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Web Mail login page Fri., April 27, 3:30 p.m. in POST 723, Hope Ishii “Solar System Bricks and Mortar” [G&G TGIF Seminar]

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HIGP solves fundamental problems in Earth and Planetary Science by the development and application of state-of-the-art exploration, measurement, and data analysis technologies. HIGP serves society and the State of Hawaii by acquiring and disseminating new knowledge about the Earth and other planetary bodies, and developing and introducing leading edge technologies and a highly trained workforce to the State economy.

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Top banner images: HIGP excels in advanced research, teaching, and service. Our expertise spans the globe from pole to pole, from the depths of the seas to the tops of volcanoes, and extends to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. These images show, from left to right: satellite communication dish, a map of tsunami wave heights, map of mid-ocean ridge/seafloor spreading, the IMI (Imaging and Mapping Instrument) deep-towed ocean sonar system, Earth’s Moon, active Hawaiian lava flow, Mars, a meteorite collected in Antarctica, and GPS field station.

Updated 10 April 2018

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Hawai’i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) : Home

Europlanet Outreach

April 12, 2018

Europlanet presents its latest animation: Space Detectives The Case of the Rocks from Space has had its official premiere at 15:00 CEST on 12th April at EGU 2018 in Vienna. Watch now:

April 10, 2018

Europlanet presents: Space Detectives The case of the rocks from space. Europlanets latest animated video, Space Detectives the case of the rocks from Space will be premiered at the Europlanet stand on Thursday, 12th April at the European Geosciences Union (EGU) at 15:00 CEST. The video, designed in a film noir style by []

April 9, 2018

Europlanet at EGU From 9-13th April, Europlanet will be taking part in the European Geosciences Union (EGU) General Assembly 2018 in Vienna, Austria. On Thursday 12th April 2018, from 08:30 10:00, Europlanet will hold a tutorial session on the Virtual European Solar and Planetary Access (VESPA) virtual observatory for planetary science in room 2.85 []

April 4, 2018

Europlanet is committed to building a diverse, inclusive planetary science community in Europe and to ensuring that individuals within that community experience equal opportunity, regardless of gender, disability, ethnicity, religion or belief, sexual orientation, marital status, age, nationality or socioeconomic background. Europlanet Diversity Working Group Following a Diversity Breakfast event at the 2017 European Planetary []

March 29, 2018

Are you an early career researcher or amateur astronomer that would like to develop your science communication skills, as well as learning more about making ground-based observations in support of space missions? Europlanet 2020 (RI) and the Moltai Astronomical Observatory (ITPA VU) are holding an international research summer school,Space missions: ground-based observations and science communication, []

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Europlanet Outreach

What is comparative planetology – Answers.com

1. The objective of comparative stylistics The objective of comparative stylistics is to study the stylistic characteristics of one language in comparison with those of another one. This systematic study offers students a better and deeper knowledge of the features that distinguish one language from another. Examples: – To become penniless /aflasa/ – The Arabs have pioneered in many branches of science /kna lilc arabi assabaqu fi: Satt furuc i al mac rifati/ These are two cases of “transposition.” In the first example, the verb /aflasa/ is expressed by a phrase in English, while in the second example the verb “to pioneer” is replaced with a noun /assabaqu/ in Arabic. – He was blown away /dhahaba adrja arriyhi/ This is a case of “modulation,” where each language describes the situation from a different viewpoint. While English indicates the means (blown), Arabic does the opposite: the result first /dhahaba/, then the means /adrja arriyhi/. Thus, we have a “chass-crois”: Means: blown /adrja arriyhi/ Result: /dhahaba/ away – Give a pint of your blood /tabarrac biqali:lin min damika/ – Before you could say Jack Robinson /fi: tarfati c ayn/ These are two cases of “equivalence” where two languages describe the same situation by using quite different structural and stylistic means. In the first example, the expression “to give a pint,” “pint” being a unit of measure for liquids equal to about half a liter, is rendered into Arabic by the equivalent /tabarrac biqali:lin min/ which literally means “donate some of.” In the second example, the English idiom “before you could say Jack Robinson,” which means “very quickly or suddenly,” has an equivalent idiom in Arabic /Fi tarfati c ayn/ which means “in the twinkling of an eye.” 2. The scope and limits of comparative stylistics According to Vinay and Darbelnet (1977), the three above-mentioned cases – transposition, modulation and equivalence – in addition to four others, which are borrowing, tracing (“calque”), literal translation and adaptation, constitute the seven techniques of translation. The authors of the book “Stylistique compare du franais et de l’anglais” even consider comparative stylistics as a method of translation (notice the expression, “mthode de traduction,” they put under the title on the first page). It is undeniable that comparative stylistics is beneficial to students, since it enables them to identify the characteristics which distinguish their mother language from a foreign one, and hence to perceive the phenomena that endow each languagewith a peculiar genius. Yet, it is arguable that comparative stylistics can explain the process of translation or set forth “laws valid to the two languages concerned” (Vinay and Darbelnet 1977: 20). Since the comparison of two languages requires primarily the performance of translation, we can assert that comparative stylistics is subsequent to translation and not prior to it. Therefore, the seven techniques are no more than means of comparison. If we reconsider the example “he was blown away,” it appears that, to translate it into Arabic, one would immediately look for its functional equivalent rather than think of the “technique” to be used, whether it is transposition, modulation or equivalence As a matter of fact, if the translator fails to find the appropriate equivalent in Arabic, /dhahaba adrja arriyhi/, it will be useless to know that this kind of transfer is called “modulation” from a comparative viewpoint. The same thing applies, of course, to the other techniques offered by comparative stylistics. Moreover, comparative stylistics usually suggests only one equivalent among several possible equivalents of a lexical unit or expression. In the previous example, we can say in Arabic: /dhahaba adrja arriyhi/ as well as /c asafat bihi arriyhu/ or /huwa fi: mahabbi arri:hi/, all of which are expressions with the same meaning. Finally, it appears that comparative stylistics, which is mainly interested in establishing correspondences and equivalences in two languages, does not go beyond the limit of language as a whole to reach the mobility of speech and usage. Hence, it can neither foretell the most appropriate equivalents for expressions in context nor embrace all potential cases of translation within the ever-renewable act of communication. The field of translation is indeed far from being limited or confined to linguistic facts, idiomatic expressions or correspondences that may constitute the subject of a comparative study

See more here:

What is comparative planetology – Answers.com

Hayes Research Group – Comparative Planetology and Solar …

Welcome to the Hayes Research Group at Cornell University

Our research focuses on comparative planetology and solar system exploration.

We specialize in the design, calibration, and operation of remote sensing instruments on unmanned planetary spacecraft.

Scientifically, we are interested in the processes that shape planetary surfaces and atmospheres, with particular emphasis on Mars and outer solar system satellites.

Read more here:

Hayes Research Group – Comparative Planetology and Solar …

Homepage INAF English

On October 14th 2015, the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR) appointed Professor Nicol D’Amico as President of the Italian National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF). Full professor in Astrophysics at University of Cagliari, D’Amico has been previously director of the INAF Astronomical Observatory in Cagliari and the director of the Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) Project.

Below, the latest news on the president:

See the article here:

Homepage INAF English

University of Hawaii – Wikipedia

The University of Hawaii system (formally the University of Hawaii and popularly known as U.H.) is a public, co-educational college and university system that confers associate, bachelor’s, master’s, and doctoral degrees through three university campuses, seven community college campuses, an employment training center, three university centers, four education centers and various other research facilities distributed across six islands throughout the State of Hawaii in the United States. All schools of the University of Hawaii system are accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges. The U.H. system’s main administrative offices are located on the property of the University of Hawaii at Mnoa in Honolulu CDP.[3][4][5]

The University of Hawaii at Mnoa is the flagship institution of the University of Hawaii system. It was founded as a land-grant college under the terms of the Morrill Acts of 1862 and 1890. It is well respected for its programs in Hawaiian/Pacific Studies, Astronomy, East Asian Languages and Literature, Asian Studies, Comparative Philosophy, Marine Science, Second Language Studies, along with Botany, Engineering, Ethnomusicology, Geophysics, Law, Business, Linguistics, Mathematics, and Medicine. The second-largest institution is the University of Hawaii at Hilo on the “Big Island” of Hawaii, with over 3,000 students. The smaller University of Hawaii-West Oahu in Kapolei primarily serves students who reside on Honolulu’s western and central suburban communities. The University of Hawaii Community College system comprises four community colleges island campuses on O’ahu and one each on Maui, Kauai, and Hawaii. The schools were created to improve accessibility of courses to more Hawaii residents and provide an affordable means of easing the transition from secondary school/high school to college for many students. University of Hawaii education centers are located in more remote areas of the State and its several islands, supporting rural communities via distance education.

In accordance with Article X, Section 6 of the Hawaii State Constitution, the University of Hawaii system is governed by a Board of Regents, composed of 15 unpaid members who are nominated by a Regents Candidate Advisory Council, appointed by the governor, and confirmed by the state legislature. The Board oversees all aspects of governance for the university system, including its internal structure and management. The board also appoints, evaluates, and if necessary removes the President of the University of Hawaii.[8]

The University’s governing board includes a current student appointed by the Governor of Hawaii to serve a two-year term as a full voting regent. The practice of appointing a student to the Board was approved by the Hawaii State Legislature in 1997.

Alumni of the University of Hawaii system include many notable persons in various walks of life. Senator Daniel Inouye and Tammy Duckworth both are veterans of the US military who were injured during in the line of duty then later entered government service. Bette Midler and Georgia Engel are successful entertainers on the national stage. President Barack Obama’s parents, Barack Obama, Sr., and S. Ann Dunham, and half-sister, Maya Soetoro-Ng, also earned degrees from the Mnoa campus, where his parents met in a Russian language class. His mother earned three degrees from the University of Hawaii including a Ph.D. in anthropology.

The University of Hawaii system has had many faculty members of note. Many were visiting faculty or came after they won major awards like Nobel Laureate Dr. Georg von Bksy. Dr. Ryuzo Yanagimachi, principal investigator of the research group that developed a method of cloning from adult animal cells, is still on the faculty.

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University of Hawaii – Wikipedia

Eve online planetary interaction

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What is comparative planetology – Answers.com

1. The objective of comparative stylistics The objective of comparative stylistics is to study the stylistic characteristics of one language in comparison with those of another one. This systematic study offers students a better and deeper knowledge of the features that distinguish one language from another. Examples: – To become penniless /aflasa/ – The Arabs have pioneered in many branches of science /kna lilc arabi assabaqu fi: Satt furuc i al mac rifati/ These are two cases of “transposition.” In the first example, the verb /aflasa/ is expressed by a phrase in English, while in the second example the verb “to pioneer” is replaced with a noun /assabaqu/ in Arabic. – He was blown away /dhahaba adrja arriyhi/ This is a case of “modulation,” where each language describes the situation from a different viewpoint. While English indicates the means (blown), Arabic does the opposite: the result first /dhahaba/, then the means /adrja arriyhi/. Thus, we have a “chass-crois”: Means: blown /adrja arriyhi/ Result: /dhahaba/ away – Give a pint of your blood /tabarrac biqali:lin min damika/ – Before you could say Jack Robinson /fi: tarfati c ayn/ These are two cases of “equivalence” where two languages describe the same situation by using quite different structural and stylistic means. In the first example, the expression “to give a pint,” “pint” being a unit of measure for liquids equal to about half a liter, is rendered into Arabic by the equivalent /tabarrac biqali:lin min/ which literally means “donate some of.” In the second example, the English idiom “before you could say Jack Robinson,” which means “very quickly or suddenly,” has an equivalent idiom in Arabic /Fi tarfati c ayn/ which means “in the twinkling of an eye.” 2. The scope and limits of comparative stylistics According to Vinay and Darbelnet (1977), the three above-mentioned cases – transposition, modulation and equivalence – in addition to four others, which are borrowing, tracing (“calque”), literal translation and adaptation, constitute the seven techniques of translation. The authors of the book “Stylistique compare du franais et de l’anglais” even consider comparative stylistics as a method of translation (notice the expression, “mthode de traduction,” they put under the title on the first page). It is undeniable that comparative stylistics is beneficial to students, since it enables them to identify the characteristics which distinguish their mother language from a foreign one, and hence to perceive the phenomena that endow each languagewith a peculiar genius. Yet, it is arguable that comparative stylistics can explain the process of translation or set forth “laws valid to the two languages concerned” (Vinay and Darbelnet 1977: 20). Since the comparison of two languages requires primarily the performance of translation, we can assert that comparative stylistics is subsequent to translation and not prior to it. Therefore, the seven techniques are no more than means of comparison. If we reconsider the example “he was blown away,” it appears that, to translate it into Arabic, one would immediately look for its functional equivalent rather than think of the “technique” to be used, whether it is transposition, modulation or equivalence As a matter of fact, if the translator fails to find the appropriate equivalent in Arabic, /dhahaba adrja arriyhi/, it will be useless to know that this kind of transfer is called “modulation” from a comparative viewpoint. The same thing applies, of course, to the other techniques offered by comparative stylistics. Moreover, comparative stylistics usually suggests only one equivalent among several possible equivalents of a lexical unit or expression. In the previous example, we can say in Arabic: /dhahaba adrja arriyhi/ as well as /c asafat bihi arriyhu/ or /huwa fi: mahabbi arri:hi/, all of which are expressions with the same meaning. Finally, it appears that comparative stylistics, which is mainly interested in establishing correspondences and equivalences in two languages, does not go beyond the limit of language as a whole to reach the mobility of speech and usage. Hence, it can neither foretell the most appropriate equivalents for expressions in context nor embrace all potential cases of translation within the ever-renewable act of communication. The field of translation is indeed far from being limited or confined to linguistic facts, idiomatic expressions or correspondences that may constitute the subject of a comparative study

Link:

What is comparative planetology – Answers.com

Theoretical planetology – Wikipedia

Theoretical planetology, also known as theoretical planetary science[3] is a branch of planetary sciences that developed in the 20th century.[4]

Theoretical planetologists, also known as theoretical planetary scientists, use modelling techniques to develop an understanding of the internal structure of planets by making assumptions about their chemical composition and the state of their materials, then calculating the radial distribution of various properties such as temperature, pressure, or density of material across the planet’s internals.[4]

Theoretical planetologists also use numerical models to understand how the Solar System planets were formed and develop in the future, their thermal evolution, their tectonics, how magnetic fields are formed in planetary interiors, how convection processes work in the cores and mantles of terrestrial planets and in the interiors of gas giants, how their lithospheres deform, the orbital dynamics of planetary satellites, how dust and ice are transported on the surface of some planets (such as Mars), and how the atmospheric circulation takes place over a planet.[5]

Theoretical planetologists may use laboratory experiments to understand various phenomena analogous to planetary processes, such as convection in rotating fluids.[5]

Theoretical planetologists make extensive use of basic physics, particularly fluid dynamics and condensed matter physics, and much of their work involves interpretation of data returned by space missions, although they rarely get actively involved in them.[7]

Typically a theoretical planetologist will have to have had higher education in physics and theoretical physics, at PhD doctorate level.[9][10]

Because of the use of scientific visualisation animation, theoretical planetology has a relationship with computer graphics. Example movies exhibiting this relation are the 4-minute “The Origin of the Moon”[8]

One of the major successes of theoretical planetology is the prediction and subsequent confirmation of volcanism on Io.[1][2]

The prediction was made by Stanton J. Peale who wrote a scientific paper claiming that Io must be volcanically active that was published one week before Voyager 1 encountered Jupiter. When Voyager 1 photographed Io in 1979, his theory was confirmed.[2] Later photographs of Io by the Hubble Space Telescope and from the ground also showed volcanoes on Io’s surface, and they were extensively studied and photographed by the Galileo orbiter of Jupiter from 1995-2003.

D. C. Tozer of University of Newcastle upon Tyne,[11] writing in 1974, expressed the opinion that “it could and will be said that theoretical planetary science is a waste of time” until problems related to “sampling and scaling” are resolved, even though these problems cannot be solved by simply collecting further laboratory data.[12]

Researchers working on theoretical planetology include:

Link:

Theoretical planetology – Wikipedia

Planetology – definition of planetology by The Free Dictionary

The main difference from Soviet missions, which brought back space material to Earth, is that research will be carried out directly on board the probe,” explained Vladislav Tretyakov, a researcher in nuclear planetology at the Russian Space Research Institute [IKI].His team, which includes researchers from the National Centre for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and the Research Institute in Astrophysics and Planetology, used combined data from a telescope based in Hawaii and NASA’s solar satellite to investigate powerful magnetic waves, known as Alfven waves, where the Sun’s wind originates.Planetary scientists, including Ed Scott at the University of Hawaii, Manoa’s Institute for Geophysics and Planetology, have found that a significant number of these altered meteorites have ages clustering at 100,000,000 years after the solar system’s birth–the true age of the moon-forming impact, they maintain.The contract is for the provision of electronic components cabling service on printed circuits and implementation of wired strands on behalf of the Astrophysics Research Institute and Planetology (IRAP).The visible and infrared mapping spectrometer was provided by the Italian Space Agency and the Italian National Institute for Astrophysics, was built by Selex ES, and is managed by Italy’s National Institute for Astrophysics and Planetology in Rome.These measurements have opened the door for a new kind of comparative planetology,” said team leader Jacob Bean of the University of Chicago.Jeffrey Taylor, both at the UHM Hawai’i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, compiled water measurements from lunar samples performed by colleagues from around the world, as well as their own.The six manned lunar missions, supplemented by robot probes to the planets, have advanced the earth sciences through a new field of “comparative planetology.Direct imaging of planets is an extremely challenging technique that requires the most advanced instruments, whether ground-based or in space,” said lead investigator Julien Rameau of France’s Institute of Planetology and Astrophysics in Grenoble (IPAG).6 billion years old, “it’s like a 1-year-old baby versus a 45-year-old man,” says astrophysicist Philippe Delorme of the Institute of Planetology and Astrophysics of Grenoble in France, who led the research team.Condie (earth and environmental science, New Mexico Tech) synthesizes data and research from a wide variety of fields–geophysics, planetology, oceanography, paleoclimatology, geology–to present a systematic view of the Earth as a singular planetary system of animate and inanimate processes.1) lnstitut de veille sanitaire, Departement Sante Environnement, Saint-Maurice, France; (2) Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA; (3) Geomer, UMR-6554 LETG (Littoral, Environnement, Teledetection, Geomatique) CNRS (Centre national de Ia recherche scientifique), Institut Universitaire Europeen de Ia Mer, Plouzane, France

View original post here:

Planetology – definition of planetology by The Free Dictionary

Theoretical planetology – Wikipedia

Theoretical planetology, also known as theoretical planetary science[3] is a branch of planetary sciences that developed in the 20th century.[4]

Theoretical planetologists, also known as theoretical planetary scientists, use modelling techniques to develop an understanding of the internal structure of planets by making assumptions about their chemical composition and the state of their materials, then calculating the radial distribution of various properties such as temperature, pressure, or density of material across the planet’s internals.[4]

Theoretical planetologists also use numerical models to understand how the Solar System planets were formed and develop in the future, their thermal evolution, their tectonics, how magnetic fields are formed in planetary interiors, how convection processes work in the cores and mantles of terrestrial planets and in the interiors of gas giants, how their lithospheres deform, the orbital dynamics of planetary satellites, how dust and ice are transported on the surface of some planets (such as Mars), and how the atmospheric circulation takes place over a planet.[5]

Theoretical planetologists may use laboratory experiments to understand various phenomena analogous to planetary processes, such as convection in rotating fluids.[5]

Theoretical planetologists make extensive use of basic physics, particularly fluid dynamics and condensed matter physics, and much of their work involves interpretation of data returned by space missions, although they rarely get actively involved in them.[7]

Typically a theoretical planetologist will have to have had higher education in physics and theoretical physics, at PhD doctorate level.[9][10]

Because of the use of scientific visualisation animation, theoretical planetology has a relationship with computer graphics. Example movies exhibiting this relation are the 4-minute “The Origin of the Moon”[8]

One of the major successes of theoretical planetology is the prediction and subsequent confirmation of volcanism on Io.[1][2]

The prediction was made by Stanton J. Peale who wrote a scientific paper claiming that Io must be volcanically active that was published one week before Voyager 1 encountered Jupiter. When Voyager 1 photographed Io in 1979, his theory was confirmed.[2] Later photographs of Io by the Hubble Space Telescope and from the ground also showed volcanoes on Io’s surface, and they were extensively studied and photographed by the Galileo orbiter of Jupiter from 1995-2003.

D. C. Tozer of University of Newcastle upon Tyne,[11] writing in 1974, expressed the opinion that “it could and will be said that theoretical planetary science is a waste of time” until problems related to “sampling and scaling” are resolved, even though these problems cannot be solved by simply collecting further laboratory data.[12]

Researchers working on theoretical planetology include:

Go here to read the rest:

Theoretical planetology – Wikipedia

What is comparative planetology – Answers.com

1. The objective of comparative stylistics The objective of comparative stylistics is to study the stylistic characteristics of one language in comparison with those of another one. This systematic study offers students a better and deeper knowledge of the features that distinguish one language from another. Examples: – To become penniless /aflasa/ – The Arabs have pioneered in many branches of science /kna lilc arabi assabaqu fi: Satt furuc i al mac rifati/ These are two cases of “transposition.” In the first example, the verb /aflasa/ is expressed by a phrase in English, while in the second example the verb “to pioneer” is replaced with a noun /assabaqu/ in Arabic. – He was blown away /dhahaba adrja arriyhi/ This is a case of “modulation,” where each language describes the situation from a different viewpoint. While English indicates the means (blown), Arabic does the opposite: the result first /dhahaba/, then the means /adrja arriyhi/. Thus, we have a “chass-crois”: Means: blown /adrja arriyhi/ Result: /dhahaba/ away – Give a pint of your blood /tabarrac biqali:lin min damika/ – Before you could say Jack Robinson /fi: tarfati c ayn/ These are two cases of “equivalence” where two languages describe the same situation by using quite different structural and stylistic means. In the first example, the expression “to give a pint,” “pint” being a unit of measure for liquids equal to about half a liter, is rendered into Arabic by the equivalent /tabarrac biqali:lin min/ which literally means “donate some of.” In the second example, the English idiom “before you could say Jack Robinson,” which means “very quickly or suddenly,” has an equivalent idiom in Arabic /Fi tarfati c ayn/ which means “in the twinkling of an eye.” 2. The scope and limits of comparative stylistics According to Vinay and Darbelnet (1977), the three above-mentioned cases – transposition, modulation and equivalence – in addition to four others, which are borrowing, tracing (“calque”), literal translation and adaptation, constitute the seven techniques of translation. The authors of the book “Stylistique compare du franais et de l’anglais” even consider comparative stylistics as a method of translation (notice the expression, “mthode de traduction,” they put under the title on the first page). It is undeniable that comparative stylistics is beneficial to students, since it enables them to identify the characteristics which distinguish their mother language from a foreign one, and hence to perceive the phenomena that endow each languagewith a peculiar genius. Yet, it is arguable that comparative stylistics can explain the process of translation or set forth “laws valid to the two languages concerned” (Vinay and Darbelnet 1977: 20). Since the comparison of two languages requires primarily the performance of translation, we can assert that comparative stylistics is subsequent to translation and not prior to it. Therefore, the seven techniques are no more than means of comparison. If we reconsider the example “he was blown away,” it appears that, to translate it into Arabic, one would immediately look for its functional equivalent rather than think of the “technique” to be used, whether it is transposition, modulation or equivalence As a matter of fact, if the translator fails to find the appropriate equivalent in Arabic, /dhahaba adrja arriyhi/, it will be useless to know that this kind of transfer is called “modulation” from a comparative viewpoint. The same thing applies, of course, to the other techniques offered by comparative stylistics. Moreover, comparative stylistics usually suggests only one equivalent among several possible equivalents of a lexical unit or expression. In the previous example, we can say in Arabic: /dhahaba adrja arriyhi/ as well as /c asafat bihi arriyhu/ or /huwa fi: mahabbi arri:hi/, all of which are expressions with the same meaning. Finally, it appears that comparative stylistics, which is mainly interested in establishing correspondences and equivalences in two languages, does not go beyond the limit of language as a whole to reach the mobility of speech and usage. Hence, it can neither foretell the most appropriate equivalents for expressions in context nor embrace all potential cases of translation within the ever-renewable act of communication. The field of translation is indeed far from being limited or confined to linguistic facts, idiomatic expressions or correspondences that may constitute the subject of a comparative study

Go here to read the rest:

What is comparative planetology – Answers.com

What is comparative planetology – Answers.com

1. The objective of comparative stylistics The objective of comparative stylistics is to study the stylistic characteristics of one language in comparison with those of another one. This systematic study offers students a better and deeper knowledge of the features that distinguish one language from another. Examples: – To become penniless /aflasa/ – The Arabs have pioneered in many branches of science /kna lilc arabi assabaqu fi: Satt furuc i al mac rifati/ These are two cases of “transposition.” In the first example, the verb /aflasa/ is expressed by a phrase in English, while in the second example the verb “to pioneer” is replaced with a noun /assabaqu/ in Arabic. – He was blown away /dhahaba adrja arriyhi/ This is a case of “modulation,” where each language describes the situation from a different viewpoint. While English indicates the means (blown), Arabic does the opposite: the result first /dhahaba/, then the means /adrja arriyhi/. Thus, we have a “chass-crois”: Means: blown /adrja arriyhi/ Result: /dhahaba/ away – Give a pint of your blood /tabarrac biqali:lin min damika/ – Before you could say Jack Robinson /fi: tarfati c ayn/ These are two cases of “equivalence” where two languages describe the same situation by using quite different structural and stylistic means. In the first example, the expression “to give a pint,” “pint” being a unit of measure for liquids equal to about half a liter, is rendered into Arabic by the equivalent /tabarrac biqali:lin min/ which literally means “donate some of.” In the second example, the English idiom “before you could say Jack Robinson,” which means “very quickly or suddenly,” has an equivalent idiom in Arabic /Fi tarfati c ayn/ which means “in the twinkling of an eye.” 2. The scope and limits of comparative stylistics According to Vinay and Darbelnet (1977), the three above-mentioned cases – transposition, modulation and equivalence – in addition to four others, which are borrowing, tracing (“calque”), literal translation and adaptation, constitute the seven techniques of translation. The authors of the book “Stylistique compare du franais et de l’anglais” even consider comparative stylistics as a method of translation (notice the expression, “mthode de traduction,” they put under the title on the first page). It is undeniable that comparative stylistics is beneficial to students, since it enables them to identify the characteristics which distinguish their mother language from a foreign one, and hence to perceive the phenomena that endow each languagewith a peculiar genius. Yet, it is arguable that comparative stylistics can explain the process of translation or set forth “laws valid to the two languages concerned” (Vinay and Darbelnet 1977: 20). Since the comparison of two languages requires primarily the performance of translation, we can assert that comparative stylistics is subsequent to translation and not prior to it. Therefore, the seven techniques are no more than means of comparison. If we reconsider the example “he was blown away,” it appears that, to translate it into Arabic, one would immediately look for its functional equivalent rather than think of the “technique” to be used, whether it is transposition, modulation or equivalence As a matter of fact, if the translator fails to find the appropriate equivalent in Arabic, /dhahaba adrja arriyhi/, it will be useless to know that this kind of transfer is called “modulation” from a comparative viewpoint. The same thing applies, of course, to the other techniques offered by comparative stylistics. Moreover, comparative stylistics usually suggests only one equivalent among several possible equivalents of a lexical unit or expression. In the previous example, we can say in Arabic: /dhahaba adrja arriyhi/ as well as /c asafat bihi arriyhu/ or /huwa fi: mahabbi arri:hi/, all of which are expressions with the same meaning. Finally, it appears that comparative stylistics, which is mainly interested in establishing correspondences and equivalences in two languages, does not go beyond the limit of language as a whole to reach the mobility of speech and usage. Hence, it can neither foretell the most appropriate equivalents for expressions in context nor embrace all potential cases of translation within the ever-renewable act of communication. The field of translation is indeed far from being limited or confined to linguistic facts, idiomatic expressions or correspondences that may constitute the subject of a comparative study

See the article here:

What is comparative planetology – Answers.com

Hayes Research Group – Comparative Planetology and Solar …

Welcome to the Hayes Research Group at Cornell University

Our research focuses on comparative planetology and solar system exploration.

We specialize in the design, calibration, and operation of remote sensing instruments on unmanned planetary spacecraft.

Scientifically, we are interested in the processes that shape planetary surfaces and atmospheres, with particular emphasis on Mars and outer solar system satellites.

Read more:

Hayes Research Group – Comparative Planetology and Solar …

Planetary science – Wikipedia

Planetary science or, more rarely, planetology, is the scientific study of planets (including Earth), moons, and planetary systems (in particular those of the Solar System) and the processes that form them. It studies objects ranging in size from micrometeoroids to gas giants, aiming to determine their composition, dynamics, formation, interrelations and history. It is a strongly interdisciplinary field, originally growing from astronomy and earth science,[1] but which now incorporates many disciplines, including planetary geology (together with geochemistry and geophysics), cosmochemistry, atmospheric science, oceanography, hydrology, theoretical planetary science, glaciology, and exoplanetology.[1] Allied disciplines include space physics, when concerned with the effects of the Sun on the bodies of the Solar System, and astrobiology.

There are interrelated observational and theoretical branches of planetary science. Observational research can involve a combination of space exploration, predominantly with robotic spacecraft missions using remote sensing, and comparative, experimental work in Earth-based laboratories. The theoretical component involves considerable computer simulation and mathematical modelling.

Planetary scientists are generally located in the astronomy and physics or Earth sciences departments of universities or research centres, though there are several purely planetary science institutes worldwide. There are several major conferences each year, and a wide range of peer-reviewed journals. In the case of some exclusive planetary scientists, many of whom are in relation to the study of dark matter, they will seek a private research centre and often initiate partnership research tasks.

The history of planetary science may be said to have begun with the Ancient Greek philosopher Democritus, who is reported by Hippolytus as saying

The ordered worlds are boundless and differ in size, and that in some there is neither sun nor moon, but that in others, both are greater than with us, and yet with others more in number. And that the intervals between the ordered worlds are unequal, here more and there less, and that some increase, others flourish and others decay, and here they come into being and there they are eclipsed. But that they are destroyed by colliding with one another. And that some ordered worlds are bare of animals and plants and all water.[2]

In more modern times, planetary science began in astronomy, from studies of the unresolved planets. In this sense, the original planetary astronomer would be Galileo, who discovered the four largest moons of Jupiter, the mountains on the Moon, and first observed the rings of Saturn, all objects of intense later study. Galileo’s study of the lunar mountains in 1609 also began the study of extraterrestrial landscapes: his observation “that the Moon certainly does not possess a smooth and polished surface” suggested that it and other worlds might appear “just like the face of the Earth itself”.[3]

Advances in telescope construction and instrumental resolution gradually allowed increased identification of the atmospheric and surface details of the planets. The Moon was initially the most heavily studied, as it always exhibited details on its surface, due to its proximity to the Earth, and the technological improvements gradually produced more detailed lunar geological knowledge. In this scientific process, the main instruments were astronomical optical telescopes (and later radio telescopes) and finally robotic exploratory spacecraft.

The Solar System has now been relatively well-studied, and a good overall understanding of the formation and evolution of this planetary system exists. However, there are large numbers of unsolved questions,[4] and the rate of new discoveries is very high, partly due to the large number of interplanetary spacecraft currently exploring the Solar System.

This is both an observational and a theoretical science. Observational researchers are predominantly concerned with the study of the small bodies of the Solar System: those that are observed by telescopes, both optical and radio, so that characteristics of these bodies such as shape, spin, surface materials and weathering are determined, and the history of their formation and evolution can be understood.

Theoretical planetary astronomy is concerned with dynamics: the application of the principles of celestial mechanics to the Solar System and extrasolar planetary systems.

The best known research topics of planetary geology deal with the planetary bodies in the near vicinity of the Earth: the Moon, and the two neighbouring planets: Venus and Mars. Of these, the Moon was studied first, using methods developed earlier on the Earth.

Geomorphology studies the features on planetary surfaces and reconstructs the history of their formation, inferring the physical processes that acted on the surface. Planetary geomorphology includes the study of several classes of surface features:

The history of a planetary surface can be deciphered by mapping features from top to bottom according to their deposition sequence, as first determined on terrestrial strata by Nicolas Steno. For example, stratigraphic mapping prepared the Apollo astronauts for the field geology they would encounter on their lunar missions. Overlapping sequences were identified on images taken by the Lunar Orbiter program, and these were used to prepare a lunar stratigraphic column and geological map of the Moon.

One of the main problems when generating hypotheses on the formation and evolution of objects in the Solar System is the lack of samples that can be analysed in the laboratory, where a large suite of tools are available and the full body of knowledge derived from terrestrial geology can be brought to bear. Fortunately, direct samples from the Moon, asteroids and Mars are present on Earth, removed from their parent bodies and delivered as meteorites. Some of these have suffered contamination from the oxidising effect of Earth’s atmosphere and the infiltration of the biosphere, but those meteorites collected in the last few decades from Antarctica are almost entirely pristine.

The different types of meteorites that originate from the asteroid belt cover almost all parts of the structure of differentiated bodies: meteorites even exist that come from the core-mantle boundary (pallasites). The combination of geochemistry and observational astronomy has also made it possible to trace the HED meteorites back to a specific asteroid in the main belt, 4 Vesta.

The comparatively few known Martian meteorites have provided insight into the geochemical composition of the Martian crust, although the unavoidable lack of information about their points of origin on the diverse Martian surface has meant that they do not provide more detailed constraints on theories of the evolution of the Martian lithosphere.[5] As of July 24, 2013 65 samples of Martian meteorites have been discovered on Earth. Many were found in either Antarctica or the Sahara Desert.

During the Apollo era, in the Apollo program, 384 kilograms of lunar samples were collected and transported to the Earth, and 3 Soviet Luna robots also delivered regolith samples from the Moon. These samples provide the most comprehensive record of the composition of any Solar System body beside the Earth. The numbers of lunar meteorites are growing quickly in the last few years [6] as of April 2008 there are 54 meteorites that have been officially classified as lunar. Eleven of these are from the US Antarctic meteorite collection, 6 are from the Japanese Antarctic meteorite collection, and the other 37 are from hot desert localities in Africa, Australia, and the Middle East. The total mass of recognized lunar meteorites is close to 50kg.

Space probes made it possible to collect data in not only the visible light region, but in other areas of the electromagnetic spectrum. The planets can be characterized by their force fields: gravity and their magnetic fields, which are studied through geophysics and space physics.

Measuring the changes in acceleration experienced by spacecraft as they orbit has allowed fine details of the gravity fields of the planets to be mapped. For example, in the 1970s, the gravity field disturbances above lunar maria were measured through lunar orbiters, which led to the discovery of concentrations of mass, mascons, beneath the Imbrium, Serenitatis, Crisium, Nectaris and Humorum basins.

If a planet’s magnetic field is sufficiently strong, its interaction with the solar wind forms a magnetosphere around a planet. Early space probes discovered the gross dimensions of the terrestrial magnetic field, which extends about 10 Earth radii towards the Sun. The solar wind, a stream of charged particles, streams out and around the terrestrial magnetic field, and continues behind the magnetic tail, hundreds of Earth radii downstream. Inside the magnetosphere, there are relatively dense regions of solar wind particles, the Van Allen radiation belts.

Geophysics includes seismology and tectonophysics, geophysical fluid dynamics, mineral physics, geodynamics, mathematical geophysics, and geophysical surveying.

Geodesy, also called geodetics, deals with the measurement and representation of the planets of the Solar System, their gravitational fields and geodynamic phenomena (polar motion in three-dimensional, time-varying space. The science of geodesy has elements of both astrophysics and planetary sciences. The shape of the Earth is to a large extent the result of its rotation, which causes its equatorial bulge, and the competition of geologic processes such as the collision of plates and of vulcanism, resisted by the Earth’s gravity field. These principles can be applied to the solid surface of Earth (orogeny; Few mountains are higher than 10km (6mi), few deep sea trenches deeper than that because quite simply, a mountain as tall as, for example, 15km (9mi), would develop so much pressure at its base, due to gravity, that the rock there would become plastic, and the mountain would slump back to a height of roughly 10km (6mi) in a geologically insignificant time. Some or all of these geologic principles can be applied to other planets besides Earth. For instance on Mars, whose surface gravity is much less, the largest volcano, Olympus Mons, is 27km (17mi) high at its peak, a height that could not be maintained on Earth. The Earth geoid is essentially the figure of the Earth abstracted from its topographic features. Therefore, the Mars geoid is essentially the figure of Mars abstracted from its topographic features. Surveying and mapping are two important fields of application of geodesy.

The atmosphere is an important transitional zone between the solid planetary surface and the higher rarefied ionizing and radiation belts. Not all planets have atmospheres: their existence depends on the mass of the planet, and the planet’s distance from the Sun too distant and frozen atmospheres occur. Besides the four gas giant planets, almost all of the terrestrial planets (Earth, Venus, and Mars) have significant atmospheres. Two moons have significant atmospheres: Saturn’s moon Titan and Neptune’s moon Triton. A tenuous atmosphere exists around Mercury.

The effects of the rotation rate of a planet about its axis can be seen in atmospheric streams and currents. Seen from space, these features show as bands and eddies in the cloud system, and are particularly visible on Jupiter and Saturn.

Planetary science frequently makes use of the method of comparison to give a greater understanding of the object of study. This can involve comparing the dense atmospheres of Earth and Saturn’s moon Titan, the evolution of outer Solar System objects at different distances from the Sun, or the geomorphology of the surfaces of the terrestrial planets, to give only a few examples.

The main comparison that can be made is to features on the Earth, as it is much more accessible and allows a much greater range of measurements to be made. Earth analogue studies are particularly common in planetary geology, geomorphology, and also in atmospheric science.

Smaller workshops and conferences on particular fields occur worldwide throughout the year.

This non-exhaustive list includes those institutions and universities with major groups of people working in planetary science. Alphabetical order is used.

The rest is here:

Planetary science – Wikipedia

University of Hawaii – Wikipedia

The University of Hawaii system (formally the University of Hawaii and popularly known as U.H.) is a public, co-educational college and university system that confers associate, bachelor’s, master’s, and doctoral degrees through three university campuses, seven community college campuses, an employment training center, three university centers, four education centers and various other research facilities distributed across six islands throughout the State of Hawaii in the United States. All schools of the University of Hawaii system are accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges. The U.H. system’s main administrative offices are located on the property of the University of Hawaii at Mnoa in Honolulu CDP.[3][4][5]

The University of Hawaii at Mnoa is the flagship institution of the University of Hawaii system. It was founded as a land-grant college under the terms of the Morrill Acts of 1862 and 1890. It is well respected for its programs in Hawaiian/Pacific Studies, Astronomy, East Asian Languages and Literature, Asian Studies, Comparative Philosophy, Marine Science, Second Language Studies, along with Botany, Engineering, Ethnomusicology, Geophysics, Law, Business, Linguistics, Mathematics, and Medicine. The second-largest institution is the University of Hawaii at Hilo on the “Big Island” of Hawaii, with over 3,000 students. The smaller University of Hawaii-West Oahu in Kapolei primarily serves students who reside on Honolulu’s western and central suburban communities. The University of Hawaii Community College system comprises four community colleges island campuses on O’ahu and one each on Maui, Kauai, and Hawaii. The schools were created to improve accessibility of courses to more Hawaii residents and provide an affordable means of easing the transition from secondary school/high school to college for many students. University of Hawaii education centers are located in more remote areas of the State and its several islands, supporting rural communities via distance education.

In accordance with Article X, Section 6 of the Hawaii State Constitution, the University of Hawaii system is governed by a Board of Regents, composed of 15 unpaid members who are nominated by a Regents Candidate Advisory Council, appointed by the governor, and confirmed by the state legislature. The Board oversees all aspects of governance for the university system, including its internal structure and management. The board also appoints, evaluates, and if necessary removes the President of the University of Hawaii.[8]

The University’s governing board includes a current student appointed by the Governor of Hawaii to serve a two-year term as a full voting regent. The practice of appointing a student to the Board was approved by the Hawaii State Legislature in 1997.

Alumni of the University of Hawaii system include many notable persons in various walks of life. Senator Daniel Inouye and Tammy Duckworth both are veterans of the US military who were injured during in the line of duty then later entered government service. Bette Midler and Georgia Engel are successful entertainers on the national stage. President Barack Obama’s parents, Barack Obama, Sr., and S. Ann Dunham, and half-sister, Maya Soetoro-Ng, also earned degrees from the Mnoa campus, where his parents met in a Russian language class. His mother earned three degrees from the University of Hawaii including a Ph.D. in anthropology.

The University of Hawaii system has had many faculty members of note. Many were visiting faculty or came after they won major awards like Nobel Laureate Dr. Georg von Bksy. Dr. Ryuzo Yanagimachi, principal investigator of the research group that developed a method of cloning from adult animal cells, is still on the faculty.

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University of Hawaii – Wikipedia

What is comparative planetology – Answers.com

A “comparative” probably refers to a “comparative adjective”. An adjective describes a noun. (A noun is a person, place, thing or idea.) In other words, it gives information about something or someone. That blue bag weighs 20 kg. It is heavy > ‘heavy’ is an adjective which gives info about bag. A comparative adjective compares two or more nouns to give information about which one has (1) more (or less) or (2) the same of a certain quality or quantity. (1) MORE OR LESS ———- The blue bag weighs 20 kg. The red bag weighs 40 kg. The blue bag is heavier than the red bag, or The red bag is lighter than the blue bag. In English, the comparative of an adjective is formed: (a) If the word is short (i.e., it has only one syllable), add the ending -er HARD -> HARDER (b) If the word is short and ends in the spelling pattern VOWEL (a,e,i,o,u) and a CONSONANT, double the final consonant and add -er BIG -> BIGGER (c) If the word ends in -y, change the -y to -i and and -er HAPPY -> HAPPIER (d) If the word is longer (i.e., it has two or more syllables), add the word more (or less) before the adjective INTERESTING -> MORE (or LESS) INTERESTING (e) Irregular forms. Some adjectives have irregular forms. Here is an incomplete list: good -> better bad -> worse far -> farther or further (2) THE SAME ———- If the two things have the same quality or quantity, use the words “as … as”. The green and yellow bags both weigh 50 kg. The green bag is as heavy as the yellow bag. ADDENDUM ———- If there are more than two objects, the superlative form is possible, however, that is beyond the scope of this question.

Read the original here:

What is comparative planetology – Answers.com

Hayes Research Group – Comparative Planetology and Solar …

Welcome to the Hayes Research Group at Cornell University

Our research focuses on comparative planetology and solar system exploration.

We specialize in the design, calibration, and operation of remote sensing instruments on unmanned planetary spacecraft.

Scientifically, we are interested in the processes that shape planetary surfaces and atmospheres, with particular emphasis on Mars and outer solar system satellites.

Read the original post:

Hayes Research Group – Comparative Planetology and Solar …

Planetary science – Wikipedia

Planetary science or, more rarely, planetology, is the scientific study of planets (including Earth), moons, and planetary systems (in particular those of the Solar System) and the processes that form them. It studies objects ranging in size from micrometeoroids to gas giants, aiming to determine their composition, dynamics, formation, interrelations and history. It is a strongly interdisciplinary field, originally growing from astronomy and earth science,[1] but which now incorporates many disciplines, including planetary geology (together with geochemistry and geophysics), cosmochemistry, atmospheric science, oceanography, hydrology, theoretical planetary science, glaciology, and exoplanetology.[1] Allied disciplines include space physics, when concerned with the effects of the Sun on the bodies of the Solar System, and astrobiology.

There are interrelated observational and theoretical branches of planetary science. Observational research can involve a combination of space exploration, predominantly with robotic spacecraft missions using remote sensing, and comparative, experimental work in Earth-based laboratories. The theoretical component involves considerable computer simulation and mathematical modelling.

Planetary scientists are generally located in the astronomy and physics or Earth sciences departments of universities or research centres, though there are several purely planetary science institutes worldwide. There are several major conferences each year, and a wide range of peer-reviewed journals. In the case of some exclusive planetary scientists, many of whom are in relation to the study of dark matter, they will seek a private research centre and often initiate partnership research tasks.

The history of planetary science may be said to have begun with the Ancient Greek philosopher Democritus, who is reported by Hippolytus as saying

The ordered worlds are boundless and differ in size, and that in some there is neither sun nor moon, but that in others, both are greater than with us, and yet with others more in number. And that the intervals between the ordered worlds are unequal, here more and there less, and that some increase, others flourish and others decay, and here they come into being and there they are eclipsed. But that they are destroyed by colliding with one another. And that some ordered worlds are bare of animals and plants and all water.[2]

In more modern times, planetary science began in astronomy, from studies of the unresolved planets. In this sense, the original planetary astronomer would be Galileo, who discovered the four largest moons of Jupiter, the mountains on the Moon, and first observed the rings of Saturn, all objects of intense later study. Galileo’s study of the lunar mountains in 1609 also began the study of extraterrestrial landscapes: his observation “that the Moon certainly does not possess a smooth and polished surface” suggested that it and other worlds might appear “just like the face of the Earth itself”.[3]

Advances in telescope construction and instrumental resolution gradually allowed increased identification of the atmospheric and surface details of the planets. The Moon was initially the most heavily studied, as it always exhibited details on its surface, due to its proximity to the Earth, and the technological improvements gradually produced more detailed lunar geological knowledge. In this scientific process, the main instruments were astronomical optical telescopes (and later radio telescopes) and finally robotic exploratory spacecraft.

The Solar System has now been relatively well-studied, and a good overall understanding of the formation and evolution of this planetary system exists. However, there are large numbers of unsolved questions,[4] and the rate of new discoveries is very high, partly due to the large number of interplanetary spacecraft currently exploring the Solar System.

This is both an observational and a theoretical science. Observational researchers are predominantly concerned with the study of the small bodies of the Solar System: those that are observed by telescopes, both optical and radio, so that characteristics of these bodies such as shape, spin, surface materials and weathering are determined, and the history of their formation and evolution can be understood.

Theoretical planetary astronomy is concerned with dynamics: the application of the principles of celestial mechanics to the Solar System and extrasolar planetary systems.

The best known research topics of planetary geology deal with the planetary bodies in the near vicinity of the Earth: the Moon, and the two neighbouring planets: Venus and Mars. Of these, the Moon was studied first, using methods developed earlier on the Earth.

Geomorphology studies the features on planetary surfaces and reconstructs the history of their formation, inferring the physical processes that acted on the surface. Planetary geomorphology includes the study of several classes of surface features:

The history of a planetary surface can be deciphered by mapping features from top to bottom according to their deposition sequence, as first determined on terrestrial strata by Nicolas Steno. For example, stratigraphic mapping prepared the Apollo astronauts for the field geology they would encounter on their lunar missions. Overlapping sequences were identified on images taken by the Lunar Orbiter program, and these were used to prepare a lunar stratigraphic column and geological map of the Moon.

One of the main problems when generating hypotheses on the formation and evolution of objects in the Solar System is the lack of samples that can be analysed in the laboratory, where a large suite of tools are available and the full body of knowledge derived from terrestrial geology can be brought to bear. Fortunately, direct samples from the Moon, asteroids and Mars are present on Earth, removed from their parent bodies and delivered as meteorites. Some of these have suffered contamination from the oxidising effect of Earth’s atmosphere and the infiltration of the biosphere, but those meteorites collected in the last few decades from Antarctica are almost entirely pristine.

The different types of meteorites that originate from the asteroid belt cover almost all parts of the structure of differentiated bodies: meteorites even exist that come from the core-mantle boundary (pallasites). The combination of geochemistry and observational astronomy has also made it possible to trace the HED meteorites back to a specific asteroid in the main belt, 4 Vesta.

The comparatively few known Martian meteorites have provided insight into the geochemical composition of the Martian crust, although the unavoidable lack of information about their points of origin on the diverse Martian surface has meant that they do not provide more detailed constraints on theories of the evolution of the Martian lithosphere.[5] As of July 24, 2013 65 samples of Martian meteorites have been discovered on Earth. Many were found in either Antarctica or the Sahara Desert.

During the Apollo era, in the Apollo program, 384 kilograms of lunar samples were collected and transported to the Earth, and 3 Soviet Luna robots also delivered regolith samples from the Moon. These samples provide the most comprehensive record of the composition of any Solar System body beside the Earth. The numbers of lunar meteorites are growing quickly in the last few years [6] as of April 2008 there are 54 meteorites that have been officially classified as lunar. Eleven of these are from the US Antarctic meteorite collection, 6 are from the Japanese Antarctic meteorite collection, and the other 37 are from hot desert localities in Africa, Australia, and the Middle East. The total mass of recognized lunar meteorites is close to 50kg.

Space probes made it possible to collect data in not only the visible light region, but in other areas of the electromagnetic spectrum. The planets can be characterized by their force fields: gravity and their magnetic fields, which are studied through geophysics and space physics.

Measuring the changes in acceleration experienced by spacecraft as they orbit has allowed fine details of the gravity fields of the planets to be mapped. For example, in the 1970s, the gravity field disturbances above lunar maria were measured through lunar orbiters, which led to the discovery of concentrations of mass, mascons, beneath the Imbrium, Serenitatis, Crisium, Nectaris and Humorum basins.

If a planet’s magnetic field is sufficiently strong, its interaction with the solar wind forms a magnetosphere around a planet. Early space probes discovered the gross dimensions of the terrestrial magnetic field, which extends about 10 Earth radii towards the Sun. The solar wind, a stream of charged particles, streams out and around the terrestrial magnetic field, and continues behind the magnetic tail, hundreds of Earth radii downstream. Inside the magnetosphere, there are relatively dense regions of solar wind particles, the Van Allen radiation belts.

Geophysics includes seismology and tectonophysics, geophysical fluid dynamics, mineral physics, geodynamics, mathematical geophysics, and geophysical surveying.

Geodesy, also called geodetics, deals with the measurement and representation of the planets of the Solar System, their gravitational fields and geodynamic phenomena (polar motion in three-dimensional, time-varying space. The science of geodesy has elements of both astrophysics and planetary sciences. The shape of the Earth is to a large extent the result of its rotation, which causes its equatorial bulge, and the competition of geologic processes such as the collision of plates and of vulcanism, resisted by the Earth’s gravity field. These principles can be applied to the solid surface of Earth (orogeny; Few mountains are higher than 10km (6mi), few deep sea trenches deeper than that because quite simply, a mountain as tall as, for example, 15km (9mi), would develop so much pressure at its base, due to gravity, that the rock there would become plastic, and the mountain would slump back to a height of roughly 10km (6mi) in a geologically insignificant time. Some or all of these geologic principles can be applied to other planets besides Earth. For instance on Mars, whose surface gravity is much less, the largest volcano, Olympus Mons, is 27km (17mi) high at its peak, a height that could not be maintained on Earth. The Earth geoid is essentially the figure of the Earth abstracted from its topographic features. Therefore, the Mars geoid is essentially the figure of Mars abstracted from its topographic features. Surveying and mapping are two important fields of application of geodesy.

The atmosphere is an important transitional zone between the solid planetary surface and the higher rarefied ionizing and radiation belts. Not all planets have atmospheres: their existence depends on the mass of the planet, and the planet’s distance from the Sun too distant and frozen atmospheres occur. Besides the four gas giant planets, almost all of the terrestrial planets (Earth, Venus, and Mars) have significant atmospheres. Two moons have significant atmospheres: Saturn’s moon Titan and Neptune’s moon Triton. A tenuous atmosphere exists around Mercury.

The effects of the rotation rate of a planet about its axis can be seen in atmospheric streams and currents. Seen from space, these features show as bands and eddies in the cloud system, and are particularly visible on Jupiter and Saturn.

Planetary science frequently makes use of the method of comparison to give a greater understanding of the object of study. This can involve comparing the dense atmospheres of Earth and Saturn’s moon Titan, the evolution of outer Solar System objects at different distances from the Sun, or the geomorphology of the surfaces of the terrestrial planets, to give only a few examples.

The main comparison that can be made is to features on the Earth, as it is much more accessible and allows a much greater range of measurements to be made. Earth analogue studies are particularly common in planetary geology, geomorphology, and also in atmospheric science.

Smaller workshops and conferences on particular fields occur worldwide throughout the year.

This non-exhaustive list includes those institutions and universities with major groups of people working in planetary science. Alphabetical order is used.

Read the original here:

Planetary science – Wikipedia

University of Hawaii – Wikipedia

The University of Hawaii system (formally the University of Hawaii and popularly known as U.H.) is a public, co-educational college and university system that confers associate, bachelor’s, master’s, and doctoral degrees through three university campuses, seven community college campuses, an employment training center, three university centers, four education centers and various other research facilities distributed across six islands throughout the State of Hawaii in the United States. All schools of the University of Hawaii system are accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges. The U.H. system’s main administrative offices are located on the property of the University of Hawaii at Mnoa in Honolulu CDP.[3][4][5]

The University of Hawaii at Mnoa is the flagship institution of the University of Hawaii system. It was founded as a land-grant college under the terms of the Morrill Acts of 1862 and 1890. It is well respected for its programs in Hawaiian/Pacific Studies, Astronomy, East Asian Languages and Literature, Asian Studies, Comparative Philosophy, Marine Science, Second Language Studies, along with Botany, Engineering, Ethnomusicology, Geophysics, Law, Business, Linguistics, Mathematics, and Medicine. The second-largest institution is the University of Hawaii at Hilo on the “Big Island” of Hawaii, with over 3,000 students. The smaller University of Hawaii-West Oahu in Kapolei primarily serves students who reside on Honolulu’s western and central suburban communities. The University of Hawaii Community College system comprises four community colleges island campuses on O’ahu and one each on Maui, Kauai, and Hawaii. The schools were created to improve accessibility of courses to more Hawaii residents and provide an affordable means of easing the transition from secondary school/high school to college for many students. University of Hawaii education centers are located in more remote areas of the State and its several islands, supporting rural communities via distance education.

In accordance with Article X, Section 6 of the Hawaii State Constitution, the University of Hawaii system is governed by a Board of Regents, composed of 15 unpaid members who are nominated by a Regents Candidate Advisory Council, appointed by the governor, and confirmed by the state legislature. The Board oversees all aspects of governance for the university system, including its internal structure and management. The board also appoints, evaluates, and if necessary removes the President of the University of Hawaii.[8]

The University’s governing board includes a current student appointed by the Governor of Hawaii to serve a two-year term as a full voting regent. The practice of appointing a student to the Board was approved by the Hawaii State Legislature in 1997.

Alumni of the University of Hawaii system include many notable persons in various walks of life. Senator Daniel Inouye and Tammy Duckworth both are veterans of the US military who were injured during in the line of duty then later entered government service. Bette Midler and Georgia Engel are successful entertainers on the national stage. President Barack Obama’s parents, Barack Obama, Sr., and S. Ann Dunham, and half-sister, Maya Soetoro-Ng, also earned degrees from the Mnoa campus, where his parents met in a Russian language class. His mother earned three degrees from the University of Hawaii including a Ph.D. in anthropology.

The University of Hawaii system has had many faculty members of note. Many were visiting faculty or came after they won major awards like Nobel Laureate Dr. Georg von Bksy. Dr. Ryuzo Yanagimachi, principal investigator of the research group that developed a method of cloning from adult animal cells, is still on the faculty.

See original here:

University of Hawaii – Wikipedia


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