. Study of human genetics can answer questions about human nature, can help understand diseases and the development of effective disease treatment, and help us to understand the genetics of human life. This article describes only basic features of human genetics; for the genetics of disorders please see: medical genetics.

Inheritance of traits for humans are based upon Gregor Mendel's model of inheritance. Mendel deduced that inheritance depends upon discrete units of inheritance, called factors or genes.[1]

Autosomal traits are associated with a single gene on an autosome (non-sex chromosome)they are called "dominant" because a single copyinherited from either parentis enough to cause this trait to appear. This often means that one of the parents must also have the same trait, unless it has arisen due to an unlikely new mutation. Examples of autosomal dominant traits and disorders are Huntington's disease and achondroplasia.

Autosomal recessive traits is one pattern of inheritance for a trait, disease, or disorder to be passed on through families. For a recessive trait or disease to be displayed two copies of the trait or disorder needs to be presented. The trait or gene will be located on a non-sex chromosome. Because it takes two copies of a trait to display a trait, many people can unknowingly be carriers of a disease. From an evolutionary perspective, a recessive disease or trait can remain hidden for several generations before displaying the phenotype. Examples of autosomal recessive disorders are albinism, cystic fibrosis.

X-linked genes are found on the sex X chromosome. X-linked genes just like autosomal genes have both dominant and recessive types. Recessive X-linked disorders are rarely seen in females and usually only affect males. This is because males inherit their X chromosome and all X-linked genes will be inherited from the maternal side. Fathers only pass on their Y chromosome to their sons, so no X-linked traits will be inherited from father to son. Men cannot be carriers for recessive X linked traits, as they only have one X chromosome, so any X linked trait inherited from the mother will show up.

Females express X-linked disorders when they are homozygous for the disorder and become carriers when they are heterozygous. X-linked dominant inheritance will show the same phenotype as a heterozygote and homozygote. Just like X-linked inheritance, there will be a lack of male-to-male inheritance, which makes it distinguishable from autosomal traits. One example of an X-linked trait is CoffinLowry syndrome, which is caused by a mutation in ribosomal protein gene. This mutation results in skeletal, craniofacial abnormalities, mental retardation, and short stature.

X chromosomes in females undergo a process known as X inactivation. X inactivation is when one of the two X chromosomes in females is almost completely inactivated. It is important that this process occurs otherwise a woman would produce twice the amount of normal X chromosome proteins. The mechanism for X inactivation will occur during the embryonic stage. For people with disorders like trisomy X, where the genotype has three X chromosomes, X-inactivation will inactivate all X chromosomes until there is only one X chromosome active. Males with Klinefelter syndrome, who have an extra X chromosome, will also undergo X inactivation to have only one completely active X chromosome.

Y-linked inheritance occurs when a gene, trait, or disorder is transferred through the Y chromosome. Since Y chromosomes can only be found in males, Y linked traits are only passed on from father to son. The testis determining factor, which is located on the Y chromosome, determines the maleness of individuals. Besides the maleness inherited in the Y-chromosome there are no other found Y-linked characteristics.

A pedigree is a diagram showing the ancestral relationships and transmission of genetic traits over several generations in a family. Square symbols are almost always used to represent males, whilst circles are used for females. Pedigrees are used to help detect many different genetic diseases. A pedigree can also be used to help determine the chances for a parent to produce an offspring with a specific trait.

Four different traits can be identified by pedigree chart analysis: autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, x-linked, or y-linked. Partial penetrance can be shown and calculated from pedigrees. Penetrance is the percentage expressed frequency with which individuals of a given genotype manifest at least some degree of a specific mutant phenotype associated with a trait.

Inbreeding, or mating between closely related organisms, can clearly be seen on pedigree charts. Pedigree charts of royal families often have a high degree of inbreeding, because it was customary and preferable for royalty to marry another member of royalty. Genetic counselors commonly use pedigrees to help couples determine if the parents will be able to produce healthy children.

A karyotype is a very useful tool in cytogenetics. A karyotype is picture of all the chromosomes in the metaphase stage arranged according to length and centromere position. A karyotype can also be useful in clinical genetics, due to its ability to diagnose genetic disorders. On a normal karyotype, aneuploidy can be detected by clearly being able to observe any missing or extra chromosomes.[1]

Giemsa banding, g-banding, of the karyotype can be used to detect deletions, insertions, duplications, inversions, and translocations. G-banding will stain the chromosomes with light and dark bands unique to each chromosome. A FISH, fluorescent in situ hybridization, can be used to observe deletions, insertions, and translocations. FISH uses fluorescent probes to bind to specific sequences of the chromosomes that will cause the chromosomes to fluoresce a unique color.[1]

Genomics is the field of genetics concerned with structural and functional studies of the genome.[1] A genome is all the DNA contained within an organism or a cell including nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. The human genome is the total collection of genes in a human being contained in the human chromosome, composed of over three billion nucleotides.[2] In April 2003, the Human Genome Project was able to sequence all the DNA in the human genome, and to discover that the human genome was composed of around 20,000 protein coding genes.

Medical genetics is the branch of medicine that involves the diagnosis and management of hereditary disorders. Medical genetics is the application of genetics to medical care. It overlaps human genetics, for example, research on the causes and inheritance of genetic disorders would be considered within both human genetics and medical genetics, while the diagnosis, management, and counseling of individuals with genetic disorders would be considered part of medical genetics.

Population genetics is the branch of evolutionary biology responsible for investigating processes that cause changes in allele and genotype frequencies in populations based upon Mendelian inheritance.[3] Four different forces can influence the frequencies: natural selection, mutation, gene flow (migration), and genetic drift. A population can be defined as a group of interbreeding individuals and their offspring. For human genetics the populations will consist only of the human species. The HardyWeinberg principle is a widely used principle to determine allelic and genotype frequencies.

In addition to nuclear DNA, humans (like almost all eukaryotes) have mitochondrial DNA. Mitochondria, the "power houses" of a cell, have their own DNA. Mitochondria are inherited from one's mother, and their DNA is frequently used to trace maternal lines of descent (see mitochondrial Eve). Mitochondrial DNA is only 16kb in length and encodes for 62 genes.

The XY sex-determination system is the sex-determination system found in humans, most other mammals, some insects (Drosophila), and some plants (Ginkgo). In this system, the sex of an individual is determined by a pair of sex chromosomes (gonosomes). Females have two of the same kind of sex chromosome (XX), and are called the homogametic sex. Males have two distinct sex chromosomes (XY), and are called the heterogametic sex.

Sex linkage is the phenotypic expression of an allele related to the chromosomal sex of the individual. This mode of inheritance is in contrast to the inheritance of traits on autosomal chromosomes, where both sexes have the same probability of inheritance. Since humans have many more genes on the X than the Y, there are many more X-linked traits than Y-linked traits.However, females carry two or more copies of the X chromosome, resulting in a potentially toxic dose of X-linked genes.[4]

To correct this imbalance, mammalian females have evolved a unique mechanism of dosage compensation. In particular, by way of the process called X-chromosome inactivation (XCI), female mammals transcriptionally silence one of their two Xs in a complex and highly coordinated manner.[4]

GeneticChromosomal

[35]

See original here:

Human genetics - Wikipedia

COVID-19 Pandemic: Global Risks of More Complex Character and the Visions of the Future World – Valdai Discussion Club

The new cosmic fear produced by COVID-19 has become a great challenge for mankind. The process of overcoming it is connected to a large extent with the establishment of effective cosmopolitan solidarity and humanely-oriented global medical surveillance with the aim of working out effective means to prevent fake news that traumatise the social consciousness, writes Sergey Kravchenko, Head of the Department of Sociology at MGIMO University.

According to Ulrich Beck, the global risks of the World Risk Society have the following three characteristic features: 1) delocalisation (their causes are not limited to one geographic location); 2) incalculability (their consequences are in principle incalculable); 3) non-compensability (human genetics makes possible irreversible interventions in human existence). All these features are seen in the risks of COVID-19 and they have even increased and become more complex. Thus, the delocalisation concerns not only the geographic location but also bio space: some scientists point to the proliferation of viruses that can move from animal to humans and back, making illnesses more difficult to cure. The incalculability has redoubled due to the fact that there are no commonly recognised methods to estimate them. Besides, we have to make do not only with the damage produced by real viruses but with the one made by their mystifications. I mean that many risks of COVID-19 are socially and culturally constructed; a lot of myths and fake news have appeared about their influence. The whole of humanity is observing the deaths of many people in real time. Some viewers may not even realise that their consciousness is being traumatised very often they accept exaggerated news as real that increases the effects of liquid fear (Bauman), which is now becoming global in nature. This blurs the distinction between the risks of COVID-19 and the cultural perception of them. The non-compensability depends not only on irreversible interventions in human body but on the incurable traumas of humanness and substantial rationality; the life-worlds of people.

At first sight, it seems the recognition of the complex risks posed by COVID-19 might lead to a kind of post-national sense of responsibility, give a start for elaborating a humanely oriented global system of medical surveillance, which is aimed at preventing different epidemics. Some political leaders argue that the consequences of the pandemic might unite the human inhabitants of the Earth after their years of confrontations.

However, the real picture is the reverse. In Europe and throughout the world, one can see disintegration, isolation, and even the rise of nationalism and xenophobia. The declared European values do not function. Reaction to risks presupposes decisions and actions. For Italians, the risks posed by COVID-19 are more important than other threats. Consequently, they expect the help from the European Union, but the organisation is paralysed and does not make decisions rendering the necessary medical, financial and monetary support. The difference in interests of practically all the countries of the European Union is evident. They do not only close their borders on quasi-laws but apply to a national mobilisation, stop the social and medical cooperation which is very acute for the management of the new global risks. Nothing is done to overcome the myths of the pandemic. Moreover, new enclaves with sick people have appeared.

At the same time, I believe that this tragic situation will not last forever, and we should think about the post-COVID-19 world. Here are some glimpses at the possible hopes and the visions of the future world. The consequences of the pandemic have not produced simply the growth of world disorder. The common challenges to humanity may foster the establishment of a completely new world order based on cosmopolitan ethics and solidarity. Certainly, the realisation of this depends on peoples agency, and the concrete humanely oriented deeds of the political leaders. A good example of it is Vladimir Putins idea to make humanitarian corridors. In order to realise this, Russia has already rendered medical help to China, Italy, the USA, and Serbia.

The countries and their elites have reacted differently to the risks of COVID-19, with positive and negative results. This will influence the characteristic features of the futures of these nations. Undoubtedly, in the nearest future, there will appear new political movements with demands for global medical surveillance and health security. Consequently, new leaders will come to power. Whether Vladimir Putin and Donald Trump are among them depends on the results of the struggle against COVID-19 and the effect of the pandemic on their countries. The challenges of the pandemic will change the essence of Europe as a turbulent and mighty continent. In order to limit the existing turbulence and achieve sustainable development, the new political leaders will pass over from confrontations to different forms of cooperation with a diverse array of actors on the world stage. It is highly likely that in the renewed European Union, China, which displayed achievements in overcoming the pandemics and rendered concrete support to different countries, will acquire a special friendly status. Consequently, there are basic grounds for re-establishing good political and economic relations between the West and Russia.

Certainly, the birth of the post-COVID-19 world will be difficult, perhaps, accompanied by a recession which, however, may become a significant factor of the new world order based on sharing economy, social solidarity and integral forms of freedom and disciplinary. I believe the fetishism of modesty in the consumption is being born. There have already appeared collective forms of consumption not only the sharing of cars, places of living but food and medicine sharing.

There are some trends toward the achievement of social justice and equality in the organisation of medical help. During the pandemic, the Norwegian authorities have done a lot in constructing the possibilities for all the people to have proper access to medical care. These practices might be developed in other countries. The significance of social insurance would be revised. Its high organisation in Germany helped to save the lives of many more patients if we compare it with other countries. The distant care systems based on digitalisation have proved their efficiency these activities should be extended.

It is necessary to re-discover the place and role of nations in world politics. In addition to the existing criteria (economic development, the possession of weaponry, etc.), new ones should be taken into consideration the power to effectively struggle with epidemics, to produce ecological and pharmacological safety for citizens, the possibility to re-orient the digital, from pragmatic consumerism to health care. Human rights should be extended, including the right to health care, safety, and a friendly environment.

The new cosmic fear produced by COVID-19 has become a great challenge to mankind. The process of overcoming it is connected to a large extent with the establishment of effective cosmopolitan solidarity and global humanely-oriented medical surveillance, with the aim to work out effective means to prevent fakes that traumatise the social consciousness. All these prepositions might make the emerging post-COVID-19 world more rational and humane.

Read the original:

COVID-19 Pandemic: Global Risks of More Complex Character and the Visions of the Future World - Valdai Discussion Club

Complement genes add to sex-based vulnerability in lupus and schizophrenia – UAB News

The complement system is part of the bodys immune system to fight pathogens and remove cell debris. Its role in two autoimmune diseases and a mental disorder is a surprise.

The complement system is part of the bodys immune system to fight pathogens and remove cell debris. Its role in two autoimmune diseases and a mental disorder is a surprise.Variants in a gene of the human immune system cause men and women to have different vulnerabilities to the autoimmune diseases lupus and Sjgrens syndrome, according to findings published today in the journal Nature. This extends recent work that showed the gene variants could increase risk for schizophrenia.

The gene variants are a member of the complement system, a cascade of proteins that help antibodies and phagocytic cells remove damaged cells of a persons own body, as well as an infection defense that promotes inflammation and attacks pathogens. Normally the complement system keeps a person healthy in the face of pathogens; it also helps cart away the debris of damaged human cells before the body can mount an autoimmune attack. Now complement gene variants apparently play a contributing role in the diseases systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjgrens syndrome and schizophrenia.

It had been known that all three illnesses had common genetic associations with a section of the human chromosome called the major histocompatibility complex, or MHC. This region on chromosome 6 includes many genes that regulate the immune system. However, making an association with a specific gene or with the mutational variants of a specific gene that are called alleles has been difficult, partly because the MHC on human chromosome 6 spans three million base-pairs of DNA.

The Nature paper is a collaboration of 22 authors at 10 institutions in the United States and one in England, along with many members of a schizophrenia working group. Robert Kimberly, M.D., professor of medicine at the University of Alabama at Birmingham and director of the UAB Center for Clinical and Translational Science, is a co-author of the research, which was led by corresponding author Steven McCarroll, Ph.D., assistant professor of genetics at Harvard Medical School.

The identified alleles are complement component 4A and 4B, known as C4A and C4B.

The research showed that different combinations of C4A and C4B copy numbers generate a sevenfold variation in risk for lupus and 16-fold variation in risk for Sjgrens syndrome among people with common C4 genotypes. Paradoxically, the same C4 alleles that previously were shown to increase risk for schizophrenia had a different impact for lupus and Sjgrens syndrome they greatly reduced risk in those diseases. In all three illnesses, the C4 alleles acted more strongly in men than in women.

For the complement proteins that are encoded by the genes for C4 and for complement component 3, or C3, both C4 protein and its effector C3 protein were present at greater levels in men than in women in cerebrospinal fluid and blood plasma among adults ages 20-50. Intriguingly, that is the age range when the three diseases differentially affect men and women for unknown reasons. Lupus and Sjgrens syndrome affect women of childbearing age nine times more than they do men of similar age. In contrast, in schizophrenia, women exhibit less severe symptoms, more frequent remission of symptoms, lower relapse rates and lower overall incidence than men, who are affected more frequently and more severely.

Both men and women have an age-dependent elevation of C4 and C3 protein levels in blood plasma. In men, this occurs early in adulthood, ages 20-30. In women, the elevation is closer to menopause, ages 40-50. Thus, differences in complement protein levels in men and women occur mostly during the reproductive years, ages 20-50.

The researchers say sex differences in complement protein levels may help explain the larger effects of C4 alleles in men, the greater risk of women for lupus and Sjgrens, and the greater vulnerability of men for schizophrenia.

Robert Kimberly, M.D.The ages of pronounced sex differences in complement levels correspond to the ages when men and women differ in disease incidence. In schizophrenia cases, men outnumber women in early adulthood; but that disparity of onset lessens after age 40. In lupus, female cases greatly outnumber male cases during childbearing years; but that difference is much less for disease onset after age 50 or during childhood. In Sjgrens syndrome, women are more vulnerable than are men before age 50.

The researchers say the differing effect of C4 alleles in schizophrenia versus lupus and Sjgrens syndrome will be important to consider in any therapeutic effort to engage the complement system. They also said, Why and how biology has come to create this sexual dimorphism in the complement system in humans presents interesting questions for immune and evolutionary biology.

Co-authors with McCarroll and Kimberly for the paper, Complement genes contribute sex-biased vulnerability in diverse illnesses, are Nolan Kamitaki, Aswin Sekar, Heather de Rivera, Katherine Tooley and Christine Seidman, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts; Robert Handsaker and Christopher Whelan, Broad Institute of Massachusetts Institute of Technology; David Morris, Philip Tombleson and Timothy Vyse, Kings College London, London, United Kingdom; Kimberly Taylor and Lindsey Criswell, University of California-San Francisco School of Medicine; Loes Olde Loohuis and Roel Ophoff, University of California-Los Angeles; Michael Boehnke, University of Michigan; Kenneth Kaufman and John Harley, Cincinnati Childrens Hospital Medical Center, Ohio; Carl Langefeld, Wake Forest School of Medicine, North Carolina; Michele Pato and Carlos Pato, State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center; and Robert Graham, Genentech Inc., South San Francisco, California.

Support came from National Institutes of Health grants HG006855, MH112491, MH105641 and MH105653; and from the Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research.

At UAB, Kimberly holds the Howard L. Holley Research Chair in Rheumatology.

See the article here:

Complement genes add to sex-based vulnerability in lupus and schizophrenia - UAB News

Rothamsted turn to harvesting coronavirus data – Lab News

A group of researchers based at Rothamsted Research, one of the oldest agricultural research institutions in the world, has responded to a request from the White House, Microsoft, Mark Zuckerberg and others to find a way to rapidly sift through the mountain of COVID-19 scientific data.

Taking time off fromtheir own research, the Rothamsted teamrepurposeda tool they had originally developed to help crop scientists, to provide medical researchers with quick and intuitive access to all documented linkages between genes, medicines, and the virus.

By bringing together COVID-19 related data in one place, the hope is that this will speed up the international search for useful drugs, stop researchers repeating work done elsewhere, avoid harmful interventions, and ultimately, help pave the way to a vaccine.

A US Government-backed call had urged the worlds artificial intelligence experts to develop new text and data mining techniques that could help the science community answer urgent questions related to the deadly outbreak.

Project leader, Dr Keywan Hassani-Pak, originally developed the KnetMiner software to support scientists studying complex plant traits and diseases but together with his team, quickly realized the potential of it to help aid coronavirus research.

Using KnetMiner, medical researchers can now search for genes and keywords, visualize connections between biological concepts and explore knowledge relating to the new coronavirus and COVID-19 disease.

Users can search for drugs related to coronavirus and explore the surrounding connected data. Alternatively, they can investigate what pathways the drugs affect and visualize if any negative downstream effects may be present with using the drug in certain diseased populations.

The genetic component of how SARS-CoV-2 and the human body interact can also be explored.

The software links together almost 170,000 scientific articles, the majority with detailed information about human genes, plus SARS and COVID-19 related proteins, drugs and other medical conditions.

This works out at more than 1.6 million relationships between biological entities something that would take years of searching for, using conventional means.

We have connected the dots in the COVID-19 biomedical data and put the information in a machine-readable format and in context with human genetics, pathogen-host, and drug-target interaction data said Dr Hassani-Pak.

It was mid-March when The White House Office of Science and Technology Policy launched the COVID-19 call to action.

Over 500 scientists, software developers and clinicians joined forces in the COVID-19 virtual Biohackathon at the beginning of April to develop new tools for working with COVID-19 data.

Working from their homes, the team of Joseph Hearnshaw, Dr Marco Brandizi, Ajit Singh and Dr Keywan Hassani-Pak managed to develop the COVID-19 knowledge graph for KnetMiner in less than a month.

Dr Hassani-Pak said: I knew our technology was versatile, but to deliver this within such a short time scale was beyond my expectation and only possible due to a fantastic team and a global effort to make COVID-19 data openly available.

The newly developed biomedical resource offers developers and analysts the opportunity to use our data for new analyses and applications. A full download of our COVID-19 knowledge graph is available on request.

The COVID-19 KnetMiner is available atwww.knetminer.org/COVID-19.

The knowledge graph can be freely accessed through public RDF and Neo4j endpointshttps://github.com/Rothamsted/covid19-kg/blob/master/RawDataEndPoints.md

An example COVID-19 network can be explored and shared athttps://knetminer.com/beta/knetspace/network/424a2a44-24c2-4c2c-80bb-e3493b0de003

The datasets used to build the COVID-19 KG are athttps://knetminer.org/COVID-19/html/release.html

Continue reading here:

Rothamsted turn to harvesting coronavirus data - Lab News

Covid-19 research: 45 Bengaluru startups working on medicine, testing methods and vaccine – Economic Times

Bangalore: The State Government will set up a committee to ensure co-ordination between the government and private firms that are engaged in research work to come up with solutions to control the spread of Covid-19 as well as a cure for it.

Deputy chief minister CN Ashwath Narayan on Thursday asked the IT/BT department to set up a committee at the earliest. The deputy chief minister took a decision to this effect after he visited Bengaluru Bio Innovation Centre.

About 45 startups are working at the innovation centre on projects to find a vaccine, medicine and quick testing technology for Covid 19, he said.

Narayan, who holds the IT/BT portfolio as well, interacted with the young entrepreneurs. "I am glad that all startups here are working to find a solution to the pandemic. Some are at clinical trial stage while a few have already applied for with the competent authorities for conducting tests, he remarked.

ROBOT AT WORK: He unveiled the Programmable Robot that would separate the Saliva from the swab in no time. The robot developed by SN Life Sciences has an ability to test eight different samples at a time, he said.

On the overall research work taking place at the innovation centre, he said: "This is a great sign for Bengaluru, Karnataka and India, he said adding that a quick solution will help to ensure a balance between life and livelihood.

He also commended the efforts Neuome Technologies which has a technology that enables on-the-spot testing within 5 minutes for asymptomatic as well as symptomatic cases.

Ashwath Narayan visited the Centre for Human Genetics and Bio Informatics and inspected the lab there.

Read more:

Covid-19 research: 45 Bengaluru startups working on medicine, testing methods and vaccine - Economic Times

DU to set up School of Public Health – The Indian Express

By: Express News Service | New Delhi | Updated: May 18, 2020 9:42:38 am An 11-member advisory council, chaired by Professor K Shrinath Reddy, president of Public Health Foundation of India, has also been constituted to design and manage programmes of the institute. (File)

Delhi University has announced the establishment of a new public health school, citing the need for manpower and research in the field.

The university administration has said the new institute Delhi School of Public Health would be set up using funds from the Institute of Eminence scheme. Delhi University had received the tag in September 2019. It said the move is in response to the need for public health research in light of the Covid-19 pandemic.

Professor R N K Bamezai, a specialist in the field of human genetics, has been appointed the honorary director of the institute. Professor Bamezai is a former dean of the School of Life Sciences at Jawaharlal Nehru University and former vice-chancellor of Shri Mata Vaishno Devi University.

An 11-member advisory council, chaired by Professor K Shrinath Reddy, president of Public Health Foundation of India, has also been constituted to design and manage programmes of the institute.

The overarching aim of the school is to encourage students and researchers to experience a plethora of programmes of interdisciplinary nature and relevance which are not available at present in this or any other institution. This novel institution offers new avenues to pool academic and infrastructure resources to look at the Public Health theme in an integrated fashion and contribute to national development. The University of Delhi understands its responsibility to train and utilise human knowledge and infrastructure resources for understanding and innovating novel ways of diagnosis, prevention and cure of various communicable and non-communicable diseases, read a statement by registrar of the university.

The Indian Express is now on Telegram. Click here to join our channel (@indianexpress) and stay updated with the latest headlines

For all the latest Education News, download Indian Express App.

Continue reading here:

DU to set up School of Public Health - The Indian Express

Immortalized Cell Line Market Development, Trends, Key Driven Factors, Segmentation And Forecast to 2020-2026 – Cole of Duty

Research Laboratories

The report is a compilation of different studies, including regional analysis where leading regional Immortalized Cell Line markets are comprehensive studied by market experts. Both developed and developing regions and countries are covered in the report for a 360-degree geographic analysis of the Immortalized Cell Line market. The regional analysis section helps readers to become familiar with the growth patterns of important regional Immortalized Cell Line markets. It also provides information on lucrative opportunities available in key regional Immortalized Cell Line markets.

Ask For Discounts, Click Here @ https://www.marketresearchintellect.com/ask-for-discount/?rid=177472&utm_source=COD&utm_medium=888

Table of Content

1 Introduction of Immortalized Cell Line Market

1.1 Overview of the Market1.2 Scope of Report1.3 Assumptions

2 Executive Summary

3 Research Methodology

3.1 Data Mining3.2 Validation3.3 Primary Interviews3.4 List of Data Sources

4 Immortalized Cell Line Market Outlook

4.1 Overview4.2 Market Dynamics4.2.1 Drivers4.2.2 Restraints4.2.3 Opportunities4.3 Porters Five Force Model4.4 Value Chain Analysis

5 Immortalized Cell Line Market, By Deployment Model

5.1 Overview

6 Immortalized Cell Line Market, By Solution

6.1 Overview

7 Immortalized Cell Line Market, By Vertical

7.1 Overview

8 Immortalized Cell Line Market, By Geography

8.1 Overview8.2 North America8.2.1 U.S.8.2.2 Canada8.2.3 Mexico8.3 Europe8.3.1 Germany8.3.2 U.K.8.3.3 France8.3.4 Rest of Europe8.4 Asia Pacific8.4.1 China8.4.2 Japan8.4.3 India8.4.4 Rest of Asia Pacific8.5 Rest of the World8.5.1 Latin America8.5.2 Middle East

9 Immortalized Cell Line Market Competitive Landscape

9.1 Overview9.2 Company Market Ranking9.3 Key Development Strategies

10 Company Profiles

10.1.1 Overview10.1.2 Financial Performance10.1.3 Product Outlook10.1.4 Key Developments

11 Appendix

11.1 Related Research

Get Complete Report

@ https://www.marketresearchintellect.com/need-customization/?rid=177472&utm_source=COD&utm_medium=888

About Us:

Market Research Intellect provides syndicated and customized research reports to clients from various industries and organizations with the aim of delivering functional expertise. We provide reports for all industries including Energy, Technology, Manufacturing and Construction, Chemicals and Materials, Food and Beverage and more. These reports deliver an in-depth study of the market with industry analysis, market value for regions and countries and trends that are pertinent to the industry.

Contact Us:

Mr. Steven Fernandes

Market Research Intellect

New Jersey ( USA )

Tel: +1-650-781-4080

Tags: Immortalized Cell Line Market Size, Immortalized Cell Line Market Trends, Immortalized Cell Line Market Growth, Immortalized Cell Line Market Forecast, Immortalized Cell Line Market Analysis Sarkari result, Government Jobs, Sarkari naukri, NMK, Majhi Naukri,

See original here:

Immortalized Cell Line Market Development, Trends, Key Driven Factors, Segmentation And Forecast to 2020-2026 - Cole of Duty

Worlds Shortest Population Reveal the Largest Genetic Contributor to Height – Technology Networks

At a glance:

A team of researchers from Harvard Medical School, Brigham and Womens Hospital, Socios En Salud, and the Broad Institute at Harvard and MIT report they have identified the single largest genetic contributor to height known to date.The findings, published in Nature,are based on an analysis of samples from ethnically diverse Peruvians, a population known to have the shortest stature in the world.

The team identified a previously unknown, population-specific variant of the FBN1 gene (E1297G). The variant, found exclusively in individuals of Native American ancestry, showed a striking association with lower height.

Each copy of the gene was associated with an average of 2.2 centimeters (around 0.8 of an inch) reduction in height. People who have two copies, or two alleles, of the gene variant were, on average 4.4 centimeters (1.7 inches) shorter in stature. The effect is an order of magnitude greater than the effects that previously identified gene variants have on human heightin the range of 1 millimeter (0.04 inches).

This study dramatically highlights the advantage of studying different populations and having a diverse, worldwide strategy to understanding the human genome, said study senior author Soumya Raychaudhuri, professor of medicine and of biomedical informatics at HMS, director for the Center for Data Sciences at Brigham and Womens Hospital, and an Institute member at the Broad Institute. We learned new things about how complex genetic traits work. Our findings have implications for important diseases linked to FBN1 that we could not have learned without looking at this population.

The multi-institutional international research project brought together computational biologists, epidemiologists, community health workers, dermatologists and experts on a variety of genetic and infectious diseases, using a variety of genomic, computational and imaging techniques. The results of their collaboration shed new light on the genetics of height, a key model system for studying complex, multigene systems that are crucial for understanding wellness and disease.

A wide range of mutations in the FBN1 gene have long been known to cause Marfan syndrome, an inherited connective tissue disorder marked by hypermobility of the joints, greater height compared to ones family members and, in some instances, by cardiovascular problems.

The newly identified variant, however, is not associated with disease.

One critical insight from this study is how genetic variants in the same gene can have very different effects, said lead author Samira Asgari, HMS research fellow in medicine at Brigham and Womens. Before now, if you asked a geneticist what a variant in this gene would do, they would probably say that they cause a disease. But that's not what we found.

On the contrary, based on the researchers analysis of the distribution of E1297G variant in the Peruvian population and throughout the wider Native American population, this variant may actually confer an evolutionary advantage, the researchers said, because it appears to have been selected for by evolution.

The study found that the new variant is notably more frequent in coastal Peruvian populations than in populations from the Andes or the Amazon, which suggests that short stature might be the result of adaptation to factors that are associated with the coastal environment in Peru, the researchers said.

These findings, based on one of the few studies of the genetics of Native American populations, highlight the importance of including diverse populations in biomedical research.

It's really important to include underrepresented populations, particularly in these kinds of studies that are models for the way other multigene, complex traits function, said Megan Murray, the Ronda Stryker and William Johnston Professor of Global Health at HMS and a senior author of the study. Leaving some people out means we might miss an important part of the picture were trying to see. And any people who are left out arent likely to reap the benefits of this kind of research.

Height is a complex genetic trait, and one that is easy to measure and provides an important model system for understanding how complex genetic systems work.

Meta analyses of genetic studies of height conducted on predominately European populations include more than 700,000 individuals, the researchers noted. This research has identified about 4,000 different genetic variations known to have an impact on an individuals height. Most such variants might make a persons stature less than one millimeter taller or shorter for each copy of the variant a person has.

In comparison, this variant that we found has a 2.2 cm effect per allele, Asgari said. Thats huge for a height variant.

The new variant was not present in any of the large genetic studies conducted with European majority populations.

The genomes the team analyzed in Peru are quite distinct from those analyzed in Europe or North America. About 80 percent of the genes of an average Peruvian come from their Native American ancestry, according to previous research.

Until now, Peruvians have not been included in any genomic studies of height. by studying a small, previously overlooked population, the researchers pinpointed an allele that showed a bigger effect on height than all the other variants.

Just amassing and amassing data isnt the answer, Raychaudhuri said. If youre not looking at different populations, you're going to miss really important stuff.

The E1297G variant appears in the genomes of 5 percent in the Peruvian population, but it occurs in the genomes of less than 1 percent of people of Native American descent from Mexico. The variant is completely absent from the genome of people of European descent.

We're doing studies in populations that are not normally on the map, Raychaudhuri said. This relatively small project is the largest genetic study thats been done in Peru at this point.

The new study grew out of a series of projects led by HMS researchers in Peru, including a long-term collaboration between Murray and colleagues with the health care delivery nongovernmental organization Socios En Salud, the Peruvian affiliate of Partners In Health.

Murrays work in Peru has centered around the epidemiology and genetics of tuberculosis. Her collaboration with Raychaudhuris team includes a previous study reported in Nature Communications last year that analyzed how a given individuals genetics impact their chances of becoming infected or ill with tuberculosis and identified a gene associated with TB progression.

After completing that project, Raychaudhuri and Asgari saw an opportunity to explore what the Peruvian genome might reveal about height. When their initial work revealed that there was a relationship to Marfan, other colleagues suggested they look for skin anomalies that are characteristic of variants in FBN1. The team grew, as they brought in Esther Freeman, HMS assistant professor of dermatology, a dermatologist and an epidemiologist at Massachusetts General Hospital. Working in Lima, the team tracked down homozygous individuals to analyze their skin, and found that it tracked with what would be expected with this genetic abnormality.

These diverse skills were all crucial to the process of discovery that allowed the researchers to produce this paper, the researchers said.

If you want to do really cool science you have to get out of your corner and collaborate, Asgari said.

This article has been republished from the following materials. Note: material may have been edited for length and content. For further information, please contact the cited source.

Read this article:

Worlds Shortest Population Reveal the Largest Genetic Contributor to Height - Technology Networks

Group of Genes Have Altered Expression in Autism – Technology Networks

Autism has long been associated only with behavioral and environmental factors, but the role of genetics in its development is now increasingly evident. Some 100 genes have been found to play a role in autism spectrum disorder, and another thousand are being studied to the same end.The diagnosis and treatment of the disorder on a genomic basis are hindered by this variability. However, a new study conducted at the University of So Paulo's Institute of Biosciences (IB-USP) in Brazil points to a common gene expression profile regardless of the DNA mutations in any autistic individual.

"We found a group of genes that's dysregulated in neural progenitor cells, which give rise to neurons, and in neurons themselves," said Maria Rita dos Santos e Passos-Bueno, a professor at IB-USP. In other words, while the DNA of different individuals with autism displays different alterations, the behavior of these genes is similar in all such people and differ from that observed in the brains of people without the disorder.

Passos-Bueno is affiliated with the Human Genome and Stem Cell Research Center (HUG-CELL), a Research, Innovation and Dissemination Center (RIDC) supported by So Paulo Research Foundation - FAPESP and hosted by the University of So Paulo (USP).

The study was supported by FAPESP via two research grants awarded under the programs So Paulo Researchers in International Collaboration (SPRINT) and Multiuser Equipment (EMU). The results are reported in the journal Molecular Psychiatry, a Nature publication.ExperimentsSamples of brain tissue cannot be taken from living people, so the researchers conducted in vitro experiments using a technique called cell reprogramming.

"We took dental pulp cells from people with and without autism, and from these, we created pluripotent stem cells, which can be transformed into any type of cell. In this way, we were able to create in the laboratory neural cells with the same genomes as those of the patients," said Karina Griesi Oliveira, the first author of the article. Oliveira has a PhD in genetics from IB-USP and is a researcher in the Albert Einstein Israeli Education and Research Institute (IIEP).

Five individuals with high-functioning autism and one with low-functioning autism were selected for the study; all six had heterogeneous genetic profiles. A control group comprised six healthy subjects.

"The study bore out the hypothesis that, while the origin of autism is multifactorial and different in each person, these different alterations can lead to the same problems in the functioning of their neurons," Oliveira said.

The induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were reprogrammed to simulate two stages in the development of the human brain: neural progenitor cells, which give rise to neurons, and neurons at a stage equivalent to those of a fetus between the 16th and 20th weeks of gestation.

The researchers then analyzed these cell transcriptomes, consisting of all their RNA molecules. RNA acts as an intermediary that converts the information in a gene into proteins, which in turn govern cell behavior.

"By counting the RNA molecules, we were able to determine gene expression with a considerable degree of precision," Oliveira said.

The researchers next used mathematical models to determine which genes were differentially expressed in both groups (with and without autism), arriving at those responsible for synapses and neurotransmitter release, i.e., genes that modulate communication among neurons. This process influences the functioning of the entire organism, but above all, the brain.

This set of genes, some of which have been associated with autism in previous research, displayed increased activity in neurons. "Some of them were dysregulated in iPSC-derived neural cells from autists studied in other research, and in neurons from postmortem brain tissue belonging to individuals with autism, validating the method," Passos-Bueno said.

On the other hand, this second analysis using postmortem tissue data showed decreased gene expression at the time of death. "We don't know the reason for the difference, but it's consistent evidence that expression of this group of genes is involved in autism spectrum disorder," Oliveira said.Clinical relevanceThe study also provides more evidence that autism begins to develop during gestation. "The study points to a disturbance in fetal neurodevelopment that alters neuronal functioning, so that the child is born with altered gene expression," Passos-Bueno said.

This knowledge may contribute to the diagnosis of autism, currently based on the clinical analysis of symptoms.

Imaging, blood tests and genetic sequencing cannot help diagnose the disorder in the vast majority of suspected cases. "A major genetic error causes autism in some 30% of patients, but the origin of the disorder is multifactorial in 70%, with several alterations to DNA causing clinical symptoms, so that interpretation of the genetic data is still complex," Passos-Bueno explained.

The research line may also favor the development of more effective treatment strategies. "To treat a genetic disease, you have to understand what the genes are doing wrong. The alterations to neurotransmitter control have never been demonstrated so clearly," said Mayana Zatz, a professor at IB-USP and HUG-CELL's principal investigator.ReferenceGriesi-Oliveira et al. (2020). Transcriptome of iPSC-derived neuronal cells reveals a module of co-expressed genes consistently associated with autism spectrum disorder. Molecular Psychiatry. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41380-020-0669-9

This article has been republished from the following materials. Note: material may have been edited for length and content. For further information, please contact the cited source.

Read the original here:

Group of Genes Have Altered Expression in Autism - Technology Networks

Amgen To Present At The Bank Of America Merrill Lynch Virtual Global Healthcare Conference – BioSpace

THOUSAND OAKS, Calif., May 12, 2020 /PRNewswire/ --Amgen(NASDAQ:AMGN) will present at the Bank of America Merrill Lynch Virtual Global Healthcare Conference at 1:40 p.m. ET on Thursday, May 14. Peter H. Griffith, executive vice president and chief financial officer, and Murdo Gordon, executive vice president of Global Commercial Operations at Amgen will present.

Live audio of the presentation can be accessed from the Events Calendar on Amgen's website,www.amgen.com, under Investors.A replay of the webcast will also be available on Amgen's website forat least90 days following the event.

About AmgenAmgen is committed to unlocking the potential of biology for patients suffering from serious illnesses by discovering, developing, manufacturing and delivering innovative human therapeutics. This approach begins by using tools like advanced human genetics to unravel the complexities of disease and understand the fundamentals of human biology.

Amgen focuses on areas of high unmet medical need and leverages its expertise to strive for solutions that improve health outcomes and dramatically improve people's lives. A biotechnology pioneer since 1980, Amgen has grown to be one of the world's leading independent biotechnology companies, has reached millions of patients around the world and is developing a pipeline of medicines with breakaway potential.

For more information, visit http://www.amgen.comand follow us on http://www.twitter.com/amgen.

CONTACT: Amgen, Thousand OaksMegan Fox, 805-447-1423 (media)Trish Rowland, 805-447-5631 (media)Arvind Sood, 805-447-1060 (investors)

View original content to download multimedia:http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/amgen-to-present-at-the-bank-of-america-merrill-lynch-virtual-global-healthcare-conference-301057141.html

SOURCE Amgen

Read the original here:

Amgen To Present At The Bank Of America Merrill Lynch Virtual Global Healthcare Conference - BioSpace

Why can two young and healthy individuals be affected so differently by coronavirus? – Health24

Compiled by Zakiyah Ebrahim | Health24

New information about the new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is constantly emerging, which is critical in the race to develop a vaccine and treatment for Covid-19. In a recent discovery, scientists found that a patients genes may provide clarity on why one young, healthy individual can be almost unaffected by the virus, while another can become seriously ill and end up in the intensive care unit (ICU).

In looking for rare, silent (hidden) gene mutations that are triggered by the virus, researchers are hoping it will take them one step closer to potential treatments.

At risk: Not just older people with underlying illnesses

Its agreed that the Covid-19 virus causes severe disease and kills older people with chronic illness; those with underlying medical conditions such as diabetes and lung disease; and men, at a greater rate than young people.

However, in an unexpected twist, were seeing a minority of patients who are under 50 take up space in ICUs around the world as well without any underlying medical conditions.

Speaking to AFP, and quoted in aScienceAlert article, geneticist Jean-Laurent Casanova director of the human genetics of infectious diseases laboratory jointly based at the Imagine Institute in Paris and Rockefeller University in New York revealed thatthis amounts to roughly five percent of patients:"Someone who could have run the marathon in October 2019, and yet in April 2020 is in intensive care, intubated and ventilated."

Casanovas goal is to find out if these patients may possibly have rare genetic mutations. "The assumption is that these patients have genetic variations that are silent until the virus is encountered," he explained.

The geneticist also co-founded the Covid Human Genetics Effort, which will analyse the genome of younger Covid-19 patients with severe illness in China and Europe, and also hopes to find out why certain people do not become infected, in spite of repeated exposure.

Earlier this month, HealthDay reported on this international study, led by Casanova. It will enrol 500 patients under the age of 50 with no underlying health conditions, and who have been diagnosed with Covid-19 and admitted to ICU.

Gene mutations can also offer protection

Gene mutations may be given a bad rap for making certain people more susceptible to a number of viral infectious diseases, such as influenza, but there is also a positive side.

According to ScienceAlert, researchers found a particularly rare mutation of a single gene, named CCR5, in the 1990s. This mutation actually offered protection against disease in that it stopped people from contracting HIV, laying the foundation for the development of treatments.

How may this help in Covid-19 treatment?

Mark Daly, director of the Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland, told AFP that with a very large sample and collaboration, and the ability to repeat the observation to be confident about the results, as well as recruitment of at least 10 000 patients, their project will hopefully help to develop a treatment.

"There are a huge number of medicines available that target specific genes. If we find a genetic clue that points us to a gene that already has a medication developed, then we could simply repurpose the drug," he said. However, in the event that mutations in genes are found and there arent currently medications available for them, it might make the process more complex.

On 12 May, the virus has infected more than 4.1 million people and killed over 286 000 worldwide, according to a report by theJohns Hopkins Coronavirus Resource Centre.

READ |Coronavirus in SA: All the confirmed cases

READ |Coronavirus crisis has fewer kids getting needed vaccines

READ |Low vitamin D levels and Covid-19 - what researchers found

Image: Getty Images

Read the original:

Why can two young and healthy individuals be affected so differently by coronavirus? - Health24

Study Finds Low Proportion of Individuals With Autism Receive Recommended Genetic Tests – Technology Networks

A study analyzing data from the Rhode Island Consortium for Autism Research and Treatment (RI-CART) found that only 3% of individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder reported having fully received clinical genetic tests recommended by medical professional societies.

The results bring to light a dissonance between professional recommendations and clinical practice, the researchers behind the study say.

Autism spectrum disorder is one of the most strongly genetic neuropsychiatric conditions. Medical professional societies -- such as the American Academy of Pediatrics, the American College of Medical Genetics, and the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry -- recommend offering chromosomal microarray testing and Fragile X testing for patients diagnosed with autism. The tests can identify or rule out genetic abnormalities that could have implications in a patient's diagnosis and clinical care.

The study, published in JAMA Psychiatry on May 13, analyzed 1,280 participants with autism spectrum disorder based on medical records and self-reported data from the time period of April 2013 to April 2019. The participants are enrolled with RI-CART, a public-private-academic collaborative focused on advancing research and building community among individuals with autism spectrum disorder in Rhode Island and their families. The study's goal was to determine the current state of clinical genetic testing for autism in this cohort, said authors Dr. Daniel Moreno De Luca and Dr. Eric Morrow.

Of the 1,280 participants, 16.5% reported having received some genetic testing, with 13.2% stating they received Fragile X testing, and 4.5% reporting that they received chromosomal microarray testing. However, only 3% of participants reported having received both recommended tests.

"I had the impression that the frequency of recommended genetic testing was not going to be very high based on the patients I encounter clinically, but 3% is actually lower than I thought it would be," said Moreno De Luca, an assistant professor of psychiatry and human behavior at Brown University, who is affiliated with the Carney Institute for Brain Science, and a psychiatrist at Bradley Hospital. "A higher proportion has had either test individually, and the proportion of people with chromosomal microarray is higher in recent calendar years, which is a hopeful glimpse for people who are being diagnosed recently and who may be younger. However, this underscores that there is still significant work to be done, especially for adults on the autism spectrum."

In the study, researchers examine possible reasons for the gap between clinical practice and the recommendations from medical professional societies. Age was among the most prominent, as people with autism in older age groups are less likely to be tested. According to the study, adults with autism were generally unlikely to have undergone the clinical genetic tests.

The researchers also found that patients diagnosed by subspecialist pediatricians were more likely to report genetic testing as compared to those diagnosed by psychiatrists and psychologists.

"This paper is really about how you implement clinical genetic tests in the clinical diagnostic setting," said Dr. Eric Morrow, an associate professor of biology at Brown and director of the Developmental Disorders Genetics Research Program at Bradley Hospital. "There is rapid progress from research, and then there's the doctor and health systems that need to translate that to clinical practice. The clinics need to set up more support to educate clinicians and families about genetics and autism. Generally, this is done by genetic counselors who may be rare in autism clinics."

Furthermore, the researchers found that nearly 10% of participants who received an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis between 2010 and 2014 reported receiving chromosomal microarray testing, one of the more modern genetic tests. Compared to those in the study who received a diagnosis in years before 2010, this showed an increase in self-reported testing.

"There is a more hopeful message that conveys that the success in implementing clinical genetic testing is increasing," said Morrow, who is affiliated with the Carney Institute, co-leads the Autism Initiative at the Hassenfeld Child Health Innovation Institute at Brown and directs the University's Center for Translational Neuroscience.

Based at Bradley Hospital in East Providence, the team behind RI-CART represents a partnership between researchers at Brown, Bradley Hospital and Women and Infants that also involves nearly every site of service for people on the autism spectrum and their families in Rhode Island.

As a next step, the researchers behind the JAMA Psychiatry study are conducting a separate study to understand in greater detail the factors that could be influencing the rate of genetic testing.

"Challenges can be found on the patient and families side, on the physician side, and on the systemic side with institutional requirements and many other potential barriers," said Moreno De Luca. "We want to address each of those factors independently."

Reference:Moreno-De-Luca, D., Kavanaugh, B. C., Best, C. R., Sheinkopf, S. J., Phornphutkul, C., & Morrow, E. M. (2020). Clinical Genetic Testing in Autism Spectrum Disorder in a Large Community-Based Population Sample. JAMA Psychiatry. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2020.0950

This article has been republished from the following materials. Note: material may have been edited for length and content. For further information, please contact the cited source.

Go here to see the original:

Study Finds Low Proportion of Individuals With Autism Receive Recommended Genetic Tests - Technology Networks

Cats can catch Covid-19 from other cats. The question is: Can we? – STAT

With sporadic reports in recent weeks of cats infected with the coronavirus that causes Covid-19, a group of researchers set out to determine whether cats can transmit the pathogen to one another.

The answer, the scientists said: They can. The question now is whether felines can transmit SARS-CoV-2 back to people.

Researchers from the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the University of Tokyo noted that none of the cats in their study was visibly ailing, but they shed the virus from their nasal passages for about six days.

advertisement

Considering the amount of virus we found coming out of the noses of the cats there is the possibility that these cats are shedding, fomites are being released in a persons household or at cat shelters or human societies and that somehow people could possibly pick up the virus. I think its something people should be aware of, said Peter Halfmann, a research professor at the University of Wisconsin and first author of the study, published as a letter in the New England Journal of Medicine.

It depends on the household and the cat, but there could be a lot of close contact with your pet cat on occasion, Halfmann said.

advertisement

The researchers, led by virologist Yoshihiro Kawaoka, experimentally infected three cats, and then placed an uninfected cat into each of the cages housing the infected animals a day later. The three uninfected cats were all infected within five days.

Halfmann said uninfected cats were also put into cages a foot away from the cages containing the infected cats. None of those felines became infected with the virus.

In early April, Chinese researchers reported that cats and ferrets were susceptible to infection. A few weeks later the U.S. Department of Agriculture announced that two pet cats in New York state had tested positive for the virus. At least eight big cats at the Bronx Zoo tigers and lions were also infected with the virus.

Many research groups have reported on virus shedding with Covid-19 by simply conducting testing by polymerase chain reaction, or PCR. A positive PCR hit tells you that the human or animal is shedding something, but it doesnt reveal if they are emitting viral debris which poses no risk of infection or actual infectious viruses.

The researchers responsible for this work did attempt to grow viruses from swabs taken from the noses and rectums of the cats; they found that all the animals were emitting infectious viruses from their noses. None of the rectal swabs produced infectious virus.

Halfmann said there was quite a lot of virus between 30,000 and 50,000 virus particles per swab. But what that means isnt clear, he said. Its not known how big a dose of virus is needed to infect a person. And theres no ethically acceptable way to construct a trial to see if cats can infect people.

Still the researchers suggested people should be aware of the possibility of transmission from cats to people, and keep cats away from anyone in a household who is suspected of being sick with Covid-19. I think its good practice to have this in peoples minds, Halfmann said. He and his co-authors also urged people not to abandon cats or give them up for adoption because of such concerns.

They also advised cat owners to keep their cats indoors.

Cats are still much more likely to get Covid-19 from you, rather than you get it from a cat, Keith Poulsen, director of the Wisconsin Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, said in a statement.

Read the original post:

Cats can catch Covid-19 from other cats. The question is: Can we? - STAT

Viewpoint: Darwin’s ‘Descent of Man’ is both deeply disturbing and more relevant than ever – Genetic Literacy Project

Charles Darwins Descent of Man is full of unexpected delights such as the trio of hard drinking, chain-smoking koalas that appear within its first few pages to illustrate our affinity to animals.

Yet Darwins great treatise on human origins is also, in parts, deeply disturbing.

Published a century and a half ago as of February, 2021 many of the opinions expressed in this seminal text (koalas aside) are still pertinent today. Indeed, despite (or rather, because of) the recent revolution in our understanding of genetics, the Descent is more relevant than ever.

Darwins wider musings on mankind have had an immense and lasting influence on our beliefs about human nature and behavior, not just scientifically, but socially and politically as well. And while the more reprehensible later applications of evolutionary theory to human society were not truly Darwinian at all, many troubling arguments about race, class, eugenics and the like can nonetheless be discerned within his Descent of Man.

Darwins intellectual legacy is part of the DNA of modern genetics, within which still lurk like malignant metaphorical retroviruses liable to revival and resurgence many of the odious beliefs that plagued its past.

What follows, therefore, are a few brief illustrative examples of problematic passages in the Descent of Man. The point is not as is common with many of Darwins detractors to simply cherry-pick quotes to make Darwin look bad (although, unfortunately, this is easy to do); rather it is to highlight how Darwin himself struggled with the social implications of his theory and this despite the many decades he had to dwell on these questions. Indeed, the rapid, recent explosion in our knowledge of genetics has not made the situation clearer, but rather more confused.

But lets begin with the contrast of some of the more captivating aspects of the Descent those which provide a glimpse of Darwin as an actual human being. (The on-going fascination with Darwin and the impetus for the seemingly inexhaustible Darwin Industry is not just due to his ideas and his genius, but also because he was a fascinating individual.)

Within the first few pages of Chapter 1, for example, Darwin notes that [m]any kinds of monkeys have a strong taste for tea, coffee, and spirituous liquors: they will also, as I have seen, smoke tobacco with pleasure. Not content with this as a single amusing anecdote of animals addictive affinities to mankind, he proceeds to discuss the three koalas mentioned above ones that acquired a strong taste for rum, and for smoking tobacco and an American Ateles monkey that, after getting drunk on brandy, would never touch it again, and thus was wiser than many men. He also delights in describing the consequences for a group of African baboons of over-indulgence in strong beer:

On the following morning they were very cross and dismal; they held their aching heads with both hands, and wore a most pitiful expression: when beer or wine was offered them, they turned away with disgust

Similar endearing animal anecdotes pepper the rest of the text, culminating after chapter upon chapter of detailed argument and speculation on the evolutionary origins of mankind (plus an extended interlude of the theory of sexual selection) with the rousing conclusion that we should not feel much shame, if forced to acknowledge that the blood of some more humble creature flows in [our] veins.

For my own part I would as soon be descended from that heroic little monkey, who braved his dreaded enemy in order to save the life of his keeper; or from that old baboon, who, descending from the mountains, carried away in triumph his young comrade from a crowd of astonished dogsas from a savage who delights to torture his enemies, offers up bloody sacrifices, practices infanticide without remorse, treats his wives like slaves, knows no decency, and is haunted by the grossest superstitions.

Darwin clearly liked animals better than people. Less facetiously, it is lurid passages such as these that make modern readers uncomfortable. Admittedly, this particular quotation does come straight after another glimpse of Darwin as an actual person; already in his sixties when he wrote these words, he evokes the memories of his 20-something self, aboard the Beagle, on first seeing a party of Fuegians on a wild and broken shore:

The astonishment which I felt will never be forgotten by me for the reflection at once rushed into my mindsuch were our ancestors. These men were absolutely naked and bedaubed with paint, their long hair was tangled, their mouths frothed with excitement, and their expression was wild, startled, and distrustful.

Given a modern appreciation of the manifold horrors of colonialism, it is a thorny question how we should deal with descriptions that clearly reflect the prejudices of their author. Does such obvious subjective opinion, for example, undermine the purportedly objective arguments that accompany it?

In this instance at least we can perhaps make allowances; after all, the first encounter between Darwin a wealthy young man from what was then the most technologically-advanced nation in the world and the Stone Age inhabitants of Tierra del Fuego must indeed have been astonishing. Moreover, unlike his cousin Francis Galton (who both coined and promoted the concept of eugenics), Darwin was not an explicit racist. (His loathing of slavery, for instance, comes across particularly strongly in the Journal of the Voyage of the Beagle.) Yet Darwin was also a product of a time when it seemed patently obvious that the English (and possibly the Scots) were the first among the civilized races. Further, the Descent also reflects the prevailing concept of a human hierarchy, descending from Europeans through the various barbarous, savage or lower races to mankinds closest living relatives amongst the anthropomorphous apes.

In a now-notorious passage, Darwin ranks the native inhabitants of Africa and Australia as just above the gorilla in the natural scale. At the same time, he callously concludes that the civilised races of man will almost certainly exterminate, and replace, the savage races throughout the world.

Nor was Darwins chauvinism confined simply to other races the lower classes of his own society were equally a target for his blatant prejudice. Indeed, as he remarks, at least [w]ith savages, the weak in body or mind are soon eliminated; and those that survive commonly exhibit a vigorous state of health.

We civilised men, on the other hand, do our utmost to check the process of elimination; we build asylums for the imbecile, the maimed, and the sick; we institute poor-laws; and our medical men exert their utmost skill to save the life of every one to the last moment. Thus the weak members of civilised societies propagate their kind. No one who has attended to the breeding of domestic animals will doubt that this must be highly injurious to the race of man.

And it is perhaps here that Darwins legacy even if distorted and exaggerated by the likes of Galton is most worrying in the modern age of embryonic screening, genetic manipulation and, potentially, genetically-enhanced designer babies. Today we are increasingly able to use genetic techniques to eliminate deleterious genes such as those for Huntingtons disease from future generations. But where is the line between an obviously harmful trait and an undesirable one? Is termination of fetuses with Down syndrome actually eugenics? Or what about those screened as having autism?

In Darwins pre-genetic age, these were questions that could not yet be asked, let alone answered. Of more relevance, however, was Darwins personal concern, having married his first cousin, Emma Wedgewood, with the possible inherited ill-effects of inbreeding on his own children. But even here, as he confidently asserts in the Descent, science would eventually come up with an answer:

When the principles of breeding and inheritance are better understood, we shall not hear ignorant members of our legislature rejecting with scorn a plan for ascertaining whether or not consanguineous marriages are injurious to man.

Yet while science can certainly inform our moral (or, in this case, legal) decisions, it cannot decide them facts do not determine values. Darwin half-heartedly acknowledges this when he concedes we ought not check our sympathy [for the weak], even at the urging of hard reason, without deterioration in the noblest part of our nature.

In the concluding paragraph to the Descent of Man, he goes on to claim, we are not here concerned with hopes or fears, only with the truth as far as our reason allows us to discover it. And while many of Darwins own hopes and fears appear inextricably tangled with his subjective version of the truth, it is his final closing description of humankinds noble qualities and exalted powers that perhaps shows the way beyond these ethical dilemmas: the sympathy which feels for the most debased, the benevolence which extends not only to other men but to the humblest living creature, and our godlike intellect which has penetrated into the movements and constitution of the solar system.

Modern genetics now allows us to penetrate into the very constitution of life itself. Informed by the history of what Darwin and his followers got right and what they got wrong, surely we can extend our sympathy, our benevolence and our godlike intellect to confront the moral demons that this new exalted power has conjured in our path.

Patrick Whittle has a PhD in philosophy and is a freelance writer with a particular interest in the social and political implications of modern biological science. Follow him on his website patrickmichaelwhittle.com or on Twitter @WhittlePM

Originally posted here:

Viewpoint: Darwin's 'Descent of Man' is both deeply disturbing and more relevant than ever - Genetic Literacy Project

Fulcrum Therapeutics, Inc. (FULC) Q1 2020 Earnings Call Transcript – The Motley Fool

Image source: The Motley Fool.

Fulcrum Therapeutics, Inc.(NASDAQ:FULC)Q12020 Earnings CallMay 13, 2020, 8:00 a.m. ET

Operator

Good morning, and welcome to Fulcrum Therapeutics first-quarter 2020 conference call. [Operator instructions] I would now like to turn the call over to Christi Waarich, director of investor relations and corporate communications at Fulcrum. Please proceed.

Christi Waarich -- Director of Investor Relations and Corporate Communications

Thank you, Dmitria. Good morning, and welcome to the Fulcrum Therapeutics conference call to discuss our first-quarter 2020 financial results and recent corporate highlights. Earlier today, we issued a press release outlining our recent progress. For those of you who don't have a copy, you can access it in the investor relations section of our website fulcrumtx.com.

Please be reminded that remarks made during this call may contain forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These may include statements about our future expectations and plans, clinical development time lines and financial projections. While these forward-looking statements represent our views as of today, they should not be relied upon as representing our views in the future. We may update these statements in the future but we are not taking on an obligation to do so.

Please refer to our most recent filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission for a discussion of certain risks and uncertainties associated with our business. With me on today's call are Robert Gould, president and chief executive officer; Diego Cadavid, senior vice president of clinical development; Owen Wallace, chief scientific officer; and Bryan Stuart, chief operating officer. Let me quickly run through this morning's agenda. Robert will begin the call with an overview of our recent progress.

Diego will discuss our FSHD program. Owen will discuss our sickle cell program and research efforts, and Bryan will cover our financials before opening the call for Q&A. With that, it's my pleasure to turn the call over to Robert. Robert?

Robert Gould -- President and Chief Executive Officer

Thank you, Christi. Good morning, everyone, and thank you for joining us today. I first want to thank the healthcare workers, investigators and caregivers for their courage and passion as they continue to support so many during the challenges of COVID-19. Our hearts go out to everyone who's been impacted.

To all of our friends, colleagues and the patient communities we serve, we hope you are keeping safe and healthy. Fulcrum's mission and purpose remain unchanged as we work to discover and develop therapeutics to treat genetically defined diseases by addressing their root cause. I'm proud of how our employees have risen to the evolving challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic. I would like to begin by highlighting some of our recent updates and accomplishments.

Today, we announced an amendment to ReDUX4, our Phase 2b trial with losmapimod in patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy or FSHD. Diego will go over the amendment in more detail. These changes will extend the patient treatment from the original trial design and we believe will provide a more robust data set while addressing the challenges presented by COVID-19. Early in the quarter, we received orphan drug designation from the U.S.

Food and Drug Administration for losmapimod in FSHD. I'm pleased to report that we have also received orphan designation from the European Commission for losmapimod for the treatment of FSHD. Like in the U.S., orphan designation is granted by the European Commission to drugs that are intended for the treatment, prevention or diagnosis of life-threatening or chronically debilitating rare diseases. We are extremely pleased to have received this designation, further supporting the advancement of losmapimod's FSHD program.

We recently presented dose-dependent target engagement data in skeletal muscle from our Phase 1 trial with losmapimod during a virtual clinical trial session of the muscular dystrophy association meeting. We continue to make progress with FTX-6058, an oral small-molecule therapeutic designed to induce expression of fetal hemoglobin in select hemoglobinopathies. You'll hear about our sickle cell program from Owen later in the call. We also continue to make progress on our early research-stage activities, including building out FulcrumSeek, our proprietary product engine designed to identify drug targets, programs and clinical development candidates in a broad range of genetically defined diseases.

And we initiated research activities under our collaboration with Acceleron. I would now like to turn the call over to Diego for an update on the FSHD program. Diego?

Diego Cadavid -- Senior Vice President of Clinical Development

Thanks, Robert. As a reminder, FSHD is a progressive disease characterized by severe muscular degeneration that occurs as skeletal muscle is replaced by fat. We estimate there are approximately 16,000 to 38,000 patients in the U.S. and similar incidents worldwide.

There are currently no approved drugs for FSHD and we are advancing the only known industry-sponsored clinical trial evaluating a potential treatment. Unlike other diseases that can be characterized by the lack of a gene, FSHD is characterized by the aberrant expression of the gene DUX4, the root cause of the disease. We at Fulcrum discovered that losmapimod, a selective p38 MAP kinase inhibitor, reduced the expression of DUX4 in preclinical studies. We therefore believe losmapimod represents a potential novel therapeutic option for FSHD patients.

Our own evidence, as well as independent evidence suggests that we do not have to turn DUX4 off completely to provide benefit. There is a spectrum of DUX4 expression and FSHD presentation that suggests that even an incremental reduction may be beneficial to patients. Thus, we believe, as do independent researchers, that any reduction in DUX4-driven gene expression has the potential for benefit to patients. ReDUX4 is our international Phase 2b, double-blind placebo-controlled trial of losmapimod in patients with genetically confirmed FSHD.

We completed enrollment of 80 patients at the end of February, which exceeded the 66 we had originally planned. The primary endpoint of the trial is the change from baseline in DUX4-driven gene expression in affected skeletal muscle. We also completed enrollment in our Phase 2 single-site open-label trial which has been impacted by COVID-19, and we are considering next steps. Fulcrum is dedicated to maintaining the highest standards in patient and clinician safety in the planning and execution of our clinical research programs.

The safety of our clinical trial participants and their healthcare providers, as well as the integrity of the data we collect remains paramount. In the wake of COVID-19, a number of our clinical trial sites postponed trial-related activities, and we quickly implemented plans to limit the potential disruption to our FSHD program. The original design of the ReDUX4 included a pretreatment biopsy followed by a second biopsy at week 16 of the 24-week treatment period. Following the 24-week trial, patients had the opportunity to roll into an open-label extension.

Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, 12 of the 80 patients completed their 24 weeks of treatment, including their week 16 biopsy and all enrolled in the open-label extension. As the COVID-19 pandemic continues, our team, in collaboration with our investigators, extended the ReDUX4 trial from 24 to 48 weeks. This allows approximately 67 subjects currently continuing in the trial to receive a biopsy at either week 16 or under the amended protocol at week 36 and after completing the 48-week treatment period, rolling to the open-label extension. To summarize, the ReDUX4 trial has been extended from 24 to 48 weeks with an open-label extension to follow.

Patients will receive a muscle biopsy at either 16 or 36 weeks. This extension will apply to the approximately 67 patients still enrolled in the trial while 12 have already completed and have been rolled into the open-label extension. As part of the modification to the trial, we will also conduct an interim analysis of approximately 25 subjects who have completed their 16-week biopsy. We anticipate sharing data from this interim analysis of subjects' DUX4-driven gene expression signature in the third quarter of this year, and we expect to report top-line data on the primary endpoint in the first quarter of 2021.

The extension from 24 to 48 weeks also allows for a longer assessment in a placebo-controlled design of the skeletal muscle MRI secondary endpoint and the various exploratory clinical endpoints such as reachable workspace, FSHD Timed Up and Go, muscle function measures and patient-reported outcomes. From both independent researchers, as well as our own preparatory studies, we know the DUX4 gene signature is stable over time in this population, and we believe that the longer we are able to treat patients, the greater the potential benefit losmapimod may have on the root cause of the disease. We strongly believe these changes to the ReDUX4 study are in the best interest of the patient community and provide the best opportunity to advance this important development effort as we work to address the challenges presented by COVID-19. All of these changes are designed to enable patients and investigators to continue participation in ReDUX4 and will allow us to collect essential data to support continued dialogue with regulators.

I'll now turn the call over to Owen. Owen?

Owen Wallace -- Chief Scientific Officer

Thanks, Diego. At Fulcrum, we pursue targeted indications where we believe we can develop safe and effective small-molecule therapies to rebalance gene expression. In our work across various indications, we consistently aim to address the root causes of disease to increase the potential efficacy of these treatments and, more broadly, transform the way these diseases are being treated. In spite of the challenges posed by COVID-19, we have continued to make progress on our research and early clinical portfolio.

As an essential business, we continue lab operations, albeit on a more limited basis. As a result, we continue to advance the collaboration with Acceleron, as well as our internal portfolio. We have also advanced our work on FulcrumSeek, our proprietary product engine designed to identify drug targets, programs and clinical development candidates in a broad range of genetically defined diseases. By combining high-throughput RNA sequencing, cellular imaging data and large-scale machine learning, we are monitoring more than 10,000 molecular and cellular features generated by the small-molecule probe and CRISPR perturbagen libraries.

Understanding their effects on gene expression is fundamental to our therapeutic strategy to modulate the genetic root cause of disease. FulcrumSeek is not only the core of our target identification strategy. It also provides us with a unique understanding of how cellular function is altered in human disease. I would like to thank our employees who have continued to work diligently through the COVID-19 crisis to advance our research programs, especially those who are coming into the lab working under social distancing and enhanced health and safety guidelines.

Likewise, our hemoglobinopathy program has continued to advance toward the IND filing. Our approach has focused on the up-regulation of fetal hemoglobin, which could be beneficial for both sickle cell disease and beta-thalassemia. By increasing levels of HbF to compensate for the mutated hemoglobin in sickle cell patients, we believe that we can develop and deliver a potent, effective and selective therapy for patients. This therapeutic strategy is supported by human genetics and pharmacology data where increasing levels of HbF have been shown to be associated with improved prognosis and outcomes, suggesting that HbF may be a surrogate endpoint in future clinical trials.

We're very pleased with our recent progress. Our clinical candidate FCX-6058 has been profiled broadly in preclinical in-vitro and in-vivo models of sickle cell disease, and we have seen robust elevation of HbF at drug concentrations that we believe will be readily achieved in humans based on pharmacokinetic profiling of the compound. We've had an abstract accepted for oral presentation at the 14th Annual Sickle Cell Disease Research & Educational Symposium scheduled for September of this year. We have also filed our non-provisional patent application, and we've completed our IND-enabling studies and toxicology work with FTX-6058.

We plan to submit the IND in sickle cell disease in the second half of 2020 and initiate our Phase 1 trial by the end of the year.With that, I will now turn the call over to Bryan for an update on our financial results for the quarter. Bryan?

Bryan Stuart -- Chief Operating Officer

Thanks, Owen. In these unprecedented times, Fulcrum is committed to making a difference for patients with FSHD and select hemoglobinopathies such as sickle cell disease. We are proceeding with a great sense of urgency to bring these potentially transformative therapies to patients. We ended the first-quarter 2020 with $81.2 million in cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities.

Based on our current operating plan and projections, we believe this will support our operations into the third quarter of 2021, allowing us to advance losmapimod in FSHD and bring FTX-6058 into the clinic while continuing to invest in our discovery-stage efforts. Research and development expenses for the quarter ended March 31, 2020, were $14.5 million, compared to $34.6 million in the first quarter of 2019. Included in that $34.6 million was $25.6 million of onetime costs associated with the issuance of series B convertible preferred stock under the company's license agreement with GSK for the rights to losmapimod. Excluding these onetime costs, the increase of $5.5 million was primarily due to increased costs related to the advancement of losmapimod for the treatment of FSHD, as well as increased personnel-related costs to support the growth of Fulcrum's research and development organization.

General and administrative expenses for the first quarter of 2020 were $5.1 million as compared to $2.6 million for the first quarter of 2019. This increase was primarily due to increased personnel-related costs to support the growth of our organization, as well as increased costs associated with operating as a public company. Overall, we remain undeterred in our mission and continue to expect several upcoming catalysts. We'll report the interim analysis from ReDUX4 in the third quarter of this year.

We'll initiate the Phase 1 trial with FTX-6058 in sickle cell disease and disclose the biochemical drug target by the end of the year, and we'll continue to advance our discovery programs from our product engine while making progress with our partners at Acceleron. We're excited about the work ahead and we continue -- as we continue to execute on our plans, and we look forward to keeping you updated on our progress in the months ahead. Operator, you may now open the line for questions.

Christi Waarich -- Director of Investor Relations and Corporate Communications

Operator, we're now ready for questions.

Operator

[Operator instructions] And our first question comes from Matthew Harrison with Morgan Stanley. You may proceed.

Kostas Biliouris -- Morgan Stanley -- Analyst

This is Kostas on for Matthew. A couple of questions from my side. The first one is whether you guys expect to lose any power given that you will only have 25 subjects in the first interim analysis. Do you think you will have enough power to see a signal there? Or do you expect the data only to be directional, to show you an improvement or not?

Diego Cadavid -- Senior Vice President of Clinical Development

Yeah. Thank you for the question. This is Diego Cadavid. The sample size of 80 subjects is -- we believe has appropriate power to answer the question at the end of the trial.

25 subjects, we believe, will give us an initial opportunity to look at the data and help us prepare and make some early insights into Phase 3 planning.

Kostas Biliouris -- Morgan Stanley -- Analyst

OK, thank you. And a follow-up question. Will you need to recruit additional subjects or you believe you have all the subjects you need at this point?

Diego Cadavid -- Senior Vice President of Clinical Development

We have completed recruitment. We believe we have all the subjects we needed.

Kostas Biliouris -- Morgan Stanley -- Analyst

OK. And then finally, I was wondering whether -- in the second part, when you expect all the subjects to have a biopsy at 16 or 36 weeks, given that there might be a second wave of the pandemic, of additional -- a second wave of infections, how certain you are you can have all the subjects complete the second biopsy at 36 weeks and whether there is any actions you are taking to mitigate this risk of losing some patients there again? Thank you.

Diego Cadavid -- Senior Vice President of Clinical Development

Yeah. When we amended the protocol, we carefully considered exactly what you're referring to. So we've built some windows -- time windows around the 36th week and sites have flexibility, as well as patients. So right now, we anticipate that we will get the data either at week 16 or at week 36 regardless.

Kostas Biliouris -- Morgan Stanley -- Analyst

OK. Thank you very much.

Operator

And our next question comes from Joseph Schwartz with SVB Leerink. You may proceed.

Joseph Schwartz -- SVB Leerink -- Analyst

My question would be, can you talk about how you arrived at a doubling in duration for the ReDUX protocol with respect to the clinical endpoints? Will patients in ReDUX still be evaluated at 24 weeks? And how many patients are hitting this time point in the second half of this year when it seems like social distancing might relax? And then when would most patients be hitting the 48-week time point? Have you done an analysis there to consider that this is in your best interest given -- however this pandemic might evolve with respect to its different waves based on where you're enrolling these patients?

Diego Cadavid -- Senior Vice President of Clinical Development

Yeah. The ReDUX4 trial completed enrollment in about six months between August of last year and February of this year. Therefore, the patients are moving across all the visits over a period of six months. We decided to extend the study by an additional 24 weeks because we believe, based on what is happening and what we expect to happen with COVID-19, this will give flexibility for the patients to collect data across a much longer period, where we expect the clinics to be open even if intermittently.

So overall, we believe that even if some 24-week visits are missed, patients would come back later. And as you know, FSHD is a slowly progressive disease. We are not counting acute events. So as long as we are collecting the data over time, we believe we'll be able to answer the efficacy questions.

Especially, many sites are still open. The impact of the pandemic is not affecting every site.

Joseph Schwartz -- SVB Leerink -- Analyst

And are you able to bring patients in and just strike while the iron is a little bit warmer in this period we seem to be entering as we speak now? Could you bring patients in for an evaluation? Can you talk about -- is it just at 24 and 48 weeks that the clinical assessments are being performed? Or do you have any ability to sneak in some additional sites without making additional protocol adjustments that might require you to take alpha hits?

Diego Cadavid -- Senior Vice President of Clinical Development

Yeah. This amendment builds flexibility. So all the visits of the original protocol over 24 weeks are open -- sites that are open, patients are coming. And the amendment provides additional opportunities at week 36, week 48 with extended windows.

So we really give opportunities to capture as much data regardless of what happens with COVID-19. We're very fortunate that not only the sites but the patients are very committed, and that's reflected in the high subject retention we have on the trial.

Joseph Schwartz -- SVB Leerink -- Analyst

That's very helpful. And then have you been able to garner any insights to date from the open-label trial? It sounds like you suggested it's been impacted from COVID-19, and I heard you're evaluating the next steps there. So why has that been impacted more, it sounds, than ReDUX4? Can you provide any color on that front?

Diego Cadavid -- Senior Vice President of Clinical Development

Yes. The open-label study is single site so you don't have this opportunity we have in ReDUX4 where we have many sites. And therefore, if one region that happens to be where this site is, is heavily affected, of course, the impact will be larger. That site is in the Netherlands.

We have always considered that a learning trial. The trial began in August. So obviously, we've had valuable learnings from that trial, which has always been the goal to inform what we do in ReDUX4. So in that sense, we believe this trial has been helpful.

Joseph Schwartz -- SVB Leerink -- Analyst

That's helpful. Thanks for the color.

Operator

And our next question comes from Tazeen Ahmad with Bank of America. You may proceed.

Tazeen Ahmad -- Bank of America Merrill Lynch -- Analyst

I just wanted to clarify your powering assumptions. So you previously said that the study would be powered to show a 50% reduction of DUX4 at week 16. Just based on the changes that you're talking about, how does that affect the potential path to accelerated approval? And have you spoken with FDA about this particular item?

Robert Gould -- President and Chief Executive Officer

Hi, Tazeen. This is Robert. Just a slight correction on -- I don't believe that we did power the study for a 50% reduction in the DUX4. That was not one of the original assumptions.

But I'll let Diego speak to the powering assumptions we made.

Diego Cadavid -- Senior Vice President of Clinical Development

Yeah. Robert is correct. We have never disclosed what the assumptions are for the power. This amendment is not impacting the power.

The sample size is the same. It only adds some flexibility. Because they're on treatment, muscle biopsy can be at week 16 or week 36, and we don't really expect a loss of subjects based on this amendment. Therefore, nothing has changed about the power assumptions.

Tazeen Ahmad -- Bank of America Merrill Lynch -- Analyst

OK. And how are you taking into account -- you're effectively increasing the length of the study to a year. What are you seeing in compliance rates for the study so far? And does this increase -- do you have any buffer, if you will, for potential dropouts in the study with the extended time of observation?

Robert Gould -- President and Chief Executive Officer

Yeah. Thanks, Tazeen. This is Robert again. One of the things that we've really been struck with is the cooperation of the patients and their willingness to take losmapimod.

Just to remind you, as you know, it's an oral drug taken twice daily, 7.5 milligram tablets, so two tablets in the morning, two tablets in the evening. And we just had not only a high retention rate of the patients, but we believe high compliance as well. And so the original trial was enrolling 66 patients. And because of the response we had from the patient community and the opportunity we had, we actually increased that to 80 patients.

So even if things were to change with the patients, we do believe that we're still going to be able to have the original 66 patients. But at this point in time, we believe we're going to be able to retain most of the patients that are currently in the study, if not all of them that are currently in the study.

Tazeen Ahmad -- Bank of America Merrill Lynch -- Analyst

OK. And my last question is about taking the biopsy at 16 weeks or 36. How did you come up with 36? And how do you feel confident in the integrity of the readings of both time periods? Because there's a big gap between the two.

Diego Cadavid -- Senior Vice President of Clinical Development

Yeah. This is Diego. So we have done our own preparatory study to look at the stability and variability of the DUX4 gene signature and the natural history, and that was done about six, eight weeks apart. The academic group of the Wellstone collaboration had done it over a year apart, and they were very generous and shared all their data with us.

So we know from these two studies that these DUX4 signature at the population level is very stable. So this interval between eight weeks or a year apart basically gives us a good argument that as long as you -- we collect repeated biopsies within that interval, we don't expect any impact on greater variability or loss of signature. So 36 really came in terms of building flexibility for patients and sites who had not obtained a 16-week biopsy as the pandemic moves, assuming that over time there will be a decrease of peaks and sites will be able to reopen and bring the patients in to obtain these biopsies. It's 36 weeks but we have a window so sites and patients can be flexible, and we believe that is the best chance to collecting the efficacy endpoint without losing power and keeping the quality.

Operator

[Operator instructions] And our next question comes from Ted Tenthoff with Piper Sandler. You may proceed.

See the article here:

Fulcrum Therapeutics, Inc. (FULC) Q1 2020 Earnings Call Transcript - The Motley Fool

Deficient Expression of DGCR8 in Human Testis is Related to Spermatoge | IJGM – Dove Medical Press

Emad Babakhanzadeh,1,2,* Ali Khodadadian,1,* Majid Nazari,1 Masoud Dehghan Tezerjani,1 Seyed Mohsen Aghaei,1 Sina Ghasemifar,1 Mehdi Hosseinnia,3 Mahta Mazaheri1,4

1Department of Medical Genetics, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran; 2Medical Genetics Research Center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran; 3Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran; 4Mother and Newborn Health Research Center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran

*These authors contributed equally to this work

Correspondence: Mahta Mazaheri Email mahta.mazaheri2019@gmail.com

Introduction: DiGeorge syndrome critical region gene 8 (DGCR8) contributes to miRNA biogenesis, and defects in its expression could lead to defects in spermatogenesis.Methods: Here, we assess gene and protein expression levels of DGCR8 in the testicular biopsy specimens obtained from men with obstructive azoospermia (OA, n = 19) and various types of non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) including maturation arrest (MA, n = 17), Sertoli cell-only syndrome (SCOS, n = 20) and hypospermatogenesis (HYPO, 18). Also, samples of men with NOA were divided into two groups based on successful and unsuccessful sperm recovery, NOA+ in 21 patients and NOA in 34 patients.Results: Examinations disclosed a severe decrease in DGCR8 in samples with MA and SCOS in comparison to OA samples (P < 0.001). Also, the results showed DGCR8 has significantly lower expression in testis tissues of NOA group in comparison to NOA+ group (p< 0.05). Western blot analysis confirmed that the DGCR8 protein was not expressed in SCOS samples and had a very low expression in MA and HYPO samples.Discussion: The results of this survey showed that DGCR8 is an important gene for the entire spermatogenesis pathway. Moreover, DGCR8 gene plays an important role in the diagnosis of NOA subgroups, and also the expression changes in it might contribute to SCOS or MA phenotypes. This gene with considering other related genes can also be a predictor of sperm retrieval.

Keywords: DGCR8, obstructive azoospermia, non-obstructive azoospermia, spermatogenesis

This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License.By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

See the original post here:

Deficient Expression of DGCR8 in Human Testis is Related to Spermatoge | IJGM - Dove Medical Press

Prevail Therapeutics Reports First Quarter 2020 Financial Results and Business Highlights – GlobeNewswire

Phase 1/2 Trial of PR001 for Parkinsons Disease with GBA1 Mutations Ongoing; Study Startup ActivitiesProgressing for Phase 1/2 Trials of PR001 for Type 2 NeuronopathicGaucher Disease and PR006 forFrontotemporal Dementia with GRN Mutations

Data Presentations Highlight Potential of AAV Gene Therapy Approach toSlow or Stop Neurodegenerative Disease Progression in Preclinical Models

NEW YORK, May 14, 2020 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Prevail Therapeutics Inc. (Nasdaq: PRVL), a biotechnology company developing potentially disease-modifying AAV-based gene therapies for patients with neurodegenerative diseases, today reviewed recent business highlights and reported financial results for the first quarter ended March 31, 2020.

We are excited to continue the clinical development of PR001 and are on track to report interim data for a subset of patients from our Phase 1/2 clinical trial of PR001 for Parkinsons disease with GBA1 mutations (PD-GBA) later this year. In addition, we are advancing our AAV gene therapy-based pipeline, with the planned mid-year initiation of Phase 1/2 clinical trials of PR001 for Type 2 neuronopathic Gaucher disease (nGD) and PR006 for frontotemporal dementia with GRN mutations (FTD-GRN), said Asa Abeliovich, M.D., Ph.D., Founder and Chief Executive Officer of Prevail. In addition, at ASGCT and AAT-AD/PD, we presented or will present data that validate the potential of these products for neurodegenerative disease patients with urgent unmet needs, and detailed our ongoing and planned clinical trials.

Recent Business Highlights and Updates:

In addition, study startup activities are continuing for the PROVIDE Phase 1/2 clinical trial of PR001 for Type 2 nGD, and the Company intends to initiate dosing in mid-2020. Prevail also continues to expect to initiate the PROGRESS Phase 1/2 clinical trial of PR001 for Type 3 nGD in the second half of 2020. The timelines for PR001 are subject to any delays related to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Clinical Development of PR006: Study startup activities are also underway for the PROCLAIM Phase 1/2 clinical trial of PR006 for FTD-GRN patients, which is planned to initiate in mid-2020, subject to any delays related to the COVID-19 pandemic.

First Quarter 2020 Financial Results

About Prevail TherapeuticsPrevail is a gene therapy company leveraging breakthroughs in human genetics with the goal of developing and commercializing disease-modifying AAV-based gene therapies for patients with neurodegenerative diseases. The company is developing PR001 for patients with Parkinsons disease with GBA1 mutations (PD-GBA) and neuronopathic Gaucher disease; PR006 for patients with frontotemporal dementia with GRN mutations (FTD-GRN); and PR004 for patients with certain synucleinopathies.

Prevail was founded by Dr. Asa Abeliovich in 2017, through a collaborative effort with The Silverstein Foundation for Parkinsons with GBA and OrbiMed, and is headquartered in New York, NY.

Forward-Looking Statements Related to PrevailStatements contained in this press release regarding matters that are not historical facts are forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, as amended. Examples of these forward-looking statements include statements concerning: the potential impact of COVID-19 on Prevails ongoing and planned clinical trials, business and operations; the potential of Prevails gene therapies to modify the course of neurodegenerative diseases; the anticipated timing of Prevails clinical trials of PR001 in PD-GBA and in nGD and Prevails clinical trial of PR006, including resuming of delayed trials and initiation of new trials; the expected timing of reporting of interim data for a subset of patients from Prevails Phase 1/2 clinical trial of PR001; and expectations regarding Prevails cash runway. Because such statements are subject to risks and uncertainties, actual results may differ materially from those expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. These risks and uncertainties include, among others: Prevails novel approach to gene therapy makes it difficult to predict the time, cost and potential success of product candidate development or regulatory approval; Prevails gene therapy programs may not meet safety and efficacy levels needed to support ongoing clinical development or regulatory approval; the regulatory landscape for gene therapy is rigorous, complex, uncertain and subject to change; the fact that gene therapies are novel, complex and difficult to manufacture; and risks relating to the impact on our business of the COVID-19 pandemic or similar public health crises.

These and other risks are described more fully in Prevails filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), including the Risk Factors section of the Companys Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the period ended March 31, 2020, filed with the SEC on or about May 14, 2020, the Companys Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019, filed with the SEC on March 26, 2020, and its other documents subsequently filed with or furnished to the SEC. All forward-looking statements contained in this press release speak only as of the date on which they were made. Except to the extent required by law, Prevail undertakes no obligation to update such statements to reflect events that occur or circumstances that exist after the date on which they were made.

Prevail Therapeutics Inc.Statements of Operations(Unaudited)(in thousands, except share and per share data)

Balance Sheets(in thousands, except share and per share data)

Media Contact:Mary CarmichaelTen Bridge Communicationsmary@tenbridgecommunications.com617-413-3543

Investor Contact:investors@prevailtherapeutics.com

Continue reading here:

Prevail Therapeutics Reports First Quarter 2020 Financial Results and Business Highlights - GlobeNewswire

Scientists concerned that coronavirus is adapting to humans – The Guardian

Scientists have found evidence for mutations in some strains of the coronavirus that suggest the pathogen may be adapting to humans after spilling over from bats.

The analysis of more than 5,300 coronavirus genomes from 62 countries shows that while the virus is fairly stable, some have gained mutations, including two genetic changes that alter the critical spike protein the virus uses to infect human cells.

Researchers at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine stress that it is unclear how the mutations affects the virus, but since the changes arose independently in different countries they may help the virus spread more easily.

The spike mutations are rare at the moment but Martin Hibberd, professor of emerging infectious diseases and a senior author on the study, said their emergence highlights the need for global surveillance of the virus so that more worrying changes are picked up fast.

This is exactly what we need to look out for, Hibberd said. People are making vaccines and other therapies against this spike protein because it seems a very good target. We need to keep an eye on it and make sure that any mutations dont invalidate any of these approaches.

Studies of the virus revealed early on that the shape of its spike protein allowed it to bind to human cells more efficiently than Sars, a related virus that sparked an outbreak in 2002. The difference may have helped the latest coronavirus infect more people and spread rapidly around the world.

Scientists will be concerned if more extensive mutations in the spike protein arise, not only because they may alter how the virus behaves. The spike protein is the main target of leading vaccines around the world, and if it changes too much those vaccines may no longer work. Other potential therapies, such as synthetic antibodies that home in on the spike protein, could be less effective, too.

This is an early warning, Hibberd said. Even if these mutations are not important for vaccines, other mutations might be and we need to maintain our surveillance so we are not caught out by deploying a vaccine that only works against some strains.

The scientists analysed 5,349 coronavirus genomes that have been uploaded to two major genetics databases since the outbreak began. By studying the genetic makeup of the viruses, the scientists worked out how it has diversified into different strains and looked for signs that it was adapting to its human host.

In an unpublished study that has yet to be peer reviewed, the researchers identified two broad groups of coronavirus that have now spread globally. Of the two spike mutations, one was found in 788 viruses around the world, with the other present in only 32.

The study shows that, until January, one group of coronaviruses in China escaped detection because they had a mutation in the genetic region that early tests relied on. More recent tests detect all of the known types of the virus.

Last month, an international team of scientists used genetic analyses to show that the coronavirus likely originated in bats and was not made in a lab as some conspiracy theorists have claimed.

Follow this link:

Scientists concerned that coronavirus is adapting to humans - The Guardian

Coronavirus quickly spread around the world starting late last year, new genetic analysis shows – CNN

');$vidEndSlate.removeClass('video__end-slate--inactive').addClass('video__end-slate--active');}};CNN.autoPlayVideoExist = (CNN.autoPlayVideoExist === true) ? true : false;var configObj = {thumb: 'none',video: 'health/2020/04/25/vaccine-trial-covid-19-gupta-ac360-vpx.cnn',width: '100%',height: '100%',section: 'domestic',profile: 'expansion',network: 'cnn',markupId: 'large-media_0',adsection: 'const-article-carousel-pagetop',frameWidth: '100%',frameHeight: '100%',posterImageOverride: {"mini":{"width":220,"type":"jpg","uri":"//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/200424203023-gupta-dnt-vaccine-trial-small-169.jpg","height":124},"xsmall":{"width":307,"type":"jpg","uri":"//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/200424203023-gupta-dnt-vaccine-trial-medium-plus-169.jpg","height":173},"small":{"width":460,"type":"jpg","uri":"//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/200424203023-gupta-dnt-vaccine-trial-large-169.jpg","height":259},"medium":{"width":780,"type":"jpg","uri":"//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/200424203023-gupta-dnt-vaccine-trial-exlarge-169.jpg","height":438},"large":{"width":1100,"type":"jpg","uri":"//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/200424203023-gupta-dnt-vaccine-trial-super-169.jpg","height":619},"full16x9":{"width":1600,"type":"jpg","uri":"//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/200424203023-gupta-dnt-vaccine-trial-full-169.jpg","height":900},"mini1x1":{"width":120,"type":"jpg","uri":"//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/200424203023-gupta-dnt-vaccine-trial-small-11.jpg","height":120}}},autoStartVideo = false,isVideoReplayClicked = false,callbackObj,containerEl,currentVideoCollection = [{"title":"Hear what it's like to be part of a vaccine trial","duration":"04:04","sourceName":"CNN","sourceLink":"https://www.cnn.com/","videoCMSUrl":"/video/data/3.0/video/health/2020/04/25/vaccine-trial-covid-19-gupta-ac360-vpx.cnn/index.xml","videoId":"health/2020/04/25/vaccine-trial-covid-19-gupta-ac360-vpx.cnn","videoImage":"//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/200424203023-gupta-dnt-vaccine-trial-large-169.jpg","videoUrl":"/videos/health/2020/04/25/vaccine-trial-covid-19-gupta-ac360-vpx.cnn/video/playlists/coronavirus/","description":"CNN's u003ca href="http://www.cnn.com/profiles/sanjay-gupta-profile" target="_blank">Dr. Sanjay Guptau003c/a> speaks with Sean Doyle, who is participating in a vaccine trial for Covid-19.","descriptionText":"CNN's u003ca href="http://www.cnn.com/profiles/sanjay-gupta-profile" target="_blank">Dr. Sanjay Guptau003c/a> speaks with Sean Doyle, who is participating in a vaccine trial for Covid-19."},{"title":"Trump questions 'whole concept of tests.' See Gupta's reaction","duration":"02:01","sourceName":"CNN","sourceLink":"https://www.cnn.com/?refresh=1","videoCMSUrl":"/video/data/3.0/video/politics/2020/05/08/trump-testing-accuracy-gupta-lead-vpx.cnn/index.xml","videoId":"politics/2020/05/08/trump-testing-accuracy-gupta-lead-vpx.cnn","videoImage":"//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/200508165239-sanjay-gupta-trump-testing-split-large-169.jpg","videoUrl":"/videos/politics/2020/05/08/trump-testing-accuracy-gupta-lead-vpx.cnn/video/playlists/coronavirus/","description":"After Vice President Pence's press secretary Katie Miller tested positive for coronavirus, President Trump questioned the "whole concept of tests." ","descriptionText":"After Vice President Pence's press secretary Katie Miller tested positive for coronavirus, President Trump questioned the "whole concept of tests." "},{"title":"Dr. Gupta explains symptom called 'Covid toes' ","duration":"00:51","sourceName":"CNN","sourceLink":"http://www.cnn.com/2020/05/08/app-news-section/full-coronavirus-town-hall-may-7-2020-app/index.html","videoCMSUrl":"/video/data/3.0/video/health/2020/05/08/covid-toes-gupta-explainer-town-hall-vpx.cnn/index.xml","videoId":"health/2020/05/08/covid-toes-gupta-explainer-town-hall-vpx.cnn","videoImage":"//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/200509005402-covid-toes-gupta-explainer-town-hall-vpx-00002510-large-169.jpg","videoUrl":"/videos/health/2020/05/08/covid-toes-gupta-explainer-town-hall-vpx.cnn/video/playlists/coronavirus/","description":"CNN's Chief Medical Correspondent u003ca href="http://www.cnn.com/profiles/sanjay-gupta-profile" target="_blank">Dr. Sanjay Guptau003c/a> answers viewers questions at u003ca href="http://www.cnn.com/2020/05/08/app-news-section/full-coronavirus-town-hall-may-7-2020-app/index.html" target="_blank">CNN's coronavirus town hallu003c/a>.","descriptionText":"CNN's Chief Medical Correspondent u003ca href="http://www.cnn.com/profiles/sanjay-gupta-profile" target="_blank">Dr. Sanjay Guptau003c/a> answers viewers questions at u003ca href="http://www.cnn.com/2020/05/08/app-news-section/full-coronavirus-town-hall-may-7-2020-app/index.html" target="_blank">CNN's coronavirus town hallu003c/a>."},{"title":"Coronavirus found in men's semen. Can it spread through sex?","duration":"01:33","sourceName":"CNN","sourceLink":"https://www.cnn.com/","videoCMSUrl":"/video/data/3.0/video/health/2020/05/08/coronavirus-mens-semen-baldwin-intv-nr-vpx.cnn/index.xml","videoId":"health/2020/05/08/coronavirus-mens-semen-baldwin-intv-nr-vpx.cnn","videoImage":"//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/131227133923-man-silhouette-restricted-story-top.jpg","videoUrl":"/videos/health/2020/05/08/coronavirus-mens-semen-baldwin-intv-nr-vpx.cnn/video/playlists/coronavirus/","description":"New research in China shows thatu003ca href="/2020/05/07/health/coronavirus-semen-china-health/index.html" target="_blank"> coronavirus can remain in the semen of menu003c/a> who have been formerly diagnosed with the illness.","descriptionText":"New research in China shows thatu003ca href="/2020/05/07/health/coronavirus-semen-china-health/index.html" target="_blank"> coronavirus can remain in the semen of menu003c/a> who have been formerly diagnosed with the illness."},{"title":"Man creates rolling pulpit for pandemic funerals","duration":"01:29","sourceName":"WTVR","sourceLink":"https://www.wtvr.com/","videoCMSUrl":"/video/data/3.0/video/us/2020/05/08/virginia-mobile-rolling-funeral-pulpit-pkg-vpx.wtvr/index.xml","videoId":"us/2020/05/08/virginia-mobile-rolling-funeral-pulpit-pkg-vpx.wtvr","videoImage":"//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/200508154203-rolling-funeral-pulpit-large-169.jpg","videoUrl":"/videos/us/2020/05/08/virginia-mobile-rolling-funeral-pulpit-pkg-vpx.wtvr/video/playlists/coronavirus/","description":"A man in Petersburg, Virginia, saw a need for those who have lost loved ones and cannot have a traditional funeral due to social distancing guidelines during the coronavirus pandemic. ","descriptionText":"A man in Petersburg, Virginia, saw a need for those who have lost loved ones and cannot have a traditional funeral due to social distancing guidelines during the coronavirus pandemic. "},{"title":"Manufacturer: Only enough remdesivir for 200K patients worldwide","duration":"02:24","sourceName":"CNN","sourceLink":"https://www.cnn.com/","videoCMSUrl":"/video/data/3.0/video/health/2020/05/08/remdesivir-shortage-coronavirus-drug-cohen-newday-dnt-vpx.cnn/index.xml","videoId":"health/2020/05/08/remdesivir-shortage-coronavirus-drug-cohen-newday-dnt-vpx.cnn","videoImage":"//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/200507151802-01-gilead-remdesivir-0408-large-169.jpg","videoUrl":"/videos/health/2020/05/08/remdesivir-shortage-coronavirus-drug-cohen-newday-dnt-vpx.cnn/video/playlists/coronavirus/","description":"Remdesivir is the only drug shown to be effective against Covid-19 in a rigorous trial. But the drug's maker, Gilead Sciences, says there's only enough of it in the world for about 200,000 patients. CNN's Elizabeth Cohen reports.","descriptionText":"Remdesivir is the only drug shown to be effective against Covid-19 in a rigorous trial. But the drug's maker, Gilead Sciences, says there's only enough of it in the world for about 200,000 patients. CNN's Elizabeth Cohen reports."},{"title":"The machines helping hospitals fight coronavirus","duration":"02:22","sourceName":"CNN","sourceLink":"","videoCMSUrl":"/video/data/3.0/video/health/2020/05/04/coronavirus-intensive-care-equipment-lon-orig.cnn/index.xml","videoId":"health/2020/05/04/coronavirus-intensive-care-equipment-lon-orig.cnn","videoImage":"//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/200504140650-covid-critical-care-equipment-dv-large-169.jpg","videoUrl":"/videos/health/2020/05/04/coronavirus-intensive-care-equipment-lon-orig.cnn/video/playlists/coronavirus/","description":"Intensive care units around the word are caring for patients with Covid-19, this is the equipment medical workers need to treat one severe patient.","descriptionText":"Intensive care units around the word are caring for patients with Covid-19, this is the equipment medical workers need to treat one severe patient."},{"title":"Trump administration rejects CDC reopening guidelines","duration":"03:16","sourceName":"CNN","sourceLink":"https://www.cnn.com/","videoCMSUrl":"/video/data/3.0/video/health/2020/05/07/cdc-guidance-on-safe-reopening-coronavirus-nr-pkg-jones-vpx.cnn/index.xml","videoId":"health/2020/05/07/cdc-guidance-on-safe-reopening-coronavirus-nr-pkg-jones-vpx.cnn","videoImage":"//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/200424144736-01-trump-signing-coronavirus-aid-package-large-169.jpg","videoUrl":"/videos/health/2020/05/07/cdc-guidance-on-safe-reopening-coronavirus-nr-pkg-jones-vpx.cnn/video/playlists/coronavirus/","description":"The Trump administration willu003ca href="https://www.cnn.com/2020/05/07/politics/cdc-guidance-coronavirus-reopen-america/index.html" target="_blank"> not implement the CDC's 17-page draftu003c/a> recommendation for reopening America, a senior CDC official confirmed to CNN Thursday. CNN's u003ca href="/profiles/athena-jones-profile" target="_blank">Athena Jonesu003c/a> reports.","descriptionText":"The Trump administration willu003ca href="https://www.cnn.com/2020/05/07/politics/cdc-guidance-coronavirus-reopen-america/index.html" target="_blank"> not implement the CDC's 17-page draftu003c/a> recommendation for reopening America, a senior CDC official confirmed to CNN Thursday. CNN's u003ca href="/profiles/athena-jones-profile" target="_blank">Athena Jonesu003c/a> reports."},{"title":"Birx: We're working with CDC to edit reopening guidelines","duration":"02:26","sourceName":"CNN","sourceLink":"https://www.cnn.com/","videoCMSUrl":"/video/data/3.0/video/health/2020/05/08/cdc-guidelines-birx-sanjay-cooper-intv-vpx.cnn/index.xml","videoId":"health/2020/05/08/cdc-guidelines-birx-sanjay-cooper-intv-vpx.cnn","videoImage":"//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/200507201013-03-cnn-town-hall-0407-birx-large-169.jpg","videoUrl":"/videos/health/2020/05/08/cdc-guidelines-birx-sanjay-cooper-intv-vpx.cnn/video/playlists/coronavirus/","description":"CNN'su003ca href="/profiles/anderson-cooper-profile" target="_blank"> Anderson Cooperu003c/a> andu003ca href="/profiles/sanjay-gupta-profile" target="_blank"> Dr. Sanjay Guptau003c/a> speak to Dr. Deborah Birx about the CDC revising their guidelines for reopening states amid the coronavirus pandemic.","descriptionText":"CNN'su003ca href="/profiles/anderson-cooper-profile" target="_blank"> Anderson Cooperu003c/a> andu003ca href="/profiles/sanjay-gupta-profile" target="_blank"> Dr. Sanjay Guptau003c/a> speak to Dr. Deborah Birx about the CDC revising their guidelines for reopening states amid the coronavirus pandemic."},{"title":"Rollout of antibody tests met with confusion, little oversight","duration":"03:16","sourceName":"CNN","sourceLink":"https://www.cnn.com/","videoCMSUrl":"/video/data/3.0/video/us/2020/05/07/tracking-antibody-testing-coronavirus-griffin-tsr-pkg-vpx.cnn/index.xml","videoId":"us/2020/05/07/tracking-antibody-testing-coronavirus-griffin-tsr-pkg-vpx.cnn","videoImage":"//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/200430091452-atlanta-antibody-tests-large-169.jpg","videoUrl":"/videos/us/2020/05/07/tracking-antibody-testing-coronavirus-griffin-tsr-pkg-vpx.cnn/video/playlists/coronavirus/","description":"The rollout of millions of antibody tests in the US has created frustration and division among state health departments due to a mix of questionable tests, shifting federal rules, and a hodgepodge of different methods for tracking results. CNN's u003ca href="https://www.cnn.com/profiles/drew-griffin-profile" target="_blank">Drew Griffinu003c/a> reports. ","descriptionText":"The rollout of millions of antibody tests in the US has created frustration and division among state health departments due to a mix of questionable tests, shifting federal rules, and a hodgepodge of different methods for tracking results. CNN's u003ca href="https://www.cnn.com/profiles/drew-griffin-profile" target="_blank">Drew Griffinu003c/a> reports. "},{"title":"How morgue worker honors the dead in her care","duration":"02:57","sourceName":"CNN","sourceLink":"http://www.cnn.com","videoCMSUrl":"/video/data/3.0/video/health/2020/05/07/new-jersey-morgue-attendant-daffodils-honors-deceased-tanisha-brunson-malone-intv-ctn-vpx.cnn/index.xml","videoId":"health/2020/05/07/new-jersey-morgue-attendant-daffodils-honors-deceased-tanisha-brunson-malone-intv-ctn-vpx.cnn","videoImage":"//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/200507005229-new-jersey-morgue-attendant-daffodils-honors-deceased-tanisha-brunson-malone-intv-ctn-vpx-00001729-large-169.jpg","videoUrl":"/videos/health/2020/05/07/new-jersey-morgue-attendant-daffodils-honors-deceased-tanisha-brunson-malone-intv-ctn-vpx.cnn/video/playlists/coronavirus/","description":"Tanisha Brunson-Malone, a morgue attendant at a hospital in New Jersey, is honoring the dead in her care by placing a yellow daffodil on each body bag. CNN's u003ca href="http://www.cnn.com/profiles/don-lemon-profile" target="_blank">Don Lemonu003c/a> speaks with her about the gesture.","descriptionText":"Tanisha Brunson-Malone, a morgue attendant at a hospital in New Jersey, is honoring the dead in her care by placing a yellow daffodil on each body bag. CNN's u003ca href="http://www.cnn.com/profiles/don-lemon-profile" target="_blank">Don Lemonu003c/a> speaks with her about the gesture."},{"title":"How Washington state kept coronavirus deaths under 1,000","duration":"03:33","sourceName":"CNN","sourceLink":"https://www.cnn.com","videoCMSUrl":"/video/data/3.0/video/us/2020/05/07/washington-state-coronavirus-sidner-pkg-lead-vpx.cnn/index.xml","videoId":"us/2020/05/07/washington-state-coronavirus-sidner-pkg-lead-vpx.cnn","videoImage":"//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/200507174229-seattle-skyline-washington-coronavirus-sidner-pkg-large-169.jpg","videoUrl":"/videos/us/2020/05/07/washington-state-coronavirus-sidner-pkg-lead-vpx.cnn/video/playlists/coronavirus/","description":"CNN's u003ca href="https://www.cnn.com/profiles/sara-sidner-profile" target="_blank">Sara Sidneru003c/a> explains how Washington state, the first state to confirm a coronavirus case in the US, has been able to keep the death toll relatively low, compared to other states. ","descriptionText":"CNN's u003ca href="https://www.cnn.com/profiles/sara-sidner-profile" target="_blank">Sara Sidneru003c/a> explains how Washington state, the first state to confirm a coronavirus case in the US, has been able to keep the death toll relatively low, compared to other states. "},{"title":"McDonald's employees shot over coronavirus restrictions","duration":"01:07","sourceName":"KFOR","sourceLink":"https://kfor.com/news/local/at-least-2-people-taken-to-hospital-following-shooting-in-oklahoma-city/","videoCMSUrl":"/video/data/3.0/video/us/2020/05/07/customer-shot-mcdonalds-employees-oklahoma-city-pkg-vpx.kfor/index.xml","videoId":"us/2020/05/07/customer-shot-mcdonalds-employees-oklahoma-city-pkg-vpx.kfor","videoImage":"//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/200506224453-mcdonalds-employees-shot-coronavirus-large-169.jpg","videoUrl":"/videos/us/2020/05/07/customer-shot-mcdonalds-employees-oklahoma-city-pkg-vpx.kfor/video/playlists/coronavirus/","description":"Two McDonald's employees in Oklahoma City were shot by customers after being told the dining area was closed due to coronavirus restrictions. Another employee was injured and the victims are expected to survive.","descriptionText":"Two McDonald's employees in Oklahoma City were shot by customers after being told the dining area was closed due to coronavirus restrictions. Another employee was injured and the victims are expected to survive."},{"title":"Scientists hopeful for monoclonal antibody treatment","duration":"02:26","sourceName":"CNN","sourceLink":"http://www.cnn.com","videoCMSUrl":"/video/data/3.0/video/health/2020/05/06/monoclonal-antibody-coronavirus-treatment-cohen-pkg-newday-vpx.cnn/index.xml","videoId":"health/2020/05/06/monoclonal-antibody-coronavirus-treatment-cohen-pkg-newday-vpx.cnn","videoImage":"//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/200505220349-coronavirus-virus-swab-samples-large-169.jpg","videoUrl":"/videos/health/2020/05/06/monoclonal-antibody-coronavirus-treatment-cohen-pkg-newday-vpx.cnn/video/playlists/coronavirus/","description":"Scientists hope monoclonal antibodies from plasma will be an effective treatment in the fight against Covid-19. CNN's Elizabeth Cohen has more.","descriptionText":"Scientists hope monoclonal antibodies from plasma will be an effective treatment in the fight against Covid-19. CNN's Elizabeth Cohen has more."},{"title":"Frontline workers' mental health at risk due to pandemic","duration":"03:45","sourceName":"CNN","sourceLink":"https://www.cnn.com/","videoCMSUrl":"/video/data/3.0/video/health/2020/05/06/frontline-workers-mental-health-hill-lead-pkg-vpx.cnn/index.xml","videoId":"health/2020/05/06/frontline-workers-mental-health-hill-lead-pkg-vpx.cnn","videoImage":"//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/200506164654-dr-evelina-grayer-large-169.jpg","videoUrl":"/videos/health/2020/05/06/frontline-workers-mental-health-hill-lead-pkg-vpx.cnn/video/playlists/coronavirus/","description":"Frontline healthcare workers may be at increased risk of PTSD and a number of other emotional disorders as a result of fighting the coronavirus. CNN's u003ca href="https://www.cnn.com/profiles/erica-hill-profile" target="_blank">Erica Hillu003c/a> reports.","descriptionText":"Frontline healthcare workers may be at increased risk of PTSD and a number of other emotional disorders as a result of fighting the coronavirus. CNN's u003ca href="https://www.cnn.com/profiles/erica-hill-profile" target="_blank">Erica Hillu003c/a> reports."},{"title":"Ex-CDC chief: There will be at least 100,000 Covid-19 deaths by end of May","duration":"01:12","sourceName":"CNN","sourceLink":"https://www.cnn.com/","videoCMSUrl":"/video/data/3.0/video/health/2020/05/06/thomas-frieden-coronavirus-death-toll-increase-nr-sot-vpx.cnn/index.xml","videoId":"health/2020/05/06/thomas-frieden-coronavirus-death-toll-increase-nr-sot-vpx.cnn","videoImage":"//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/200506143920-tom-frieden-cdc-large-169.jpg","videoUrl":"/videos/health/2020/05/06/thomas-frieden-coronavirus-death-toll-increase-nr-sot-vpx.cnn/video/playlists/coronavirus/","description":"Former CDC chief Tom Frieden, testified on Capitol Hill that he believes the number of coronavirus deaths in the US will exceed 100,000. ","descriptionText":"Former CDC chief Tom Frieden, testified on Capitol Hill that he believes the number of coronavirus deaths in the US will exceed 100,000. "}],currentVideoCollectionId = '',isLivePlayer = false,mediaMetadataCallbacks,mobilePinnedView = null,moveToNextTimeout,mutePlayerEnabled = false,nextVideoId = '',nextVideoUrl = '',turnOnFlashMessaging = false,videoPinner,videoEndSlateImpl;if (CNN.autoPlayVideoExist === false) {autoStartVideo = true;if (autoStartVideo === true) {if (turnOnFlashMessaging === true) {autoStartVideo = false;containerEl = jQuery(document.getElementById(configObj.markupId));CNN.VideoPlayer.showFlashSlate(containerEl);} else {CNN.autoPlayVideoExist = true;}}}configObj.autostart = CNN.Features.enableAutoplayBlock ? false : autoStartVideo;CNN.VideoPlayer.setPlayerProperties(configObj.markupId, autoStartVideo, isLivePlayer, isVideoReplayClicked, mutePlayerEnabled);CNN.VideoPlayer.setFirstVideoInCollection(currentVideoCollection, configObj.markupId);var videoHandler = {},isFeaturedVideoCollectionHandlerAvailable = (CNN !== undefined &&CNN.VIDEOCLIENT !== undefined &&CNN.VIDEOCLIENT.FeaturedVideoCollectionHandler !== undefined);if (!isFeaturedVideoCollectionHandlerAvailable) {CNN.INJECTOR.executeFeature('videx').done(function () {jQuery.ajax({dataType: 'script',cache: true,url: '//www.i.cdn.cnn.com/.a/2.205.0/js/featured-video-collection-player.min.js'}).done(function () {initializeVideoAndCollection();}).fail(function () {throw 'Unable to fetch /js/featured-video-collection-player.min.js';});}).fail(function () {throw 'Unable to fetch the videx bundle';});}function initializeVideoAndCollection() {videoHandler = new CNN.VIDEOCLIENT.FeaturedVideoCollectionHandler(configObj.markupId,"cn-featured-1ju4221",'js-video_description-featured-1ju4221',[{"title":"Hear what it's like to be part of a vaccine trial","duration":"04:04","sourceName":"CNN","sourceLink":"https://www.cnn.com/","videoCMSUrl":"/video/data/3.0/video/health/2020/04/25/vaccine-trial-covid-19-gupta-ac360-vpx.cnn/index.xml","videoId":"health/2020/04/25/vaccine-trial-covid-19-gupta-ac360-vpx.cnn","videoImage":"//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/200424203023-gupta-dnt-vaccine-trial-large-169.jpg","videoUrl":"/videos/health/2020/04/25/vaccine-trial-covid-19-gupta-ac360-vpx.cnn/video/playlists/coronavirus/","description":"CNN's u003ca href="http://www.cnn.com/profiles/sanjay-gupta-profile" target="_blank">Dr. Sanjay Guptau003c/a> speaks with Sean Doyle, who is participating in a vaccine trial for Covid-19.","descriptionText":"CNN's u003ca href="http://www.cnn.com/profiles/sanjay-gupta-profile" target="_blank">Dr. Sanjay Guptau003c/a> speaks with Sean Doyle, who is participating in a vaccine trial for Covid-19."},{"title":"Trump questions 'whole concept of tests.' See Gupta's reaction","duration":"02:01","sourceName":"CNN","sourceLink":"https://www.cnn.com/?refresh=1","videoCMSUrl":"/video/data/3.0/video/politics/2020/05/08/trump-testing-accuracy-gupta-lead-vpx.cnn/index.xml","videoId":"politics/2020/05/08/trump-testing-accuracy-gupta-lead-vpx.cnn","videoImage":"//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/200508165239-sanjay-gupta-trump-testing-split-large-169.jpg","videoUrl":"/videos/politics/2020/05/08/trump-testing-accuracy-gupta-lead-vpx.cnn/video/playlists/coronavirus/","description":"After Vice President Pence's press secretary Katie Miller tested positive for coronavirus, President Trump questioned the "whole concept of tests." ","descriptionText":"After Vice President Pence's press secretary Katie Miller tested positive for coronavirus, President Trump questioned the "whole concept of tests." "},{"title":"Dr. Gupta explains symptom called 'Covid toes' ","duration":"00:51","sourceName":"CNN","sourceLink":"http://www.cnn.com/2020/05/08/app-news-section/full-coronavirus-town-hall-may-7-2020-app/index.html","videoCMSUrl":"/video/data/3.0/video/health/2020/05/08/covid-toes-gupta-explainer-town-hall-vpx.cnn/index.xml","videoId":"health/2020/05/08/covid-toes-gupta-explainer-town-hall-vpx.cnn","videoImage":"//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/200509005402-covid-toes-gupta-explainer-town-hall-vpx-00002510-large-169.jpg","videoUrl":"/videos/health/2020/05/08/covid-toes-gupta-explainer-town-hall-vpx.cnn/video/playlists/coronavirus/","description":"CNN's Chief Medical Correspondent u003ca href="http://www.cnn.com/profiles/sanjay-gupta-profile" target="_blank">Dr. Sanjay Guptau003c/a> answers viewers questions at u003ca href="http://www.cnn.com/2020/05/08/app-news-section/full-coronavirus-town-hall-may-7-2020-app/index.html" target="_blank">CNN's coronavirus town hallu003c/a>.","descriptionText":"CNN's Chief Medical Correspondent u003ca href="http://www.cnn.com/profiles/sanjay-gupta-profile" target="_blank">Dr. Sanjay Guptau003c/a> answers viewers questions at u003ca href="http://www.cnn.com/2020/05/08/app-news-section/full-coronavirus-town-hall-may-7-2020-app/index.html" target="_blank">CNN's coronavirus town hallu003c/a>."},{"title":"Coronavirus found in men's semen. Can it spread through sex?","duration":"01:33","sourceName":"CNN","sourceLink":"https://www.cnn.com/","videoCMSUrl":"/video/data/3.0/video/health/2020/05/08/coronavirus-mens-semen-baldwin-intv-nr-vpx.cnn/index.xml","videoId":"health/2020/05/08/coronavirus-mens-semen-baldwin-intv-nr-vpx.cnn","videoImage":"//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/131227133923-man-silhouette-restricted-story-top.jpg","videoUrl":"/videos/health/2020/05/08/coronavirus-mens-semen-baldwin-intv-nr-vpx.cnn/video/playlists/coronavirus/","description":"New research in China shows thatu003ca href="/2020/05/07/health/coronavirus-semen-china-health/index.html" target="_blank"> coronavirus can remain in the semen of menu003c/a> who have been formerly diagnosed with the illness.","descriptionText":"New research in China shows thatu003ca href="/2020/05/07/health/coronavirus-semen-china-health/index.html" target="_blank"> coronavirus can remain in the semen of menu003c/a> who have been formerly diagnosed with the illness."},{"title":"Man creates rolling pulpit for pandemic funerals","duration":"01:29","sourceName":"WTVR","sourceLink":"https://www.wtvr.com/","videoCMSUrl":"/video/data/3.0/video/us/2020/05/08/virginia-mobile-rolling-funeral-pulpit-pkg-vpx.wtvr/index.xml","videoId":"us/2020/05/08/virginia-mobile-rolling-funeral-pulpit-pkg-vpx.wtvr","videoImage":"//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/200508154203-rolling-funeral-pulpit-large-169.jpg","videoUrl":"/videos/us/2020/05/08/virginia-mobile-rolling-funeral-pulpit-pkg-vpx.wtvr/video/playlists/coronavirus/","description":"A man in Petersburg, Virginia, saw a need for those who have lost loved ones and cannot have a traditional funeral due to social distancing guidelines during the coronavirus pandemic. ","descriptionText":"A man in Petersburg, Virginia, saw a need for those who have lost loved ones and cannot have a traditional funeral due to social distancing guidelines during the coronavirus pandemic. "},{"title":"Manufacturer: Only enough remdesivir for 200K patients worldwide","duration":"02:24","sourceName":"CNN","sourceLink":"https://www.cnn.com/","videoCMSUrl":"/video/data/3.0/video/health/2020/05/08/remdesivir-shortage-coronavirus-drug-cohen-newday-dnt-vpx.cnn/index.xml","videoId":"health/2020/05/08/remdesivir-shortage-coronavirus-drug-cohen-newday-dnt-vpx.cnn","videoImage":"//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/200507151802-01-gilead-remdesivir-0408-large-169.jpg","videoUrl":"/videos/health/2020/05/08/remdesivir-shortage-coronavirus-drug-cohen-newday-dnt-vpx.cnn/video/playlists/coronavirus/","description":"Remdesivir is the only drug shown to be effective against Covid-19 in a rigorous trial. But the drug's maker, Gilead Sciences, says there's only enough of it in the world for about 200,000 patients. CNN's Elizabeth Cohen reports.","descriptionText":"Remdesivir is the only drug shown to be effective against Covid-19 in a rigorous trial. But the drug's maker, Gilead Sciences, says there's only enough of it in the world for about 200,000 patients. CNN's Elizabeth Cohen reports."},{"title":"The machines helping hospitals fight coronavirus","duration":"02:22","sourceName":"CNN","sourceLink":"","videoCMSUrl":"/video/data/3.0/video/health/2020/05/04/coronavirus-intensive-care-equipment-lon-orig.cnn/index.xml","videoId":"health/2020/05/04/coronavirus-intensive-care-equipment-lon-orig.cnn","videoImage":"//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/200504140650-covid-critical-care-equipment-dv-large-169.jpg","videoUrl":"/videos/health/2020/05/04/coronavirus-intensive-care-equipment-lon-orig.cnn/video/playlists/coronavirus/","description":"Intensive care units around the word are caring for patients with Covid-19, this is the equipment medical workers need to treat one severe patient.","descriptionText":"Intensive care units around the word are caring for patients with Covid-19, this is the equipment medical workers need to treat one severe patient."},{"title":"Trump administration rejects CDC reopening guidelines","duration":"03:16","sourceName":"CNN","sourceLink":"https://www.cnn.com/","videoCMSUrl":"/video/data/3.0/video/health/2020/05/07/cdc-guidance-on-safe-reopening-coronavirus-nr-pkg-jones-vpx.cnn/index.xml","videoId":"health/2020/05/07/cdc-guidance-on-safe-reopening-coronavirus-nr-pkg-jones-vpx.cnn","videoImage":"//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/200424144736-01-trump-signing-coronavirus-aid-package-large-169.jpg","videoUrl":"/videos/health/2020/05/07/cdc-guidance-on-safe-reopening-coronavirus-nr-pkg-jones-vpx.cnn/video/playlists/coronavirus/","description":"The Trump administration willu003ca href="https://www.cnn.com/2020/05/07/politics/cdc-guidance-coronavirus-reopen-america/index.html" target="_blank"> not implement the CDC's 17-page draftu003c/a> recommendation for reopening America, a senior CDC official confirmed to CNN Thursday. CNN's u003ca href="/profiles/athena-jones-profile" target="_blank">Athena Jonesu003c/a> reports.","descriptionText":"The Trump administration willu003ca href="https://www.cnn.com/2020/05/07/politics/cdc-guidance-coronavirus-reopen-america/index.html" target="_blank"> not implement the CDC's 17-page draftu003c/a> recommendation for reopening America, a senior CDC official confirmed to CNN Thursday. CNN's u003ca href="/profiles/athena-jones-profile" target="_blank">Athena Jonesu003c/a> reports."},{"title":"Birx: We're working with CDC to edit reopening guidelines","duration":"02:26","sourceName":"CNN","sourceLink":"https://www.cnn.com/","videoCMSUrl":"/video/data/3.0/video/health/2020/05/08/cdc-guidelines-birx-sanjay-cooper-intv-vpx.cnn/index.xml","videoId":"health/2020/05/08/cdc-guidelines-birx-sanjay-cooper-intv-vpx.cnn","videoImage":"//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/200507201013-03-cnn-town-hall-0407-birx-large-169.jpg","videoUrl":"/videos/health/2020/05/08/cdc-guidelines-birx-sanjay-cooper-intv-vpx.cnn/video/playlists/coronavirus/","description":"CNN'su003ca href="/profiles/anderson-cooper-profile" target="_blank"> Anderson Cooperu003c/a> andu003ca href="/profiles/sanjay-gupta-profile" target="_blank"> Dr. Sanjay Guptau003c/a> speak to Dr. Deborah Birx about the CDC revising their guidelines for reopening states amid the coronavirus pandemic.","descriptionText":"CNN'su003ca href="/profiles/anderson-cooper-profile" target="_blank"> Anderson Cooperu003c/a> andu003ca href="/profiles/sanjay-gupta-profile" target="_blank"> Dr. Sanjay Guptau003c/a> speak to Dr. Deborah Birx about the CDC revising their guidelines for reopening states amid the coronavirus pandemic."},{"title":"Rollout of antibody tests met with confusion, little oversight","duration":"03:16","sourceName":"CNN","sourceLink":"https://www.cnn.com/","videoCMSUrl":"/video/data/3.0/video/us/2020/05/07/tracking-antibody-testing-coronavirus-griffin-tsr-pkg-vpx.cnn/index.xml","videoId":"us/2020/05/07/tracking-antibody-testing-coronavirus-griffin-tsr-pkg-vpx.cnn","videoImage":"//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/200430091452-atlanta-antibody-tests-large-169.jpg","videoUrl":"/videos/us/2020/05/07/tracking-antibody-testing-coronavirus-griffin-tsr-pkg-vpx.cnn/video/playlists/coronavirus/","description":"The rollout of millions of antibody tests in the US has created frustration and division among state health departments due to a mix of questionable tests, shifting federal rules, and a hodgepodge of different methods for tracking results. CNN's u003ca href="https://www.cnn.com/profiles/drew-griffin-profile" target="_blank">Drew Griffinu003c/a> reports. ","descriptionText":"The rollout of millions of antibody tests in the US has created frustration and division among state health departments due to a mix of questionable tests, shifting federal rules, and a hodgepodge of different methods for tracking results. CNN's u003ca href="https://www.cnn.com/profiles/drew-griffin-profile" target="_blank">Drew Griffinu003c/a> reports. "},{"title":"How morgue worker honors the dead in her care","duration":"02:57","sourceName":"CNN","sourceLink":"http://www.cnn.com","videoCMSUrl":"/video/data/3.0/video/health/2020/05/07/new-jersey-morgue-attendant-daffodils-honors-deceased-tanisha-brunson-malone-intv-ctn-vpx.cnn/index.xml","videoId":"health/2020/05/07/new-jersey-morgue-attendant-daffodils-honors-deceased-tanisha-brunson-malone-intv-ctn-vpx.cnn","videoImage":"//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/200507005229-new-jersey-morgue-attendant-daffodils-honors-deceased-tanisha-brunson-malone-intv-ctn-vpx-00001729-large-169.jpg","videoUrl":"/videos/health/2020/05/07/new-jersey-morgue-attendant-daffodils-honors-deceased-tanisha-brunson-malone-intv-ctn-vpx.cnn/video/playlists/coronavirus/","description":"Tanisha Brunson-Malone, a morgue attendant at a hospital in New Jersey, is honoring the dead in her care by placing a yellow daffodil on each body bag. CNN's u003ca href="http://www.cnn.com/profiles/don-lemon-profile" target="_blank">Don Lemonu003c/a> speaks with her about the gesture.","descriptionText":"Tanisha Brunson-Malone, a morgue attendant at a hospital in New Jersey, is honoring the dead in her care by placing a yellow daffodil on each body bag. CNN's u003ca href="http://www.cnn.com/profiles/don-lemon-profile" target="_blank">Don Lemonu003c/a> speaks with her about the gesture."},{"title":"How Washington state kept coronavirus deaths under 1,000","duration":"03:33","sourceName":"CNN","sourceLink":"https://www.cnn.com","videoCMSUrl":"/video/data/3.0/video/us/2020/05/07/washington-state-coronavirus-sidner-pkg-lead-vpx.cnn/index.xml","videoId":"us/2020/05/07/washington-state-coronavirus-sidner-pkg-lead-vpx.cnn","videoImage":"//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/200507174229-seattle-skyline-washington-coronavirus-sidner-pkg-large-169.jpg","videoUrl":"/videos/us/2020/05/07/washington-state-coronavirus-sidner-pkg-lead-vpx.cnn/video/playlists/coronavirus/","description":"CNN's u003ca href="https://www.cnn.com/profiles/sara-sidner-profile" target="_blank">Sara Sidneru003c/a> explains how Washington state, the first state to confirm a coronavirus case in the US, has been able to keep the death toll relatively low, compared to other states. ","descriptionText":"CNN's u003ca href="https://www.cnn.com/profiles/sara-sidner-profile" target="_blank">Sara Sidneru003c/a> explains how Washington state, the first state to confirm a coronavirus case in the US, has been able to keep the death toll relatively low, compared to other states. "},{"title":"McDonald's employees shot over coronavirus restrictions","duration":"01:07","sourceName":"KFOR","sourceLink":"https://kfor.com/news/local/at-least-2-people-taken-to-hospital-following-shooting-in-oklahoma-city/","videoCMSUrl":"/video/data/3.0/video/us/2020/05/07/customer-shot-mcdonalds-employees-oklahoma-city-pkg-vpx.kfor/index.xml","videoId":"us/2020/05/07/customer-shot-mcdonalds-employees-oklahoma-city-pkg-vpx.kfor","videoImage":"//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/200506224453-mcdonalds-employees-shot-coronavirus-large-169.jpg","videoUrl":"/videos/us/2020/05/07/customer-shot-mcdonalds-employees-oklahoma-city-pkg-vpx.kfor/video/playlists/coronavirus/","description":"Two McDonald's employees in Oklahoma City were shot by customers after being told the dining area was closed due to coronavirus restrictions. Another employee was injured and the victims are expected to survive.","descriptionText":"Two McDonald's employees in Oklahoma City were shot by customers after being told the dining area was closed due to coronavirus restrictions. Another employee was injured and the victims are expected to survive."},{"title":"Scientists hopeful for monoclonal antibody treatment","duration":"02:26","sourceName":"CNN","sourceLink":"http://www.cnn.com","videoCMSUrl":"/video/data/3.0/video/health/2020/05/06/monoclonal-antibody-coronavirus-treatment-cohen-pkg-newday-vpx.cnn/index.xml","videoId":"health/2020/05/06/monoclonal-antibody-coronavirus-treatment-cohen-pkg-newday-vpx.cnn","videoImage":"//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/200505220349-coronavirus-virus-swab-samples-large-169.jpg","videoUrl":"/videos/health/2020/05/06/monoclonal-antibody-coronavirus-treatment-cohen-pkg-newday-vpx.cnn/video/playlists/coronavirus/","description":"Scientists hope monoclonal antibodies from plasma will be an effective treatment in the fight against Covid-19. CNN's Elizabeth Cohen has more.","descriptionText":"Scientists hope monoclonal antibodies from plasma will be an effective treatment in the fight against Covid-19. CNN's Elizabeth Cohen has more."},{"title":"Frontline workers' mental health at risk due to pandemic","duration":"03:45","sourceName":"CNN","sourceLink":"https://www.cnn.com/","videoCMSUrl":"/video/data/3.0/video/health/2020/05/06/frontline-workers-mental-health-hill-lead-pkg-vpx.cnn/index.xml","videoId":"health/2020/05/06/frontline-workers-mental-health-hill-lead-pkg-vpx.cnn","videoImage":"//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/200506164654-dr-evelina-grayer-large-169.jpg","videoUrl":"/videos/health/2020/05/06/frontline-workers-mental-health-hill-lead-pkg-vpx.cnn/video/playlists/coronavirus/","description":"Frontline healthcare workers may be at increased risk of PTSD and a number of other emotional disorders as a result of fighting the coronavirus. CNN's u003ca href="https://www.cnn.com/profiles/erica-hill-profile" target="_blank">Erica Hillu003c/a> reports.","descriptionText":"Frontline healthcare workers may be at increased risk of PTSD and a number of other emotional disorders as a result of fighting the coronavirus. CNN's u003ca href="https://www.cnn.com/profiles/erica-hill-profile" target="_blank">Erica Hillu003c/a> reports."},{"title":"Ex-CDC chief: There will be at least 100,000 Covid-19 deaths by end of May","duration":"01:12","sourceName":"CNN","sourceLink":"https://www.cnn.com/","videoCMSUrl":"/video/data/3.0/video/health/2020/05/06/thomas-frieden-coronavirus-death-toll-increase-nr-sot-vpx.cnn/index.xml","videoId":"health/2020/05/06/thomas-frieden-coronavirus-death-toll-increase-nr-sot-vpx.cnn","videoImage":"//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/200506143920-tom-frieden-cdc-large-169.jpg","videoUrl":"/videos/health/2020/05/06/thomas-frieden-coronavirus-death-toll-increase-nr-sot-vpx.cnn/video/playlists/coronavirus/","description":"Former CDC chief Tom Frieden, testified on Capitol Hill that he believes the number of coronavirus deaths in the US will exceed 100,000. ","descriptionText":"Former CDC chief Tom Frieden, testified on Capitol Hill that he believes the number of coronavirus deaths in the US will exceed 100,000. "}],'js-video_headline-featured-1ju4221','',"js-video_source-featured-1ju4221",true,true,'coronavirus');if (typeof configObj.context !== 'string' || configObj.context.length

See the rest here:

Coronavirus quickly spread around the world starting late last year, new genetic analysis shows - CNN


12345...102030...