Let Her Speak Convoy rolls through MH – The Baxter Bulletin

Scott Liles, Baxter Bulletin Published 8:44 p.m. CT Aug. 9, 2020

A decorated Chevrolet Malibu sits in a parking lot of the Arkansas State University-Mountain Home campus on Saturday before being taken out on the road as part of the Let Her Speak Convoy organized by the Baxter County Libertarian Party. Convoy participants hoped to raise awareness of Libertarian presidential nominee Jo Jorgensen and publicize the reluctance of the Commission on Presidential Debates to allow third party candidates onto the debate stage.(Photo: Submitted photo)

Baxter County residents took to their vehicles Saturday to participate in the nationwide Let Her Speak Convoy to bring awareness to the exclusion of Libertarian presidential nominee JoJorgensen from the upcoming presidential debates.

Saturday's event in Mountain Home was one of many simultaneous Let Her Speak Convoys held in a nationwide "rolling protest" of theCommission on Presidential Debates' continued decision to silence all third party candidateslisted on the presidential ballot.

Jo Jorgensen(Photo: Submitted photo)

The local Let Her Speak Convoy was organized by the Baxter County Libertarian Party. Baxter County was one of five Arkansas counties to organize a convoy, and one of 153 convoys held across the U.S. on Saturday.

The Let Her Speak Convoy is believed to be the first nationwide rolling protest, and has been submitted to Guinness World Records for its consideration.

In Mountain Home, participants gathered on the campus of Arkansas State University-Mountain Home before driving convoy-styleon the Sheid-Hopper Bypass and through town on U.S. Highway 62/412.Participants decorated their vehicles with slogans like "#Let Her Speak," "#JoJo2020" and "Jo20.com." Some participants also shared the convoy on their social media channels.

Baxter County Libertarian Party chairman Kevin Vornheder said Saturday's event went better than expected.

"We knew the larger events would be the ones in Conway, Jonesboro, and northwest Arkansas but I was concerned we might find it a challenge to come through downtown in lunchtime traffic," he said. "We appreciate the Mountain Home Police Department for providing us with an escort, and are pleased that everything went smoothly."

Currently, the Commission on Presidential Debates invites candidates to debate if they have reached a 15 percent threshold in a series of national polls the Commission selects. Those polls typically do not include third-party candidates as an option, creating what opponents describe as "the illusion of a path to the debates."

In polls that include Jorgensen as a choice, the Libertarian nominee is polling at least 13 percent, a news release from the Libertarian Party said.

"Ideally, the Commission on Presidential Debates would include all candidates on enough state ballots to win the election," Vornheder said. "Ballot access is already a significant hurdle, so that alone would weed out mathematically non-viable candidates. But, since the Democratic and Republican parties who formed the CPD have an interest in excluding third parties, the other solution would be for the national media and professional polling organizations to include third parties in their polls."

Dr. Jo Jorgensen has aPh.D. in Organizational Psychology, a senior lecturer at Clemson University and an accomplished entrepreneur.The Libertarian Party is one of the only parties in the U.S. that has secured ballot access for presidential candidates in all 50 states.

The first televised presidential debates were held in 1960 and featured Republican nominee Richard Nixon and Democratic nominee John F. Kennedy. After their four televised debates, no additional presidential debates were held until 1976, with the League of Women Voters organizing three debates between Republican incumbent Gerald Ford and Democratic nominee Jimmy Carter.

The 1980 and 1984 presidential debates were also sponsored by the League of Women Voters, turning the televised events into a mainstay of the presidential election season.

In 1987,the Democratic and Republican parties created the Commission on Presidential Debatesto take over sponsorship of the debate and change the rules by which they were conducted.

In 2012, the minimum to participate in the presidential debates was 10 percent, but the CPD raised its threshold to 15 percent after Libertarian nominee Gary Johnson got 12 percent.

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Let Her Speak Convoy rolls through MH - The Baxter Bulletin

Jo Jorgensen on Black Lives Matter: ‘I Think We Should Support the Protesters’ – Reason

It's Thursday in Nashville. Libertarian presidential nominee Jo Jorgensen has parked her blue campaign bus in Centennial Park for her "Real Change For Real People" tour. There are tables with masks and hand sanitizer. Supporters gather early, their excitement seemingly unaffected by the pandemic precautions. A few cars slow down to observe the gathering in the park. After a mic check, Jorgensen is introduced and begins to speak.

Almost immediately, her speech covers the two most pressing topics of the summer: criminal justice reform and the COVID-19 pandemic.

Back in June, Jorgensen attended a Black Lives Matter vigil for victims of police brutality. Her presence there received mixed reviews, with libertarians who distrust the official Black Lives Matter organization for some of its political and economic views facing off those who believe libertarians should be present in the Black Lives Matter movement protests. (The differences between Black Lives Matter the organization and the movement are explained here.) Regardless of the potential backlash, Jorgensen doubled down on her stance.

"We need change, and I'm glad [the protests] are getting the attention," Jorgensen tells me on the bus after the speech.

Jorgensen says that the Libertarian Party agrees with the national Black Lives Matter organization on several issues, such as the drug war, no-knock raids, and qualified immunity.

"But their answer is more government," she says, and "big government is what got us here to begin with."

Jorgensen mentions a meeting she had with a Black Lives Matter activist in Tulsa, Oklahoma. (The activist was not affiliated with the official Black Lives Matter organization.) They discussed the government's role in discrimination, with Jorgensen pointing out that the buses in the famous Montgomery Bus Boycott were publicly run and that segregation laws were enforced even though black residents made up the majority of the ridership. "Now imagine today, if Uber decided to discriminate against the majority of their customers. What if they treated their best customers that way? They would go out of business," she argued. Jorgensen says the activist told her that the experience was "opening his eyes."

"Libertarians have been talking about these issues for 40 years," she says. "I think we should support the protesters, but, at the same time, get rid of the opportunistic people hijacking the movement." Jorgensen points to the people who have used the protests to loot and commit violence: "They are going around basically inserting themselves into peaceful protest. And I've seen many clips of the protesters saying, 'Stop it. Go away. You're not helping us. We don't want you here.'"

When the demonstrations first began in May, black organizers and protesters across the nation desperately attempted to keep the violence in check. In one video, D.C. protesters hand-deliver a young man to nearby police after seeing him destroy a sidewalk. In her firsthand account of the Nashville protests, author Nancy French tweeted a video of a black protester arguing with white protesters over property destruction.

"We need to do what we can to keep the protests on target," Jorgensen adds.

The conversation then shifts to the COVID-19 pandemic.

"We're all adults, and it shouldn't be against the law to be stupid," Jorgensen says.

Jorgensen notes that with personal freedom comes responsibility. While she doesn't support mask mandates ("unless we're talking about a government building") or even a forced vaccine in the event that one is developed, Jorgensen sees private companies enacting mask policies as a sign that most Americans are taking the pandemic seriously.

"That just shows what libertarians have been saying for decades, which is just because the government doesn't tell you to do it doesn't mean it won't get done," she says. "We still have entities who are requiring us to wear masks. We don't have to wait until the government tells us to. But this way, we have choice."

Jorgensen adds that private companies wouldn't enact mask policies if they thought doing so would harm their profits: "I don't think they'd be requiring a mask if they thought that people would stop shopping in their store and they'd go out of business. So ultimately this is coming from the individual."

What does Jorgensen think the executive branch should be doing in the pandemic? "I think the president has the obligation to lead the country and to get information out there to warn people," she says. She is upset at President Donald Trump for saying, "If you don't have [COVID-19] symptomsdon't get the test." Given the disease's asymptomatic spread and long incubation period, she says, this was irresponsible advice.

Jorgensen also notes the variety of ways the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other federal agencies have restricted access to mass testing. Such testing, she notes, contributed greatly to South Korea's flattening of the outbreak curve.

"We lost tens of millions of jobs," she says. "If we had the testing out there, if we didn't have the FDA obstacles, if we didn't have so many other government obstacles, we could've had widespread testing. And then we could have known which people should have stayed home and which could go out."

Our conversation concludes with aquestion about the current debate over voting by mail.

"It's fine with me if we have mail-in votes," she says. "As long as we do it through FedEx."

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Jo Jorgensen on Black Lives Matter: 'I Think We Should Support the Protesters' - Reason

Candidates promise retroactive PFD payments, but the Permanent Fund could struggle to meet demand – Anchorage Daily News

Ahead of Alaskas Aug. 18 statewide primary election, at least 31 incumbent lawmakers and challenger candidates have signed campaign promises to support a traditional Permanent Fund dividend and distribute four years of retroactive payments to Alaskans.

Those legislators and prospective legislators, mostly Republicans and Libertarians, say the dividend is an obligation of the state and is owed to the Alaskans. But figures published by the Alaska Permanent Fund Corp. indicate the fund could struggle to pay such a pledge, which would cost an estimated $4.8 billion. Thats based on analysis of legislation proposed in 2019 and 2020 by Gov. Mike Dunleavy, plus figures from the Alaska Permanent Fund Corp. this year.

While the fund contains $64.7 billion, most of that amount is either constitutionally protected or otherwise committed. According to the funds numbers, only $5.8 billion would be available for a payback plan.

There has to be a recognition now that the earnings reserve account is starting to get smaller, said Angela Rodell, CEO of the Permanent Fund Corp., referring to the spendable account within the fund.

Alaskans need to really think about what they need, she said.

Libertarian activist Michael Chambers organized the PFD-promise campaign, which calls for following a dividend-payment formula that remains in state law. (It hasnt been followed since 2016.) The promise also includes retroactive payments of about $7,000 per person.

They should pay back all the deductions, because thats the peoples money under the law, Chambers said.

Nearly a third of the candidates in this years legislative races have signed his PFD promise, and he said he expects more in the coming days.

Since 2018, the Permanent Fund has transferred money each year to the state treasury to pay for the annual dividend and the cost of state services. That transfer now accounts for almost three-quarters of the states expected revenue, and the Permanent Funds trustees have repeatedly urged the Legislature to not spend more than the transfer.

Money has already been earmarked for this years transfer and next years. The $5.8 billion, plus whatever the fund earns in the meantime, is whats left over, and as long as it remains unspent, it acts a buffer in case of market downturns. As the buffer shrinks, the chance of immediate crisis grows.

Even without additional spending for a payback, withdrawals are greater than earnings.

Between July 1, 2019 and July 1, 2020, the funds value declined $1.6 billion because earnings were about 2% but the annual transfer amounted to 4.5% of the funds value. The decline is worse in real terms because it doesnt account for inflation.

Democratic Sen. Bill Wielechowski is seeking re-election to his Anchorage legislative seat and was the first Democrat to sign the PFD promise.

While the Permanent Funds earnings have dipped recently, the fund has earned 6.44% on average over the past five years. Thats enough to keep the fund growing, Wielechowski said, particularly if voters approve a ballot measure that would increase taxes on some North Slope oil fields.

I think when you factor in those things, youve got enough money in the earnings reserve to do it, he said of the payback.

In Southeast Alaska, incumbent Sen. Bert Stedman, R-Sitka, is being opposed in the primary by Michael Sheldon, a Republican who signed the promise and staunchly advocates a payback. Stedman, chair of the Senate Finance Committee, said fulfilling the promise would require unfathomable changes to the state budget.

If that is the road (Alaskans) decide to go down, Stedman said of the PFD promise, were going to have severe budget reductions and massive tax increases to meet the constitutional obligation of a balanced budget.

Some payback plans also call for payments over several years, which would spread out the financial impact, but many candidates are calling for an immediate payment, in part because it would help Alaskas economy during the current pandemic.

A large proportion of the businesses here in Alaska have been devastated. With businesses devastated and people not getting unemployment checks, this is a perfect time to return the peoples money to its rightful owner, Chambers said.

Roger Holland, a Republican challenging Senate President Cathy Giessel in South Anchorage, agreed with that idea. He signed a promise on July 14.

The PFD may not go to (local) businesses, but it will for sure go to the economy and help the local economy carry itself along, he said.

In the race for Giessels seat, independent candidate Care Clift signed the PFD promise, as did Democratic candidate Lynette Moreno Hinz, who faces Carl Johnson in the Democratic primary.

Giessel herself declined an interview but referred to numerous prior statements on the PFD issue. In a Tuesday email newsletter, she wrote, I will continue to protect the Permanent Fund and the earnings reserve account from irresponsible spending. I will defend the Percent Of Market Value law, which defines reasonable PFDs as well as funding for core state services.

That law is what defines the annual transfer to the state treasury.

In a 2019 column submitted to the Daily News, she asked whether the consequences of a large PFD would be worth the gain.

Is the feast today worth the famine tomorrow? she wrote.

[Because of a high volume of comments requiring moderation, we are temporarily disabling comments on many of our articles so editors can focus on the coronavirus crisis and other coverage. We invite you to write a letter to the editor or reach out directly if youd like to communicate with us about a particular article. Thanks.]

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Candidates promise retroactive PFD payments, but the Permanent Fund could struggle to meet demand - Anchorage Daily News

Letter: Third-party candidates need to be heard – Gaston Gazette

By David Hoesly


The article in this mornings Gaston Gazette re the presidential debates reminded me of the history of debates in the U.S.

Elections, to be fair, need to be preceded by voters having the information to make up their minds. Inclusive debates are one way to provide that.

Exactly a century ago, led by the League of Women Voters, women took to the streets, demonstrating to gain their right, as citizens, to take part in elections.

A third of a century ago, the Commission on Presidential Debates was formed, and the Leagues historically fair-minded, inclusive sponsorship of debates was consigned to the dustbin of history.

The CPD ensures Americans wont hear third parties voices by requiring their candidates to poll above 15%, but guess what those third parties arent included in polls.

Dr. Jo Jorgensen, presidential candidate of the Libertarian Party, has not been allowed in the debates, although the Libertarian Party is one of the few parties that has many times gained ballot access in all 50 states.

Establishment candidates have led us to the quagmire our once-great country is now in. Americans deserve to hear what Jo Jorgensen has to say; she should be included in the debates.

Let her speak!

David Hoesly is a member of the Public Policy Committee of the Libertarian Party of Gaston County.

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Letter: Third-party candidates need to be heard - Gaston Gazette

Around Town: Rethinking political parties – Taft Midway Driller

In case you just returned from an extended trip to Mars, be advised there is an election right around the corner.

You cannot pick any news source that does not bombard you with stories on every subject that have been impacted by the poisonous partisan atmosphere that has developed in America in the last 16 years. I think the real shift in attitudes began during the Gore-Bush election debacle and has escalated since then.

Locally, we have county and municipal elections that do not feature the rancor and hate speech generated by the major parties at the state and federal level. We elect council members and supervisors on their ability to project a message that speaks to our local needs. They see what is needed then tailor their platform to what their constituents want.

State and federal political candidates from the two major parties do just the opposite. They strategize issues then let experts tell them what positions will resonate with the most voters. They use social media and clever ads to tell us what we should care about, why they should get our vote and, more importantly, why the other party is trying to destroy us.

Is it time to rethink the way our system is structured? Do you check the box on your federal taxes to donate a dollar to the presidential election process each year? Why dont we ask taxpayers to fund the development of new parties?

A multi-party system found in many western countries would greatly benefit America. Today we cannot get Democrats and Republicans to agree or compromise on anything without an ugly partisan public brawl that usually ends with the American taxpayer getting shafted. A Congress made up of members of multi-parties, with no one party in majority would require coalitions and negotiation continually. Current politicians do not make deals, they make demands.

Neither party is definable any longer. The Democratic Party has moved from its southern conservative roots in the late-1940s to adopt a platform as far right in 2020 as any ever seen in its history.

Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi is quoted to have said, "I dont think the street will accept no action on this," while discussing police reform legislation in June. She is crafting legislation based on the will of street protesters. This is the "new" base the Democrats are reaching for to construct a winning coalition. Part of that recipe is acceptance of continuing anger and violence, which keeps the public mood unsettled and questioning of the future. That is good for a challenger.

Not long ago, the Republican party revitalized itself by backing the Taxed Enough Already (TEA) Party formula to rail against out-of-control spending and government growth. Republicans had effectively moved from the image of rich country club dilettantes to a party concerned about American jobs, industries and debt. Middle class voters came back to the party because it seemed to care more about them. That party is no more.

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused an economic upheaval. But the total abandonment of fiscal sense on the part of Republicans to participate in throwing billions of borrowed dollars at solutions that are not proven or sustainable leaves the party directionless. If you will stand for anything, you stand for nothing.

We have alternatives. The Libertarian Party vote grows each election year. Their basic belief in limited government, fiscal restraint and freedom embraces the founders dreams and sounds a lot like what "Reagan Republicans" used to profess. The 2020 Libertarian Presidential candidate is Dr. Jo Jorgensen, a Psychology professor at Clemson University. She is smart, articulate and will not be invited to the Presidential debates.

The major parties have divided our country. Yes, Mr. Trump has not been a healer, but he did not invent identity politics. Pandering to segments of the electorate because of their race or ethnicity will never be a unifying message as it specifically is not inclusive. Issues can divide reasonable people, but assuming you have the support of an entire group because of their race, ethnicity or economic status is certainly divisive, if not biased.

Our parties will not let us discuss issues. You are either for them or against them. The term "moderate" has left political speak. No one on either side can afford to be a moderate.

Both the left and right, through the years, have destroyed free speech, lives and livelihoods via public intimidation. The Republicans had a good run with Joe McCarthy and his Communist witch hunts. The ultra-progressive Democrats are wreaking havoc now with their "woke" attacks on anyone and everything they deem off the party line.

The truth is, we have invested too much power to form public opinion in both parties. They are thinking for us in order to act in their own self-interest. We need to break that hold, add new voices who listen to us first and then act in our interest.

My friends in the GOP will roast me for this thought, but one wonders what would happen if 80% of registered California Republicans voted for the Libertarian Ms. Jorgensen in November. Its not as if we are harming Mr. Trumps chances to win California, that ship sailed a decade ago.

Do we still have enough free will to even discuss a multi-party political revolution in America, or are the cards and big bucks too stacked against real freedom of choice?

Contact Pat Orr at avreviewopinion@gmail.com.

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Around Town: Rethinking political parties - Taft Midway Driller

From Lake County to the Libertarian ticket: Presidential candidate says both sides want change – Chicago Daily Herald

Legalize all recreational drugs, let individuals decide about wearing face masks and end all foreign military entanglements, Libertarian presidential nominee Jo Jorgensen says.

That's the "issues" side of the candidate, who recalls some of her views taking shape as she was growing up in Grayslake, participating in 4H and marching in her high school band in the 1970s.

Jorgensen, 63, now lives in South Carolina and has a doctorate in industrial psychology, was a tech entrepreneur and teaches college students.

She dove into the 2020 race with Republican President Donald Trump and Democratic nominee and former Vice President Joe Biden because "government's too big, too noisy, too intrusive. It hurts those it tries to help," she told the Daily Herald.

She cites as an example the Food and Drug Administration, which is "so bloated by red tape," Jorgensen said. "It creates huge obstacles in bringing new drugs to the market" and is costly, hampering efforts to fight COVID-19, she said.

Libertarian presidential candidate Jo Jorgensen was a drum major in the Grayslake Community High School marching band in the 1970s.- Courtesy of Jo Jorgensen

Jorgensen was born in 1957 at Condell Memorial Hospital in Libertyville and grew up in Grayslake.

"We were typical 1960s 'free-range' children," she said, recalling riding her bike to Woodview Elementary School and cutting across the frozen lake in winter. "I literally walked through a cornfield to get to Grayslake Junior High School."

At then-Grayslake Community High School, Jorgensen was "anti-political," objecting to student council because it reminded her of George Orwell's "Animal Farm" -- "an elite making decisions for everybody else."

She said that's the problem with America now, adding, "I don't care if it's Trump or (Speaker Nancy) Pelosi."

But she engaged at the grass-roots level, serving as president of the French and 4-H clubs and marching in the high school band as a drum major.

"Part of that was because I could fit into the uniform," she said.

While she was a freshman, the band performed at graduation, where the valedictorian caused a stir with a speech calling it "hypocritical for someone to drink a martini and tell others they couldn't smoke marijuana."

The speech struck a chord with Jorgensen, who has never used illicit drugs but wants them legalized, arguing that government interference exacerbates addiction and related problems.

"If R.J. Reynolds and Seagrams sold drugs, you wouldn't have these shootouts where innocent children are harmed," Jorgensen said.

Congress has been wrestling unsuccessfully to come up with a new aid package for Americans beset economically by COVID-19. Jorgensen opposed its predecessor, the CARES Act, because "a lot of bailout money went to large corporations. If someone isn't doing that good of a job maybe they shouldn't be bailed out. If people kept their own money (less taxes) it could help the mom-and-pop stores," she said.

Jorgensen opposes mandating mask-wearing to prevent COVID-19 spread, although "business establishments have the right to set whatever rules they want. (Like) 'no shoes, no service.' I don't think the government should do that."

On foreign relations, Jorgensen advocates turning "America into a giant Switzerland. Armed and neutral," she said, adding European countries are wealthy and should pay for their own defense. "There should be no foreign military aid."

Asked how she'd provide for millions of uninsured Americans, Jorgensen opts for a system such as the Healthy Indiana Program that offers health insurance to low-income residents at reduced prices with an annual deductible.

In late July, Jorgensen returned to her roots, making a campaign stop with voters in Green Oaks.

"I have extremely fond memories of growing up in Lake County," Jorgensen said, which include sailing on Grays Lake and skating after her father, a concrete company owner, had cleared off a section of frozen ice.

That experience translated into her love of hockey but Jorgensen can also whip out a needle and sew a French seam. One of her handmade garments made it to the Illinois State Fair finals when she was a teenager, although "to be honest, I didn't get any blue ribbons for my cooking."

She graduated in 1979 from Baylor University and in 1980 from Southern Methodist University with an MBA. She worked as a marketing representative for IBM, later owned a software duplication company and worked as a business consultant. Now, Jorgensen teaches psychology at Clemson University.

Libertarians haven't made a dent in Illinois' presidential elections. Candidate Gary Johnson received 3.8% in 2016 and 1.1% in 2012.

Jorgensen says all conventional wisdom is off in 2020 and she's optimistic.

"The myth is we mostly draw from the right; we actually draw people from both sides," she said. "However, the people who tend to give us their vote are people who are independent or who have never voted."

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From Lake County to the Libertarian ticket: Presidential candidate says both sides want change - Chicago Daily Herald

Libertarianism – Wikipedia

"Libertarians" redirects here. For political parties that may go by this name, see Libertarian Party.This article is about the political philosophy and movement that uphold liberty as a core principle. For the type of libertarianism stressing both individual freedom and social equality, see Left-libertarianism. For the type of libertarianism supporting capitalism and private ownership of natural resources, see Right-libertarianism.

political philosophy upholding individual freedom

Libertarianism (from Latin: libertas, meaning "freedom") is a political philosophy and movement that upholds liberty as a core principle.[1] Libertarians seek to maximize political freedom and autonomy, emphasizing individualism, freedom of choice and voluntary association.[2] Libertarians share a skepticism of authority and state power, but they diverge on the scope of their opposition to existing economic and political systems. Various schools of libertarian thought offer a range of views regarding the legitimate functions of state and private power, often calling for the restriction or dissolution of coercive social institutions. Different categorizations have been used to distinguish various forms of libertarianism.[3][4] This is done to distinguish libertarian views on the nature of property and capital, usually along leftright or socialistcapitalist lines.[5]

Libertarianism originated as a form of left-wing politics such as anti-authoritarian and anti-state socialists like anarchists,[6] especially social anarchists,[7] but more generally libertarian communists/Marxists and libertarian socialists.[8][9] Those libertarians seek to abolish capitalism and private ownership of the means of production, or else to restrict their purview or effects to usufruct property norms, in favor of common or cooperative ownership and management, viewing private property as a barrier to freedom and liberty.[10][11][12][13]

Left-libertarian[14][15][16][17][18] ideologies include anarchist schools of thought, alongside many other anti-paternalist, New Left schools of thought centered around economic egalitarianism as well as geolibertarianism, green politics, market-oriented left-libertarianism and the SteinerVallentyne school.[14][17][19][20][21] In the mid-20th century, right-libertarian[15][18][22][23] ideologies such as anarcho-capitalism and minarchism co-opted[8][24] the term libertarian to advocate laissez-faire capitalism and strong private property rights such as in land, infrastructure and natural resources.[25] The latter is the dominant form of libertarianism in the United States,[23] where it advocates civil liberties,[26] natural law,[27] free-market capitalism[28][29] and a major reversal of the modern welfare state.[30]

The first recorded use of the term libertarian was in 1789, when William Belsham wrote about libertarianism in the context of metaphysics.[31] As early as 1796, libertarian came to mean an advocate or defender of liberty, especially in the political and social spheres, when the London Packet printed on 12 February the following: "Lately marched out of the Prison at Bristol, 450 of the French Libertarians".[32] It was again used in a political sense in 1802 in a short piece critiquing a poem by "the author of Gebir" and has since been used with this meaning.[33][34][35]

The use of the term libertarian to describe a new set of political positions has been traced to the French cognate libertaire, coined in a letter French libertarian communist Joseph Djacque wrote to mutualist Pierre-Joseph Proudhon in 1857.[36][37][38] Djacque also used the term for his anarchist publication Le Libertaire, Journal du mouvement social (Libertarian: Journal of Social Movement) which was printed from 9 June 1858 to 4 February 1861 in New York City.[39][40] Sbastien Faure, another French libertarian communist, began publishing a new Le Libertaire in the mid-1890s while France's Third Republic enacted the so-called villainous laws (lois sclrates) which banned anarchist publications in France. Libertarianism has frequently been used to refer to anarchism and libertarian socialism since this time.[41][42][43]

In the United States, libertarian was popularized by the individualist anarchist Benjamin Tucker around the late 1870s and early 1880s.[44] Libertarianism as a synonym for liberalism was popularized in May 1955 by writer Dean Russell, a colleague of Leonard Read and a classical liberal himself. Russell justified the choice of the term as follows:

Many of us call ourselves "liberals." And it is true that the word "liberal" once described persons who respected the individual and feared the use of mass compulsions. But the leftists have now corrupted that once-proud term to identify themselves and their program of more government ownership of property and more controls over persons. As a result, those of us who believe in freedom must explain that when we call ourselves liberals, we mean liberals in the uncorrupted classical sense. At best, this is awkward and subject to misunderstanding. Here is a suggestion: Let those of us who love liberty trade-mark and reserve for our own use the good and honorable word "libertarian."[45][46][47]

Subsequently, a growing number of Americans with classical liberal beliefs began to describe themselves as libertarians. One person responsible for popularizing the term libertarian in this sense was Murray Rothbard, who started publishing libertarian works in the 1960s.[48] Rothbard described this modern use of the words overtly as a "capture" from his enemies, writing that "for the first time in my memory, we, 'our side,' had captured a crucial word from the enemy. 'Libertarians' had long been simply a polite word for left-wing anarchists, that is for anti-private property anarchists, either of the communist or syndicalist variety. But now we had taken it over".[24][8]

In the 1970s, Robert Nozick was responsible for popularizing this usage of the term in academic and philosophical circles outside the United States,[23][49][50] especially with the publication of Anarchy, State, and Utopia (1974), a response to social liberal John Rawls's A Theory of Justice (1971).[51] In the book, Nozick proposed a minimal state on the grounds that it was an inevitable phenomenon which could arise without violating individual rights.[52]

According to common meanings of conservative and liberal, libertarianism in the United States has been described as conservative on economic issues (economic liberalism and fiscal conservatism) and liberal on personal freedom (civil libertarianism and cultural liberalism).[53] It is also often associated with a foreign policy of non-interventionism.[54][55]

Although libertarianism originated as a form of left-wing politics,[21][56] the development in the mid-20th century of modern libertarianism in the United States led several authors and political scientists to use two or more categorizations[3][4] to distinguish libertarian views on the nature of property and capital, usually along leftright or socialistcapitalist lines,[5] Unlike right-libertarians, who reject the label due to its association with conservatism and right-wing politics, calling themselves simply libertarians, proponents of free-market anti-capitalism in the United States consciously label themselves as left-libertarians and see themselves as being part of a broad libertarian left.[21][56]

While the term libertarian has been largely synonymous with anarchism as part of the left,[9][57] continuing today as part of the libertarian left in opposition to the moderate left such as social democracy or authoritarian and statist socialism, its meaning has more recently diluted with wider adoption from ideologically disparate groups,[9] including the right.[15][22] As a term, libertarian can include both the New Left Marxists (who do not associate with a vanguard party) and extreme liberals (primarily concerned with civil liberties). Additionally, some libertarians use the term libertarian socialist to avoid anarchism's negative connotations and emphasize its connections with socialism.[9][58]

The revival of free-market ideologies during the mid- to late 20th century came with disagreement over what to call the movement. While many of its adherents prefer the term libertarian, many conservative libertarians reject the term's association with the 1960s New Left and its connotations of libertine hedonism.[59] The movement is divided over the use of conservatism as an alternative.[60] Those who seek both economic and social liberty would be known as liberals, but that term developed associations opposite of the limited government, low-taxation, minimal state advocated by the movement.[61] Name variants of the free-market revival movement include classical liberalism, economic liberalism, free-market liberalism and neoliberalism.[59] As a term, libertarian or economic libertarian has the most colloquial acceptance to describe a member of the movement, with the latter term being based on both the ideology's primacy of economics and its distinction from libertarians of the New Left.[60]

While both historical libertarianism and contemporary economic libertarianism share general antipathy towards power by government authority, the latter exempts power wielded through free-market capitalism. Historically, libertarians including Herbert Spencer and Max Stirner supported the protection of an individual's freedom from powers of government and private ownership.[62] In contrast, while condemning governmental encroachment on personal liberties, modern American libertarians support freedoms on the basis of their agreement with private property rights.[63] The abolishment of public amenities is a common theme in modern American libertarian writings.[64]

According to modern American libertarian Walter Block, left-libertarians and right-libertarians agree with certain libertarian premises, but "where [they] differ is in terms of the logical implications of these founding axioms".[65] Although several modern American libertarians reject the political spectrum, especially the leftright political spectrum,[26][66][67][68][69] several strands of libertarianism in the United States and right-libertarianism have been described as being right-wing,[70] New Right[71][72] or radical right[73][74] and reactionary.[30] While some American libertarians such as Walter Block,[65] Harry Browne,[67] Tibor Machan,[69] Justin Raimondo,[68] Leonard Read[66] and Murray Rothbard[26] deny any association with either the left or right, other American libertarians such as Kevin Carson,[21] Karl Hess,[75] Roderick T. Long[76] and Sheldon Richman[77] have written about libertarianism's left wing opposition to authoritarian rule and argued that libertarianism is fundamentally a left-wing position.[78] Rothbard himself previously made the same point.[79]

All libertarians begin with a conception of personal autonomy from which they argue in favor of civil liberties and a reduction or elimination of the state.[1] People described as being left-libertarian or right-libertarian generally tend to call themselves simply libertarians and refer to their philosophy as libertarianism. As a result, some political scientists and writers classify the forms of libertarianism into two or more groups[3][4] to distinguish libertarian views on the nature of property and capital.[5][13] In the United States, proponents of free-market anti-capitalism consciously label themselves as left-libertarians and see themselves as being part of a broad libertarian left.[21][56]

Left-libertarianism[15][16][18] encompasses those libertarian beliefs that claim the Earth's natural resources belong to everyone in an egalitarian manner, either unowned or owned collectively.[14][17][19][20][23] Contemporary left-libertarians such as Hillel Steiner, Peter Vallentyne, Philippe Van Parijs, Michael Otsuka and David Ellerman believe the appropriation of land must leave "enough and as good" for others or be taxed by society to compensate for the exclusionary effects of private property.[14][20] Socialist libertarians[10][11][12][13] such as social and individualist anarchists, libertarian Marxists, council communists, Luxemburgists and De Leonists promote usufruct and socialist economic theories, including communism, collectivism, syndicalism and mutualism.[19][21] They criticize the state for being the defender of private property and believe capitalism entails wage slavery.[10][11][12]

Right-libertarianism[15][18][22][23] developed in the United States in the mid-20th century from the works of European writers like John Locke, Friedrich Hayek and Ludwig Von Mises and is the most popular conception of libertarianism in the United States today.[23][49] Commonly referred to as a continuation or radicalization of classical liberalism,[80][81] the most important of these early right-libertarian philosophers was Robert Nozick.[23][49][52] While sharing left-libertarians' advocacy for social freedom, right-libertarians value the social institutions that enforce conditions of capitalism while rejecting institutions that function in opposition to these on the grounds that such interventions represent unnecessary coercion of individuals and abrogation of their economic freedom.[82] Anarcho-capitalists[18][22] seek the elimination of the state in favor of privately funded security services while minarchists defend night-watchman states which maintain only those functions of government necessary to safeguard natural rights, understood in terms of self-ownership or autonomy.[83]

Libertarian paternalism[84] is a position advocated in the international bestseller Nudge by the economist Richard Thaler and the jurist Cass Sunstein.[85] In the book Thinking, Fast and Slow, Daniel Kahneman provides the brief summary: "Thaler and Sunstein advocate a position of libertarian paternalism, in which the state and other institutions are allowed to Nudge people to make decisions that serve their own long-term interests. The designation of joining a pension plan as the default option is an example of a nudge. It is difficult to argue that anyone's freedom is diminished by being automatically enrolled in the plan, when they merely have to check a box to opt out".[86] Nudge is considered an important piece of literature in behavioral economics.[86]

In the United States, libertarian is a typology used to describe a political position that advocates small government and is culturally liberal and fiscally conservative in a two-dimensional political spectrum such as the libertarian-inspired Nolan Chart, where the other major typologies are conservative, liberal and populist.[53][87][88][89] Libertarians support legalization of victimless crimes such as the use of marijuana while opposing high levels of taxation and government spending on health, welfare and education.[53] Libertarian was adopted in the United States, where liberal had become associated with a version that supports extensive government spending on social policies.[47] Libertarian may also refers to an anarchist ideology that developed in the 19th century and to a liberal version which developed in the United States that is avowedly pro-capitalist.[14][15][18]

According to polls, approximately one in four Americans self-identify as libertarian.[90][91][92][93] While this group is not typically ideologically driven, the term libertarian is commonly used to describe the form of libertarianism widely practiced in the United States and is the common meaning of the word libertarianism in the United States.[23] This form is often named liberalism elsewhere such as in Europe, where liberalism has a different common meaning than in the United States.[47] In some academic circles, this form is called right-libertarianism as a complement to left-libertarianism, with acceptance of capitalism or the private ownership of land as being the distinguishing feature.[14][15][18]

Although elements of libertarianism can be traced as far back as the ancient Chinese philosopher Lao-Tzu and the higher-law concepts of the Greeks and the Israelites,[94][95] it was in 17th-century England that libertarian ideas began to take modern form in the writings of the Levellers and John Locke. In the middle of that century, opponents of royal power began to be called Whigs, or sometimes simply Opposition or Country, as opposed to Court writers.[96]

During the 18th century and Age of Enlightenment, liberal ideas flourished in Europe and North America.[97][98] Libertarians of various schools were influenced by liberal ideas.[99] For philosopher Roderick T. Long, libertarians "share a commonor at least an overlappingintellectual ancestry. [Libertarians] [...] claim the seventeenth century English Levellers and the eighteenth century French encyclopedists among their ideological forebears; and [...] usually share an admiration for Thomas Jefferson[100][101][102] and Thomas Paine".[103]

John Locke greatly influenced both libertarianism and the modern world in his writings published before and after the English Revolution of 1688, especially A Letter Concerning Toleration (1667), Two Treatises of Government (1689) and An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690). In the text of 1689, he established the basis of liberal political theory, i.e. that people's rights existed before government; that the purpose of government is to protect personal and property rights; that people may dissolve governments that do not do so; and that representative government is the best form to protect rights.[104]

The United States Declaration of Independence was inspired by Locke in its statement: "[T]o secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed. That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it".[105] Nevertheless, scholar Ellen Meiksins Wood says that "there are doctrines of individualism that are opposed to Lockean individualism [...] and non-Lockean individualism may encompass socialism".[106]

According to Murray Rothbard, the libertarian creed emerged from the liberal challenges to an "absolute central State and a king ruling by divine right on top of an older, restrictive web of feudal land monopolies and urban guild controls and restrictions" as well as the mercantilism of a bureaucratic warfaring state allied with privileged merchants. The object of liberals was individual liberty in the economy, in personal freedoms and civil liberty, separation of state and religion and peace as an alternative to imperial aggrandizement. He cites Locke's contemporaries, the Levellers, who held similar views. Also influential were the English Cato's Letters during the early 1700s, reprinted eagerly by American colonists who already were free of European aristocracy and feudal land monopolies.[105]

In January 1776, only two years after coming to America from England, Thomas Paine published his pamphlet Common Sense calling for independence for the colonies.[107] Paine promoted liberal ideas in clear and concise language that allowed the general public to understand the debates among the political elites.[108] Common Sense was immensely popular in disseminating these ideas,[109] selling hundreds of thousands of copies.[110] Paine would later write the Rights of Man and The Age of Reason and participate in the French Revolution.[107] Paine's theory of property showed a "libertarian concern" with the redistribution of resources.[111]

In 1793, William Godwin wrote a libertarian philosophical treatise titled Enquiry Concerning Political Justice and its Influence on Morals and Happiness which criticized ideas of human rights and of society by contract based on vague promises. He took liberalism to its logical anarchic conclusion by rejecting all political institutions, law, government and apparatus of coercion as well as all political protest and insurrection. Instead of institutionalized justice, Godwin proposed that people influence one another to moral goodness through informal reasoned persuasion, including in the associations they joined as this would facilitate happiness.[112][113]

Modern anarchism sprang from the secular or religious thought of the Enlightenment, particularly Jean-Jacques Rousseau's arguments for the moral centrality of freedom.[114]

As part of the political turmoil of the 1790s in the wake of the French Revolution, William Godwin developed the first expression of modern anarchist thought.[115][116] According to Peter Kropotkin, Godwin was "the first to formulate the political and economical conceptions of anarchism, even though he did not give that name to the ideas developed in his work"[117] while Godwin attached his anarchist ideas to an early Edmund Burke.[118]

Godwin is generally regarded as the founder of the school of thought known as philosophical anarchism. He argued in Political Justice (1793)[116][119] that government has an inherently malevolent influence on society and that it perpetuates dependency and ignorance. He thought that the spread of the use of reason to the masses would eventually cause government to wither away as an unnecessary force. Although he did not accord the state with moral legitimacy, he was against the use of revolutionary tactics for removing the government from power. Rather, Godwin advocated for its replacement through a process of peaceful evolution.[116][120]

His aversion to the imposition of a rules-based society led him to denounce, as a manifestation of the people's "mental enslavement", the foundations of law, property rights and even the institution of marriage. Godwin considered the basic foundations of society as constraining the natural development of individuals to use their powers of reasoning to arrive at a mutually beneficial method of social organization. In each case, government and its institutions are shown to constrain the development of our capacity to live wholly in accordance with the full and free exercise of private judgment.[116]

In France, various anarchist currents were present during the Revolutionary period, with some revolutionaries using the term anarchiste in a positive light as early as September 1793.[121] The enrags opposed revolutionary government as a contradiction in terms. Denouncing the Jacobin dictatorship, Jean Varlet wrote in 1794 that "government and revolution are incompatible, unless the people wishes to set its constituted authorities in permanent insurrection against itself".[122] In his "Manifesto of the Equals", Sylvain Marchal looked forward to the disappearance, once and for all, of "the revolting distinction between rich and poor, of great and small, of masters and valets, of governors and governed".[122]

Libertarian communism, libertarian Marxism and libertarian socialism are all terms which activists with a variety of perspectives have applied to their views.[123] Anarchist communist philosopher Joseph Djacque was the first person to describe himself as a libertarian.[124] Unlike mutualist anarchist philosopher Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, he argued that "it is not the product of his or her labor that the worker has a right to, but to the satisfaction of his or her needs, whatever may be their nature".[125][126] According to anarchist historian Max Nettlau, the first use of the term libertarian communism was in November 1880, when a French anarchist congress employed it to more clearly identify its doctrines.[127] The French anarchist journalist Sbastien Faure started the weekly paper Le Libertaire (The Libertarian) in 1895.[128]

Individualist anarchism represents several traditions of thought within the anarchist movement that emphasize the individual and their will over any kinds of external determinants such as groups, society, traditions, and ideological systems.[129][130] An influential form of individualist anarchism called egoism[131] or egoist anarchism was expounded by one of the earliest and best-known proponents of individualist anarchism, the German Max Stirner.[132] Stirner's The Ego and Its Own, published in 1844, is a founding text of the philosophy.[132] According to Stirner, the only limitation on the rights of the individual is their power to obtain what they desire,[133] without regard for God, state or morality.[134] Stirner advocated self-assertion and foresaw unions of egoists, non-systematic associations continually renewed by all parties' support through an act of will,[135] which Stirner proposed as a form of organisation in place of the state.[136] Egoist anarchists argue that egoism will foster genuine and spontaneous union between individuals.[137] Egoism has inspired many interpretations of Stirner's philosophy. Stirner's philosophy was re-discovered and promoted by German philosophical anarchist and LGBT activist John Henry Mackay. Josiah Warren is widely regarded as the first American anarchist,[138] and the four-page weekly paper he edited during 1833, The Peaceful Revolutionist, was the first anarchist periodical published.[139] For American anarchist historian Eunice Minette Schuster, "[i]t is apparent [...] that Proudhonian Anarchism was to be found in the United States at least as early as 1848 and that it was not conscious of its affinity to the Individualist Anarchism of Josiah Warren and Stephen Pearl Andrews. [...] William B. Greene presented this Proudhonian Mutualism in its purest and most systematic form".[140]

Later, Benjamin Tucker fused Stirner's egoism with the economics of Warren and Proudhon in his eclectic influential publication Liberty. From these early influences, individualist anarchism in different countries attracted a small yet diverse following of bohemian artists and intellectuals,[141] free love and birth control advocates (anarchism and issues related to love and sex),[142][143] individualist naturists nudists (anarcho-naturism),[144][145][146] free thought and anti-clerical activists[147][148] as well as young anarchist outlaws in what became known as illegalism and individual reclamation[149][150] (European individualist anarchism and individualist anarchism in France). These authors and activists included mile Armand, Han Ryner, Henri Zisly, Renzo Novatore, Miguel Gimenez Igualada, Adolf Brand and Lev Chernyi.

In 1873, the follower and translator of Proudhon, the Catalan Francesc Pi i Margall, became President of Spain with a program which wanted "to establish a decentralized, or "cantonalist," political system on Proudhonian lines",[151] who according to Rudolf Rocker had "political ideas, [...] much in common with those of Richard Price, Joseph Priestly [sic], Thomas Paine, Jefferson, and other representatives of the Anglo-American liberalism of the first period. He wanted to limit the power of the state to a minimum and gradually replace it by a Socialist economic order".[152] On the other hand, Fermn Salvochea was a mayor of the city of Cdiz and a president of the province of Cdiz. He was one of the main propagators of anarchist thought in that area in the late 19th century and is considered to be "perhaps the most beloved figure in the Spanish Anarchist movement of the 19th century".[153][154] Ideologically, he was influenced by Bradlaugh, Owen and Paine, whose works he had studied during his stay in England and Kropotkin, whom he read later.[153]

The revolutionary wave of 19171923 saw the active participation of anarchists in Russia and Europe. Russian anarchists participated alongside the Bolsheviks in both the February and October 1917 revolutions. However, Bolsheviks in central Russia quickly began to imprison or drive underground the libertarian anarchists. Many fled to the Ukraine,[155] where they fought to defend the Free Territory in the Russian Civil War against the White movement, monarchists and other opponents of revolution and then against Bolsheviks as part of the Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine led by Nestor Makhno, who established an anarchist society in the region for a number of months. Expelled American anarchists Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman protested Bolshevik policy before they left Russia.[156] The victory of the Bolsheviks damaged anarchist movements internationally as workers and activists joined Communist parties. In France and the United States, for example, members of the major syndicalist movements of the CGT and IWW joined the Communist International.[157] In Paris, the Dielo Truda group of Russian anarchist exiles which included Nestor Makhno issued a 1926 manifesto, the Organizational Platform of the General Union of Anarchists (Draft), calling for new anarchist organizing structures.[158][159]

In Germany, the Bavarian Soviet Republic of 19181919 had libertarian socialist characteristics.[160][161] In Italy, the anarcho-syndicalist trade union Unione Sindacale Italiana grew to 800,000 members from 1918 to 1921 during the so-called Biennio Rosso.[162] With the rise of fascism in Europe between the 1920s and the 1930s, anarchists began to fight fascists in Italy,[163] in France during the February 1934 riots[164] and in Spain where the CNT (Confederacin Nacional del Trabajo) boycott of elections led to a right-wing victory and its later participation in voting in 1936 helped bring the popular front back to power. This led to a ruling class attempted coup and the Spanish Civil War (19361939).[165] Gruppo Comunista Anarchico di Firenze held that the during early twentieth century, the terms libertarian communism and anarchist communism became synonymous within the international anarchist movement as a result of the close connection they had in Spain (anarchism in Spain), with libertarian communism becoming the prevalent term.[166]

Murray Bookchin wrote that the Spanish libertarian movement of the mid-1930s was unique because its workers' control and collectiveswhich came out of a three-generation "massive libertarian movement"divided the republican camp and challenged the Marxists. "Urban anarchists" created libertarian communist forms of organization which evolved into the CNT, a syndicalist union providing the infrastructure for a libertarian society. Also formed were local bodies to administer social and economic life on a decentralized libertarian basis. Much of the infrastructure was destroyed during the 1930s Spanish Civil War against authoritarian and fascist forces.[167]

The Iberian Federation of Libertarian Youth[168] (FIJL, Spanish: Federacin Ibrica de Juventudes Libertarias), sometimes abbreviated as Libertarian Youth (Juventudes Libertarias), was a libertarian socialist[169] organization created in 1932 in Madrid.[170] At its second congress in February 1937, the FIJL organized a plenum of regional organizations. In October 1938, from the 16th through the 30th in Barcelona the FIJL participated in a national plenum of the libertarian movement, also attended by members of the CNT and the Iberian Anarchist Federation (FAI).[171] The FIJL exists until today. When the republican forces lost the Spanish Civil War, the city of Madrid was turned over to the Francoist forces in 1939 by the last non-Francoist mayor of the city, the anarchist Melchor Rodrguez Garca.[172] During autumn of 1931, the "Manifesto of the 30" was published by militants of the anarchist trade union CNT and among those who signed it there was the CNT General Secretary (19221923) Joan Peiro, Angel Pestaa CNT (General Secretary in 1929) and Juan Lopez Sanchez. They were called treintismo and they were calling for libertarian possibilism which advocated achieving libertarian socialist ends with participation inside structures of contemporary parliamentary democracy.[173] In 1932, they establish the Syndicalist Party which participates in the 1936 Spanish general elections and proceed to be a part of the leftist coalition of parties known as the Popular Front obtaining two congressmen (Pestaa and Benito Pabon). In 1938, Horacio Prieto, general secretary of the CNT, proposes that the Iberian Anarchist Federation transforms itself into the Libertarian Socialist Party and that it participates in the national elections.[174]

The Manifesto of Libertarian Communism was written in 1953 by Georges Fontenis for the Federation Communiste Libertaire of France. It is one of the key texts of the anarchist-communist current known as platformism.[175] In 1968, the International of Anarchist Federations was founded during an international anarchist conference in Carrara, Italy to advance libertarian solidarity. It wanted to form "a strong and organized workers movement, agreeing with the libertarian ideas".[176][177] In the United States, the Libertarian League was founded in New York City in 1954 as a left-libertarian political organization building on the Libertarian Book Club.[178][179] Members included Sam Dolgoff,[180] Russell Blackwell, Dave Van Ronk, Enrico Arrigoni[181] and Murray Bookchin.

In Australia, the Sydney Push was a predominantly left-wing intellectual subculture in Sydney from the late 1940s to the early 1970s which became associated with the label Sydney libertarianism. Well known associates of the Push include Jim Baker, John Flaus, Harry Hooton, Margaret Fink, Sasha Soldatow,[182] Lex Banning, Eva Cox, Richard Appleton, Paddy McGuinness, David Makinson, Germaine Greer, Clive James, Robert Hughes, Frank Moorhouse and Lillian Roxon. Amongst the key intellectual figures in Push debates were philosophers David J. Ivison, George Molnar, Roelof Smilde, Darcy Waters and Jim Baker, as recorded in Baker's memoir Sydney Libertarians and the Push, published in the libertarian Broadsheet in 1975.[183] An understanding of libertarian values and social theory can be obtained from their publications, a few of which are available online.[184][185]

In 1969, French platformist anarcho-communist Daniel Gurin published an essay in 1969 called "Libertarian Marxism?" in which he dealt with the debate between Karl Marx and Mikhail Bakunin at the First International and afterwards suggested that "libertarian Marxism rejects determinism and fatalism, giving the greater place to individual will, intuition, imagination, reflex speeds, and to the deep instincts of the masses, which are more far-seeing in hours of crisis than the reasonings of the 'elites'; libertarian Marxism thinks of the effects of surprise, provocation and boldness, refuses to be cluttered and paralyzed by a heavy 'scientific' apparatus, doesn't equivocate or bluff, and guards itself from adventurism as much as from fear of the unknown".[186]

Libertarian Marxist currents often draw from Marx and Engels' later works, specifically the Grundrisse and The Civil War in France.[187] They emphasize the Marxist belief in the ability of the working class to forge its own destiny without the need for a revolutionary party or state.[188] Libertarian Marxism includes currents such an autonomism, council communism, left communism, Lettrism, New Left, Situationism, Socialisme ou Barbarie and operaismo, among others.[189]

In the United States, there existed from 1970 to 1981 the publication Root & Branch[190] which had as a subtitle A Libertarian Marxist Journal.[191] In 1974, the Libertarian Communism journal was started in the United Kingdom by a group inside the Socialist Party of Great Britain.[192] In 1986, the anarcho-syndicalist Sam Dolgoff started and led the publication Libertarian Labor Review in the United States[193] which decided to rename itself as Anarcho-Syndicalist Review in order to avoid confusion with right-libertarian views.[194]

The indigenous anarchist tradition in the United States was largely individualist.[195] In 1825, Josiah Warren became aware of the social system of utopian socialist Robert Owen and began to talk with others in Cincinnati about founding a communist colony.[196] When this group failed to come to an agreement about the form and goals of their proposed community, Warren "sold his factory after only two years of operation, packed up his young family, and took his place as one of 900 or so Owenites who had decided to become part of the founding population of New Harmony, Indiana".[197] Warren termed the phrase "cost the limit of price"[198] and "proposed a system to pay people with certificates indicating how many hours of work they did. They could exchange the notes at local time stores for goods that took the same amount of time to produce".[199] He put his theories to the test by establishing an experimental labor-for-labor store called the Cincinnati Time Store where trade was facilitated by labor notes. The store proved successful and operated for three years, after which it was closed so that Warren could pursue establishing colonies based on mutualism, including Utopia and Modern Times. After New Harmony failed, Warren shifted his "ideological loyalties" from socialism to anarchism "which was no great leap, given that Owen's socialism had been predicated on Godwin's anarchism".[200] Warren is widely regarded as the first American anarchist[199] and the four-page weekly paper The Peaceful Revolutionist he edited during 1833 was the first anarchist periodical published,[139] an enterprise for which he built his own printing press, cast his own type and made his own printing plates.[139]

Catalan historian Xavier Diez reports that the intentional communal experiments pioneered by Warren were influential in European individualist anarchists of the late 19th and early 20th centuries such as mile Armand and the intentional communities started by them.[201] Warren said that Stephen Pearl Andrews, individualist anarchist and close associate, wrote the most lucid and complete exposition of Warren's own theories in The Science of Society, published in 1852.[202] Andrews was formerly associated with the Fourierist movement, but converted to radical individualism after becoming acquainted with the work of Warren. Like Warren, he held the principle of "individual sovereignty" as being of paramount importance. Contemporary American anarchist Hakim Bey reports:

Steven Pearl Andrews [...] was not a Fourierist, but he lived through the brief craze for phalansteries in America and adopted a lot of Fourierist principles and practices [...], a maker of worlds out of words. He syncretized abolitionism in the United States, free love, spiritual universalism, Warren, and Fourier into a grand utopian scheme he called the Universal Pantarchy. [...] He was instrumental in founding several 'intentional communities,' including the 'Brownstone Utopia' on 14th St. in New York, and 'Modern Times' in Brentwood, Long Island. The latter became as famous as the best-known Fourierist communes (Brook Farm in Massachusetts & the North American Phalanx in New Jersey)in fact, Modern Times became downright notorious (for 'Free Love') and finally foundered under a wave of scandalous publicity. Andrews (and Victoria Woodhull) were members of the infamous Section 12 of the 1st International, expelled by Marx for its anarchist, feminist, and spiritualist tendencies.[203]

For American anarchist historian Eunice Minette Schuster, "[i]t is apparent that Proudhonian Anarchism was to be found in the United States at least as early as 1848 and that it was not conscious of its affinity to the Individualist Anarchism of Josiah Warren and Stephen Pearl Andrews. William B. Greene presented this Proudhonian Mutualism in its purest and most systematic form".[204] William Batchelder Greene was a 19th-century mutualist individualist anarchist, Unitarian minister, soldier and promoter of free banking in the United States. Greene is best known for the works Mutual Banking, which proposed an interest-free banking system; and Transcendentalism, a critique of the New England philosophical school. After 1850, he became active in labor reform.[204] He was elected vice president of the New England Labor Reform League, "the majority of the members holding to Proudhon's scheme of mutual banking, and in 1869 president of the Massachusetts Labor Union".[204] Greene then published Socialistic, Mutualistic, and Financial Fragments (1875).[204] He saw mutualism as the synthesis of "liberty and order".[204] His "associationism [...] is checked by individualism. [...] 'Mind your own business,' 'Judge not that ye be not judged.' Over matters which are purely personal, as for example, moral conduct, the individual is sovereign, as well as over that which he himself produces. For this reason he demands 'mutuality' in marriagethe equal right of a woman to her own personal freedom and property".[204]

Poet, naturalist and transcendentalist Henry David Thoreau was an important early influence in individualist anarchist thought in the United States and Europe. He is best known for his book Walden, a reflection upon simple living in natural surroundings; and his essay Civil Disobedience (Resistance to Civil Government), an argument for individual resistance to civil government in moral opposition to an unjust state. In Walden, Thoreau advocates simple living and self-sufficiency among natural surroundings in resistance to the advancement of industrial civilization.[205] Civil Disobedience, first published in 1849, argues that people should not permit governments to overrule or atrophy their consciences and that people have a duty to avoid allowing such acquiescence to enable the government to make them the agents of injustice. These works influenced green anarchism, anarcho-primitivism and anarcho-pacifism[206] as well as figures including Mohandas Gandhi, Martin Luther King Jr., Martin Buber and Leo Tolstoy.[206] For George Woodcock, this attitude can be also motivated by certain idea of resistance to progress and of rejection of the growing materialism which is the nature of American society in the mid-19th century".[205] Zerzan included Thoreau's "Excursions" in his edited compilation of anti-civilization writings, Against Civilization: Readings and Reflections.[207] Individualist anarchists such as Thoreau[208][209] do not speak of economics, but simply the right of disunion from the state and foresee the gradual elimination of the state through social evolution. Agorist author J. Neil Schulman cites Thoreau as a primary inspiration.[210]

Many economists since Adam Smith have argued thatunlike other taxesa land value tax would not cause economic inefficiency.[211] It would be a progressive tax,[212] i.e. a tax paid primarily by the wealthy, that increases wages, reduces economic inequality, removes incentives to misuse real estate and reduces the vulnerability that economies face from credit and property bubbles.[213][214] Early proponents of this view include Thomas Paine, Herbert Spencer and Hugo Grotius,[215] but the concept was widely popularized by the economist and social reformer Henry George.[216] George believed that people ought to own the fruits of their labor and the value of the improvements they make and therefore he was opposed to income taxes, sales taxes, taxes on improvements and all other taxes on production, labor, trade or commerce. George was among the staunchest defenders of free markets and his book Protection or Free Trade was read into the Congressional Record.[217] Nonetheless, he did support direct management of natural monopolies such as right-of-way monopolies necessary for railroads as a last resort and advocated for elimination of intellectual property arrangements in favor of government sponsored prizes for inventors. In Progress and Poverty, George argued: "Our boasted freedom necessarily involves slavery, so long as we recognize private property in land. Until that is abolished, Declarations of Independence and Acts of Emancipation are in vain. So long as one man can claim the exclusive ownership of the land from which other men must live, slavery will exist, and as material progress goes on, must grow and deepen!"[218] Early followers of George's philosophy called themselves single taxers because they believed that the only legitimate, broad-based tax was land rent. The term Georgism was coined later, though some modern proponents prefer the term geoism instead,[219] leaving the meaning of geo (Earth in Greek) deliberately ambiguous. The terms Earth Sharing,[220] geonomics[221] and geolibertarianism[222] are used by some Georgists to represent a difference of emphasis, or real differences about how land rent should be spent, but all agree that land rent should be recovered from its private owners.

Individualist anarchism found in the United States an important space for discussion and development within the group known as the Boston anarchists.[223] Even among the 19th-century American individualists there was no monolithic doctrine and they disagreed amongst each other on various issues including intellectual property rights and possession versus property in land.[224][225][226] Some Boston anarchists, including Benjamin Tucker, identified as socialists, which in the 19th century was often used in the sense of a commitment to improving conditions of the working class (i.e. "the labor problem").[227] Lysander Spooner, besides his individualist anarchist activism, was also an anti-slavery activist and member of the First International.[228] Tucker argued that the elimination of what he called "the four monopolies"the land monopoly, the money and banking monopoly, the monopoly powers conferred by patents and the quasi-monopolistic effects of tariffswould undermine the power of the wealthy and big business, making possible widespread property ownership and higher incomes for ordinary people, while minimizing the power of would-be bosses and achieving socialist goals without state action. Tucker's anarchist periodical, Liberty, was published from August 1881 to April 1908.

The publication Liberty, emblazoned with Proudhon's quote that liberty is "Not the Daughter But the Mother of Order" was instrumental in developing and formalizing the individualist anarchist philosophy through publishing essays and serving as a forum for debate. Contributors included Benjamin Tucker, Lysander Spooner, Auberon Herbert, Dyer Lum, Joshua K. Ingalls, John Henry Mackay, Victor Yarros, Wordsworth Donisthorpe, James L. Walker, J. William Lloyd, Florence Finch Kelly, Voltairine de Cleyre, Steven T. Byington, John Beverley Robinson, Jo Labadie, Lillian Harman and Henry Appleton.[229] Later, Tucker and others abandoned their traditional support of natural rights and converted to an egoism modeled upon the philosophy of Max Stirner.[225] A number of natural rights proponents stopped contributing in protest. Several periodicals were undoubtedly influenced by Liberty's presentation of egoism, including I published by Clarence Lee Swartz and edited by William Walstein Gordak and J. William Lloyd (all associates of Liberty); and The Ego and The Egoist, both of which were edited by Edward H. Fulton. Among the egoist papers that Tucker followed were the German Der Eigene, edited by Adolf Brand; and The Eagle and The Serpent, issued from London. The latter, the most prominent English language egoist journal, was published from 1898 to 1900 with the subtitle A Journal of Egoistic Philosophy and Sociology.[230][231]

Henry George was an American political economist and journalist who advocated that all economic value derived from land, including natural resources, should belong equally to all members of society. Strongly opposed to feudalism and the privatisation of land, George created the philosophy of Georgism, or geoism, influential among many left-libertarians, including geolibertarians and geoanarchists. Much like the English Digger movement, who held all material possessions in common, George claimed that land and its financial properties belong to everyone, and that to hold land as private property would lead to immense inequalities, including authority from the private owners of such ground.

Prior to states assigning property owners slices of either once populated or uninhabited land, the world's earth was held in common. When all resources that derive from land are put to achieving a higher quality of life, not just for employers or landlords, but to serve the general interests and comforts of a wider community, Geolibertarians claim vastly higher qualities of life can be reached, especially with ever advancing technology and industrialised agriculture.

The Levellers, also known as the Diggers, were a 17th-century anti-authoritarian movement that stood in resistance to the English government and the feudalism it was pushing through the forced privatisation of land known as the enclosure around the time of the First English Civil War. Devout Protestants, Gerrard Winstanley was a prominent member of the community and with a very progressive interpretation of his religion sought to end buying and selling, instead for all inhabitants of a society to share their material possessions and to hold all things in common, without money or payment. With the complete abolition of private property, including that of private land, the English Levellers created a pool of property where all properties belonged in equal measure to everyone. Often seen as some of the first practising anarchists, the Digger movement is considered Christian communist and extremely early libertarian communism.

By around the start of the 20th century, the heyday of individualist anarchism had passed.[232] H. L. Mencken and Albert Jay Nock were the first prominent figures in the United States to describe themselves as libertarian as synonym for liberal. They believed that Franklin D. Roosevelt had co-opted the word liberal for his New Deal policies which they opposed and used libertarian to signify their allegiance to classical liberalism, individualism and limited government.[233] In 1914, Nock joined the staff of The Nation magazine which at the time was supportive of liberal capitalism. A lifelong admirer of Henry George, Nock went on to become co-editor of The Freeman from 1920 to 1924, a publication initially conceived as a vehicle for the single tax movement, financed by the wealthy wife of the magazine's other editor Francis Neilson.[234] Critic H. L. Mencken wrote that "[h]is editorials during the three brief years of the Freeman set a mark that no other man of his trade has ever quite managed to reach. They were well-informed and sometimes even learned, but there was never the slightest trace of pedantry in them".[235]

Executive Vice President of the Cato Institute David Boaz wrote: "In 1943, at one of the lowest points for liberty and humanity in history, three remarkable women published books that could be said to have given birth to the modern libertarian movement".[236] Isabel Paterson's The God of the Machine, Rose Wilder Lane's The Discovery of Freedom and Ayn Rand's The Fountainhead each promoted individualism and capitalism. None of the three used the term libertarianism to describe their beliefs and Rand specifically rejected the label, criticizing the burgeoning American libertarian movement as the "hippies of the right".[237] Rand's own philosophy of Objectivism is notedly similar to libertarianism and she accused libertarians of plagiarizing her ideas.[237] Rand stated:

All kinds of people today call themselves "libertarians," especially something calling itself the New Right, which consists of hippies who are anarchists instead of leftist collectivists; but anarchists are collectivists. Capitalism is the one system that requires absolute objective law, yet libertarians combine capitalism and anarchism. That's worse than anything the New Left has proposed. It's a mockery of philosophy and ideology. They sling slogans and try to ride on two bandwagons. They want to be hippies, but don't want to preach collectivism because those jobs are already taken. But anarchism is a logical outgrowth of the anti-intellectual side of collectivism. I could deal with a Marxist with a greater chance of reaching some kind of understanding, and with much greater respect. Anarchists are the scum of the intellectual world of the Left, which has given them up. So the Right picks up another leftist discard. That's the libertarian movement.[238]

In 1946, Leonard E. Read founded the Foundation for Economic Education (FEE), an American nonprofit educational organization which promotes the principles of laissez-faire economics, private property and limited government.[239] According to Gary North, former FEE director of seminars and a current Mises Institute scholar, the FEE is the "granddaddy of all libertarian organizations".[240] The initial officers of the FEE were Leonard E. Read as president, Austrian School economist Henry Hazlitt as vice president and David Goodrich of B. F. Goodrich as chairman. Other trustees on the FEE board have included wealthy industrialist Jasper Crane of DuPont, H. W. Luhnow of William Volker & Co. and Robert W. Welch Jr., founder of the John Birch Society.[242][243]

Austrian School economist Murray Rothbard was initially an enthusiastic partisan of the Old Right, particularly because of its general opposition to war and imperialism,[244] but long embraced a reading of American history that emphasized the role of elite privilege in shaping legal and political institutions. He was part of Ayn Rand's circle for a brief period, but later harshly criticized Objectivism.[245] He praised Rand's Atlas Shrugged and wrote that she "introduced me to the whole field of natural rights and natural law philosophy", prompting him to learn "the glorious natural rights tradition".[246] He soon broke with Rand over various differences, including his defense of anarchism, calling his philosophy anarcho-capitalism. Rothbard was influenced by the work of the 19th-century American individualist anarchists[247] and sought to meld their advocacy of free markets and private defense with the principles of Austrian economics.[248]

Karl Hess, a speechwriter for Barry Goldwater and primary author of the Republican Party's 1960 and 1964 platforms, became disillusioned with traditional politics following the 1964 presidential campaign in which Goldwater lost to Lyndon B. Johnson. He parted with the Republicans altogether after being rejected for employment with the party, and began work as a heavy-duty welder. Hess began reading American anarchists largely due to the recommendations of his friend Murray Rothbard and said that upon reading the works of communist anarchist Emma Goldman, he discovered that anarchists believed everything he had hoped the Republican Party would represent. For Hess, Goldman was the source for the best and most essential theories of Ayn Rand without any of the "crazy solipsism that Rand was so fond of".[249] Hess and Rothbard founded the journal Left and Right: A Journal of Libertarian Thought, which was published from 1965 to 1968, with George Resch and Leonard P. Liggio. In 1969, they edited The Libertarian Forum which Hess left in 1971. Hess eventually put his focus on the small scale, stating that society is "people together making culture". He deemed two of his cardinal social principles to be "opposition to central political authority" and "concern for people as individuals". His rejection of standard American party politics was reflected in a lecture he gave during which he said: "The Democrats or liberals think that everybody is stupid and therefore they need somebody [...] to tell them how to behave themselves. The Republicans think everybody is lazy".[250]

The Vietnam War split the uneasy alliance between growing numbers of American libertarians and conservatives who believed in limiting liberty to uphold moral virtues. Libertarians opposed to the war joined the draft resistance and peace movements as well as organizations such as Students for a Democratic Society (SDS). In 1969 and 1970, Hess joined with others, including Murray Rothbard, Robert LeFevre, Dana Rohrabacher, Samuel Edward Konkin III and former SDS leader Carl Oglesby to speak at two conferences which brought together activists from both the New Left and the Old Right in what was emerging as a nascent libertarian movement.[251] As part of his effort to unite the left and right wings of libertarianism, Hess would join both the SDS and the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), of which he explained: "We used to have a labor movement in this country, until I.W.W. leaders were killed or imprisoned. You could tell labor unions had become captive when business and government began to praise them. They're destroying the militant black leaders the same way now. If the slaughter continues, before long liberals will be asking, 'What happened to the blacks? Why aren't they militant anymore?'"[252] Rothbard ultimately broke with the left, allying himself with the burgeoning paleoconservative movement.[253][254] He criticized the tendency of these libertarians to appeal to "'free spirits,' to people who don't want to push other people around, and who don't want to be pushed around themselves" in contrast to "the bulk of Americans" who "might well be tight-assed conformists, who want to stamp out drugs in their vicinity, kick out people with strange dress habits, etc." Rothbard emphasized that this was relevant as a matter of strategy as the failure to pitch the libertarian message to Middle America might result in the loss of "the tight-assed majority".[255][256] This left-libertarian tradition[257] has been carried to the present day by Konkin III's agorists,[258] contemporary mutualists such as Kevin Carson,[259] Roderick T. Long[260] and others such as Gary Chartier[261] Charles W. Johnson[262][263] Sheldon Richman,[78] Chris Matthew Sciabarra[264] and Brad Spangler.[265]

In 1971, a small group of Americans led by David Nolan formed the Libertarian Party,[266] which has run a presidential candidate every election year since 1972. Other libertarian organizations, such as the Center for Libertarian Studies and the Cato Institute, were also formed in the 1970s.[267] Philosopher John Hospers, a one-time member of Rand's inner circle, proposed a non-initiation of force principle to unite both groups, but this statement later became a required "pledge" for candidates of the Libertarian Party and Hospers became its first presidential candidate in 1972.[268] In the 1980s, Hess joined the Libertarian Party and served as editor of its newspaper from 1986 to 1990. According to Maureen Tkacik, Hess moved to the radical left[269] and was the ideological grandfather of the anti-1% and pro-99% movement, the direct antecedent of thinkers like Ron Paul and both the Tea Party movement and the Occupy movement.[270]

Modern libertarianism gained significant recognition in academia with the publication of Harvard University professor Robert Nozick's Anarchy, State, and Utopia in 1974, for which he received a National Book Award in 1975.[271] In response to John Rawls's A Theory of Justice, Nozick's book supported a minimal state (also called a nightwatchman state by Nozick) on the grounds that the ultraminimal state arises without violating individual rights[272] and the transition from an ultraminimal state to a minimal state is morally obligated to occur. Specifically, Nozick wrote: "We argue that the first transition from a system of private protective agencies to an ultraminimal state, will occur by an invisible-hand process in a morally permissible way that violates no one's rights. Secondly, we argue that the transition from an ultraminimal state to a minimal state morally must occur. It would be morally impermissible for persons to maintain the monopoly in the ultraminimal state without providing protective services for all, even if this requires specific 'redistribution.' The operators of the ultraminimal state are morally obligated to produce the minimal state".[273]

In the early 1970s, Rothbard wrote: "One gratifying aspect of our rise to some prominence is that, for the first time in my memory, we, 'our side,' had captured a crucial word from the enemy. 'Libertarians' had long been simply a polite word for left-wing anarchists, that is for anti-private property anarchists, either of the communist or syndicalist variety. But now we had taken it over".[274] The project of spreading libertarian ideals in the United States has been so successful that some Americans who do not identify as libertarian seem to hold libertarian views.[275] Since the resurgence of neoliberalism in the 1970s, this modern American libertarianism has spread beyond North America via think tanks and political parties.[276][277]

A surge of popular interest in libertarian socialism occurred in Western nations during the 1960s and 1970s.[278] Anarchism was influential in the counterculture of the 1960s[279][280][281] and anarchists actively participated in the protests of 1968 which included students and workers' revolts.[282] In 1968, the International of Anarchist Federations was founded in Carrara, Italy during an international anarchist conference held there in 1968 by the three existing European federations of France, the Italian and the Iberian Anarchist Federation as well as the Bulgarian Anarchist Federation in French exile.[177][283] The uprisings of May 1968 also led to a small resurgence of interest in left communist ideas. Various small left communist groups emerged around the world, predominantly in the leading capitalist countries. A series of conferences of the communist left began in 1976, with the aim of promoting international and cross-tendency discussion, but these petered out in the 1980s without having increased the profile of the movement or its unity of ideas.[284] Left communist groups existing today include the International Communist Party, International Communist Current and the Internationalist Communist Tendency. The housing and employment crisis in most of Western Europe led to the formation of communes and squatter movements like that of Barcelona in Spain. In Denmark, squatters occupied a disused military base and declared the Freetown Christiania, an autonomous haven in central Copenhagen.

Around the turn of the 21st century, libertarian socialism grew in popularity and influence as part of the anti-war, anti-capitalist and anti-globalisation movements.[285] Anarchists became known for their involvement in protests against the meetings of the World Trade Organization (WTO), Group of Eight and the World Economic Forum. Some anarchist factions at these protests engaged in rioting, property destruction and violent confrontations with police. These actions were precipitated by ad hoc, leaderless, anonymous cadres known as black blocs and other organizational tactics pioneered in this time include security culture, affinity groups and the use of decentralized technologies such as the Internet.[285] A significant event of this period was the confrontations at WTO conference in Seattle in 1999.[285] For English anarchist scholar Simon Critchley, "contemporary anarchism can be seen as a powerful critique of the pseudo-libertarianism of contemporary neo-liberalism. One might say that contemporary anarchism is about responsibility, whether sexual, ecological or socio-economic; it flows from an experience of conscience about the manifold ways in which the West ravages the rest; it is an ethical outrage at the yawning inequality, impoverishment and disenfranchisment that is so palpable locally and globally".[286] This might also have been motivated by "the collapse of 'really existing socialism' and the capitulation to neo-liberalism of Western social democracy".[287]

Libertarian socialists in the early 21st century have been involved in the alter-globalization movement, squatter movement; social centers; infoshops; anti-poverty groups such as Ontario Coalition Against Poverty and Food Not Bombs; tenants' unions; housing cooperatives; intentional communities generally and egalitarian communities; anti-sexist organizing; grassroots media initiatives; digital media and computer activism; experiments in participatory economics; anti-racist and anti-fascist groups like Anti-Racist Action and Anti-Fascist Action; activist groups protecting the rights of immigrants and promoting the free movement of people such as the No Border network; worker co-operatives, countercultural and artist groups; and the peace movement.

In the United States, polls (circa 2006) find that the views and voting habits of between 10% and 20%, or more, of voting age Americans may be classified as "fiscally conservative and socially liberal, or libertarian".[53][87] This is based on pollsters and researchers defining libertarian views as fiscally conservative and socially liberal (based on the common United States meanings of the terms) and against government intervention in economic affairs and for expansion of personal freedoms.[53] In a 2015 Gallup poll this figure had risen to 27%.[93] A 2015 Reuters poll found that 23% of American voters self-identify as libertarians, including 32% in the 1829 age group.[92] Through twenty polls on this topic spanning thirteen years, Gallup found that voters who are libertarian on the political spectrum ranged from 1723% of the United States electorate.[90] However, a 2014 Pew Poll found that 23% of Americans who identify as libertarians have no idea what the word means.[91]

2009 saw the rise of the Tea Party movement, an American political movement known for advocating a reduction in the United States national debt and federal budget deficit by reducing government spending and taxes, which had a significant libertarian component[288] despite having contrasts with libertarian values and views in some areas such as free trade, immigration, nationalism and social issues.[289] A 2011 Reason-Rupe poll found that among those who self-identified as Tea Party supporters, 41 percent leaned libertarian and 59 percent socially conservative.[290] Named after the Boston Tea Party, it also contains conservative[291][292][293] and populist elements[294][295][296] and has sponsored multiple protests and supported various political candidates since 2009. Tea Party activities have declined since 2010 with the number of chapters across the country slipping from about 1,000 to 600.[297][298] Mostly, Tea Party organizations are said to have shifted away from national demonstrations to local issues.[297] Following the selection of Paul Ryan as Mitt Romney's 2012 vice presidential running mate, The New York Times declared that Tea Party lawmakers are no longer a fringe of the conservative coalition, but now "indisputably at the core of the modern Republican Party".[299]

In 2012, anti-war and pro-drug liberalization presidential candidates such as Libertarian Republican Ron Paul and Libertarian Party candidate Gary Johnson raised millions of dollars and garnered millions of votes despite opposition to their obtaining ballot access by both Democrats and Republicans.[300] The 2012 Libertarian National Convention saw Johnson and Jim Gray being nominated as the 2012 presidential ticket for the Libertarian Party, resulting in the most successful result for a third-party presidential candidacy since 2000 and the best in the Libertarian Party's history by vote number. Johnson received 1% of the popular vote, amounting to more than 1.2 million votes.[301][302] Johnson has expressed a desire to win at least 5 percent of the vote so that the Libertarian Party candidates could get equal ballot access and federal funding, thus subsequently ending the two-party system.[303][304][305] The 2016 Libertarian National Convention saw Johnson and Bill Weld nominated as the 2016 presidential ticket and resulted in the most successful result for a third-party presidential candidacy since 1996 and the best in the Libertarian Party's history by vote number. Johnson received 3% of the popular vote, amounting to more than 4.3 million votes.[306]

Current international anarchist federations which identify themselves as libertarian include the International of Anarchist Federations, the International Workers' Association and International Libertarian Solidarity. The largest organized anarchist movement today is in Spain, in the form of the Confederacin General del Trabajo (CGT) and the CNT. CGT membership was estimated to be around 100,000 for 2003.[307] Other active syndicalist movements include the Central Organisation of the Workers of Sweden and the Swedish Anarcho-syndicalist Youth Federation in Sweden; the Unione Sindacale Italiana in Italy; Workers Solidarity Alliance in the United States; and Solidarity Federation in the United Kingdom. The revolutionary industrial unionist Industrial Workers of the World claiming 2,000 paying members as well as the International Workers' Association, an anarcho-syndicalist successor to the First International, also remain active. In the United States, there exists the Common Struggle Libertarian Communist Federation.

Since the 1950s, many American libertarian organizations have adopted a free-market stance as well as supporting civil liberties and non-interventionist foreign policies. These include the Ludwig von Mises Institute, Francisco Marroqun University, the Foundation for Economic Education, Center for Libertarian Studies, the Cato Institute and Liberty International. The activist Free State Project, formed in 2001, works to bring 20,000 libertarians to New Hampshire to influence state policy.[308] Active student organizations include Students for Liberty and Young Americans for Liberty. A number of countries have libertarian parties that run candidates for political office. In the United States, the Libertarian Party was formed in 1972 and is the third largest[309][310] American political party, with 511,277 voters (0.46% of total electorate) registered as Libertarian in the 31 states that report Libertarian registration statistics and Washington, D.C.[311]

Criticism of libertarianism includes ethical, economic, environmental, pragmatic and philosophical concerns, especially in relation to right-libertarianism,[312][313][314][315][316][317] including the view that it has no explicit theory of liberty.[49] It has been argued that laissez-faire capitalism does not necessarily produce the best or most efficient outcome,[318][319] nor does its philosophy of individualism and policies of deregulation prevent the abuse of natural resources.[320] Critics such as Corey Robin describe this type of libertarianism as fundamentally a reactionary conservative ideology united with more traditionalist conservative thought and goals by a desire to enforce hierarchical power and social relations.[70]

Similarly, Nancy MacLean has argued that it is a radical right ideology that has stood against democracy. According to MacLean, libertarian-leaning Charles and David Koch have used anonymous, dark money campaign contributions, a network of libertarian institutes and lobbying for the appointment of libertarian, pro-business judges to United States federal and state courts to oppose taxes, public education, employee protection laws, environmental protection laws and the New Deal Social Security program.[321]

Moral and pragmatic criticism of libertarianism also includes allegations of utopianism,[322] tacit authoritarianism[323][324] and vandalism towards feats of civilisation.[325]

Libertarian philosophies such as anarchism are evaluated as unfeasible or utopian by their critics, often in general and formal debate. European history professor Carl Landauer argued that anarchy is unrealistic and that government is a "lesser evil" than a society without "repressive force". He also argued that "ill intentions will cease if repressive force disappears" is an "absurdity".[322] In response, An Anarchist FAQ states the following: "Anarchy is not a utopia, [and] anarchists make no such claims about human perfection. [...] Remaining disputes would be solved by reasonable methods, for example, the use of juries, mutual third parties, or community and workplace assemblies". It also states that "some sort of 'court' system would still be necessary to deal with the remaining crimes and to adjudicate disputes between citizens".[326]

John Donahue argues that if political power were radically shifted to local authorities, parochial local interests would predominate at the expense of the whole and that this would exacerbate current problems with collective action.[327]

Before Donahue, Friedrich Engels claimed in his essay On Authority that radical decentralization would destroy modern industrial civilization, citing an example of railways:[325]

Here too the co-operation of an infinite number of individuals is absolutely necessary, and this co-operation must be practised during precisely fixed hours so that no accidents may happen. Here, too, the first condition of the job is a dominant will that settles all subordinate questions, whether this will is represented by a single delegate or a committee charged with the execution of the resolutions of the majority of persona interested. In either case there is a very pronounced authority. Moreover, what would happen to the first train dispatched if the authority of the railway employees over the Hon. passengers were abolished?

In the end, it is argued that authority in any form is a natural occurrence which should not be abolished.[328]

Michael Lind has observed that of the 195 countries in the world today, none have fully actualized a society as advocated by American libertarians:

If libertarianism was a good idea, wouldn't at least one country have tried it? Wouldn't there be at least one country, out of nearly two hundred, with minimal government, free trade, open borders, decriminalized drugs, no welfare state and no public education system?[329]

Furthermore, Lind has criticized libertarianism in the United States as being incompatible with democracy and apologetic towards autocracy.[330] In response, American libertarian Warren Redlich argues that the United States "was extremely libertarian from the founding until 1860, and still very libertarian until roughly 1930".[331]

The libertarian tendency within anarchism known as platformism has been criticized by other libertarians of preserving tacitly authoritarian, bureaucratic or statist tendencies.[323][324]

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Libertarianism - Wikipedia

libertarianism | Definition, Doctrines, History, & Facts …

Libertarianism, political philosophy that takes individual liberty to be the primary political value. It may be understood as a form of liberalism, the political philosophy associated with the English philosophers John Locke and John Stuart Mill, the Scottish economist Adam Smith, and the American statesman Thomas Jefferson. Liberalism seeks to define and justify the legitimate powers of government in terms of certain natural or God-given individual rights. These rights include the rights to life, liberty, private property, freedom of speech and association, freedom of worship, government by consent, equality under the law, and moral autonomy (the ability to pursue ones own conception of happiness, or the good life). The purpose of government, according to liberals, is to protect these and other individual rights, and in general liberals have contended that government power should be limited to that which is necessary to accomplish this task. Libertarians are classical liberals who strongly emphasize the individual right to liberty. They contend that the scope and powers of government should be constrained so as to allow each individual as much freedom of action as is consistent with a like freedom for everyone else. Thus, they believe that individuals should be free to behave and to dispose of their property as they see fit, provided that their actions do not infringe on the equal freedom of others.

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Libertarian Party | History, Beliefs, & Facts | Britannica

Libertarian Party, U.S. political party devoted to the principles of libertarianism. It supports the rights of individuals to exercise virtual sole authority over their lives and sets itself against the traditional services and regulatory and coercive powers of federal, state, and local governments.

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The North Atlantic Treaty Organization began in medieval times.

The Libertarian Party was established in Westminster, Colorado, in 1971 and fielded its first candidate for the presidency in the next years elections. In 1980 it achieved its height of success when it was on the ballot in all 50 states, and its presidential candidate, Edward E. Clark, a California lawyer, received 921,199 votes. Although this vote represented only about 1 percent of the national total, it was enough to make the Libertarian Party the third largest political party in the United States. Libertarian candidates ran in every subsequent presidential election, and several of its members were elected to local and state office, particularly in the West. Though subsequently the party failed to match its 1980 total, its presidential candidates consistently attracted hundreds of thousands of votes, and from 1992 the party consistently secured ballot access in all 50 states. In 2000 the party contested a majority of seats in the House of Representatives, and though it captured no seats, its candidates combined to win 1.7 million votes. The party maintains a national office in Washington, D.C., and has affiliates in every state. The Cato Institute, a public-policy research organization, was founded in 1977 in part by prominent members of the Libertarian Party.

In opposing the purported right of the state to dispose of the lives of individuals and the fruits of their labour, the Libertarian Party contends that a completely free market is a necessary economic condition for prosperity and liberty. To this end most Libertarians call for the repeal of personal and corporate income taxes; the replacement of most government-provided services, including Social Security and the post office, with private and voluntary arrangements; the repeal of regulations, including minimum wage and gun-control laws; and the dismantling of all regulatory bodies that do not promote freely contracted trade. In supporting an individuals right to liberty of speech and action, the Libertarian Party opposes all forms of censorship, insists on the right to keep and bear firearms, and defends the choice of abortion. Noting that the initiation of force against others constitutes a violation of fundamental rights, the Libertarian Party supports the prosecution of criminal violence and fraud but also advocates the repeal of laws against such victimless crimes as gambling, drug use, and prostitution.

Libertarian Party principles are incorporated into its platforms, which are established at semiannual conventions of national party officers and delegates from state affiliates. To direct the ongoing functions of the party, convention delegates elect an 18-member Libertarian National Committee, composed of a chairperson and 3 other officers, 5 at-large members, and 9 regional representatives. Presidential candidates are elected by a simple majority of convention delegates. The party publishes a number of pamphlets and newsletters, including the Libertarian Party News (monthly).


Libertarian Party | History, Beliefs, & Facts | Britannica

What is a libertarian? | Libertarianism.org

Across the years and around the world, no single issue unites libertarians more than war, and no other issue is more important. Alibertarian despises war. In fact, one could view the whole libertarian project as opposition to war and militarism: Alibertarian disapproves of using violence to induce other people to do what one wants. Furthermore, alibertarian is hostile to the states attempts to impose military regimentation on society as awhole, treating citizens like soldiersorganized and trained by the state to effect the states ends.

The indirect effects of warmaking abroad are often inimical to liberty at home. The size and power of the state, which grow during war time, rarely return to prewar levels after the fighting stops.

Because wars inevitably create widespread death and destruction of property, threaten civil liberties, and encourage nationalist thinking instead of individualism and cosmopolitanism, libertarians treat war as, at best, an absolute last resort. Libertarians like Christopher A. Preble have cogently argued that alibertarian foreign policymust be restrained, shunning wars of choice, and that the military should be of an appropriately small size for that purpose. Some libertarians, like Bryan Caplan, think there are good reasons to oppose any and all wars, and many libertarians are inspired by the ideas and deeds of pacifists like Leo Tolstoy or William Lloyd Garrison.

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What is a libertarian? | Libertarianism.org

The Libertarians are Coming – northernexpress.com

Though long shots in just about every race, Libertarians are getting on ballots across Northern Michigan in unprecedented numbers. By Patrick Sullivan | Aug. 8, 2020

Something in the ether, maybe, brought together a bunch of people who over the last year or so declared themselves Libertarians and got nominated to run for local, statewide, and federal office.

Theyre not an easily organized group of individuals, but they are united in their conviction that something is not working in this country under a government that is controlled by two parties.

(Quick brush-up for those unfamiliar: Like Democrats and Republicans, Libertarians dont share a singular opinion on all societal and economic issues, but if you had to distill their guiding philosophy to a singular commonality, you might say they believe first and foremost in the liberty of the individual and that government should take a smaller role in the activities of the state. Some believe it should limit its reach to providing only police, courts, and military, while others believe that more or less is necessary.)

Donna Gundle-Krieg, a real estate agent, candidate for Mancelona Township trustee, and a Northern Expressguest columnist, helped organize the Northwest Michigan Libertarian Party affiliate to help get candidates on the ballot across nine counties in northwestern Lower Michigan this year. She said that there were plenty of folks who wanted to sign up; they just needed a little organization to help them along.

In the past, people have inquired, and they get sent to the head of the state party, Gundle-Krieg said. They never get to meet that person or have that comradery. You need likeminded people to get excited about this. Its hard to be excited when youre all alone.

At the statewide convention in Gaylord July 18, the Libertarian Party nominated 61 candidates for the 2020 general election, including nine candidates for U.S. Congress, 10 candidates for the Michigan State House, eight candidates for statewide offices, and 32 for county and township races. Many of the local candidates are running for office in Northern Michigan, thanks primarily to the local Libertarian organizations that have formed in the last couple of years.

Northern Express reached out to some of the candidates to find out what drove them to throw their hat into the ring.

FACEMASKS AND A BID FOR CONGRESSAt the statewide Libertarian convention in Gaylord, almost everyone wore facemasks, said Benjamin Boren, who is running to represent Michigan in its 1st Congressional District. Wearing masks is something Boren said he supports. But, like other Libertarians interviewed for this article, theres a caveat: Boren said he thinks people should wear them as a matter of personal responsibility, not because the government tells them to.

Boren was born and raised in Nevada, near Lake Tahoe, to parents who worked in real estate. The 35-year-old has moved around a lot, but for the last few years hes lived just south of Charlevoix, where he moved to be closer to his parents for a time. He thought it would be a short-term move, but it hasnt turned out that way, and as hes settled in, hes found a political home of sorts in the Libertarian cause in Northern Michigan.

Boren, who works part-time at a tobacco store in Traverse City and part-time as a heavy-equipment operator, said hes voted for candidates from both major parties throughout his life but became increasingly drawn to the principles of libertarianism. A couple of years ago, he decided to join the Libertarian Party, then discovered hed have to help create one in the region first.

The prospect was daunting. This is such a scary time, Boren said. I would love to live a normal life and not have anything to do with the political realm.

But it just so happened that there were others clamoring for just the same thing at the time, so he found help and support from people like Gundle-Krieg, who was already gaining momentum in the effort.

Boren said that he believes people are more drawn to libertarianism today because of a combination of the executive order requirements in Michigan spurred by the coronavirus pandemic and because of the authoritarianism of the Trump Republican Party.

First off, I think a lot of people feel not everyone, but a lot that the two-party system seems to be broken, Boren said. Everyones freaking out. This pandemic is hard to get used to, but it was a huge eye-opener for a lot of people.

The people drawn to libertarianism pretty much just want to get the government to do a lot less, even amid a pandemic, he said.

Its not like [Libertarians] think they know what other people need in their life. They just want to live their life and dont want to be told how to live it, Boren said.

Another factor that Boren said he believes increased the number of people who identify as Libertarian is what he calls the Amash effect, after Justin Amash, the GOP Congressman from Grand Rapids who left his party in protest over Trumps policies and later became a Libertarian. Amash made the party switch during the states stay-in-place order, when a lot of people in Michigan had extra time on their hands to do things like look up libertarianism online, he said.

Boren said if he had to choose between Republican and Democrat, he wouldnt, because both want too much control over peoples lives. He said he likes aspects of each he is pro-Second Amendment, like most Republicans; and pro-LGBTQ-rights, like most Democrats, for instance.

Despite his enthusiasm for libertarianism, he is still a reluctant candidate for Congress.

I would prefer to do something else, honestly, but no one else would step up, he said.

Boren said he, his campaign manager, and most of his campaign volunteers are Millennials who lack experience but who have passion, though he said he doesnt look at his campaign as a symbolic one. He said he wouldnt run unless he thought he had an outside chance to overcome two well-funded candidates from the major parties.

Theres a lot to navigate; theres a lot of hurdles. But its important regardless, he said. I think I have a chance. I would never ever just do something and accept defeat. Im going to give it a good go. Hopefully, we can have a lot of fun were going to learn a lot.

RACIN JASON JOINS THE RACEOf all the Libertarian Party candidates in Northern Michigan, none has the kind of name recognition of Jason Crum, who has spent decades working as a deejay at stations from Petoskey to Gaylord to Traverse City. He was also a winning contestant on the reality television game show Forged in Fire that aired last September on the History Channel. Now, hes running to replace state Rep. Larry Inman in the Michigan House.

Crum said he started out as a rebellious youth who didnt want to follow in the footsteps of his father, an attorney, or his mother, an academic, and instead launched himself into a career on the airwaves, moving from Rochester, Michigan, where he grew up, to Petoskey, where he got his first radio gig almost three decades ago.

Crums last radio job was the morning slot at WKLT in Traverse City, where he was known as Racin Jason until a shakeup late last year put him out of work. Since March, hes been driving a bus for BATA.

The outset of a global pandemic was not the easiest time to take a new job that involved close contact with the public in tight quarters, but he managed to get through it and has stayed healthy.

It was right at the start of the whole COVID, Crum said about starting the new job. It was nerve-wracking, you know. Ive got young kids at home and a wife, and I didnt want to do anything to put their lives in jeopardy. The whole COVID thing was so new and everybody was so scared of it.

Crum, who lives in Kingsley and has six kids, ages 8 to 24, continues to wear a mask whenever hes driving his bus or in a store. He also frequently washes his hands and said he instructs his children to do the same.

I support science, and I support smart conclusions, he said. If the science says to wear the mask, then Im going to wear it.

The 50-year-old is not against following protocols that are backed up by science in order to stay safe, but he said he is against the government telling him what to do.

I never had much of a political bone in my body. I mean, I definitely have opinions on things, he said. It was actually Gov. Whitmers executive orders that made me really start to question what was going on in Lansing. The legislature should be involved in a situation like this. I just dont like ruling by executive order.

He was also frustrated that his own state rep, Inman, the troubled Republican, was missing in action following a partial acquittal/hung-jury verdict on federal bribery charges last year.

I couldnt find one single phone number or a web page, Crum said. Hes a lame duck at this point. Hes not our representative. We are representative-less.

So, since Crum didnt ever really identify with either of the major political parties, when the nascent Northern Michigan Libertarian Party approached him about running on their platform, Crum hopped on board. It made sense, he said, because he said he is fiscally conservative and socially liberal, and after he checked out the partys website, he said he found very little in the platform that he disagreed with.

Crum said he has no political aspiration and that if he is elected, he would only serve one term.

He knows he faces an uphill battle; he sees plenty of yard signs as he drives his bus and recognizes that his opponents from the major parties will be much better funded.

THE LIBERTARIAN BUREAUCRATAndy Evans knows that his job would be in jeopardy if, someday, the Libertarians took over state government and dismantled the bureaucracy. The Cheboygan resident works at the Michigan Department of Natural Resources customer service center in Gaylord. But if he had his way, that job wouldnt exist. The only reason it does, he said, is because of how complicated the states hunting and fishing code has become over the decades.

I spend a great amount of time demystifying the hunting and fishing regulations for people, Evans said. You reach a breaking point with regulations. You confuse the public; you confuse business owners.

He insists that he would eliminate his own job if he had the chance.

My particular job could be eliminated, absolutely, Evans said. Lets just say, seeing how Im only four years from retirement, its easy for me to say that.

Evans is running for county commissioner for District 3 in Cheboygan County.

Ive always been a real student of history and politics, throughout my lifetime, and I tended to vote Republican, Evans said.

He said that though he always leaned Republican, the strong positions Democrats have traditionally taken on civil liberties have lured him in the past. Nevertheless, Evans eventually grew dissatisfied with both parties and concluded that there have been a lot of empty promises theyd made in the past 20 years. A couple ago, he was listening to a local call-in radio political radio show that featured a state Libertarian Party official as a guest. Evans said he liked what he heard, and, after some investigation, he was converted.

Evans helped start a Mackinac Straits region Libertarian affiliate, which covers four counties in the Straits region.

The federal and state governments, I feel, have become far too intrusive into our lives, Evans said. I feel like government is becoming pretty unrestrained of late.

Evans said the Libertarian Party is a good alternative for folks interested in getting into local government in a place like Cheboygan, where Democrats rarely run for local office, and Republicans often run unopposed.

Still, like the other northern Michigan Libertarians, Evans is realistic about his chances. He ran for the same county commission seat in 2018, in a three-way race, and he got just six percent of the vote.

This time around he will be going head-to-head with an incumbent Republican. He said the situation improves his chances, but he still considers himself a longshot.

My opponent hes a well-established incumbent, very well-known in the community, a former undersheriff, he said. I have an uphill battle.

REPUBLICAN TURNED LIBERTARIANCory Dean, a 51-year-old who has lived for decades in Blair Township and raised four kids there, is running as a Libertarian for township trustee.

Hes run before as a Republican and narrowly lost by three votes in 2012, and by three percent of the vote in 2018, when he ran amid a larger field of candidates.

This year he will be among five candidates who are vying for four spots on the board, and since the others are all Republican, Dean thinks he might have an advantage because there are no Democrats running.

This time Im running as a Libertarian, Dean said. I feel at home. Its like I finally found a party that feels right.

Dean, who works for a truck-rental company, said that he believes Libertarians need to start small in order to grow their power.

Maybe we can win at the lowest levels of government and work our way up, he said.

Dean said he has been a political junkie since he was a teenager. He grew up in a Democratic family and became a Republican as a teenager because of Ronald Reagan.

Dean said he gradually switched from Republican to Libertarian as he gradually became disillusioned and felt a growing sense that government is run like a dictatorship.

The conservatives just seem to want to use the government to get you to do what they want, Dean said. [Libertarians] dont want our government forcing its views on anyone.

Dean said part of the reason there are so many Libertarian candidates in Northern Michigan this year is because of the recent creation of the regional affiliates, which enable people to get on the ballot as Libertarians. Four years ago, Dean said he wanted to run as a Libertarian, but he only had the state office to call, and it didnt work out.

I tried to investigate running before, in 16, and I had a hard time having anybody get back to me, Dean said. [Having a regional Libertarian organization to assist] helps. You need to feel like you have some support.

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The Libertarians are Coming - northernexpress.com

Nazareth woman pleads guilty in election fraud case – lehighvalleylive.com

A Nazareth woman pleaded guilty Monday to participating in an election fraud scheme.

Amber Correll, 39, pleaded guilty to multiple counts of making false signatures and statements on nomination petitions, according to a news release from Pennsylvania Attorney General Josh Shapiro.

Police say she forged 25 signatures on nomination petitions for U.S. Congressional candidate Tim Silfies. The Libertarian candidate ran in 2018 against Susan Wild and Marty Nothstein.

There should never be a doubt that the men and women who appear on ballots or work to gather the signatures needed to get candidates before voters are following the law and doing honest work, Shapiro said in a news release.

Corrells attorney, Brandon Lauria of Philadelphia, didnt return a phone message seeking comment.

Police say Correll was paid to collect the signatures by Jake Towne, 40, of Easton. Thats not illegal, but police say Towne broke the law by signing papers saying he circulated the nomination petitions when in fact Correll circulated them.

At a preliminary hearing in January, Towne attorney Gary Asteak said its common practice for party officials to sign off as circulators of nominating petitions even though they didnt physically circulate the petitions. He said Towne looked over the sheet, matched the names to the addresses and was satisfied they were authentic.

Northampton County Libertarian Party Chairman Jake Towne, left, leaves his preliminary hearing with his attorney, Gary Asteak. Towne is charged with perjury for allegedly signing a candidate's nominating petition even though he didn't circulate the petition.Rudy Miller | For lehighvalleylive.com

Asteak said Towne turned down a really sweet deal to plead guilty and will take the case to trial. Towne is charged with five criminal counts, including perjury. Shapiros news release says Towne will stand trial in February. Correll will be sentenced after Townes trial.

This contrived case against Jake Towne is the result of a corrupt system that seeks to silence political activists. The charges against Mr. Towne originated with a GOP fishing expedition to coerce two third party candidates to withdraw from running for office. Circulators in Pennsylvania have never been required to witness signatures on a petition sheet. They only need to have requisite knowledge, meaning reason to believe that the signatures are genuine. Dozens of previous civil cases prove this. What Towne did has never been tried in a criminal court because it is not a criminal matter, said Libertarian Party Chairwoman Jane Horvath in an emailed statement.

She said Correll acted along to deceive Towne.

The attorney generals abuse of power will become evident as the details of this case unfold, and hopefully the public will take notice of how corrupt the two-party system really is, Horvath said.

Senior Deputy Attorney General Nicole Forzato is prosecuting Correll and Towne.

Towne ran for Congress in 2010 and ran for the Pennsylvania House of Representatives in 2018. He serves as secretary for the Northampton County Libertarian Party.

Our journalism needs your support. Please subscribe today to Lehighvalleylive.com.

Rudy Miller may be reached at rmiller@lehighvalleylive.com. If theres anything about this story that needs attention, please email him. Follow him on Twitter @RudyMillerLV. Find Easton area news on Facebook.

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Nazareth woman pleads guilty in election fraud case - lehighvalleylive.com

Primary Election 2020 – Bainbridge Island Review

PORT ORCHARD Initial primary election returns in Kitsap County Tuesday night yielded no surprises in the high-profile races in 2020, including contests for the 6th Congressional District seat, Washington state governor, seats in the state Legislature and the two county commissioner positions up for election.

The top two finishers in each race, regardless of party affiliation, will advance to the Nov. 3 general election. Updates from the Kitsap County Elections Division will be released tomorrow afternoon and through next week.

Here are the raw numbers from Kitsap County released at 8:20 p.m. Tuesday:

Congressional District 6 U.S. Representative

Elizabeth Kreiselmaier (Prefers Republican Party)



Chris Welton (Prefers Republican Party)



Rebecca Parson (Prefers Democratic Party)



Stephan Brodhead (Prefers Republican Party)



Johny Alberg (Prefers Republican Party)



Derek Kilmer (Prefers Democratic Party)



Washington State Governor

Alex Tsimerman (Prefers StandupAmerica Party)



Phil Fortunato (Prefers Republican Party)



Ryan Ryals (Prefers Unaffiliated Party)



Leon Aaron Lawson (Prefers Trump Republican Party)



Henry Clay Dennison (Prefers Socialist Workers Party)



Tim Eyman (Prefers Republican Party)



Liz Hallock (Prefers Green Party)



Goodspaceguy (Prefers Trump Republican Party)



Omari Tahir Garrett (Prefers Democrat Party)



Don L. Rivers (Prefers Democratic Party)



Martin L. Iceman Wheeler (Prefers Republican Party)



Raul Garcia (Prefers Republican Party)



Tylor Grow (Prefers Republican Party)



Winston Wilkes (Prefers Propertarianist Party)



Brian R. Weed (States No Party Preference)



Thor Amundson (Prefers Independent Party)



Gene Hart (Prefers Democratic Party)



William (Bill) Miller (Prefers American Patriot Party)



Matthew Murray (Prefers Republican Party)



Dylan B. Nails (Prefers Independent Party)



Cameron M. Vessey (States No Party Preference)



David W. Blomstrom (Prefers Fifth Republican Party)



Anton Sakharov (Prefers Trump Republican Party)



Craig Campbell (States No Party Preference)



Nate Herzog (Prefers Pre2016 Republican Party)



Cregan M. Newhouse (States No Party Preference)


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Primary Election 2020 - Bainbridge Island Review

And they’re off! Campaign signs popping up – Las Cruces Bulletin

By Mike Cook

As of Aug. 7, there are 88 days until the Tuesday, Nov. 3, General Election. Yard signs and billboards are allowed 90 days before an election, and they have already begun to appear.

There are 28 federal, statewide and local races on Doa Ana County ballots, including 59 candidates: 28 Democrats, 25 Republicans, four Libertarians, one Constitution Party candidate and one declined-to-state (DTS) candidate. There are eight incumbent local district judges and one state Supreme Court justice up for voter retention.

There also will be five ballot initiatives for voters to consider: two constitutional amendments and three statewide bond issues that would allocate $200 million for senior centers, libraries, colleges and universities across the state.

Because state legislators and county commissioners are elected by districts, not everyone will see the same names on their ballots. Voters will choose from the same group of candidates for president, U.S. Senate and U.S. House New Mexico district two, county clerk and treasurer and Third Judicial District attorney, and will vote up or down for statewide and local judicial retentions.

But depending on where they live, voters will see different candidates in the six state Senate and eight state House of Representatives races that include Doa Ana County. Three of five county commission seats are also on this years ballot. The other two commission seats along with the county sheriff, assessor and probate judge will be up in 2022.

Democrats are unopposed in one statewide and two local races: Court of Appeals position three, district attorney and county commission district two. Gerald Byers, who also had no primary opponent, will succeed Mark DAntonio, who is retiring after two four-year terms, as district attorney.

Anthony Mayor Diane Murillo-Trujillo defeated incumbent Ramon Gonzalez in the June county commission district two Primary and will become a member of the commission next January.

The four Libertarian candidates are running for president, U.S. Senate, U.S. House, Court of Appeals position two (a write-in candidate whose status is being evaluated by the New Mexico Secretary of States office) and county commission district four.

The lone Constitution Party candidate is running for president and the only DTS candidate is running for U.S. House district two.

There are 22 incumbents running: 21 Democrats hoping to hold U.S. House district two, two state Supreme Court and three Court of Appeals seats, four state Senate and eight state House seats, one county commission seat, county clerk and county treasurer; and two Republicans, President Donald Trump and state Sen. Ron Griggs of Alamogordo, whose district includes two of Doa Ana Countys 170 precincts.

Two long-time state Senate Democrats John Arthur Smith (32 years) of Deming and Mary Kay Papen (20 years) of Las Cruces, lost in the Primary, along with County Commissioner Gonzalez. Another county commissioner, Isabella Solis, was elected to the commission as a Democrat in 2016, switched to Republican in 2019 and chose to run for state representative this year instead of running for re-election to the commission.

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And they're off! Campaign signs popping up - Las Cruces Bulletin

What’s on the ballot? A rundown of races and issues facing Greene County voters on Tuesday – News-Leader

The United States has never delayed an election, even during the Civil War and World War II. USA TODAY

On Tuesday, Missouri voters will head to the polls to cast their ballots.

There are several primaries for federal,state and local races on the ballot, as well as a state constitutional amendment, and for Springfield voters, a question about fees for short-term lenders.

Greene County polling sites will have cleaning supplies, hand sanitizer and gloves on hand when residents show up to vote in the primary on Tuesday.(Photo: Nathan Papes/Springfield News-Leader)

Here's a rundown of what's on the ballot.

Primary races for Missouri governor, lieutenant governor, secretary of state, treasurer and attorney general are all up for grabs.

The Republicans running are:


Lieutenant Governor

Secretary of State


Attorney General

The Democrats running are:


Lieutenant Governor

Secretary of State


Attorney General

The Libertarian candidates running are:


Lieutenant Governor

Secretary of State


Attorney General

Green Party candidates running are:


Lieutenant Governor

Secretary of State


There is one Constitution Party candidate, Paul Venable, who is running for secretary of state.

The only federal nomination up for grabs in this election is oneencompassing Greene, Polk, Christian, Taney, Stone, Barry, McDonald, Newton, Jasper and Lawrence counties, as well as the southwest corner of Webster County.

The Republicans running are:

Democrat Teresa Montseny is running unopposed in her party's primary, as isLibertarian candidate Kevin Craig.

Several Greene County state seats are up for grabs this election. If you don't know your district, you can find out athttps://house.mo.gov/legislatorlookup.aspx.

District 130

There are three Republicans running for this open seat, which covers Republic, Willard and western Greene County.They are:

Democrat Dave Gragg is running unopposed in his party's primary.

District 131

There are two Republican candidates running for this open seat, which covers northern Springfield and north-central Greene County. They are:

Democrat Allison Schoolcraft is unopposed in her party's primary.

District 132

Both incumbent Democrat Crystal Quade and Republican Sarah Semple are running unopposed in their primaries for this seat, which covers parts of north and northwest Springfield.

District 133

Both incumbent Republican Curtis Trent and Democratic candidate Cindy Slimp are running unopposed in their primaries for this seat, which includes west and southwest Springfield and extends down to the cityof Battlefield.

District 134

There are two Republican candidates running for this open seat, which covers south-central Springfield, running from Bass Pro Shops to the James River. They are:

Democrat Derrick Nowlin is running unopposed in his party's primary.

District 135

Incumbent Republican Steve Helms,Democratic candidate Betsy Fogle and Green Party candidate Vicke Keplingare each running unopposed in their primaries for this seat, which covers east Springfield.

District 136

Incumbent Republican Craig Fishel and Democratic candidate Jeff Munzinger are each running unopposed in their primaries for this seat, which covers southeast Springfield and Greene County.

District 137

Incumbent Republican John F. Black and Democratic candidate Raymond Lampert are each running unopposed in their primaries for this district, which covers parts of northeast Greene County and western Webster County.

There are several county races up for grabs on the ballot.

Greene County Sheriff Jim Arnott, Treasurer Justin Hill and Public Administrator Sherri Eagon Martin,allRepublicans, are running unopposed.

District 1 Commissioner

Two people are running on the Republican ballot for the first commission district, which covers Western Greene County. They are:

Democratic candidate Wes Zongker is running unopposed in his party's primary.

District 2 Commissioner

Incumbent Republican John Russell and Libertarian candidate Cecil A. Ince are each running unopposed in their party's primaries.


There are three Republican candidates running for Greene County Assessor. They are:

Constitutional amendment No. 2

This issue will go to all voters across the state, asking whether they want to amend the state's constitution to allow people from 19 to 64 who have an income level at or less than 133 percent of the federal poverty line to qualify for health care coverage.

The debate about expansion has been lengthy, but a News-Leader series examining the impact found:

When voters go to the ballot box, they should mark"Yes" if they support expansion, or "No" if they don't. That ballot language is as follows:

"Do you want to amend the Missouri Constitution to:

State government entities are estimated to have one-time costs of approximately $6.4 million and an unknown annual net fiscal impact by 2026 ranging from increased costs of at least $200 million to savings of $1 billion. Local governments expect costs to decrease by an unknown amount."

City of Springfield Question 1

Voters in the city of Springfield will also consider their own ballot initiative, which would require short-term lending establishments, such as payday or car title lenders, to pay an annual registration fee of $5,000.

The proposal,which city voters will see on the Aug. 4 ballot,was approved in May by City Council along with a bill requiring lenders toadvertise interest rates, disclose how long it will take people to pay off a loan and provide clear explanations about the agreement the borrower is signing.

The fee is intended to make sure lenders comply with city requirements, and the money will be used to provide alternatives to short-term lenders, help people get out of debt and educate the community about the reality of taking out a payday or car title loan.

Voters who support imposing the fee should vote "Yes," and those who don't should vote "No."The ballot language is as follows:

"Shall the City of Springfield, Missouri, be authorized to impose a fee for a Short-Term Loan Establishment permit in the amount of $5,000 annually, new or renewal, or $2,500 for a permit issued with less than 6 months remaining in the calendar year?"

Polling places citywide are open from 6 a.m. to 7p.m. Tuesday.

To find your polling place, visithttps://greenecountymo.gov/county_clerk/election/precinct_information.phpor call 417-868-4060.

Voters should remember to bring a valid state or federal ID with them to the polling place, such as a driver's license, military ID or passport.

If you don't have a government-issued ID, youcan bring a voter registration card, a Missouri university, college, vocational or technical school ID or a current utility bill, bank statement, government check, paycheck or other government document containing yourname and address.

People voting in the city should also remember to wear a mask, which is required by ordinance. Hand sanitizer and other cleaning supplies will also be available at polling places.

Katie Kull covers local government for the News-Leader. Got a story to tell? Give her a call at 417-408-1025 or email herat kkull@news-leader.com. You can also support local journalism atNews-Leader.com/subscribe.

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What's on the ballot? A rundown of races and issues facing Greene County voters on Tuesday - News-Leader

#LetHerSpeak Convoy Protest to Take Place Saturday – Curtis Tucker

ENID, OK On Saturday, August 8 at 11:30am, protesters are gathering in the first nationwide #LetHerSpeak convoy protest in counties all across the nation. Regional leaders will lead a group of local community members in a COVID-safe demonstration, driving convoy style down Owen K. Garriott and Willow. Many will go live together on their social media channels.RSVP at http://www.Let-her-speak.org and select going to this event. Participants can start gathering at 10:45am. The convoy will start and end at Garfield County Courthouse at 114 W. Broadway Ave. Enid, OK 73701. Drivers are encouraged to decorate their cars.This is a coordinated effort across the nation to protest the Commission on Presidential Debates continued decision to silence the Libertarian Nominee for the United States President, Dr. Jo Jorgensen, and all third parties who are listed on the presidential ballot.The main goal of this coordinated effort is to get Jo Jorgensen (and all third parties whose names are listed on the ballots) on the debate stage to challenge the Republicans and the Democrats.One hundred years ago this year, women were taking to the streets to protest the government to recognize their rights as sovereign citizens, and their right to be heard in elections, led by the Women Voters Coalition. The WVC also created the first presidential debates to give American voters a greater understanding of all their presidential candidates. In 1987, the Commission on Presidential Debates was formed to take over sponsorship of the debate and boxed the WVC out.The CPD created polling restrictions to not allow third-parties in the debate by selecting random polls to determine who is polling above 15%. The catch? Most of these polls do not even mention a 3rd party candidate. In 2012, the minimum to participate was 10%, but when Gary Johnson got 12%, the CPD raised the polling requirement to 15%. Voters are being left in the dark with systemic voter manipulation.Its been 100 years since the 19th amendment was passed, and Dr. Jo Jorgensen, the only female candidate (who is highly qualified), is still being silenced by the CPD. The Libertarian Party is one of the only parties in the U.S. that has secured ballot access for presidential candidates in all 50 states.

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#LetHerSpeak Convoy Protest to Take Place Saturday - Curtis Tucker

Letter: Vote what’s in your heart; it’s your right – Shreveport Times

Frank Landon, Letter to the Editor Published 6:25 a.m. CT Aug. 7, 2020

To subscribe to The Times go to https://help.shreveporttimes.com/subscription-services Shreveport Times

Responseto Jerry Harkness Where is a persons heart?

I said, despicable the way the Democrats questioned Barr and would no longer vote Democratic. I also said thank goodness this is a free country and we can vote our hearts.

Quotes (...) are statements by Harkness.

Landon says ... he will vote with his heart which apparently means voting for Republicans. I could vote Independent, Libertarian, etc. In the future, maybe Democrat.

Where is a persons heart who finds no fault with an attorney general?

I didn't say I didn't fault Barr, only the way he was questioned.

Where is a persons heart who votes for a political party ... former KKK leader David Duke?

I voted for Edwards, not Duke. Duke's actions were inexcusable.

Where is a persons heart who votes for a political party that refuses to raise the minimum wage?

You don't know where my heart is regarding minimum wage.

Where is a persons heart who supports a political party whose only health care plan is a plan to kill the Affordable Care Act?

The promise of lower insurance and keeping doctors was a lie. The Supreme Court ruled it was a tax. Rep. Nancy Pelosi said the bill had to pass to see what was in it. Why would I want that?

Where is a persons heart who supports a political party that passed a $2.2 trillion coronavirus stimulus package wont extend unemployment benefits for poor working people who are unemployed?

I voted for a party that passed a $2.2 trillion coronavirus stimulus package (cheer). What party recently refused to extend the $600 benefit while the issue was resolved?

Supporting a political party whose president is a congenital liar, who dodged the draft, committed adultery, etc

Aren't you talking about a former Democratic president?

You don't know where my, or other people's hearts are. You shouldn't imply that you do. You are probably a fine person, but please don't make assumptions, or implications.

Stick to facts. Use uniting, not divisive words. Although your opinions may differ from mine, vote what is in your heart. It is your right.

Frank Landon


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Letter: Vote what's in your heart; it's your right - Shreveport Times

Libertarians say they’re ready to take on major party candidates – HOI ABC

PEORIA (WEEK) - This might be the year independent political parties find more support now that several of them are on the November ballot.

A federal court ruling from northern Illinois, issued back in April, reduced the number of signatures needed.

Locally, five Libertarians are ready to compete against major party candidates. They're also arguing in a Peoria courtroom this week, hoping to get nine Libertarians cleared for the November 3 balloting.

"Our people are strong candidates, and they're going to be taking on people that have created the mess that we're sitting in here today," said Donny Henry, Chairman of the Libertarian Party of Greater Peoria.

"So, I'm very proud of what we've put together and I cannot wait to see this through. I think when the dust settles, we will be on the ballot and we will have candidates that will make this city and this county proud," Henry said.

Henry expects even greater ballot access going forward, after this election cycle, in which Libertarian Chad Grimm expects to face Democratic incumbent State Rep. Jehan Gordon-Booth in the 92nd District. Fellow Libertarian Ken Allison and Democrat Karla Bailey-Smith are trying to unseat incumbent GOP Rep. Keith Sommer in the 88th District.

"I'm all for more parties," said Henry.

"I think the two party system both nationally and in Illinois has caused a lot of conflict of us versus them."

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Libertarians say they're ready to take on major party candidates - HOI ABC

Primary election results: Hotly contested local Sheriff’s race and more – Nevada Herald

Flanked by plexiglass partitions and wearing masks, (from left) Rodney Beard, Myra Bond, Carol Shotts, and Sue Rich greet voters at the Osage Prairie YMCA Tuesday. Sanitation methods were in place to help combat the spread of COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019). Voting booths were being sanitized with Lysol between voters and hand sanitizer was available as well.

Photo by Sarah Haney | Daily Mail Editor

With voter turnout at 40 percent, Vernon County residents went to the polls Tuesday to cast their votes in the primary election. There were a total of 5,015 ballots cast 4,323 Republican (86.2 percent); 675 Democratic (13.46 percent); eight Libertarian (.16 percent); one Constitution (.02 percent); and eight nonpartisan (.16 percent).

The county's results are as follow:

County Sheriff


Jason Mosher 2,216 votes (51.74 percent)

David "Tiny" Johnson 2,067 votes (48.26 percent)

Northern Commissioner


Cindy Thompson 945 votes (53.09 percent)

Jason Claspill 835 votes (46.91 percent)

Northern Commissioner


Neal F. Gerster 268 votes (100 percent)

Southern Commissioner


Everett L. Wolfe 1,488 votes (62.94 percent)

Jim Melton 876 votes (37.06 percent)

County Assessor


Lena Kleeman 3,771 votes (100 percent)

County Collector/Treasurer


Brent Banes 3,907 votes (100 percent)

County Public Administrator


Kelsey Westerhold 2,201 votes (53.4 percent)

Brett Dawn 1,058 votes (25.67 percent)

Beverly Beaty 863 votes (20.94 percent)

County Coroner


David Ferry 645 votes (100 percent)

State-wide offices



Mike Parson 3,064 votes (74.03 percent)

Saundra McDowell 530 votes (12.81 percent)

James W. (Jim) Neely 337 votes (8.14 percent)



Nicole Galloway 509 votes (78.07 percent)

Eric Morrison 63 votes (9.66 percent)

Jimmie Matthews 39 votes (5.98 percent)

Antoin Johnson 27 votes (4.14 percent)

Robin John Daniel Van Quaethem 14 votes (2.15 percent)



Rik Combs eight votes (100 percent)

Lieutenant Governor


Mike Kehoe 1,914 votes (51.8 percent)

Mike Carter 1,158 votes (31.34 percent)

Aaron T. Wisdom 375 votes (10.15 percent)

Arnie C. AC Dienoff 248 votes (6.71 percent)

Lieutenant Governor


Alissia Canady 485 votes (75.9 percent)

Gregory A. Upchurch 154 votes (24.10 percent)

Lieutenant Governor


Bill Slantz seven votes (100 percent)

State Secretary of State


John R. (Jay) Ashcroft 3,898 votes (100 percent)

State Secretary of State


Yinka Faleti 614 votes (100 percent)

State Secretary of State


Carl Herman Freese eight votes (100 percent)

State Treasurer


Scott Fitzpatrick 3,798 votes (100 percent)

State Treasurer


Vicki Lorenz Englund 619 votes (100 percent)

State Treasurer


Nicholas (Nick) Kasoff eight votes (100 percent)

Attorney General


Eric Schmitt 3,762 votes (100 percent)

Attorney General


Rich Finneran 384 votes (62.64 percent)

Elad Gross 229 votes (37.36 percent)

Attorney General


Kevin C. Babcock eight votes (100 percent)

United States Representative


Vicky Hartzler 2,936 votes (70.66 percent)

Neal Gist 1,219 votes (29.34 percent)

United States Representative


Lindsey Simmons 615 votes (100 percent)

United States Representative


Robert E. Smith six votes (85.71 percent)

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Primary election results: Hotly contested local Sheriff's race and more - Nevada Herald

Trump, Ernst have slight leads in poll of Iowa voters – The Audubon County Advocate Journal

DES MOINES In Iowa, Republican President Donald Trump and Sen. Joni Ernst are leading, but their races for re-election are within the margin of error in a new poll of registered voters.

Both the presidential and U.S. Senate race are essentially up for grabs, Monmouth University found in a live poll of 401 registered voters July 30 to Aug. 3.

In the presidential race, Trump is leading Democratic former Vice President Joe Biden, 48 percent to 45 percent, with 3 percent supporting Libertarian Jo Jorgensen and 3 percent undecided. The polls margin of error is 4.9 percent plus or minus.

Iowa looks to be more competitive than four years ago, said Patrick Murray, director of the independent Monmouth University Polling Institute in New Jersey. There is a lot of parity between Trump and Biden in both the strength of their support and the preferences of key demographic groups.

Trump won Iowa by 9 percentage points in 2016.

Although Trump leads statewide, Biden has the edge in 13 swing counties, including Linn, where the 2016 vote margin between Trump and Democrat Hillary Clinton was less than 10 percent. Biden has a 52 percent to 45 percent lead in those counties, which Clinton carried by a combined 1 percentage point margin.

In Johnson, Polk and Story, which Clinton carried by 17 points, Biden has a 62 percent to 31 percent lead in the Monmouth poll.

Trump has a 59 percent to 34 percent lead in counties he won by a combined 30 points four years ago.

Trump has a 51 percent to 41 percent advantage among white voters without college degrees. Biden leads among white voters with college degrees, 48 percent to 46 percent.

The race remains tight when different likely voter models are applied.

A model based on a higher turnout than 2016 puts the race at 48 percent Trump and 46 percent Biden.

A model reflecting lower voter turnout produces a similar 47 percent Trump and 47 percent Biden result.

Republicans (36 percent) are somewhat more likely than Democrats (28 percent) to feel very optimistic about the 2020 presidential election. But a larger number of Democrats (46 percent) than Republicans (34 percent) say they are more enthusiastic about voting this year compared to past elections.

One of the reasons Biden may do nominally better in a lower turnout scenario is that his voters are slightly more motivated, Murray said. Its not a statistically significant difference, though, and this race is currently up for grabs, no matter how you slice it.

Both Biden and Trump are upside down in favorability ratings.

While 45 percent have a favorable opinion of Trump, 50 percent have an unfavorable opinion. Bidens rating is 43 percent favorable against 49 percent unfavorable.

In the Senate race, unlike previous polls, Ernst, who is seeking re-election to a second term, is leading her Democratic challenger, Theresa Greenfield, by the same margin 48 percent to 45 percent.

Libertarian Rick Stewart gets support from 2 percent; independent Suzanne Herzog, 1 percent; and undecided, 3 percent.

When likely voters are asked, the race gets tighter, with Ernst leading 48 percent to 47 percent, according to Monmouth.

Previous polls over the spring and summer have shown a tight Senate race. The polls produced margins similar to Monmouths, but with Greenfield holding a lead within the margin of error.

Ernst won a competitive open seat contest six years ago. Greenfield is giving the incumbent a run for her money to hold onto it, Murray said.

According to FiveThirtyEight.coms rating of pollsters, the Monmouth poll earned an A-plus with a slight Democratic bias.

The poll also found 40 percent of Iowa voters say it is very likely they will vote by mail rather than in person in the Nov. 3 election. Another 1 percent are somewhat likely to do this, 12 percent are not too likely, and 30 percent are not at all likely.

In many Iowa counties, active voters will receive an absentee ballot application for the 2020 general election. Just 20 percent reported they had regularly voted by mail in past elections.

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Trump, Ernst have slight leads in poll of Iowa voters - The Audubon County Advocate Journal