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French police to double beach patrols after discovering two dead Iraqi migrants suspected of attempting to get to Britain – The Telegraph

The Home Office offered its thoughts and sympathies to the dead mens families as Ms Patel said: I have a duty to protect our borders and prevent the loss of life.

Thats why I am absolutely committed to doing everything in my power to stop these dangerous Channel crossings which are putting vulnerable lives at risk.

The plan we have agreed builds on the extensive joint work we are already doing with our French neighbours, and I am confident that it will lead to a considerable reduction in this illegal activity.

It is the first time that two migrants have been found dead on the same day on northern French shores. Two separate deaths were recorded in August.

The two men "probably came from the same boat", which was found empty next to the body of the younger man, said the French regional security department.

Police found two oars inside the inflatable dinghy, and a canister of fuel and life vest nearby, security officials for the Pas-de-Calais region told the French station News 24.

A similar boat was found some 450 metres from the scene but it was not clear if the two were linked.

Over the past year, growing numbers of migrants from Africa, the Middle East and Central Asia have attempted to cross the Channel in small fishing boats or inflatable dinghies.

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French police to double beach patrols after discovering two dead Iraqi migrants suspected of attempting to get to Britain - The Telegraph

EU migrant crisis: France cannot take in all the misery in the world says Macron – Express.co.uk

Mr Macron told Europe 1 radio in an interview from the United Nations in New York, where he is attending the annual General Assembly: I maintain that France cannot take in all the misery in the world. The share it does take in it must look after in the best possible way.For this, we must organise ourselves better because France cannot welcome everyone if it wants to be a good host. Mr Macron also took a tough line on so-called economic migrants, drawing a firm distinction between them and refugees fleeing war, famine or persecution.

He said that while it was Frances duty to protect refugees, his government would ramp up rapid deportations of those who do not qualify for asylum and entered the country illegally.

Mr Macron also called for a common EU asylum policy, saying: Were inefficient and inhumane in France and in Europe.

We need to speed up the overhaul of the Schengen area and of the Dublin system in other words, we need common asylum laws and an efficient, common deportation policy.

There is not enough cooperation in Europe and we need to look at this migratory phenomenon and take decisions.

Stressing that France had always been a country of migration, the French President added: I think it would be a mistake to say that the question of migration is a taboo or just something to discuss when there are crises.

Earlier this month, Mr Macron hardened his stance on immigration, arguing that his government had to put a stop to its lax approach to prevent voters from shifting to the populist far right.

By claiming to be humanist we are sometimes too lax, he told his ministers and ruling party representatives, complaining that Frances asylum laws were being misused by people smugglers and people who manipulate the system.

France needs an asylum system that is more efficient and more humane, he added.

Referring to the see no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil maxim represented by three monkeys with their hands over their eyes, ears and mouth, Mr Macron continued: Were like the three little monkeys, we dont want to see.

But Mr Macrons critics remain unconvinced by his efforts to curb illegal immigration.

Mr Macrons immigration record is bad, conservative senator Grard Larcher told Europe 1 later on Wednesday.

He added: What we need are concrete action plans.

France last year received a record 122,743 asylum requests, up 22 percent compared to 2017.

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EU migrant crisis: France cannot take in all the misery in the world says Macron - Express.co.uk

Pope unveils migrant sculpture in St Peters Square and bemoans worlds indifference to their plight – The Independent

Pope Francis has always urged compassion and charity towards the refugees of the world.

On Sunday, during a special mass on the105thWorld Day of Migrants and Refugees, he unveiled a monument to migration in St Peters Square as an homage to the displaced.

Angels Unaware, the work by Canadian artist Timothy P Schmalz, depicts 140 migrants and refugees from various historical periods travelling on a boat and includes indigenous people, the Virgin Mary and Joseph, Jews fleeing Nazi Germany and those from war-torn countries.

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It was requested by the Vaticans Office of Migrants and Refugees and funded by the Rudolph P Bratty Family Foundation.

The pope said the statue had been inspired by a passage in Letter to the Hebrews from the New Testament: Do not forget to show hospitality to strangers, for by so doing some people have shown hospitality to angels without knowing it.

French police officers and gendarmes stand by tents during the evacuation of the Grande Synthe migrant camp, northern France, on September 17, 2019.

Francois Lo Presti/AFP/Getty

French gendarmes walk by tents during the evacuation of the Grande Synthe migrant camp, northern France, on September 17, 2019.

Francois Lo Presti/AFP/Getty

French police officers move migrants on from a camp in Dunkirk, France, 17 September 2019.

Care4Calais/PA

French police officers move migrants on from a camp in Dunkirk, France, 17 September 2019.

Care4Calais/PA

A bulldozer at work as French police officers move migrants from a camp near Grande-Synthe, Dunkirk, 17 September 2019.

Help Refugees/PA

Police officers moving migrants from a camp near Grande-Synthe, Dunkirk, France,17 September 2019.

Help Refugees/PA

Migrants at the Espace Jeunes du Moulin gym in Dunkirk as people awaited eviction from the camp 12 September 2019.

Steve Parsons/PA

Aran Quader, 6, and his sister Yaran, two, at the Espace Jeunes du Moulin gym in Dunkirk on 12 September 2019, days before refugees were evicted.

Steve Parsons/PA

Hamdren Quader 32, with his wife Xalat, 26, and children Kajhan, 8, Aran, 6, and Yaran, two, at the Espace Jeunes du Moulin gym in Dunkirk, France, on 12 September before refugees were evicted from the camp days later.

PA

A bulldozer at work as French police officers move migrants from a camp near Grande-Synthe, Dunkirk, 17 September 2019.

Help Refugees/PA

Police officers moving migrants from a camp near Grande-Synthe, Dunkirk, France, 17 September 2019.

Help Refugees/PA

Police officers moving migrants from a camp near Grande-Synthe, Dunkirk, France, 17 September 2019.

Help Refugees/PA

French police officers and gendarmes stand by tents during the evacuation of the Grande Synthe migrant camp, northern France, on September 17, 2019.

Francois Lo Presti/AFP/Getty

French gendarmes walk by tents during the evacuation of the Grande Synthe migrant camp, northern France, on September 17, 2019.

Francois Lo Presti/AFP/Getty

French police officers move migrants on from a camp in Dunkirk, France, 17 September 2019.

Care4Calais/PA

French police officers move migrants on from a camp in Dunkirk, France, 17 September 2019.

Care4Calais/PA

A bulldozer at work as French police officers move migrants from a camp near Grande-Synthe, Dunkirk, 17 September 2019.

Help Refugees/PA

Police officers moving migrants from a camp near Grande-Synthe, Dunkirk, France,17 September 2019.

Help Refugees/PA

Migrants at the Espace Jeunes du Moulin gym in Dunkirk as people awaited eviction from the camp 12 September 2019.

Steve Parsons/PA

Aran Quader, 6, and his sister Yaran, two, at the Espace Jeunes du Moulin gym in Dunkirk on 12 September 2019, days before refugees were evicted.

Steve Parsons/PA

Hamdren Quader 32, with his wife Xalat, 26, and children Kajhan, 8, Aran, 6, and Yaran, two, at the Espace Jeunes du Moulin gym in Dunkirk, France, on 12 September before refugees were evicted from the camp days later.

PA

A bulldozer at work as French police officers move migrants from a camp near Grande-Synthe, Dunkirk, 17 September 2019.

Help Refugees/PA

Police officers moving migrants from a camp near Grande-Synthe, Dunkirk, France, 17 September 2019.

Help Refugees/PA

Police officers moving migrants from a camp near Grande-Synthe, Dunkirk, France, 17 September 2019.

Help Refugees/PA

The pope said he had wanted the statue in StPeters Square so that all will be reminded of the evangelical challenge of hospitality.

The sculpture was unveiled as bells peeled in the square. Amultiethnicchoir sang during the mass, wearing T-shirts reading it is not just about migrants.

In his message, Pope Francis said it was the poorest of the poor and the most disadvantaged who pay the price of wars, injustice, economic and social imbalances, both local and global.

He called on the Roman Catholic Church and the faithful to respond to the challenges of contemporary migration with four words.

Welcome, protect, promote and integrate, he said, adding that the churchs mission should also extend to all those living in the existential peripheries.

If we put those four verbs into practice, the pope told thousands of people, including many migrants, gathered in St Peters Square for the special mass, we will promote the integral human development of all people.

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Migration has become a flashpoint around the world in recent years, as millions of people have been displaced by wars in Syria and Afghanistan and economic deprivation in Africa, many seeking a better future in Europe.

Immigration has spurred a bitter backlash as nations seek to put up fences and walls, and it has prompted debate in the United States over how to handle asylum-seekers from Central America.

In Asia, the oppression and dispersion of theRohingyaminority in Myanmar has become a humanitarian crisis.

Even as the pope spoke, Italian news outlets reported that at least seven migrants had drowned in a shipwreck off Morocco over the weekend and others were missing off the Libyan coast, the latest of thousands who have died trying to reach Europe.

According to the InternationalOrganisationfor Migration, there have been more than 2,300 migrant fatalities worldwide this year alone.

The pope has emerged as a champion of refugees and migrants. Soon after his election in 2013, he denounced the globalisation of indifference in a landmark visit to the Mediterranean migrant hub ofLampedusa.

Since the European migrant crisis of 2015, the pontiff has consistently promoted the need to welcome refugees, who he believes have been exploited by nationalists.

In his address on Sunday, he said that individualism and a utilitarian mentality had produced a globalisation of indifference in which migrants, refugees, displaced persons and victims of trafficking have become emblems of exclusion and are considered the source of all societys ills.

He warned that fear of the unknown, of migrants and refugees knocking on our door in search of protection, security and a better future, could lead to intolerance, closed-mindedness and racism.

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He said the presence of migrants and refugees, and of those considered vulnerable, offered an opportunity to recover some of those essential dimensions of our Christian existence and our humanity that risk being overlooked in a prosperous society. In showing concern for migrants, he said, we also show concern for all others.

It was unclear how long Schmalzs sculpture would remain in StPeters Square. He is perhaps best known for his work depicting Jesus as a homeless person sleeping on a bench, which the pope admired when it was shown at the Vatican during the Jubilee of Mercy in 2016.

The artist said he washonouredto have a work in StPeters Square, describing it as an instrument that could enforce and celebrate human compassion.

The work includes every group of persons who has evertravelled, Schmalz said. At thecentre, two angel wings emerge, suggesting that there could be an angel within any stranger, he said.

When the statue was unveiled, the pope examined it closely, at times patting a figure or two. He also spoke to the artist. When asked about the popes comments, Schmalz grinned.

I dont speak Italian, so I am not sure what he said, the artist said. But he put his hand to his heart and pointed to it. I read that as him saying that he likes it.

The New York Times

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Pope unveils migrant sculpture in St Peters Square and bemoans worlds indifference to their plight - The Independent

French police turn blind eye and wave ‘bye bye’ to migrants making boat trips to UK – Express

In an exclusive undercover investigation, LBC radio revealed French Police are turning a blind eye to smugglers to allow migrants to illegally cross the English Channel and reach the UK from Calais and Dunkirk. An undercover teaminfiltrated a criminal gang operating out of Dunkirk in the north of France, who charge7,000 for a spot on a boat crossing the channel.The LBC team posed as an Indian family pretending to attempt to bring a young family member over to the UK.

They met people smuggler Farooq in his camp in the woodlands outside Dunkirk.

Farooq, caught by the undercover reporter with a hidden camera, claimed that French Police officers at the border advise smugglers on when is the best time to attempt the journey through the channel.

He explained: When you are going to the beach the police comes, the French police and they say today is not possible. Today go, next day come.

Asked to confirm if that is what the French police say to smugglers, he said: Yeah.

Then he added: Sometimes when people are going, the French police go with them.

READ MORE:Migrant crisis: More than 50 refugees land on UK shores in Dinghies

French police is no problem. Police [in France] just give you the way

Farooq

Once they've crossed the border the police just say bye bye.

Now a lot of people pass. Like here, three-four hundred people pass.

As the LBC reporter asked whether there are ever any problems with the French Police, Farooq replied: French police is no problem. Police in France just gives you the way.

He added: Because police want you to get out France, yes? They want you to go. They help. This is business to France."

Farooq also explained how once the boats have reached the UK, British Police process migrants within 24 hours at the police station and provide them with hotel accommodation.

A Home Office spokesperson told LBC: The organised crime groups behind the illegal attempts to cross the Channel are putting the lives of vulnerable people in serious danger for their own financial gain.

"We are determined to put a stop to this illegal activity and last week alone Immigration Enforcement and the National Crime Agency made 23 arrests as part of a series of ongoing investigations into suspected people smuggling.

"An investigation based on the information provided by LBC is already under way.

French Police in Dunkirk denied the allegations. Speaking to Express.co.uk a spokesman said: The information is false. We dont help illegal immigrants to get to the UK.

DON'T MISS:Migrant crisis: British Border Force intercepts 54 migrants at Dover[ANALYSIS]Boris's firm message to illegal immigrants: 'We'll send you back!'[VIDEO]More than 50 suspected migrants crossed UK Channel in last 24hours[DATA]

If we find them, we send them to special shelters, so they are in a safe place.

These shelters are all across France and depending on availability, migrants can be sent to different cities.

But we cant tell you how many migrants we find and send to these shelters on a weekly or monthly basis.

Last week, French President Emmanuel Macron claimed his country "cannot take all the misery of the world".

Speaking to Europe 1 radio in an interview from the United Nations in New York, where he was attending the annual General Assembly, he said:I maintain that France cannot take in all the misery in the world. The share it does take in it must look after in the best possible way.For this, we must organise ourselves better because France cannot welcome everyone if it wants to be a good host.

Additional reporting by Maria Ortega

To hear more about LBCs investigation, tune in to Nick Ferrari at Breakfast (weekdays from 7am) on LBC. To view the full video, visit LBC.co.uk

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French police turn blind eye and wave 'bye bye' to migrants making boat trips to UK - Express

DHS Chief Urges Congress to Address the Fundamental Drivers of Migrant Crisis: Funds Will Only Mitigate It – Independent Journal Review

Acting Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Secretary Kevin McAleenan is laying out three fixes for Congress to act upon to address the migrant situation at the U.S.-Mexico border.

McAleenan addressed the supplemental funding for the U.S.-Mexico border requested by the DHS and Department of Health and Human Services during Thursdays press conference, in which he expressed hope of it gaining President Donald Trumps signature early next week.

The funding requested will provide the DHS with an additional $1.5 million for additional temporary facilities, transportation, medical care, consumables, and surge operations related to the care, custody, and processing of migrants apprehended at the border.

McAleenan also declared that the funding is critical for border security.

I think we should pause to note the significance of strong bipartisan votes to respond to the administrations request and provide the over $4.5 billion in total to support these humanitarian missions. Although we did not get everything we asked for the bill substantially addresses our request.

While the funding will help us make an impact immediately on the border, it will only serve to mitigate the crisis, McAleenan said, adding, Its not going to address the fundamental drivers that are contributing to it.

The DHS secretary shared hope in a bipartisan effort that would act as a catalyst to address the weaknesses in our legal framework.

In calling for Congress to act on immigration, McAleenan laid out three straightforward fixes to the U.S. immigration laws.

The first fix is to address the pull factors for family units. These are policy flaws that pull families north to the U.S., including the rule that families can only be detained for 21 days without being either separated or released. Currently, many families are released on their own recognizance, with only 13 percent ever returning for their asylum court date.

The second request is to prevent unaccompanied children from being placed in the hands of criminal smuggling organizations to make a dangerous journey north. This would involve allowing migrants to apply for asylum in their own countries.

The third fix would be to change certain standards of asylum laws.

We stand ready to discuss these sensible solutions or others with any willing members of Congress, said McAleenan. The time to address the fundamental drivers of these crises is now.

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DHS Chief Urges Congress to Address the Fundamental Drivers of Migrant Crisis: Funds Will Only Mitigate It - Independent Journal Review

Undocumented Poets and Writers Are Vital to the Struggle for Migrant Justice – The Nation

(Courtesy of Writers for Migrant Justice)

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It started with an e-mail: On June 28, 2019, Javier Zamora, Jan-Henry Gray, Anni Liu and I all began brainstorming a way for poets and writers to organize in solidarity with detained migrants. Zamora and I had been in touch months earlier, knowing that we needed to take some action to help stop the detention, separation, and cruelty being enacted against migrant children and their families. Yet, we didnt know when or in what form that action would take. The result of our email exchanges was the formation of a new campaign, Writers for Migrant Justice.Ad Policy

By July, I sent out a tweet asking for poets and writers to join a national day of action for migrant justice. The goal was to hold readings in cities across the country to raise $500 at each live reading, plus an additional $5,000 online, to support detained or formerly detained migrants. But as the support rolled in, we blew through those initial aspirations: In the end, over 40 cities hosted Writers for Migrant Justice events on and around September 4, and we raised well over $40,000 that well be donating to the group Immigrant Families Together. These funds will be used to post bail so that mothers can be reunited with their children. It will also help pay for legal expenses, and post-release expenses such as food, transportation, and mental health services.

But this groundswell of support didnt come out of nowhereit was the result of years of organizing by undocumented and formerly undocumented poets and writers to make migrant voices heard in the literary community and the greater world.Migrant Voices

Undocumented writers have been at the forefront of a lot of recent organizing and have been instrumental in setting new terms for the debate around migration in the past few years. But their voices often arent heard directly, for a few key reasons: First of all, despite a desire in activist spaces to center the voices and experiences of those most directly impacted, we often have to recognize the very real danger that comes with going public about ones undocumented status. Undocumented organizers therefore sometimes ask that those with citizenship or documentation act as the face of organizing, and relay the messages of our undocumented co-organizers, so that they can avoid the risk of deportation or retaliation. And as a corollary, undocumented writers many times dont have the same level of access to the media and other institutions that people such as nonprofit directors or university professors do, and therefore undocumented writers voices can go unheard by the wider public. The media also often looks by default to academics and nonprofit directors for comments on issues related to migration, instead of looking first to grassroots activists who are directly impacted by the issues being discussed.

But undocumented activists are most definitely leading the work, vital work that deserves to be recognized. To give just a few examples: In 2015, Zamora, Marcelo Hernandez Castillo, and I cofounded the Undocupoets Campaign. Together, we worked to overturn discriminatory guidelines at publishing houses that required proof of US citizenship in order to submit work for consideration for contests, a requirement that effectively barred undocumented writers from submitting their first books. That collective is now being led by Castillo and two other formerly undocumented poets named Janine Joseph and Esther Lin. It was through organizing with Undocupoets that Zamora and I met a handful of migrant writers and activists throughout the country, which made the success of the Writers for Migrant Justice Campaign possible.Flowers on the Inside

Undocumented or formerly undocumented writers and activists have partnered to launch similar campaigns around migrant justice nationally. For example, the migrant writer Jose Antonio Vargas founded the nonprofit Define American in 2011. In 2013, 14 undocumented writers participated in the first retreat called UndocuWriting with the organization Culture Strike as a space for undocumented writers to share their work and gain strength through their shared creativity. Just this month, another five undocumented visual artists (Emulsify, Brian Herrera, Karla Daniela Rosas, Julio Salgado, and Maria Hu Wu) teamed up with organizations in the United States and Mexico to create Flowers on the Inside, which sends art and messages of support to undocumented migrants in detention.

Beyond organizing, undocumented writers are shaping how we understand the experience of migration, and how we as a country should respond to the manufactured migrant crisis and the deportations and ICE raids that have continued under presidents, Republican and Democratic, over the past decade. The work of Alan Pelaez Lopez, an Afro-Indigenous poet from Oaxaca, Mexico, asks us to expand our conception of who is a migrant, when saying: Undocumented immigrants are indigenous, black, queer, trans, & resilient. Being undocumented didnt just happen. We come from a place of scarcity and incredible possibility. This is not the end nor the beginning. Undocumented eloteros, domestic workers, graphic designers, writers, and construction workers have started their own businesses without DACA. We should look at them for leadership. Yes, lets fight for DACA, & lets fight harder for all of our community members who were never seen as valuable to benefit from the program.

Sonia Guiansaca of UndocuWriting is a poet and activist whose work focuses on the intersections between various systems of oppression, such as the American prison system and immigration system. In a conversation with Interview magazine, Guiansaca said, What does the world look like without borders? What does the world look like without prisons and detention centers? We cant just be reactionary. We need big thinking, big visions, and a radical imagination of whats possible. Give it language, give it imagery, give it music, give it a feel. Thats whats giving me hope. Guiansaca refuses the good migrant myth, the notion that only some migrantschildren, young mothers, others deemed innocent and therefore acceptableare worthy of staying in the United States. Guiansacas activism and poetry reminds us to push beyond punitive and carceral thinking of detention centers in order to fight for systems of integration, healing, and self-determination instead.

Yosimar Reyes was probably the first undocumented poet that I had ever heard of. I remember hearing his name through friends in San Francisco and then going online to find his chapbook For Colored Boys Who Speak Softly. Reyes writes often about the intersection of migration and queerness, and he is one of the best orators and performance artists I have ever witnessed. Through his compelling spoken word, such as in this poem, The Legalities of Being, he powerfully brings attention to the everyday experiences of undocumented communities, outside of the sensationalized headlines. Reyes is brilliant in his ability to portray the nuances of everyday life, with its joys and fear and love. In the aforementioned poem, Reyes writes, There is a social construction in my head that America is better, that America will grant me freedom, that America will grant me proper education, that America is a place of justice, when the reality is that I have never seen the fruit of any of these promises. We are still at the same place as when we arrived.

Even the wording of our campaign, Writers for Migrant Justice, was chosen carefully to help shape the terms of the debate, and to make clear the difference between migrants and immigrants: The word immigrant suggests that a person is coming from a foreign country into another country that is not of their origin. To say immigrant posits that we are recognizing the US government as having moral authority over the borders of this continent and thus the land. The United States consists of stolen lands, and by saying migrants instead, we are attempting to denounce the notion that its government has any claim to say who belongs on this land or not. For that jurisdiction, we rely on the native nations who are allowing us to live here. There are indigenous people who are in migrant detention camps today, some of whom had the border placed right on top of them. Indigenous migrants (not immigrants) are being incarcerated for moving across their own land. We planned our wording and our actions meticulously.

Through our poems, poetry readings, interviews, essays, and protests nationally, migrant writers are acting as leaders and organizers in the movement for migrant justice. Through small, unacknowledged daily gestures in writing and activism, alongside the many other larger-scale gestures like civil disobedience, undocumented writers are forging new ways of fighting back against the oppression meted out by the US government. In this moment when too many in the media and in government are demonizing migrants, there needs to be more recognition of the migrant communities that are fighting back against this vitriol. There needs to be more ears listening to the words of undocumented writers that are currently speaking up.

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Undocumented Poets and Writers Are Vital to the Struggle for Migrant Justice - The Nation

This new tour of Berlin is guided by a Syrian refugee – Lonely Planet Travel News

This is a tour of Berlin with a difference Contiki

The tour is led by Heshm Moadamani, a Syrian man displaced from his native country along with 6.7 million of his fellow citizens, who travelled to Berlin during the migrant crisis. The tour makes parallels between Berlins dark history, with its wall built to separate east and west sides of the city during the Communist era, and the humanitarian horrors that have plagued the war-torn country of Syria over the past decade.

We call it conscious travelits an authentic connection to place and the people that call it home for a more enriching local experience, said Dan Christian, Contiki USA CEO. Its a completely different perspective...its real, its rawno filters.

Christian goes on to say that Gen Z and millennials are looking to use their precious vacation days for deeper experiences that go beyond snagging that perfect Instagram shot. We get this [type of] traveller because we are these travellersits what were known for and were continuing to evolve along with them to create meaningful, immersive global experiences.

Berlin to Budapest by Train is one of Contikis newest train trips, a nine-day adventure from Berlin to Prague, Vienna and Budapest. Other Berlin activities include a stay at the Moxy, one of the citys coolest youth properties, drinks at traditional Bavarian beer hall Hofbruhaus House and base flying off the Park Inn Hotel.

Contikis conscious travel also extends to other destinations and itineraries. We are truly committed to making travel matter, encompassing everything from learning about endangered Cotton-Top Tamarin in Colombia, to supporting a local womens co-op in Jordan, says Christian. With the 25% discount running now through 31 October, Berlin to Budapest by Train costs US$1342 (1227), and financing is available from US$120 (109) per month. This price includes all transport (train and coach), an expert Trip Manager and local guides, eleven meals, all accommodations and unforgettable experiences.

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This new tour of Berlin is guided by a Syrian refugee - Lonely Planet Travel News

No refugees need apply – The Boston Globe

But it is nonetheless remarkable that this change was made over the objection of the current and former defense establishment: 27 retired generals and admirals (who can take political positions) recently wrote to Trump in a plea to protect this vital program and ensure that the next refugee admissions goal is commensurate with global resettlement needs. Not simply because it was the right thing to do it was also in Americas own interests: When America turns its back on refugees it creates further cycles of instability and insecurity in critical regions, increasing pressure on military action.

The administrations stated reason for the cut? President Trump is prioritizing the safety and security of the American people by making sure we do not admit more people than we can vet.

Thats hard to believe.

True, the migrant crisis on our southern border has placed a substantial strain on our immigration courts. But refugees require neither the vetting nor the court resources that asylum seekers do: refugees by definition apply for such status when they are located outside both their home country and the United States. By the time they arrive here, their applications have already been processed and approved unlike those persons who arrive at our border without prior application.

To understand the true purpose for this cut, we need look no further than the words of Stephen Miller, the architect behind Trumps systematic dismantling of our immigration laws. As former Trump aide Cliff Sims recounts in the West Wing tell-all Team of Vipers, Miller told him that he would be happy if not a single refugee foot ever again touched Americas soil.

Thats easier to believe.

Miller had already earned himself a rebuke from his former rabbi: In a forceful sermon last year on Rosh Hashanah, the Jewish new year, Rabbi Neil Comess-Daniels reminded Miller that the quintessential experience of the Jewish people is both the slavery in and the exodus from ancient Egypt. We are all refugees, Mr. Miller.

A year later, as we mark the beginning of another Jewish new year, it is apparent that Miller has continued to ignore this lesson. That alone would be bad enough but the sad irony is that Millers own family resettled in the United States after themselves fleeing religious persecution in Eastern Europe.

Having escaped from Romania in 1981, and after three months of legal limbo in Zurich, Athens, and Rome, my parents were able to secure the assistance of a United States-based agency dedicated to helping Jews emigrate from behind the Iron Curtain. And so on March 25, 1982, my parents boarded a Pan Am flight from Rome to JFK Airport with nothing in hand but two suitcases and an infant. Upon arrival on American soil, an immigration officer stamped our visas with those four remarkable words: ADMITTED AS A REFUGEE.

We settled in Boston the most European of American cities, we were advised first in Brighton, and later into a 1,200 square-foot-palace in Newton, just in time for the start of kindergarten. I eventually married a girl from Brookline; our two sons now attend Newton schools. A copy of my visa rests on my office wall, an all-caps reminder of the impossible-to-repay debt to my parents and to this country.

Hundreds of years before our arrival to these shores, John Winthrop delivered another sermon before his own arrival. In one of the earliest articulations of what would become known as American exceptionalism, Winthrop, who would eventually become the first governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, famously commanded his shipmates aboard the Arbella that we must consider that we shall be as a city upon a hill. The eyes of all people are upon us. That sermon was titled A Model of Christian Charity; an engraving of that quote graces the Boston Common today.

Presidents of both parties have since echoed Winthrops words: President-elect John F. Kennedy invoked them in his valedictory to the Commonwealth as he set off to lead the nation through the stormy years that lie ahead. President Ronald Reagan described Winthrops city in his farewell address as a tall, proud city built on rocks stronger than oceans, wind-swept, God-blessed, and teeming with people of all kinds living in harmony and peace... . And if there had to be city walls, the walls had doors and the doors were open to anyone with the will and the heart to get here.

And then-Senator Barack Obama reflected upon UMass Bostons 2006 graduating class: I look out at a sea of faces that are African-American and Hispanic-American and Asian-American and Arab-American. I see students that have come here from over 100 different countries, believing like those first settlers that they too could find a home in this city on a hill that they too could find success in this unlikeliest of places.

As the administrations latest cut is still raw, such high-minded rhetoric serves as a welcome reminder of what true moral leadership looks like: neither parochial nor partisan, but rather humane and human. Americans deserve it; the worlds refugees need it.

Dan Krockmalnic is the general counsel of Boston Globe Media Partners, LLC.

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No refugees need apply - The Boston Globe

Man arrested in northern Lincolnshire suspected of trying to smuggle migrants across Channel – Grimsby Live

A man has been arrested in northern Lincolnshire suspected of trying to smuggle migrants across the English Channel.

He is one of 23 who were taken into custody as Immigration Enforcements criminal and financial investigations team and the National Crime Agency (NCA) work together amid the ongoing migrant crisis.

Eleven of the arrests were in connection with Channel crossings in small boats, the Home Office said.

The other 12 were arrested in northern France following intelligence from Border Force, the BBC reports.

The 33-year-old British man was arrested in Middle Rasen three days after the arrests of a 49-year-old Iraqi man in Holwell, Hertfordshire, and a 60-year-old British man in Biggleswade, Bedfordshire on September 16.

Meanwhile, a 35-year-old Iranian man was arrested in Cardiff on September 21.

All four were arrested on suspicion of facilitating a breach of the UKs immigration rules in relation to small boat incidents. They have since been released as investigations continue.

Border Force rescued a second group ofmigrantsover the weekend.

Six Iranian men were found in a boat near Dover at around 8.30am on Sunday, the Home Office said.

It followed an incident the day before in which eightmigrantswere intercepted.

The group, who said they were Afghan and Iranian, were found in a small boat near St Margaret's Bay, Kent, at around 12pm on Saturday.

Both groups were medically checked assessed before being handed over to immigration officials.

Charities previously warned the latest round of migrant camp evictions by French police in Calais and Dunkirk over the last fortnight would prompt more attempted Channel crossings.

The NCA made the seven other arrests related to small boat activity between September 11 and 20.

The other 12 people were arrested in France on suspicion of facilitating illegal entry into the UK in motor vehicles.

The Home Office says more than 80 people who came to the UK illegally on boats have been returned to Europe.

The arrests come after Home Secretary Priti Patel and French interior minister Christophe Castaner met in Paris last month to agree urgent action to halt the crisis.

So far no more detail on the action plan has been released.

The Home Office said more information would be provided "in due course".

Border Force says it is regularly patrolling the Channel while CCTV and night goggles are being used along the French coast.

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Man arrested in northern Lincolnshire suspected of trying to smuggle migrants across Channel - Grimsby Live

Interior ministers demand EU response to new migrant crisis – Vatican News

Italy and Malta are pressuring fellow European Union nations to help them with migrants rescued at sea. Their countries' interior ministers and those from France and Germany are in Malta to develop some automatic mechanism to distribute often desperate people within the EU, despite opposition among several member states.

By Stefan J. Bos

The Interior Ministers of Italy, Malta, France, and Germany are meeting at a time of concerns about a growing influx of migrants fleeing war, persecution, and poverty.

They demand that those rescued at sea will be distributed among other countries and not only be the responsibility of the nations where they land.

German Interior Minister Horst Seehofer said they want an "emergency mechanism" for the coming months until the incoming EU's executive European Commission starts working on a permanent arrangement.

Seehofer said thorny questions include which ports can be used, how to distribute the migrants in Europe and also fight human traffickers.

Ahead of the gathering, Italy's prime minister urged Giuseppe Conte urged more unity within the EU. "We must remove propaganda from the migration issue. The propaganda that is also anti-European. We must continue to offer a rigorous response against the trafficking of human lives," he said.

However, EU member states such as Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Poland oppose the redistribution of migrants.

But with tens of thousands of people arriving in Europe from by boat so far this year, the interior ministers meeting demand adifferent approach to what they view as a humanitarian crisis.

EU officials are also participating at the Malta meeting.

The gathering comes while elsewhere in Greece, security and municipal services on the Greek island of Lesbos were to hold an emergency meeting. They are worried after administrators of a refugee camp said, they were overwhelmed by the number of arrivals from nearby Turkey.

The camp at Moria on the Aegean Sea island began turning away new arrivalsFridayas the number of people at the site exceeded 12,000, four times its intended capacity.

Authorities say that the rapidly rising numbers had created the worst crisis on the island since the massive influx of refugees into Europe four years ago.

The government has promised stricter sea patrols. But is also seeks additional international support, including resources from the EU border protection agency Frontex.

They attempt to hold the influx while also rescuing people at sea who often use clumsy and dangerous boats in an attempt to reach Europe.

Many men, women, and children have drowned.

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Interior ministers demand EU response to new migrant crisis - Vatican News

Mitsotakis Want’s Help With Greece’s Refugee, Migrant Crisis – The National Herald

By TNH Staff September 23, 2019

FILE - In this Wednesday, March 15, 2017 file photo, migrants walk at the Moria refugee detention center on the northeastern Greek island of Lesbos. (AP Photo/Thanassis Stavrakis, file)

As he headed to the United States for the United Nations General Assembly Annual opening in New York, Greek Prime Minister Kyriakos Mitsotakis said he would seek international help to deal with surging numbers of refugees and migrants overwhelming detention centers and camps.

Before he left, he headed an emergency meeting of his top staff and is expected to meet on the sidelines of the UN meeting with German Chancellor Angela Merkel and Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan, whose country is the source for refugees and migrants pouring onto Greek islands, with the European Union having closed its borders to them.

Erdogan, irritated with UN soft sanctions over his countrys drilling for energy in Cypriot sovereign waters and unmet conditions from a swap deal that has seen only a relative handful of refugees and migrants return to Turkey where they first went fleeing war and strife in their lands warned he would unleash 5.5 million more if he doesnt get concessions.

With the EU having abandoned the refugees and migrants largely on Greece, as well as Spain and Italy, and other countries reneging on promises to help take some of the overload, it wasnt clear what else could be done to aid Greece.

Mitsotakis, though, reportedly wants the EU to provide additional incentives for Turkey although it hasnt yet fulfilled all the terms of an essentially suspended 2016 swap deal that has seen only a relative handful returned to Turkey.

He said earlier this his government, which took over from the former ruling Radical Left SYRIZA after winning July 7 snap elections, would speed deportations as well as faster processing of asylum applications with most of the more than 75,000 refugees and migrants in Greece including almost 26,000 on islands seeking asylum to prevent being returned.

Mitsotakis meeting with Erdogan his first since becoming premier will also be closely watched for signs of Turkeys intent about the refugees and migrants as well as with Cyprus, with the drilling challenging the legitimate governments licensing of foreign companies.

The meeting before Mitsotakis left, said Kathimerini, focused on how to transfer more refugees and migrants to mainland camps and centers although thats technically a violation of the swap deal but with the pressure building with more arrivals in the summer and now into autumn.

Greece also plans to boost Coast Guard patrols in the Eastern Aegean although that hasnt worked yet to keep more people from risking the perilous journey from Turkey on rickety craft and overcrowded rubber dinghies with scores having drowned over the past few years.

Greece also wants additional aid from the EU and more help from the blocs border patrol Frontex which has already been active in the seas but also unable to do much to keep more people from continuing to come.

Theres special worry about the Moria camp on the island of Lesbos which is housing some 12,000 people in a facility designed for 2500 and officials saying the new recent arrivals couldnt be housed so were sleeping in the open or in makeshift tents.

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Mitsotakis Want's Help With Greece's Refugee, Migrant Crisis - The National Herald

A dangerous red flower is driving record numbers of migrants to flee Guatemala – USA TODAY

SAN ANTONIO, Guatemala Surrounded by green fields of potatoes, oats and corn on his small farm, Carlos Lopez recalled the decent money he was earning before last year,cultivating a different crop he referred to simply as the plant."

The plants,oneswith the bright red flowers, are worth a lot more than these other crops, Lopez said, wearing a blue baseball hat, sitting on a plastic chair behind his two-room,mud-splattered house.

Amapola, said Lopez, speaking the Spanish word for poppy.

SAN ANTONIO, Guatemala Poppies in a Guatemalan field in June 2018. Locals say narco gangs sometimes take advantage of impoverished farmers, encouraging them to grow poppies to seed the heroin trade.Nick Oza, USA TODAY Network

For years, Mexican drug cartels persuaded poor indigenous farmers in the western highlands of Guatemala to replace their crops with poppies. The plants produce a milky fluid used to make heroin, although farmers were often told the plant was used to produce medicine.

The Guatemalan government, under pressure from the United States, then came in and eradicated the poppy fields. With no other high-value crop to replace the poppies, and no program available to help replacefarmers' income, the crackdown shoved indigenous farmers such as Lopez and his familyback into poverty.

The loss of poppy revenue is just one of many reasons Guatemalans have poured across the border by the thousands into the United States. This year,more migrantshave come from Guatemala than any other country, as family members, unaccompanied children or single adults.

People are fleeing widespread government corruption, poverty and violence.Six in 10 Guatemalans live in poverty, and more than 50% of the country's poor are indigenous people, according to the World Bank. Twenty percent of Guatemala's population lives in extreme poverty. Indigenous communities are most affected by poverty, with 79% living in poverty, on less than $5.50 a day,and 40% living in extreme poverty, on less than $1.90 a day.

But some are also arriving because of thedangerous, profitable flower that wasforced intoand then ripped out oftheir lives.

Most of the Guatemalans coming to the U.S. are from the countrys western highlands, which border the southern tip of Mexico, according to experts who study the region. The area is known for its breathtaking scenery and volcanic mountains, including 13,945-foot Tajumulco, the highest volcano in Central America. It also has the worst poverty in Guatemala.

Salvador Alexander Juarez Velasquez oversees the National Police for Ixchiguan, Tajumulco and San Jose Ojetenam in the department of San Marcos.

The government's declaration of a state of emergency, called theestado de sito, was an excellent idea, the police chief said.The amapola created disputes, as farmers fought over water to irrigate their crops. The disputes sometimes turned violent, he said.

Now its more peaceful here, the police chief said.

But the peace came at a cost.By June, he was seeing it all the time:People selling everything and trekking north.

I dont really know how many families have left, but its a lot, said Juarez Velasquez. The poppy "was the main source of income for them.

We got rid of the drug problem, but replaced it with another problem, he said.

The region has long been neglected by the federal government, because it is the farthest away from Guatemala City, the capital, Juarez Velasquez said.

SAN ANTONIO, Guatemala San Antonio is a small village in the western highlands of Guatemala. Carlos Lopez lives there with his family.Nick Oza, USA TODAY Network

He said the region also has been completely overlooked for a long time by the powerful group of business owners who control most investment and economic development in Guatemala. He blames the neglect on institutional racism against the local indigenous Mayan people.

Poppy farming gave poor farmers an economic self-sufficiency they couldn't have found in Guatemala. That opportunity turned the green hills of the western highlands bright red, as poppy flowers spread.

With profits from growing poppy, neighbors pooled their money to buy cobblestones to pave the rutted dirt roads that were impassable every time it rained hard, Lopez, the farmer, said.

Then last year, Lopez said, everything changed. Police and soldiers sent by the federal government came in and cut down all of the poppy plants. Lopez and the other farmers in this region returned to growing potatoes and other crops.

Lopez figures he was making about 5,000 quetzales a year, or about $650, growing poppy plants on one 5,000-square-foot cuerda.That was three or four times as much as a cuerda of potatoes.

At one point, Lopez estimates, 75 percent of the six cuerdas on his farm were dedicated to growing poppy plants. He wasnt getting rich. But the money was enough to buy food, clothes, medicine and school supplies for his wife and their three young children.

The loss of revenue from growingpoppies was the main reason Lopez decided to leaveand join the huge wave of Guatemalans migrating to the U.S.

Because there is no work here. There is no income, Lopez said. And now they took away the poppy. These potatoes are hardly worth anything.

In June, Lopez planned to bring along one of his three sons to the U.S. He heard from others in his village who migrated earlier that "some sort of law" allowed parentstoenter legally if they arrived at the border with children andthatimmigration authorities would take them to whatever state they wanted.

Lopez also had heard that as long as these parents showed up for their immigration court hearings, they could stay in the U.S. and work while their kids went to public school for free, a bonus becausein Guatemala, attending school after sixth grade costs money.

"They say this way you don't have to risk going through the desert," Lopez said. "With this law, they are letting us enter."

No such law exists. In reality, U.S. immigration authorities, as ofSept. 9,had released more than226,400migrant family members acrossthe U.S.because of a lack of detention capacity to hold them even temporarily, reinforcing the false perception that undocumentedparents with children were being allowed to enterthe U.S.and remain.

Lopez said he still hadnt made up his mind which son to bring. At first he said the second oldest wanted to go. Lopez leaned down and scrawled the 12-year-old boys name in the dirt: Yeyso Deybi.

But Lopez said he was leaning toward bringing the oldest son, 15-year-oldSaudy Fernando. The youngest, 8-year-old CarlosJr., was too young, Lopez said.

His plan: Find work in the United States andthen send some of his earningshome to his wife, Marcilina, 33, and their remaining two children.

Lopez's story partially explains the unprecedented wave of Central Americans migrating to the U.S., and crossing the border illegally to seek refuge.

Through August of this fiscal year,Border Patrol agents have apprehended 811,016 migrants. Of those about a third were from Guatemala.

Most of the migrants from Guatemala are arriving as families or unaccompanied minors.

Through August of the current fiscal year, the Border Patrol apprehended 457,871 migrants arriving as family units, a 406 percent increase from the previous year. Of those, almost 40% came from Guatemala, the largest share of any country.

Another 72,873 unaccompanied minors were apprehended by the Border Patrol through August, 40%of them from Guatemala.

The western highlands mostly indigenous Mayan population also has been hurt economically by climate change-induced drought, said U.S. Rep. Norma Torres, a Democrat from California who was born in Guatemala. The drought has especially hurt coffee crops, forcing farmers and laborers to look for work in the U.S. to feed their families, Torres said. She founded the Central America Caucus in the U.S. House to address the root causes of migration.

Coffee is one of the crops that grow there, and those types of jobs have sustained families but coffee rust, the disease that has affected the crops in the region, has really caused a lot of these farmers to go under and some of those jobs are no longer available because of the impact of the weather patterns there and this disease, she said.

She blames Guatemalas federal government for perpetuating the regions deep-seated poverty by failing to respond to the needs of the rural indigenous Mayan population. The area also bore the brunt of Guatemalas 36-year civil war, which killed more than 200,000 before ending in 1996.

A two-tiered system exists in Guatemala, where the indigenous population is looked down upon and they are marginalized.So when there is no access to justice, when there is no access to very basic infrastructure or jobs that is what folks from these reasons are citing as the reasons they are leaving, Torres said.

Most of Guatemalas problems driving illegal immigration tothe U.S. stem from deeply entrenched political corruption, she said. But the Trump administration, she said, looked the other way when current Guatemalan President Jimmy Morales, facing corruption allegations of his own, tried to shut down a U.N.-backed commission established in 2006 to battle corruption in the country. Morales' term ends at the end of 2019.

We have empowered these very corrupt leaders by not holding them accountable for the things they are doing or for what they are not doing, Torres said.

The Guatemalan governments neglect of the western highlands has made it easy for criminal organizations and drug cartels from neighboring Mexico to move into the area, said Adriana Beltran, director for citizen security at the Washington Office on Latin America.

As you get closer to the border, there is also the lack of real state presence in these areas, so you have a greater presence of criminal organizations that are just able to take over these regions. That includes cartels, Beltran said.

Supported by funding from the United States, the Guatemalan government has in recent yearstried to stamp out poppy production in the western highlands.

Guatemalan authorities reported seizing 80 hectares, or nearly 200 acres, of poppy plants during the first 10 months of 2018, according to a March 2019 report by the U.S. State Departments Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs.

In February 2018, Guatemalan soldiers and police officers destroyed 31 million poppy plants worth $105 million in two municipalities in the department of San Marcos, according to Dialogo, a U.S. Southern Command-website covering U.S. military cooperation and collaborationin Latin America.

Guatemalan soldiers and police eradicated 10 million poppy plants worth $33 million in 23 communities in the department of San Marcos during a mega operation that took place between July and August 2018, according to Dialogo.

One of those communities includes San Antonio, where Lopez lives.

"Here there is nothing," Lopez said. "And there in the United States, there are opportunities to work."

But his plan hit a snag.

In June, under pressure from the Trump administration, Mexico began aggressively intercepting and deporting Central Americans caughttraveling toward the U.S. without documents.

Lopez heard about the crackdown on the newsand interpreted it to mean that the U.S. had closed the border to parents arriving with children.

"That's what we heard, that they've closed the border and they aren't letting people enter," Lopez said. "That's what I want to know. Is it the same as last year or have they shut the border?"

He decided to put his plan to travel to the U.S. on hold. As of September, he was still in Guatemala.

Reach the reporter at daniel.gonzalez@arizonarepublic.com or at 602-444-8312. Follow him on Twitter @azdangonzalez. Support local journalism. Subscribe to azcentral.com today.

One week. Thousands of migrants. A system on the brink of collapse.

What happens to migrant children detained by the US government? One immigrant's story

How the USA TODAY Network spent a week reporting on the border to learn more about migrants

Local governments spend millions caring for migrants dumped by Trump's Border Patrol

US border crisis: Who are the migrants, why are they coming and where are they from?

Under surveillance: The lives of asylum-seekers and undocumented immigrants in the US

Is President Trump provoking illegal immigration by cutting aid to Central America?

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A dangerous red flower is driving record numbers of migrants to flee Guatemala - USA TODAY

Trump Admin Ignored Its Own Data Linking Migrant Crisis to Climate Change – EcoWatch

The Problem

Over the long history of human conflicts, a set of ethical standards and legal constraints have evolved to try to limit or ban certain actions, behaviors and weapons, and to protect certain populations and assets from destruction. In theory, these rules and codes of conduct, referred to as jus in bello ("the law in waging war") or "international humanitarian laws," help to protect civilian populations, prisoners of war, medical personnel and facilities, and non-military property and infrastructure including the environment.

In practice, however, these laws have largely failed to prevent attacks on basic civilian infrastructure and the natural environment, and they do not appear to impose accountability on governments in a way that limits military operations. Extensive evidence shows the growing effects of armed conflicts on civilians, built infrastructure and the natural environment especially water. Similarly, threats such as climate change are worsening the risks of agricultural failure, coastal flooding, population displacement, economic disruption and political failures contributing to violent altercations. Over the past few decades, persistent war and violence by nation-states and subnational groups has led to the "de-development" of entire countries, including Iraq, Syria, Yemen, Afghanistan and others. Infrastructure has been destroyed, incomes and quality of life has plummeted, fertility and life expectancies rates have fallen, infant mortality and unemployment has soared, large numbers of people have been physically displaced from their homes and lives, and even the most rudimentary aspects of survival have been challenged, including access to basic energy and safe water and sanitation. In Yemen, for example, attacks on civilian water systems have led to a massive epidemic of cholera, with over 1 million cases reported and over 2,000 deaths.

Three core problems exist: The current international laws of war inadequately protect natural resources and the environment in the context of civil war or local conflicts. Militaries and armed groups inconsistently identify and differentiate among legitimate and illegitimate targets and ambiguous language in current laws and agreements creates loopholes for the military. And the enforcement of laws of war and punishment of violators of these laws are rare and subjective.

Yet disdain for and prohibition against intentionally targeting civilian infrastructure is rooted in custom, religious rules and ethical codes of behavior that go back thousands of years, to early Sanskrit, Jewish, Christian, Islamic, and other cultures. In the fourth century BC, Alexander the Great tore down defensive weirs built by the Persians along the Tigris River, describing attempts to block access along the river as "unbecoming to men who are victorious in battle." In 1439, Charles VII of Orleans instituted a law holding officers responsible for "the abuses, ills and offences" committed by the men they commanded. The Lieber Code of 1863, promulgated by President Lincoln during the U.S. Civil War, provided guidance for Union armies in the field, stating in part: "Military necessitydoes not admit of the use of poison in any way, nor of the wanton devastation of a district. It admits of deception, but disclaims acts of perfidy; and, in general, military necessity does not include any act of hostility which makes the return to peace unnecessarily difficult The use of poison in any manner, be it to poison wells, or food, or arms, is wholly excluded from modern warfare. He that uses it puts himself out of the pale of the law and usages of war."

It must be noted, of course, that these guidelines failed to prevent or constrain extensive human rights abuses during the Civil War, including General Sherman's historically destructive march across Georgia laying waste to towns, farms and all symbols of civilian society acts that still reverberate in the region today.

Modern versions of international principles and laws evolved from these early guidelines. The humanitarian justification for these protections rests on the understanding that access to basic resources like water and sanitation, or protection of the environment, is critical for human health and the prevention of enormous human suffering. The first Geneva Convention in 1864 called for protecting non-combatants, prisoners of war and wounded soldiers. As time went on, these protections became more well-defined: The1868 St. Petersburg Declaration states "the necessities of war ought to yield to the requirements of humanity" and "the only legitimate object which States should endeavor to accomplish during war is to weaken the military forces of the enemy." The 1874 Brussels Protocol forbids "any destruction or seizure of the enemy's property that is not imperatively demanded by the necessity of war." The first Hague Conventions and Declarations (of 1899 and 1907) sought "to diminish the evils of war, as far as military requirements permit" and included the famous Martens Clause:

"Until a more complete code of the laws of war has been issued, the High Contracting Parties deem it expedient to declare that, in cases not included in the Regulations adopted by them, the inhabitants and the belligerents remain under the protection and the rule of the principles of the law of nations, as they result from the usages established among civilized peoples, from the laws of humanity, and the dictates of the public conscience."

After the Second World War, efforts were made to develop even stronger legal protections for civilians and infrastructure. The 1949 Fourth Geneva Convention's Article 53 prohibits deliberate or indiscriminate destruction of property belonging to individuals or "the State, or to other public authorities" and Article 147 bans "extensive destruction and appropriation of property, not justified by military necessity and carried out unlawfully and wantonly." Even more explicit civilian and environmental protections were developed with the 1977 Protocols to the Geneva Convention, including Protocol I, which limits warfare that causes "superfluous injury or unnecessary suffering" or "widespread, long-term and severe damage to the natural environment"), prohibits indiscriminate attacks on civilians and civilian infrastructure and protects civilian infrastructure critical to the survival of civilian populations. The 1977 Protocols also prohibit military actions when the "collateral damage" to civilian objects and noncombatants is excessive in relation to the military gains.

Other international declarations, laws and agreements explicitly protect the environment and natural resources from war and conflict. The 1976 Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques includes specific protection of the "hydrosphere" and bans "weather modification" with the intent of causing damage or destruction. The World Charter for Nature and similar language in the Stockholm Declaration and Rio Declaration says that States shall "ensure that activities within their jurisdictions or control do not cause damage to the natural systems located within other States" and "nature shall be secured against degradation caused by warfare or other hostile activities."

But the question remains: Are these protections relevant or sufficient to address the threat of human-caused climate changes and related threats to resources?

The State of Current International Laws of War

All these efforts, legal statements and principles fail to adequately protect civilians and the environment during armed conflicts. The 1991 civil war in Somalia destroyed the water system, which in turn contributed to outbreaks of cholera affecting 55,000 people. The destruction of Yemen's urban water system between 2016 and 2019 has led to massive cholera outbreaks and suffering. ISIS attacked major dams along the Tigris and Euphrates rivers and used them as weapons to either deny downstream populations of water or to flood areas for military purposes.

Recent trends related to water offer insights into the weaknesses and limitations of current international humanitarian environmental law. The Water Conflict Chronology database identifies water as a trigger, weapon and casualty of armed conflict. The chart shows the number of recorded events, per year, since 1930 and the dramatic increase in recent years. When characterized by the type of conflicts, we also see a shift from nation-to-nation conflicts toward sub-national events including riots, civil wars, and terrorism.

The chart shows a large increase in the number of reported events after the mid-1980s. Conclusions about trends in water-related conflicts should be made with caution because of changes in media coverage, access to broader sources of information and increased attention focused on the problem. Nevertheless, incidences of water-related conflicts have been rising rapidly. While the use of water as a weapon and attacks on water systems can be found in every time period and continent (except Antarctica), the past decade has seen a dramatic increase in such attacks focused in the Middle East and North Africa particularly in Iraq, Syria, Yemen involving civil conflicts with major outside and proxy forces.

These trends suggest serious limitations to the protections offered by current humanitarian laws of war.

Most constraints on actions during conflict have been formulated in the context of interstate war, not civil wars, subnational conflicts, or local internal violence. Yet most recent violence has been subnational, not nation-to-nation.

The ambiguity of language in the laws makes it easier to exploit loopholes. Militaries inconsistently identify and differentiate among legitimate and illegitimate targets and fall back on claims of military "necessity" and "proportionality."

Even when violations seem clear, enforcement and punishment of violators of these laws are rare. Parties to the Geneva Conventions have an obligation to enforce its provisions and to bring to trial persons who have allegedly violated its provisions. but nations have been unable or unwilling to enforce relevant provisions. Consequently, a new Environmental Geneva Convention is needed, focused on protecting the environment, natural resources and vital civilian infrastructure that supports basic needs like water, food, and energy.

Two modest international efforts at strengthening protections of the environment and resources during conflicts have recently moved forward. The first is adoption by the International Law Commission of the United Nations of draft principles governing protection of the environment during armed conflict. The second is a set of principles for the protection of water infrastructure developed by the Geneva Water Hub of the University of Geneva.

The International Law Commissions draft principles apply to the protection of the environment before, during and after armed conflict. They broadly require States to protect land and resources, constrain military operations that may damage the environment, prevent and mitigate environmental degradation where populations are displaced, and avoid engaging in environmental modification techniques having severe, long-term effects. Following armed conflicts, the principles call for States to repair, compensate, and remediate all environmental damages and remove hazardous remains of war.

The Geneva List of Principles on the Protection of Water Infrastructure is an effort to broadly develop rules to protect crucial water supply and sanitation infrastructure and systems and was developed in part due to the recent increase in attacks on such infrastructure. Unlike the ILC's principles, which focus on State actors, the Geneva List of Principles is designed to apply to both State and non-State actors.

Among its key principles are that parties to conflicts should refrain from using water-related infrastructure as a means of warfare, and the use of poison against water and water infrastructure is prohibited. Water systems and water-system personnel are presumed to be civilian and must not be attacked. Parties to conflicts must take all feasible precautions to protect civilians and civilian infrastructure, avoid locating military objectives near water-related infrastructure, and establish protected zones around water-related infrastructure. Water infrastructure containing "dangerous forces" such as dams and dikes, should not be objects of attack. Control over water delivery or access must not be used to force the displacement of civilians. Humanitarian relief efforts and personnel involved in water-related activities must be respected and protected.

And occupying powers must provide and maintain basic water and sanitation services.

It remains to be seen whether any newly crafted or strongly worded principles will be more effective at protecting natural resources and the environment than the previous 150 years of efforts to design effective international humanitarian laws of war. Comprehensive principles must be universally accepted, taught to military commanders and their political counterparts, and especially, actively enforced by the international community with punishments for violations meted out by States themselves or the international criminal court system.

Until then, the growing value and importance of climatic systems, water, energy, food and other vital environmental resources will continue to make them vulnerable as targets or weapons of war, or as triggers of violence and armed conflict.

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Trump Admin Ignored Its Own Data Linking Migrant Crisis to Climate Change - EcoWatch

EU ministers meet in Malta to discuss migrant crisis – Times of Malta

Updated 12.38pm -

Interior ministers from several EU countries are meeting in Malta to try to work out an automatic system to determine which countries will welcome migrants rescued in the central Mediterranean.

The ministers from France, Germany, Italy and Malta hope to end the long, drawn-out negotiations that have seen vulnerable asylum seekers including babies stranded at sea, sometimes for weeks.They take place ahead of a European summit in October in Luxembourg.

On his way into the meeting in Vittoriosa Dimitris Avramopoulos, the European Commissioner responsible for migration, seemed optimistic.

I believe that at the end of this meeting today we shall be in a position to make some strong and clear announcements of how we can move forward, he said.

The Greek commissioner said his priority was to save lives and to find ways to improve the fight against human traffickers.

Home Affairs Minister Michael Farrugia meanwhile displayed a more cautious optimism.

There are some political issues which we will have to decide on today. But this only be the first step. This will be a direction, a policy. Eventually we will have to present it in Luxemburg on October 8, during the next council meeting for home affairs. And then we have to get all the other countries to accept this agreement, he said.

Asked what he expected to come out of todays meeting, Dr Farrugia said he hoped ministers would be converging on one common position.

As the ministers gathered at Fort St Angelo in Vittoriosa, a big protest banner was displayed from Senglea, across the creek, by members of the NGO rescue ship Lifeline who have been stranded in Malta by legal issues. They insisted that action needs to be taken by the EU because people are dying in the Mediterranean.

The mooted automatic distribution system would only be a temporary solution until the current system, the "Dublin regulation", can be revised.

Its critics have long argued that it places an unfair burden on the Mediterranean frontier countries Italy, Malta, Greece and Spain.

Italy's new, pro-EU government has moved quickly to turn the page on the anti-migrant policies pursued by former far-right interior minister Matteo Salvini, who closed the ports to those rescued.

After a meeting last week, Italian Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte and French President Emmanuel Macron both called for a reform of Europe's "ineffective" policy.

Countries that did not volunteer to take migrants should face financial penalties, they argued.

At an informal meeting of foreign and interior ministers in Paris in June, 15 countries agreed to the creation of a "European Solidarity Mechanism".

Croatia, Finland, France, Ireland, Germany, Lithuania, Luxembourg and Portugal said they would "actively" take part.

But Hungary's nationalist prime minister, Viktor Orban, rejected redistribution quotas in comments made during a visit to Rome Saturday.

Monday's meeting in Malta will try to decide where those rescued can be relocated - and whether that covers just those fleeing war and persecution, or economic migrants too.

France and Germany are reportedly willing to receive 25 percent of people plucked from vessels in the Mediterranean.

But they are not keen on Italy's idea for migrants to be sent to countries across southern Europe on a rotation basis.

Italy could take 10 percent of new arrivals - a lower proportion because it has already hosted tens of thousands of new arrivals.

The number of migrants arriving in Europe via the Mediterranean has dropped sharply in recent years. The UN's refugee body recorded nearly 115,000 arrivals in 2018, down from 170,000 in 2017 and over one million in 2015.

European migration commissioner Dimitris Avramopoulos will also attend the Malta talks, as will Finland's interior minister - as they hold the EU presidency.

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EU ministers meet in Malta to discuss migrant crisis - Times of Malta

Macron’s approach to migration is a masterclass in hypocrisy – Telegraph.co.uk

The EU uses the weaker economies of member states to prop up the liberal ideals of wealthier members

Tomorrow, the EU is expected to broker an agreement on the relocation of asylum seekers arriving in Italy and Malta. The deal is a clear attempt by the EU to reward Italys electorate following the departure ofnationalist leader Matteo Salvini in favour of a more Europhile government. But will it go far enough?

Italian voters have seen first-hand the way in which France, in particular, has paid lip service to the idea of open borders, while quietlyhardening its own. Time and again Macron has shown deep levels of hypocrisy towards Italy - he has berated the electorate for embracing a populist...

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Macron's approach to migration is a masterclass in hypocrisy - Telegraph.co.uk

5 EU Countries Agree on Distribution of Migrants – VOA News

ROME - Interior ministers from five European countries reached a preliminary agreement on how to distribute migrants picked up in the central Mediterranean. The agreement was reached Monday during a meeting in Malta and is scheduled to be discussed by all European Union members next month.

EU Migration and Home Affairs Commissioner Dimitris Avramopoulos said good progress was made in Malta towards a predictable and structural set of arrangements to deal with migrants rescued in the Mediterranean.

He said the ministers worked to find practical solutions to respond together, in a spirit of solidarity, to the migratory challenges.

We all agree that the current ad hoc approach consisting of the commission coordinating solidarity efforts each time a vessel with migrants is at sea is simply not sustainable, said Avramopoulos.

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Maltas Interior Minister Michael Farrugia, who hosted the meeting, which also included Germany, France, Italy and Finland, said an agreement was reached on the disembarkation of migrants following search and rescue operations. He said a paper was ready to be presented to the other EU members.

"There is an agreement of a common paper that will be presented to the Council of Ministers of home affairs on October 8," Farrugia said.

Under the preliminary agreement, vessels which rescue people at sea will be given a safe harbor to disembark passengers without delay, avoiding additional hardships to migrants. The agreement also calls for the swift relocation of asylum-seekers, on a voluntary basis, to other member states.

Avramopoulos said the migrant crisis is a responsibility for all of the EU which must be addressed collectively.

He added that the European Commission would continue to provide active support to member states struggling with the burden of migration, adding that this support would be operational, financial and political.

I remain convinced that the structural and permanent solution embedded in the common European asylum system remains necessary and is the only viable solution in the medium term, said Avramopoulos.

Italy and Malta have in recent months closed their ports to NGO vessels that rescued migrants but those policies are likely to change with the new agreements now being discussed.

Thousands of migrants from Africa and the Middle East continue their efforts to reach European shores, sometimes on very unsafe vessels. Both Italy and Malta have long accused other EU nations of dragging their feet on the migration burden they face on a daily basis.

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5 EU Countries Agree on Distribution of Migrants - VOA News

No end in sight: Mass exodus of Venezuelan refugees flood into neighboring countries – Big Think

Latin America is suffering one of the largest refugee crises in its history. Venezuela's outpouring of refugees is only second to that of Syria. Already four million Venezuelans have escaped their homeland, the brunt of the exodus started in 2015. A staggering 12 percent of the country's entire population have already fled.

Running away from a collapsed economy and a repressive government, more than one million Venezuelans have left since the end of 2018. The UN predicts that this number will rise to 5.4 million before the year is through. Other sources project that several hundred thousand to millions more may join the fold by the early 2020s.

No country has been left unaffected by the impact of Venezuela's downfall. Colombia, which shares the longest border with Venezuela, at the moment hosts 1.3 million refugees. This is followed by roughly another 800,000 in Peru, 300,000 in Chile, and 260,000 in Ecuador. A number of Caribbean states have a high number of refugees relative to their total population, as well.

Colombia expects to take in up to 3 million refugees by 2021. Ambassador Francisco Santos recently told reporters, "To be very sincere, if it goes to 3 million, we don't have the money."

Only a fraction of international assistance has been devoted to the Venezuelan refugee crisis. Indeed, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and the International Organization for Migration (IOM) need an additional $738 million to assist migrant-receptive countries in both Latin America and the Caribbean region.

The joint UNHCR-IOM special representative for Venezuelan migrants, Eduardo Stein, recently stated, "We are looking at a complex set of needs for the next two years, even if there is a political solution today."

The UN has repeatedly put out calls for more funding: "Latin American and Caribbean countries are doing their part to respond to this unprecedented crisis, but they cannot be expected to continue doing it without international help," Stein declared.

Millions are roving and crossing borders as the days go by. Some estimate that the exodus could, in all, exceed 8 million people. A number of bordering countries have already begun to tighten their entry requirements and put up further barriers. Ecuador, for instance, upped its requirements Venezuelans now need to present a passport and a clear criminal record in order to get into the country. So far, both Brazil and Colombia have kept their open border policy.

A majority of the migrants have stayed in the region. Yet, as the crisis continues, these once open destination countries are becoming less welcoming. Dealing with their own problems of slow economic growth, scare jobs, and overtaxed health and education infrastructures, many of these countries can't support the influx of migrant entrants.

Recent waves of refugees are poorer than those that had come before. Lack of jobs and unstable environments, historically, lead to exploitation and the rise of crime. Colombia with its 1,400-mile border with Venezuela, is now dealing with disorder on one end of their country and a build up of refugees on its southern border, as Peru and Ecuador increasingly turn more Venezuelans away.

Brazil has been systematically relocating migrants to the border state of Roraima, where Venezuelans sometimes have been able to work informal jobs and ease labor shortages. The region's capital city, Boa Vista, with a population of 400,000, now has more than 50,000 displaced Venezuelans.

Photo credit: Juan David Moreno Gallego / Anadolu Agency / Getty Images

Venezuelan migrants gather at the Colombian Border

As a result of the roiling in the region, there has been a surge of homelessness in many of the towns on the border. "We lost control of the city," says Teresa Surita, the mayor of Boa Vista.

Colombia's government officials estimate that 0.5 percent of their GDP goes to providing health care, schooling, and other infrastructural services to Venezuelans. Ecuadoran leaders, who recently went to the IMF for increased financial assistance, estimate that their nation spends about $170 million a year or .16 percent of its GDP on health and education for Venezuelan migrants with an exceptional humanitarian visa.

There has also been an increase of negative public sentiment regarding the refugees. Amparo Goyes, a resident of Quito, Ecuador's capital states, "People used to feel sorry for [Venezuelans], but now there's fear of crime."

Politicians and citizens are calling for tighter controls on migrants and restrictions on immigration.

Even so, amidst the changing attitudes and growing crisis, Colombia has been issuing permits that'll allow 700,000 Venezuelans the right to work and receive public services for a minimum of two years. Politicians in Colombia have even signed a pact that they won't stir anti-Venezuelan campaigns in the coming elections.

The crisis is Latin America seems to have only begun. Those most touched by the events occurring are urging the global community to assist them in coping with this crisis.

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No end in sight: Mass exodus of Venezuelan refugees flood into neighboring countries - Big Think

Leading aid agency calls for urgent EU action to tackle the migration and asylum crisis – The Parliament Magazine

Photocredit: International Rescue Committee

The call on Monday comes as EU interior ministers from four countries met to discuss the latest migrant and asylum crisis.

At the meeting, ministers from Germany, France, Italy and Malta hope to strike a deal on the relocation of people rescued at sea and migrants crossing the Mediterranean.

According to a draft of the agreement the aim is to set up a more predictable and efficient temporary solidarity mechanism in order to ensure the dignified disembarkation of migrants taken aboard on the high seas.

On Sunday, the EUs Commissioner responsible for Migration, Dimitris Avramopoulos travelled to Malta where he met with the countrys President George Vella. On Monday, Avramopoulos visited the European Asylum Support Office as well as participating in the meeting with the four interior ministers.

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Just ahead of the get together, the International Rescue Committee (IRC), headed by former UK foreign minister David Miliband, called for urgent action to tackle the ongoing migration and asylum problems in the Mediterranean.

An IRC spokesman told this website, The devastation caused by short term solutions to the migration response is seen on a daily basis, with overcrowding in reception centres in Greece and lives lost at sea across the Mediterranean making headlines each summer.

The EU meeting of interior ministers is an opportunity for European leaders to take action and put the idea of solidarity into practice. This can be achieved by establishing a predictable disembarkation and relocation system that safeguards the rights of refugees and asylum seekers reaching the European shores.

Moreover, ahead of this weeks UN General Assembly, EU countries must lead the way by demonstrating they do not leave behind displaced people within their own borders.

The devastation caused by short term solutions to the migration response is seen on a daily basis, with overcrowding in reception centres in Greece and lives lost at sea across the Mediterranean making headlines each summer International Rescue Committee spokesman

Over 4,000 people have arrived on Greek islands since the start of September and, according to the IRC, have been met with a lack of adequate shelter and record levels of overcrowding.

The IRC says the tragedy behind the numbers is clear: this is not an unforeseen emergency but a vicious cycle that requires a measured and collective response by European leaders.

The IRC has joined 11 NGOs in a joint call on the Greek government and European leaders to abandon ad hoc solutions to migration and instead focus on a long term strategy that puts the livelihoods of refugees and the interests of host communities at its heart.

Currently, there are 22,360 asylum seekers languishing in reception centres,living in poor conditions and often exposed to violence and exploitation. Reception centres on many Greek islands are 500% percent over capacity, says the IRC.

This is avoidable but the only way to achieve a durable solution is through European solidarity and political will to protect those in need, provide decent housing and support refugees to get jobs, says the Committee.

Migration is a complex issue and sustainable solutions must be implemented Dimitra Kalogeropoulou, International Rescue Committee Greece director

Dimitra Kalogeropoulou, IRC Greece director, noted, Although public interest in the so-called crisis on the Greek islands is waning, desperate people continue to seek protection on its shores.

The devastation caused by short term solutions to the migration response is seen on a daily basis, with headlines dominated in summer by overcrowding in reception centres and stories of people living in tents in the midst of winter. Migration is a complex issue and sustainable solutions must be implemented.

Greece must invest in the assets that refugees bring to their new communities and support them to rebuild their lives, while meeting the needs of local communities. Similarly, other European countries must acknowledge their role in the response and share the responsibility to relocate those who are now caught in limbo on islands like Lesbos.

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Leading aid agency calls for urgent EU action to tackle the migration and asylum crisis - The Parliament Magazine

Venezuelan Immigration to Colombia Is Spiking. Here’s How Duque Is Handling It – World Politics Review

Editors Note: This article is part of an ongoing series on immigration and integration policy around the world.

Colombia has historically been a source of migration rather than a destination, but that has changed in recent years due largely to the ongoing economic and humanitarian crisis in Venezuela. Approximately 1.4 million Venezuelans have fled to Colombia in recent years, according to the United Nations, with potentially hundreds of thousands more expected before the end of the year. As part of his governments response to rising Venezuelan immigration to Colombia, President Ivan Duque announced last month that 24,000 children born to Venezuelan refugees would be granted Colombian citizenship. ...

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Venezuelan Immigration to Colombia Is Spiking. Here's How Duque Is Handling It - World Politics Review

Climate Migrants May Number 143 Million by 2050 – The Daily Beast

This story is part of Covering Climate Now, a global collaboration of more than 220 news outlets to strengthen coverage of the climate story.

ROMEManu remembers vividly the grim conditions he faced when he left coastal Bangladesh just three years ago to try to start a new life in Europe. The 45-year-old woodworker was one of millions of people in his South Asian country who had, for years, adjusted to seasonal flooding, moving in and out of their homes as the higher tides passed with the seasons. But in recent years, the rising seas didn't subside, and Manu lost his home, his belongings and finally his livelihood when trees vital to his craft disappeared under the rising sea.

In 2016, Manu made his way to Italy where he requested asylum, which very likely wont be granted. There isnt even a category on the application to request protection from the changing climate, he told The Daily Beast. No one even recognizes the problem.

Some do, in fact, but too few, and global society cannot ignore the problem much longer. The World Bank estimates that by the year 2050, at least 143 million additional migrants from sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and Latin Americaalready the greatest migrant and refugee-producing areaswill be on the move because of rising seas, droughts, and extreme weather.

Adding to the injustice for those most affected is the fact that the climate change crisis is not the fault of those on the move. Founder and executive director of the Environmental Justice Foundation, Steve Trent, tells The Daily Beast that the poorer communities, affected first and worst, are those least able to mitigate the impacts of the heating planet.

The worlds least developed countries produce only a fraction of greenhouse gas emissions and have had far fewer of the benefits reaped by richer countries from our addiction to carbon, yet they are suffering the worst impacts of the climate crisis, says Trent. This summer, entire villages in India were abandoned, leaving only the sick and the elderly, as the country baked in 50C [122F] heat. Right now in the Bahamas, the death toll in the wake of Hurricane Dorian is expected to [continue to] rise dramatically.

Trent points to the fact that the European Union alone was responsible for 40 percent of all global C02 emissions between 1850 and 2011. Yet in an unjust world, 99 percent of all deaths from weather-related disasters occur in the worlds 50 least developed countries, he says. Countries that have contributed less than 1 percent of global carbon emissions. This is not justice.

A new doomsday report by the World Banks climate scientists, migration experts and statistical researchers paints a picture of what's to come so dire it verges on the apocalyptic. According to Kanta Kumari Rigaud, the World Banks lead environmental specialist who compiled the report, events like crop failures due to droughts or floods will create what he calls hotspots that force people to move at first within national borders. Most will be go from rural to urban areas, but that influx will create new concentrations of poverty and cause people to start moving beyond borders.

To meet this challenge, the report suggests, many urban areas and their environs need to prepare for an influx of people with improved housing and transportation infrastructure, social services, and employment opportunities. If managed correctly, the migration could create a positive momentum in some areas facing depopulation. But in others, it will only put additional burdens on already overwhelmed systems.

Look at the recent global migration crises that have relatively little to do with climate change, and the way those have shaken developed nations. The rise of the xenophobic extreme right in Europe was spawned in part by the 2015 influx of a million refugees, largely from war-torn Syria.

Central Americans trying to reach the United States by way of Mexico have faced a figurative and perhaps soon-to-be physical wall. Rohingya people fleeing inter-communal wars in Burma were met by some of the most abhorrent human rights violations since the Holocaust.

To date, sub-Saharan Africans fleeing war and poverty trying to reach Europe though Italy have been met with harsh policies and closed ports, but only a fraction were fleeing the impact of a changing climate. Now, as a recent report by UNHCR, the U.N. refugee agency, points out, drought is compounding security woes and people are fleeing to Ethiopia. Many will then try to move on to Europe.

Now imagine the extra migration pressures imposed by natural disasters related to climate change. The U.N. today counts 68.5 million forcibly displaced people in the world due to war, poverty, and natural disasters. Imagine tripling that figure.

Some migrants will have it much harder than others. The United Nations special rapporteur on poverty and human rights, Philip Alston, warns of a disaster made worse by wage disparity. We risk a climate apartheid scenario where the wealthy pay to escape overheating, hunger and conflict while the rest of the world is left to suffer, he wrote in a report to the U.N. in June. Perversely, while people in poverty are responsible for just a fraction of global emissions,they will bear the brunt of climate change, and have the least capacity to protect themselves.

Alston also warns that climate change will impact democracies as governments try to cope with the consequences. Aid agencies have yet to define what it means to be a climate migrant or refugee, and without crucial designations there won't be policies and legal protections.

Most human rights bodies have barely begun to grapple with what climate change portends for human rights, and it remains one on a long laundry list of issues, despite the extraordinarily short time to avoid catastrophic consequences, Alston said when he presented his report. As a full-blown crisis that threatens the human rights of vast numbers of people bears down, the usual piecemeal, issue-by-issue human rights methodology is woefully insufficient.

UNHCR has been reluctant to designate the new category for people moving due to climate change.

John Podesta, founder and director of the Center for American Progress, outlined the issue of classification in a recent report for the Brookings Institution.

The UNHCR has thus far refused to grant these people refugee status, instead designating them as environmental migrants, in large part because it lacks the resources to address their needs, Podesta wrote. But with no organized effort to supervise the migrant population, these desperate individuals go where they can, not necessarily where they should. As their numbers grow, it will become increasingly difficult for the international community to ignore this challenge.

He believes the international community will be forced either to redefine what a refugee is to include climate migrants or create a new category and institutional framework to protect climate migrants.

However, opening that debate in the current political context would be fraught with difficulty, he said in the report. Currently, the nationalist, anti-immigrant, and xenophobic atmosphere in Europe and the U.S. would most likely lead to limiting refugee protections rather than expanding them.

All agencies that eventually will be tasked with managing the new migration have reached the same conclusion: the developed world has to act to cut emissions and stave off the apocalyptic disaster in the making. But vulnerable countries need to act, too.

The World Bank is helping Bangladesh, which is projected to produce a third of South Asias climate migrants by 2050, to develop a Perspective Plan for 2041, that, while pessimistic, recognizes that people need to start moving away from coastal areas in order to integrate and find new skills. Mexico is also working on a plan towards adaptation, which will help retrain workers who rely on industries that will disappear as the real effects of climate change take hold.

The World Bank says that if the industrialized world starts to act by cutting greenhouse gases now and integrating a climate migration contingency into all development plans, the inevitable disaster does not have to become a worst case scenario.

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Climate Migrants May Number 143 Million by 2050 - The Daily Beast


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