Jordan. Nike.com

"Through our Jordan Wings Program, we have been focused on providing access to education, mentorship and opportunity for Black youth facing the obstacles of systemic racism. But we know we can do more. We must join forces with the community, government and civic leaders to create a lasting impact together, said Craig Williams, President of Jordan Brand. There is still more work for us to do to drive real impact for the Black Community. We embrace the responsibility.


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Jordan – Wikipedia

Country in the Middle East

Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan

and largest city



2020 estimate




Per capita


Per capita

Jordan (Arabic: ; tr. Al-Urdunn [al.ur.dun]), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (Arabic: ; tr. Al-Mamlakah al-Urdunniyyah Al-Hshimiyyah), is an Arab country in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River. Jordan is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the south and the east, Iraq to the north-east, Syria to the north and Israel and Palestine to the west. The Dead Sea is located along its western borders and the country has a 26-kilometre (16mi) coastline on the Red Sea in its extreme south-west.[7] Jordan is strategically located at the crossroads of Asia, Africa and Europe.[8] The capital, Amman, is Jordan's most populous city as well as the country's economic, political and cultural centre.[9]

What is now Jordan has been inhabited by humans since the Paleolithic period. Three stable kingdoms emerged there at the end of the Bronze Age: Ammon, Moab and Edom. Later rulers include the Nabataean Kingdom, the Roman Empire, and the Ottoman Empire. After the Great Arab Revolt against the Ottomans in 1916 during World War I, the Ottoman Empire was partitioned by Britain and France. The Emirate of Transjordan was established in 1921 by the Hashemite, then Emir, Abdullah I, and the emirate became a British protectorate. In 1946, Jordan became an independent state officially known as the Hashemite Kingdom of Transjordan, but was renamed in 1949 to the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan after the country captured the West Bank during the 1948 ArabIsraeli War and annexed it until it was lost to Israel in 1967. Jordan renounced its claim to the territory in 1988, and became one of two Arab states to sign a peace treaty with Israel in 1994.[10] Jordan is a founding member of the Arab League and the Organisation of Islamic Co-operation. The sovereign state is a constitutional monarchy, but the king holds wide executive and legislative powers.

Jordan is a relatively small, semi-arid, almost landlocked country with an area of 89,342km2 (34,495sqmi) and a population numbering 10million, making it the 11th-most populous Arab country. Sunni Islam, practiced by around 95% of the population, is the dominant religion and coexists with an indigenous Christian minority. Jordan has been repeatedly referred to as an "oasis of stability" in a turbulent region. It has been mostly unscathed by the violence that swept the region following the Arab Spring in 2010.[11] From as early as 1948, Jordan has accepted refugees from multiple neighbouring countries in conflict. An estimated 2.1million Palestinian and 1.4million Syrian refugees are present in Jordan as of a 2015 census.[3] The kingdom is also a refuge to thousands of Iraqi Christians fleeing persecution by ISIL.[12] While Jordan continues to accept refugees, the recent large influx from Syria placed substantial strain on national resources and infrastructure.[13]

Jordan is classified as a country of "high human development" with an "upper middle income" economy. The Jordanian economy, one of the smallest economies in the region, is attractive to foreign investors based upon a skilled workforce.[14] The country is a major tourist destination, also attracting medical tourism due to its well developed health sector.[15] Nonetheless, a lack of natural resources, large flow of refugees and regional turmoil have hampered economic growth.[16]

Jordan takes its name from the Jordan River which forms much of the country's northwestern border.[17] While several theories for the origin of the river's name have been proposed, it is most plausible that it derives from the Semitic word Yarad, meaning "the descender", reflecting the river's declivity.[18] Much of the area that makes up modern Jordan was historically called Transjordan, meaning "across the Jordan", used to denote the lands east of the river.[18] The Old Testament refers to the area as "the other side of the Jordan".[18] Early Arab chronicles referred to the river as Al-Urdunn, corresponding to the Semitic Yarden.[19] Jund Al-Urdunn was a military district around the river in the early Islamic era.[19] Later, during the Crusades in the beginning of the second millennium, a lordship was established in the area under the name of Oultrejordain.[20]

The oldest evidence of hominid habitation in Jordan dates back at least 200,000 years.[21] Jordan is rich in Paleolithic (up to 20,000 years ago) remains due to its location within the Levant where expansions of hominids out of Africa converged.[22] Past lakeshore environments attracted different hominids, and several remains of tools have been found from this period.[22] The world's oldest evidence of bread-making was found in a 14,500 years old Natufian site in Jordan's northeastern desert.[23] The transition from hunter-gatherer to establishing populous agricultural villages occurred during the Neolithic period (10,0004,500 BC).[24] 'Ain Ghazal, one such village located in today's eastern Amman, is one of the largest known prehistoric settlements in the Near East.[25] Dozens of plaster statues of the human form dating to 7250 BC or earlier were uncovered there and they are among the oldest ever found.[26] Other than the usual Chalcolithic (45003600 BC) villages such as Tulaylet Ghassul in the Jordan Valley,[27] a series of circular stone enclosures in the eastern basalt desertwhose purpose remains uncertainhave baffled archaeologists.[28]

Fortified towns and urban centers first emerged in the southern Levant early on in the Bronze Age (36001200 BC).[29] Wadi Feynan became a regional center for copper extraction, which was exploited on a large-scale to produce bronze.[30] Trade and movement of people in the Middle East peaked, spreading and refining civilizations.[31] Villages in Transjordan expanded rapidly in areas with reliable water resources and agricultural land.[31] Ancient Egyptians expanded towards the Levant and controlled both banks of the Jordan River.[32] During the Iron Age (1200332 BC) after the withdrawal of the Egyptians, Transjordan was home to Ammon, Edom and Moab.[33] They spoke Semitic languages of the Canaanite group, and are considered to be tribal kingdoms rather than states.[33] Ammon was located in the Amman plateau; Moab in the highlands east of the Dead Sea; and Edom in the area around Wadi Araba down south.[33]

The Transjordanian kingdoms of Ammon, Edom and Moab were in continuous conflict with the neighbouring Hebrew kingdoms of Israel and Judah, centered west of the Jordan River.[34] One record of this is the Mesha Stele erected by the Moabite king Mesha in 840 BC on which he lauds himself for the building projects that he initiated in Moab and commemorates his glory and victory against the Israelites.[35] The stele constitutes one of the most important direct accounts of Biblical history.[36] Around 700 BC, the kingdoms benefited from trade between Syria and Arabia when the Assyrian Empire increasingly controlled the Levant.[37] Babylonians took over the empire after its disintegration in 627 BC.[37] Although the kingdoms supported the Babylonians against Judah in the 597 BC sack of Jerusalem, they rebelled against them a decade later.[37] The kingdoms were reduced to vassals, which they remained under the Persian and Hellenic Empires.[37] By the beginning of Roman rule around 63 BC, the kingdoms of Ammon, Edom and Moab had lost their distinct identities, and were assimilated into the Roman culture.[33]

Alexander the Great's conquest of the Persian Empire in 332 BC introduced Hellenistic culture to the Middle East. After Alexander's death in 323 BC, the empire split among his generals, and in the end much of Transjordan was disputed between the Ptolemies based in Egypt and the Seleucids based in Syria. The Nabataeans, nomadic Arabs based south of Edom, managed to establish an independent kingdom in 169 BC by exploiting the struggle between the two Greek powers. The Nabataean Kingdom controlled much of the trade routes of the region, and it stretched south along the Red Sea coast into the Hejaz desert, up to as far north as Damascus, which it controlled for a short period (8571) BC. The Nabataeans massed a fortune from their control of the trade routes, often drawing the envy of their neighbors. Petra, Nabataea's barren capital, flourished in the 1st century AD, driven by its extensive water irrigation systems and agriculture. The Nabataeans were also talented stone carvers, building their most elaborate structure, Al-Khazneh, in the first century AD.[42] It is believed to be the mausoleum of the Arab Nabataean King Aretas IV.[42]

Roman legions under Pompey conquered much of the Levant in 63 BC, inaugurating a period of Roman rule that lasted four centuries.[43] In 106 AD, Emperor Trajan annexed Nabataea unopposed, and rebuilt the King's Highway which became known as the Via Traiana Nova road.[43] The Romans gave the Greek cities of TransjordanPhiladelphia (Amman), Gerasa (Jerash), Gedara (Umm Qays), Pella (Tabaqat Fahl) and Arbila (Irbid)and other Hellenistic cities in Palestine and southern Syria, a level of autonomy by forming the Decapolis, a ten-city league.[44] Jerash is one of the best preserved Roman cities in the East; it was even visited by Emperor Hadrian during his journey to Palestine.[45]

In 324 AD, the Roman Empire split, and the Eastern Roman Empirelater known as the Byzantine Empirecontinued to control or influence the region until 636 AD.[46] Christianity had become legal within the empire in 313 AD after Emperor Constantine converted to Christianity.[46] The Edict of Thessalonka made Christianity the official state religion in 380 AD. Transjordan prospered during the Byzantine era, and Christian churches were built everywhere. The Aqaba Church in Ayla was built during this era, it is considered to be the world's first purpose built Christian church.[48] Umm ar-Rasas in southern Amman contains at least 16 Byzantine churches.[49] Meanwhile, Petra's importance declined as sea trade routes emerged, and after a 363 earthquake destroyed many structures, it declined further, eventually being abandoned.[42] The Sassanian Empire in the east became the Byzantines' rivals, and frequent confrontations sometimes led to the Sassanids controlling some parts of the region, including Transjordan.[50]

In 629 AD, during the Battle of Mu'tah in what is today Al-Karak, the Byzantines and their Arab Christian clients, the Ghassanids, staved off an attack by a Muslim Rashidun force that marched northwards towards the Levant from the Hejaz (in modern-day Saudi Arabia).[51] The Byzantines however were defeated by the Muslims in 636 AD at the decisive Battle of Yarmouk just north of Transjordan.[51] Transjordan was an essential territory for the conquest of Damascus.[52] The first, or Rashidun, caliphate was followed by that of the Ummayads (661750).[52] Under the Umayyad Caliphate, several desert castles were constructed in Transjordan, including: Qasr Al-Mshatta and Qasr Al-Hallabat.[52] The Abbasid Caliphate's campaign to take over the Umayyad's began in Transjordan.[53] A powerful 749 AD earthquake is thought to have contributed to the Umayyads defeat to the Abbasids, who moved the caliphate's capital from Damascus to Baghdad.[53] During Abbasid rule (750969), several Arab tribes moved northwards and settled in the Levant.[52] As had happened during the Roman era, growth of maritime trade diminished Transjordan's central position, and the area became increasingly impoverished. After the decline of the Abbasids, Transjordan was ruled by the Fatimid Caliphate (9691070), then by the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem (11151187).

The Crusaders constructed several Crusader castles as part of the Lordship of Oultrejordain, including those of Montreal and Al-Karak.[56] The Ayyubids built the Ajloun Castle and rebuilt older castles, to be used as military outposts against the Crusaders. During the Battle of Hattin (1187) near Lake Tiberias just north of Transjordan, the Crusaders lost to Saladin, the founder of the Ayyubid dynasty (11871260). Villages in Transjordan under the Ayyubids became important stops for Muslim pilgrims going to Mecca who travelled along the route that connected Syria to the Hejaz.[58] Several of the Ayyubid castles were used and expanded by the Mamluks (12601516), who divided Transjordan between the provinces of Karak and Damascus. During the next century Transjordan experienced Mongol attacks, but the Mongols were ultimately repelled by the Mamluks after the Battle of Ain Jalut (1260).[60]

In 1516, the Ottoman Caliphate's forces conquered Mamluk territory. Agricultural villages in Transjordan witnessed a period of relative prosperity in the 16th century, but were later abandoned.[62] Transjordan was of marginal importance to the Ottoman authorities.[63] As a result, Ottoman presence was virtually absent and reduced to annual tax collection visits.[62] More Arab Bedouin tribes moved into Transjordan from Syria and the Hejaz during the first three centuries of Ottoman rule, including the Adwan, the Bani Sakhr and the Howeitat. These tribes laid claims to different parts of the region, and with the absence of a meaningful Ottoman authority, Transjordan slid into a state of anarchy that continued till the 19th century. This led to a short-lived occupation by the Wahhabi forces (18031812), an ultra-orthodox Islamic movement that emerged in Najd (in modern-day Saudi Arabia). Ibrahim Pasha, son of the governor of the Egypt Eyalet under the request of the Ottoman sultan, rooted out the Wahhabis by 1818. In 1833 Ibrahim Pasha turned on the Ottomans and established his rule over the Levant.[68] His oppressive policies led to the unsuccessful peasants' revolt in Palestine in 1834.[68] Transjordanian cities of Al-Salt and Al-Karak were destroyed by Ibrahim Pasha's forces for harbouring a peasants' revolt leader.[68] Egyptian rule was forcibly ended in 1841, with Ottoman rule restored.[68]

Only after Ibrahim Pasha's campaign did the Ottoman Empire try to solidify its presence in the Syria Vilayet, which Transjordan was part of. A series of tax and land reforms (Tanzimat) in 1864 brought some prosperity back to agriculture and to abandoned villages; the end of virtually autonomy predictably provoked a backlash in other areas of Transjordan. Muslim Circassians and Chechens, fleeing Russian persecution, sought refuge in the Levant.[70] In Transjordan and with Ottoman support, Circassians first settled in the long-abandoned vicinity of Amman in 1867, and later in the surrounding villages.[70] After having established its administration, conscription and heavy taxation policies by the Ottoman authorities led to revolts in the areas it controlled. Transjordan's tribes in particular revolted during the Shoubak (1905) and the Karak Revolts (1910), which were brutally suppressed.[70] The construction of the Hejaz Railway in 1908stretching across the length of Transjordan and linking Mecca with Istanbul helped the population economically, as Transjordan became a stopover for pilgrims.[70] However, increasing policies of Turkification and centralization adopted by the Ottoman Empire disenchanted the Arabs of the Levant.

Four centuries of stagnation during Ottoman rule came to an end during World War I by the 1916 Arab Revolt, driven by long-term resentment towards the Ottoman authorities and growing Arab nationalism.[70] The revolt was led by Sharif Hussein of Mecca, and his sons Abdullah, Faisal and Ali, members of the Hashemite family of the Hejaz, descendants of the Prophet Muhammad.[70] Locally, the revolt garnered the support of the Transjordanian tribes, including Bedouins, Circassians and Christians. The Allies of World WarI, including Britain and France, whose imperial interests converged with the Arabist cause, offered support. The revolt started on 5 June 1916 from Medina and pushed northwards until the fighting reached Transjordan in the Battle of Aqaba on 6 July 1917.[74] The revolt reached its climax when Faisal entered Damascus in October 1918, and established an Arab-led military administration in OETA East, later declared as the Arab Kingdom of Syria, both of which Transjordan was part of. During this period, the southernmost region of the country, including Ma'an and Aqaba, was also claimed by the neighboring Kingdom of Hejaz.

The nascent Hashemite Kingdom over Greater Syria was forced to surrender to French troops on 24 July 1920 during the Battle of Maysalun;[75] the French occupied only the northern part of the Syrian Kingdom, leaving Transjordan in a period of interregnum. Arab aspirations failed to gain international recognition, due mainly to the secret 1916 SykesPicot Agreement, which divided the region into French and British spheres of influence, and the 1917 Balfour Declaration, which promised Palestine to Jews. This was seen by the Hashemites and the Arabs as a betrayal of their previous agreements with the British, including the 1915 McMahonHussein Correspondence, in which the British stated their willingness to recognize the independence of a unified Arab state stretching from Aleppo to Aden under the rule of the Hashemites.[78]

The British High Commissioner, Herbert Samuel, travelled to Transjordan on 21 August 1920 to meet with Al-Salt's residents. He there declared to a crowd of six hundred Transjordanian notables that the British government would aid the establishment of local governments in Transjordan, which is to be kept separate from that of Palestine. The second meeting took place in Umm Qais on 2 September, where the British government representative Major Fitzroy Somerset received a petition that demanded: an independent Arab government in Transjordan to be led by an Arab prince (emir); land sale in Transjordan to Jews be stopped as well as the prevention of Jewish immigration there; that Britiain establish and fund a national army; and that free trade be maintained between Transjordan and the rest of the region.[79]

Abdullah, the second son of Sharif Hussein, arrived from Hejaz by train in Ma'an in southern Transjordan on 21 November 1920 to redeem the Greater Syrian Kingdom his brother had lost. Transjordan then was in disarray, widely considered to be ungovernable with its dysfunctional local governments. Abdullah gained the trust of Transjordan's tribal leaders before scrambling to convince them of the benefits of an organized government. Abdullah's successes drew the envy of the British, even when it was in their interest. The British reluctantly accepted Abdullah as ruler of Transjordan after having given him a six-month trial. In March 1921, the British decided to add Transjordan to their Mandate for Palestine, in which they would implement their "Sharifian Solution" policy without applying the provisions of the mandate dealing with Jewish settlement. On 11 April 1921, the Emirate of Transjordan was established with Abdullah as Emir.

In September 1922, the Council of the League of Nations recognised Transjordan as a state under the terms of the Transjordan memorandum.[86][87] Transjordan remained a British mandate until 1946, but it had been granted a greater level of autonomy than the region west of the Jordan River.[88] Multiple difficulties emerged upon the assumption of power in the region by the Hashemite leadership. In Transjordan, small local rebellions at Kura in 1921 and 1923 were suppressed by the Emir's forces with the help of the British. Wahhabis from Najd regained strength and repeatedly raided the southern parts of his territory in (19221924), seriously threatening the Emir's position. The Emir was unable to repel those raids without the aid of the local Bedouin tribes and the British, who maintained a military base with a small RAF detachment close to Amman.

The Treaty of London, signed by the British Government and the Emir of Transjordan on 22 March 1946, recognised the independence of Transjordan upon ratification by both countries' parliaments.[90] On 25 May 1946, the day that the treaty was ratified by the Transjordan parliament, Transjordan was raised to the status of a kingdom under the name of the Hashemite Kingdom of Transjordan, with Abdullah as its first king.[91] The name was shortened to the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan on 26 April 1949.[10] 25 May is now celebrated as the nation's Independence Day, a public holiday.[92] Jordan became a member of the United Nations on 14 December 1955.[10]

On 15 May 1948, as part of the 1948 ArabIsraeli War, Jordan invaded Palestine together with many other Arab states.[93] Following the war, Jordan controlled the West Bank and on 24 April 1950 Jordan formally annexed these territories after the Jericho conference.[94][95] In response, some Arab countries demanded Jordan's expulsion from the Arab League.[94] On 12 June 1950, the Arab League declared that the annexation was a temporary, practical measure and that Jordan was holding the territory as a "trustee" pending a future settlement.[96] King Abdullah was assassinated at the Al-Aqsa Mosque in 1951 by a Palestinian militant, amid rumours he intended to sign a peace treaty with Israel.[97]

Abdullah was succeeded by his son Talal, who would soon abdicate due to illness in favour of his eldest son Hussein.[98] Talal established the country's modern constitution in 1952.[98] Hussein ascended to the throne in 1953 at the age of 17.[97] Jordan witnessed great political uncertainty in the following period.[99] The 1950s were a period of political upheaval, as Nasserism and Pan-Arabism swept the Arab World.[99] On 1 March 1956, King Hussein Arabized the command of the Army by dismissing a number of senior British officers, an act made to remove remaining foreign influence in the country.[100] In 1958, Jordan and neighbouring Hashemite Iraq formed the Arab Federation as a response to the formation of the rival United Arab Republic between Nasser's Egypt and Syria.[101] The union lasted only six months, being dissolved after Iraqi King Faisal II (Hussein's cousin) was deposed by a bloody military coup on 14 July 1958.[101]

Jordan signed a military pact with Egypt just before Israel launched a preemptive strike on Egypt to begin the Six-Day War in June 1967, where Jordan and Syria joined the war.[102] The Arab states were defeated and Jordan lost control of the West Bank to Israel.[102] The War of Attrition with Israel followed, which included the 1968 Battle of Karameh where the combined forces of the Jordanian Armed Forces and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) repelled an Israeli attack on the Karameh camp on the Jordanian border with the West Bank.[102] Despite the fact that the Palestinians had limited involvement against the Israeli forces, the events at Karameh gained wide recognition and acclaim in the Arab world.[103] As a result, the time period following the battle witnessed an upsurge of support for Palestinian paramilitary elements (the fedayeen) within Jordan from other Arab countries.[103] The fedayeen activities soon became a threat to Jordan's rule of law.[103] In September 1970, the Jordanian army targeted the fedayeen and the resultant fighting led to the expulsion of Palestinian fighters from various PLO groups into Lebanon, in a conflict that became known as Black September.[103]

In 1973, Egypt and Syria waged the Yom Kippur War on Israel, and fighting occurred along the 1967 Jordan River cease-fire line.[103] Jordan sent a brigade to Syria to attack Israeli units on Syrian territory but did not engage Israeli forces from Jordanian territory.[103] At the Rabat summit conference in 1974, in the aftermath of the Yom-Kippur War, Jordan agreed, along with the rest of the Arab League, that the PLO was the "sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people".[103] Subsequently, Jordan renounced its claims to the West Bank in 1988.[103]

At the 1991 Madrid Conference, Jordan agreed to negotiate a peace treaty sponsored by the US and the Soviet Union.[103] The Israel-Jordan Treaty of Peace was signed on 26 October 1994.[103] In 1997, in retribution for a bombing, Israeli agents entered Jordan using Canadian passports and poisoned Khaled Meshal, a senior Hamas leader living in Jordan.[103] Bowing to intense international pressure, Israel provided an antidote to the poison and released dozens of political prisoners, including Sheikh Ahmed Yassin, after King Hussein threatened to annul the peace treaty.[103]

On 7 February 1999, Abdullah II ascended the throne upon the death of his father Hussein, who had ruled for nearly 50 years.[104] Abdullah embarked on economic liberalisation when he assumed the throne, and his reforms led to an economic boom which continued until 2008.[105] Abdullah II has been credited with increasing foreign investment, improving public-private partnerships and providing the foundation for Aqaba's free-trade zone and Jordan's flourishing information and communication technology (ICT) sector.[105] He also set up five other special economic zones.[105] However, during the following years Jordan's economy experienced hardship as it dealt with the effects of the Great Recession and spillover from the Arab Spring.[106]

Al-Qaeda under Abu Musab al-Zarqawi's leadership launched coordinated explosions in three hotel lobbies in Amman on 9 November 2005, resulting in 60 deaths and 115 injured.[107] The bombings, which targeted civilians, caused widespread outrage among Jordanians.[107] The attack is considered to be a rare event in the country, and Jordan's internal security was dramatically improved afterwards.[107] No major terrorist attacks have occurred since then.[108] Abdullah and Jordan are viewed with contempt by Islamic extremists for the country's peace treaty with Israel and its relationship with the West.[109]

The Arab Spring were large-scale protests that erupted in the Arab World in 2011, demanding economic and political reforms.[110] Many of these protests tore down regimes in some Arab nations, leading to instability that ended with violent civil wars.[110] In Jordan, in response to domestic unrest, Abdullah replaced his prime minister and introduced a number of reforms including: reforming the Constitution, and laws governing public freedoms and elections.[110] Proportional representation was re-introduced to the Jordanian parliament in the 2016 general election, a move which he said would eventually lead to establishing parliamentary governments.[111] Jordan was left largely unscathed from the violence that swept the region despite an influx of 1.4million Syrian refugees into the natural resources-lacking country and the emergence of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL).[111]

Jordan sits strategically at the crossroads of the continents of Asia, Africa and Europe,[8] in the Levant area of the Fertile Crescent, a cradle of civilization.[112] It is 89,341 square kilometres (34,495sqmi) large, and 400 kilometres (250mi) long between its northernmost and southernmost points; Umm Qais and Aqaba respectively.[17] The kingdom lies between 29 and 34 N, and 34 and 40 E. The east is an arid plateau irrigated by oases and seasonal water streams.[17] Major cities are overwhelmingly located on the north-western part of the kingdom due to its fertile soils and relatively abundant rainfall.[113] These include Irbid, Jerash and Zarqa in the northwest, the capital Amman and Al-Salt in the central west, and Madaba, Al-Karak and Aqaba in the southwest.[113] Major towns in the eastern part of the country are the oasis towns of Azraq and Ruwaished.[112]

In the west, a highland area of arable land and Mediterranean evergreen forestry drops suddenly into the Jordan Rift Valley.[112] The rift valley contains the Jordan River and the Dead Sea, which separates Jordan from Israel.[112] Jordan has a 26 kilometres (16mi) shoreline on the Gulf of Aqaba in the Red Sea, but is otherwise landlocked.[7] The Yarmouk River, an eastern tributary of the Jordan, forms part of the boundary between Jordan and Syria (including the occupied Golan Heights) to the north.[7] The other boundaries are formed by several international and local agreements and do not follow well-defined natural features.[112] The highest point is Jabal Umm al Dami, at 1,854m (6,083ft) above sea level, while the lowest is the Dead Sea 420m (1,378ft), the lowest land point on earth.[112]

Jordan has a diverse range of habitats, ecosystems and biota due to its varied landscapes and environments.[114] The Royal Society for the Conservation of Nature was set up in 1966 to protect and manage Jordan's natural resources.[115] Nature reserves in Jordan include the Dana Biosphere Reserve, the Azraq Wetland Reserve, the Shaumari Wildlife Reserve and the Mujib Nature Reserve.[115]

The climate in Jordan varies greatly. Generally, the further inland from the Mediterranean, there are greater contrasts in temperature occur and less rainfall.[17] The country's average elevation is 812m (2,664ft) (SL).[17] The highlands above the Jordan Valley, mountains of the Dead Sea and Wadi Araba and as far south as Ras Al-Naqab are dominated by a Mediterranean climate, while the eastern and northeastern areas of the country are arid desert.[116] Although the desert parts of the kingdom reach high temperatures, the heat is usually moderated by low humidity and a daytime breeze, while the nights are cool.[117]

Summers, lasting from May to September, are hot and dry, with temperatures averaging around 32C (90F) and sometimes exceeding 40C (104F) between July and August.[117] The winter, lasting from November to March, is relatively cool, with temperatures averaging around 13C (55F).[116] Winter also sees frequent showers and occasional snowfall in some western elevated areas.[116]

Over 2,000 plant species have been recorded in Jordan.[118] Many of the flowering plants bloom in the spring after the winter rains and the type of vegetation depends largely on the levels of precipitation. The mountainous regions in the northwest are clothed in forests, while further south and east the vegetation becomes more scrubby and transitions to steppe-type vegetation.[119] Forests cover 1.5million dunums (1,500km2), less than 2% of Jordan, making Jordan among the world's least forested countries, the international average being 15%.[120]

Plant species and genera include the Aleppo pine, Sarcopoterium, Salvia dominica, black iris, Tamarix, Anabasis, Artemisia, Acacia, Mediterranean cypress and Phoenecian juniper.[121] The mountainous regions in the northwest are clothed in natural forests of pine, deciduous oak, evergreen oak, pistachio and wild olive.[122] Mammal and reptile species include, the long-eared hedgehog, Nubian ibex, wild boar, fallow deer, Arabian wolf, desert monitor, honey badger, glass snake, caracal, golden jackal and the roe deer, among others.[123][124][125] Bird include the hooded crow, Eurasian jay, lappet-faced vulture, barbary falcon, hoopoe, pharaoh eagle-owl, common cuckoo, Tristram's starling, Palestine sunbird, Sinai rosefinch, lesser kestrel, house crow and the white-spectacled bulbul.[126]

Jordan is a unitary state under a constitutional monarchy. Jordan's constitution, adopted in 1952 and amended a number of times since, is the legal framework that governs the monarch, government, bicameral legislature and judiciary.[127] The king retains wide executive and legislative powers from the government and parliament.[128] The king exercises his powers through the government that he appoints for a four-year term, which is responsible before the parliament that is made up of two chambers: the Senate and the House of Representatives. The judiciary is independent according to the constitution.[127]

The king is the head of state and commander-in-chief of the army. He can declare war and peace, ratify laws and treaties, convene and close legislative sessions, call and postpone elections, dismiss the government and dissolve the parliament.[127] The appointed government can also be dismissed through a majority vote of no confidence by the elected House of Representatives. After a bill is proposed by the government, it must be approved by the House of Representatives then the Senate, and becomes law after being ratified by the king. A royal veto on legislation can be overridden by a two-thirds vote in a joint session of both houses. The parliament also has the right of interpellation.[127]

The 65 members of the upper Senate are directly appointed by the king, the constitution mandates that they be veteran politicians, judges and generals who previously served in the government or in the House of Representatives.[129] The 130 members of the lower House of Representatives are elected through party-list proportional representation in 23 constituencies for a 4-year term.[130] Minimum quotas exist in the House of Representatives for women (15 seats, though they won 20 seats in the 2016 election), Christians (9 seats) and Circassians and Chechens (3 seats).[131]

Courts are divided into three categories: civil, religious, and special.[132] The civil courts deal with civil and criminal matters, including cases brought against the government.[132] The civil courts include Magistrate Courts, Courts of First Instance, Courts of Appeal,[132] High Administrative Courts which hear cases relating to administrative matters,[133] and the Constitutional Court which was set up in 2012 in order to hear cases regarding the constitutionality of laws.[134] Although Islam is the state religion, the constitution preserves religious and personal freedoms. Religious law only extends to matters of personal status such as divorce and inheritance in religious courts, and is partially based on Islamic Sharia law.[135] The special court deals with cases forwarded by the civil one.[136]

The capital city of Jordan is Amman, located in north-central Jordan.[9] Jordan is divided into 12 governorates (muhafazah) (informally grouped into three regions: northern, central, southern). These are subdivided into a total of 52 districts (Liwaa'), which are further divided into neighbourhoods in urban areas or into towns in rural ones.[137]

The current monarch, Abdullah II, ascended to the throne in February 1999 after the death of his father King Hussein. Abdullah re-affirmed Jordan's commitment to the peace treaty with Israel and its relations with the United States. He refocused the government's agenda on economic reform, during his first year. King Abdullah's eldest son, Prince Hussein, is the current Crown Prince of Jordan.[138] The current prime minister is Omar Razzaz who received his position on 4 June 2018 after his predecessor's austerity measures forced widespread protests.[139] Abdullah had announced his intentions of turning Jordan into a parliamentary system, where the largest bloc in parliament forms a government. However, the underdevelopment of political parties in the country has hampered such moves.[140] Jordan has around 50 political parties representing nationalist, leftist, Islamist, and liberal ideologies.[141] Political parties contested a fifth of the seats in the 2016 elections, the remainder belonging to independent politicians.[142]

According to Freedom House, Jordan is ranked as the 3rd freest Arab country, and as "partly free" in the Freedom in the World 2019 report.[143] The 2010 Arab Democracy Index from the Arab Reform Initiative ranked Jordan first in the state of democratic reforms out of 15 Arab countries.[144] Jordan ranked first among the Arab states and 78th globally in the Human Freedom Index in 2015,[145] and ranked 55th out of 175 countries in the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) issued by Transparency International in 2014, where 175th is most corrupt.[146] In the 2016 Press Freedom Index maintained by Reporters Without Borders, Jordan ranked 135th out of 180 countries worldwide, and 5th of 19 countries in the Middle East and North Africa region. Jordan's score was 44 on a scale from 0 (most free) to 105 (least free). The report added "the Arab Spring and the Syrian conflict have led the authorities to tighten their grip on the media and, in particular, the Internet, despite an outcry from civil society".[147] Jordanian media consists of public and private institutions. Popular Jordanian newspapers include Al Ghad and the Jordan Times. Al-Mamlaka, Ro'ya and Jordan TV are some Jordanian TV channels.[148] Internet penetration in Jordan reached 76% in 2015.[149] There are concerns that the government will use the COVID-19 pandemic in Jordan to silence dissidents.[150][151]

The first level subdivision in Jordan is the muhafazah or governorate. The governorates are divided into liwa or districts, which are often further subdivided into qda or sub-districts.[153] Control for each administrative unit is in a "chief town" (administrative centre) known as a nahia.[153]

The kingdom has followed a pro-Western foreign policy and maintained close relations with the United States and the United Kingdom. During the first Gulf War (1990), these relations were damaged by Jordan's neutrality and its maintenance of relations with Iraq. Later, Jordan restored its relations with Western countries through its participation in the enforcement of UN sanctions against Iraq and in the Southwest Asia peace process. After King Hussein's death in 1999, relations between Jordan and the Persian Gulf countries greatly improved.[154]

Jordan is a key ally of the US and UK and, together with Egypt, is one of only two Arab nations to have signed peace treaties with Israel, Jordan's direct neighbour.[155] Jordan views an independent Palestinian state with the 1967 borders, as part of the two-state solution and of supreme national interest.[156] The ruling Hashemite dynasty has had custodianship over holy sites in Jerusalem since 1924, a position re-inforced in the IsraelJordan peace treaty. Turmoil in Jerusalem's Al-Aqsa mosque between Israelis and Palestinians created tensions between Jordan and Israel concerning the former's role in protecting the Muslim and Christian sites in Jerusalem.[157]

Jordan is a founding member of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and of the Arab League.[158][159] It enjoys "advanced status" with the European Union and is part of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP), which aims to increase links between the EU and its neighbours.[160] Jordan and Morocco tried to join the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) in 2011, but the Gulf countries offered a five-year development aid programme instead.[161]

The first organised army in Jordan was established on 22 October 1920, and was named the "Arab Legion". The Legion grew from 150 men in 1920 to 8,000 in 1946.[162] Jordan's capture of the West Bank during the 1948 ArabIsraeli War proved that the Arab Legion, known today as the Jordan Armed Forces, was the most effective among the Arab troops involved in the war.[162] The Royal Jordanian Army, which boasts around 110,000 personnel, is considered to be among the most professional in the region, due to being particularly well-trained and organised.[162] The Jordanian military enjoys strong support and aid from the United States, the United Kingdom and France. This is due to Jordan's critical position in the Middle East.[162] The development of Special Operations Forces has been particularly significant, enhancing the capability of the military to react rapidly to threats to homeland security, as well as training special forces from the region and beyond.[163] Jordan provides extensive training to the security forces of several Arab countries.[164]

There are about 50,000 Jordanian troops working with the United Nations in peacekeeping missions across the world. Jordan ranks third internationally in participation in U.N. peacekeeping missions,[165] with one of the highest levels of peacekeeping troop contributions of all U.N. member states.[166] Jordan has dispatched several field hospitals to conflict zones and areas affected by natural disasters across the region.[167]

In 2014, Jordan joined an aerial bombardment campaign by an international coalition led by the United States against the Islamic State as part of its intervention in the Syrian Civil War.[168] In 2015, Jordan participated in the Saudi Arabian-led military intervention in Yemen against the Shia Houthis and forces loyal to former President Ali Abdullah Saleh, who was deposed in the 2011 uprising.[169]

Jordan's law enforcement is under the purview of the Public Security Directorate (which includes approximately 50,000 persons) and the General Directorate of Gendarmerie, both of which are subordinate to the country's Ministry of Interior. The first police force in the Jordanian state was organised after the fall of the Ottoman Empire on 11 April 1921.[170] Until 1956 police duties were carried out by the Arab Legion and the Transjordan Frontier Force. After that year the Public Safety Directorate was established.[170] The number of female police officers is increasing. In the 1970s, it was the first Arab country to include females in its police force.[171] Jordan's law enforcement was ranked 37th in the world and 3rd in the Middle East, in terms of police services' performance, by the 2016 World Internal Security and Police Index.[11][172]

Jordan is classified by the World Bank as an "upper-middle income" country.[173] However, approximately 14.4% of the population lives below the national poverty line on a longterm basis (as of 2010[update]),[173] while almost a third fell below the national poverty line during some time of the yearknown as transient poverty.[174] The economy, which has a GDP of $39.453billion (as of 2016[update]),[4] grew at an average rate of 8% per annum between 2004 and 2008, and around 2.6% 2010 onwards.[17] GDP per capita rose by 351% in the 1970s, declined 30% in the 1980s, and rose 36% in the 1990scurrently $9,406 per capita by purchasing power parity.[175] The Jordanian economy is one of the smallest economies in the region, and the country's populace suffers from relatively high rates of unemployment and poverty.[17]

Jordan's economy is relatively well diversified. Trade and finance combined account for nearly one-third of GDP; transportation and communication, public utilities, and construction account for one-fifth, and mining and manufacturing constitute nearly another fifth.[16] Net official development assistance to Jordan in 2009 totalled US$761million; according to the government, approximately two-thirds of this was allocated as grants, of which half was direct budget support.[176]

The official currency is the Jordanian dinar, which is pegged to the IMF's special drawing rights (SDRs), equivalent to an exchange rate of 1 US$ 0.709 dinar, or approximately 1 dinar 1.41044 dollars.[177] In 2000, Jordan joined the World Trade Organization and signed the JordanUnited States Free Trade Agreement, thus becoming the first Arab country to establish a free trade agreement with the United States. Jordan enjoys advanced status with the EU, which has facilitated greater access to export to European markets.[178] Due to slow domestic growth, high energy and food subsidies and a bloated public-sector workforce, Jordan usually runs annual budget deficits.[179]

The Great Recession and the turmoil caused by the Arab Spring have depressed Jordan's GDP growth, damaging trade, industry, construction and tourism.[17] Tourist arrivals have dropped sharply since 2011.[180] Since 2011, the natural gas pipeline in Sinai supplying Jordan from Egypt was attacked 32 times by Islamic State affiliates. Jordan incurred billions of dollars in losses because it had to substitute more expensive heavy-fuel oils to generate electricity.[181] In November 2012, the government cut subsidies on fuel, increasing its price.[182] The decision, which was later revoked, caused large scale protests to break out across the country.[179][180]

Jordan's total foreign debt in 2011 was $19billion, representing 60% of its GDP. In 2016, the debt reached $35.1billion representing 93% of its GDP.[106] This substantial increase is attributed to effects of regional instability causing: decrease in tourist activity; decreased foreign investments; increased military expenditure; attacks on Egyptian pipeline; the collapse of trade with Iraq and Syria; expenses from hosting Syrian refugees and accumulated interests from loans.[106] According to the World Bank, Syrian refugees have cost Jordan more than $2.5billion a year, amounting to 6% of the GDP and 25% of the government's annual revenue.[183] Foreign aid covers only a small part of these costs, 63% of the total costs are covered by Jordan.[184] An austerity programme was adopted by the government which aims to reduce Jordan's debt-to-GDP ratio to 77 percent by 2021.[185] The programme succeeded in preventing the debt from rising above 95% in 2018.[186]

The proportion of well-educated and skilled workers in Jordan is among the highest in the region in sectors such as ICT and industry, due to a relatively modern educational system. This has attracted large foreign investments to Jordan and has enabled the country to export its workforce to Persian Gulf countries.[14] Flows of remittances to Jordan grew rapidly, particularly during the end of the 1970s and 1980s, and remains an important source of external funding.[187] Remittances from Jordanian expatriates were $3.8billion in 2015, a notable rise in the amount of transfers compared to 2014 where remittances reached over $3.66billion listing Jordan as fourth largest recipient in the region.[188]

Jordan is ranked as having the 35th best infrastructure in the world, one of the highest rankings in the developing world, according to the 2010 World Economic Forum's Index of Economic Competitiveness. This high infrastructural development is necessitated by its role as a transit country for goods and services to Palestine and Iraq. Palestinians use Jordan as a transit country due to the Israeli restrictions and Iraqis use Jordan due to the instability in Iraq.[189]

According to data from the Jordanian Ministry of Public Works and Housing, as of 2011[update], the Jordanian road network consisted of 2,878km (1,788mi) of main roads; 2,592km (1,611mi) of rural roads and 1,733km (1,077mi) of side roads. The Hejaz Railway built during the Ottoman Empire which extended from Damascus to Mecca will act as a base for future railway expansion plans. Currently, the railway has little civilian activity; it is primarily used for transporting goods. A national railway project is currently undergoing studies and seeking funding sources.[190]

Jordan has three commercial airports, all receiving and dispatching international flights. Two are in Amman and the third is in Aqaba, King Hussein International Airport. Amman Civil Airport serves several regional routes and charter flights while Queen Alia International Airport is the major international airport in Jordan and is the hub for Royal Jordanian Airlines, the flag carrier. Queen Alia International Airport expansion was completed in 2013 with new terminals costing $700million, to handle over 16million passengers annually.[191] It is now considered a state-of-the-art airport and was awarded 'the best airport by region: Middle East' for 2014 and 2015 by Airport Service Quality (ASQ) survey, the world's leading airport passenger satisfaction benchmark programme.[192]

The Port of Aqaba is the only port in Jordan. In 2006, the port was ranked as being the "Best Container Terminal" in the Middle East by Lloyd's List. The port was chosen due to it being a transit cargo port for other neighbouring countries, its location between four countries and three continents, being an exclusive gateway for the local market and for the improvements it has recently witnessed.[193]

The tourism sector is considered a cornerstone of the economy and is a large source of employment, hard currency, and economic growth. In 2010, there were 8million visitors to Jordan. The majority of tourists coming to Jordan are from European and Arab countries.[15] The tourism sector in Jordan has been severely affected by regional turbulence.[194] The most recent blow to the tourism sector was caused by the Arab Spring, which scared off tourists from the entire region. Jordan experienced a 70% decrease in the number of tourists from 2010 to 2016.[195] Tourist numbers started to recover as of 2017.[195]

According to the Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities, Jordan is home to around 100,000 archaeological and tourist sites.[196] Some very well preserved historical cities include Petra and Jerash, the former being Jordan's most popular tourist attraction and an icon of the kingdom.[195] Jordan is part of the Holy Land and has several biblical attractions that attract pilgrimage activities. Biblical sites include: Al-Maghtasa traditional location for the Baptism of Jesus, Mount Nebo, Umm ar-Rasas, Madaba and Machaerus.[197] Islamic sites include shrines of the prophet Muhammad's companions such as 'Abd Allah ibn Rawahah, Zayd ibn Harithah and Muadh ibn Jabal.[198] Ajlun Castle built by Muslim Ayyubid leader Saladin in the 12th century AD during his wars with the Crusaders, is also a popular tourist attraction.[8]

Modern entertainment, recreation and souqs in urban areas, mostly in Amman, also attract tourists. Recently, the nightlife in Amman, Aqaba and Irbid has started to emerge and the number of bars, discos and nightclubs is on the rise.[199] Alcohol is widely available in tourist restaurants, liquor stores and even some supermarkets.[200] Valleys including Wadi Mujib and hiking trails in different parts of the country attract adventurers. Hiking is getting more and more popular among tourists and locals. Places such as Dana Biosphere Reserve and Petra offer numerous signposted hiking trails. Moreover, seaside recreation is present on the shores of Aqaba and the Dead Sea through several international resorts.[201]

Jordan has been a medical tourism destination in the Middle East since the 1970s. A study conducted by Jordan's Private Hospitals Association found that 250,000 patients from 102 countries received treatment in Jordan in 2010, compared to 190,000 in 2007, bringing over $1billion in revenue. Jordan is the region's top medical tourism destination, as rated by the World Bank, and fifth in the world overall.[202] The majority of patients come from Yemen, Libya and Syria due to the ongoing civil wars in those countries. Jordanian doctors and medical staff have gained experience in dealing with war patients through years of receiving such cases from various conflict zones in the region.[203] Jordan also is a hub for natural treatment methods in both Ma'in Hot Springs and the Dead Sea. The Dead Sea is often described as a 'natural spa'. It contains 10 times more salt than the average ocean, which makes it impossible to sink in. The high salt concentration of the Dead Sea has been proven therapeutic for many skin diseases.[citation needed] The uniqueness of this lake attracts several Jordanian and foreign vacationers, which boosted investments in the hotel sector in the area.[204] The Jordan Trail, a 650km (400mi) hiking trail stretching the entire country from north to south, crossing several of Jordan's attractions was established in 2015.[205] The trail aims to revive the Jordanian tourism sector.[205]

Jordan is the world's second poorest country in terms of water resources per capita, and scarce water resources were aggravated by the influx of Syrian refugees.[206] Water from Disi aquifer and ten major dams historically played a large role in providing Jordan's need for fresh water.[207] The Jawa Dam in northeastern Jordan, which dates back to the fourth millennium BC, is the world's oldest dam.[208] The Dead Sea is receding at an alarming rate. Multiple canals and pipelines were proposed to reduce its recession, which had begun causing sinkholes. The Red SeaDead Sea Water Conveyance project, carried out by Jordan, will provide water to the country and to Israel and Palestine, while the brine will be carried to the Dead Sea to help stabilise its levels. The first phase of the project is scheduled to begin in 2019 and to be completed in 2021.[209]

Natural gas was discovered in Jordan in 1987, however, the estimated size of the reserve discovered was about 230billion cubic feet, a minuscule quantity compared with its oil-rich neighbours. The Risha field, in the eastern desert beside the Iraqi border, produces nearly 35million cubic feet of gas a day, which is sent to a nearby power plant to generate a small amount of Jordan's electricity needs.[210] This led to a reliance on importing oil to generate almost all of its electricity. Regional instability over the decades halted oil and gas supply to the kingdom from various sources, making it incur billions of dollars in losses. Jordan built a liquified natural gas port in Aqaba in 2012 to temporarily substitute the supply, while formulating a strategy to rationalize energy consumption and to diversify its energy sources. Jordan receives 330 days of sunshine per year, and wind speeds reach over 7m/s in the mountainous areas, so renewables proved a promising sector.[211] King Abdullah inaugurated large-scale renewable energy projects in the 2010s including: the 117 MW Tafila Wind Farm, the 53 MW Shams Ma'an and the 103 MW Quweira solar power plants, with several more projects planned. By early 2019, it was reported that more than 1090 MW of renewable energy projects had been completed, contributing to 8% of Jordan's electricity up from 3% in 2011, while 92% was generated from gas.[212] After having initially set the percentage of renewable energy Jordan aimed to generate by 2020 at 10%, the government announced in 2018 that it sought to beat that figure and aim for 20%.[213]

Jordan has the 5th largest oil-shale reserves in the world, which could be commercially exploited in the central and northwestern regions of the country.[214] Official figures estimate the kingdom's oil shale reserves at more than 70billion tonnes. The extraction of oil-shale had been delayed a couple of years due to technological difficulties and the relatively higher costs.[215] The government overcame the difficulties and in 2017 laid the groundbreaking for the Attarat Power Plant, a $2.2billion oil shale-dependent power plant that is expected to generate 470 MW after it is completed in 2020.[216] Jordan also aims to benefit from its large uranium reserves by tapping nuclear energy. The original plan involved constructing two 1000 MW reactors but has been scrapped due to financial constraints.[217] Currently, the country's Atomic Energy Commission is considering building small modular reactors instead, whose capacities hover below 500 MW and can provide new water sources through desalination. In 2018, the commission announced that Jordan was in talks with multiple companies to build the country's first commercial nuclear plant, a Helium-cooled reactor that is scheduled for completion by 2025.[218] Phosphate mines in the south have made Jordan one of the largest producers and exporters of the mineral in the world.[219]

Jordan's well developed industrial sector, which includes mining, manufacturing, construction, and power, accounted for approximately 26% of the GDP in 2004 (including manufacturing, 16.2%; construction, 4.6%; and mining, 3.1%). More than 21% of Jordan's labor force was employed in industry in 2002. In 2014, industry accounted for 6% of the GDP.[220] The main industrial products are potash, phosphates, cement, clothes, and fertilisers. The most promising segment of this sector is construction. Petra Engineering Industries Company, which is considered to be one of the main pillars of Jordanian industry, has gained international recognition with its air-conditioning units reaching NASA.[221] Jordan is now considered to be a leading pharmaceuticals manufacturer in the MENA region led by Jordanian pharmaceutical company Hikma.[222]

Jordan's military industry thrived after the King Abdullah Design and Development Bureau (KADDB) defence company was established by King Abdullah II in 1999, to provide an indigenous capability for the supply of scientific and technical services to the Jordanian Armed Forces, and to become a global hub in security research and development. It manufactures all types of military products, many of which are presented at the bi-annually held international military exhibition SOFEX. In 2015, KADDB exported $72million worth of industries to over 42 countries.[223]

Science and technology is the country's fastest developing economic sector. This growth is occurring across multiple industries, including information and communications technology (ICT) and nuclear technology. Jordan contributes 75% of the Arabic content on the Internet.[225] In 2014, the ICT sector accounted for more than 84,000 jobs and contributed to 12% of the GDP. More than 400 companies are active in telecom, information technology and video game development. There are 600 companies operating in active technologies and 300 start-up companies.[225]

Nuclear science and technology is also expanding. The Jordan Research and Training Reactor, which began working in 2016, is a 5 MW training reactor located at the Jordan University of Science and Technology in Ar Ramtha.[226] The facility is the first nuclear reactor in the country and will provide Jordan with radioactive isotopes for medical usage and provide training to students to produce a skilled workforce for the country's planned commercial nuclear reactors.[226]

Jordan was also selected as the location for the Synchrotron-Light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East (SESAME) facility, supported by UNESCO and CERN.[227] This particle accelerator that was opened in 2017 will allow collaboration between scientists from various rival Middle Eastern countries.[227] The facility is the only particle accelerator in the Middle East, and one of only 60 synchrotron radiation facilities in the world.[227]

The 2015 census showed Jordan's population to be 9,531,712 (Female: 47%; Males: 53%). Around 2.9million (30%) were non-citizens, a figure including refugees, and illegal immigrants.[3] There were 1,977,534 households in Jordan in 2015, with an average of 4.8 persons per household (compared to 6.7 persons per household for the census of 1979).[3] The capital and largest city of Jordan is Amman, which is one of the world's oldest continuously inhabited cities and one of the most modern in the Arab world.[229] The population of Amman was 65,754 in 1946, but exceeded 4million by 2015.

Arabs make up about 98% of the population. The remaining 2% consist largely of peoples from the Caucasus including Circassians, Armenians, and Chechens, along with smaller minority groups.[17] About 84.1% of the population live in urban areas.[17]

Jordan is a home to 2,175,491 Palestinian refugees as of December 2016; most of them, but not all, were granted Jordanian citizenship.[230] The first wave of Palestinian refugees arrived during the 1948 ArabIsraeli War and peaked in the 1967 Six-Day War and the 1990 Gulf War. In the past, Jordan had given many Palestinian refugees citizenship, however recently Jordanian citizenship is given only in rare cases. 370,000 of these Palestinians live in UNRWA refugee camps.[230] Following the capture of the West Bank by Israel in 1967, Jordan revoked the citizenship of thousands of Palestinians to thwart any attempt to permanently resettle from the West Bank to Jordan. West Bank Palestinians with family in Jordan or Jordanian citizenship were issued yellow cards guaranteeing them all the rights of Jordanian citizenship if requested.[231]

Up to 1,000,000 Iraqis moved to Jordan following the Iraq War in 2003,[232] and most of them have returned. In 2015, their number in Jordan was 130,911. Many Iraqi Christians (Assyrians/Chaldeans) however settled temporarily or permanently in Jordan.[233] Immigrants also include 15,000 Lebanese who arrived following the 2006 Lebanon War.[234] Since 2010, over 1.4million Syrian refugees have fled to Jordan to escape the violence in Syria,[3] the largest population being in the Zaatari refugee camp. The kingdom has continued to demonstrate hospitality, despite the substantial strain the flux of Syrian refugees places on the country. The effects are largely affecting Jordanian communities, as the vast majority of Syrian refugees do not live in camps. The refugee crisis effects include competition for job opportunities, water resources and other state provided services, along with the strain on the national infrastructure.[13]

In 2007, there were up to 150,000 Assyrian Christians; most are Eastern Aramaic speaking refugees from Iraq.[235] Kurds number some 30,000, and like the Assyrians, many are refugees from Iraq, Iran and Turkey.[236] Descendants of Armenians that sought refuge in the Levant during the 1915 Armenian Genocide number approximately 5,000 persons, mainly residing in Amman.[237] A small number of ethnic Mandeans also reside in Jordan, again mainly refugees from Iraq.[238] Around 12,000 Iraqi Christians have sought refuge in Jordan after the Islamic State took the city of Mosul in 2014.[239] Several thousand Libyans, Yemenis and Sudanese have also sought asylum in Jordan to escape instability and violence in their respective countries.[13] The 2015 Jordanian census recorded that there were 1,265,000 Syrians, 636,270 Egyptians, 634,182 Palestinians, 130,911 Iraqis, 31,163 Yemenis, 22,700 Libyans and 197,385 from other nationalities residing in the country.[3]

There are around 1.2million illegal, and 500,000 legal, migrant workers in the kingdom.[240] Thousands of foreign women, mostly from the Middle East and Eastern Europe, work in nightclubs, hotels and bars across the kingdom.[241][242][243] American and European expatriate communities are concentrated in the capital, as the city is home to many international organizations and diplomatic missions.[200]

Sunni Islam is the dominant religion in Jordan. Muslims make up about 95% of the country's population; in turn, 93% of those self-identify as Sunnis.[244] There are also a small number of Ahmadi Muslims,[245] and some Shiites. Many Shia are Iraqi and Lebanese refugees.[246] Muslims who convert to another religion as well as missionaries from other religions face societal and legal discrimination.[247]

Jordan contains some of the oldest Christian communities in the world, dating as early as the 1st century AD after the crucifixion of Jesus.[248] Christians today make up about 4% of the population,[249] down from 20% in 1930, though their absolute number has grown.[12] This is due to high immigration rates of Muslims into Jordan, higher emigration rates of Christians to the West and higher birth rates for Muslims.[250] Jordanian Christians number around 250,000, all of whom are Arabic-speaking, according to a 2014 estimate by the Orthodox Church, though the study excluded minority Christian groups and the thousands of Western, Iraqi and Syrian Christians residing in Jordan.[249] Christians are exceptionally well integrated in the Jordanian society and enjoy a high level of freedom.[251] Christians traditionally occupy two cabinet posts, and are reserved nine seats out of the 130 in the parliament.[252] The highest political position reached by a Christian is the Deputy Prime Minister, currently held by Rajai Muasher.[253] Christians are also influential in the media.[254] Smaller religious minorities include Druze, Bah's and Mandaeans. Most Jordanian Druze live in the eastern oasis town of Azraq, some villages on the Syrian border, and the city of Zarqa, while most Jordanian Bah's live in the village of Adassiyeh bordering the Jordan Valley.[255] It is estimated that 1,400 Mandaeans live in Amman, they came from Iraq after the 2003 invasion fleeing persecution.[256]

The official language is Modern Standard Arabic, a literary language taught in the schools.[257] Most Jordanians natively speak one of the non-standard Arabic dialects known as Jordanian Arabic. Jordanian Sign Language is the language of the deaf community. English, though without official status, is widely spoken throughout the country and is the de facto language of commerce and banking, as well as a co-official status in the education sector; almost all university-level classes are held in English and almost all public schools teach English along with Standard Arabic.[257] Chechen, Circassian, Armenian, Tagalog, and Russian are popular among their communities.[258] French is offered as an elective in many schools, mainly in the private sector.[257] German is an increasingly popular language; it has been introduced at a larger scale since the establishment of the German-Jordanian University in 2005.[259]

Many institutions in Jordan aim to increase cultural awareness of Jordanian Art and to represent Jordan's artistic movements in fields such as paintings, sculpture, graffiti and photography.[260] The art scene has been developing in the past few years[261] and Jordan has been a haven for artists from surrounding countries.[262] In January 2016, for the first time ever, a Jordanian film called Theeb was nominated for the Academy Awards for Best Foreign Language Film.[263]

The largest museum in Jordan is The Jordan Museum. It contains much of the valuable archaeological findings in the country, including some of the Dead Sea Scrolls, the Neolithic limestone statues of 'Ain Ghazal and a copy of the Mesha Stele.[264] Most museums in Jordan are located in Amman including The Children's Museum Jordan, The Martyr's Memorial and Museum and the Royal Automobile Museum. Museums outside Amman include the Aqaba Archaeological Museum.[265] The Jordan National Gallery of Fine Arts is a major contemporary art museum located in Amman.[265]

Music in Jordan is now developing with a lot of new bands and artists, who are now popular in the Middle East. Artists such as Omar Al-Abdallat, Toni Qattan, Diana Karazon and Hani Metwasi have increased the popularity of Jordanian music.[266] The Jerash Festival is an annual music event that features popular Arab singers.[266] Pianist and composer Zade Dirani has gained wide international popularity.[267] There is also an increasing growth of alternative Arabic rock bands, who are dominating the scene in the Arab World, including: El Morabba3, Autostrad, JadaL, Akher Zapheer and Aziz Maraka.[268]

Jordan unveiled its first underwater military museum off the coast of Aqaba. Several military vehicles, including tanks, troop carriers and a helicopter are in the museum.[269]

Several Jordanian writers and poets have gained fame in the Arab world including Mustafa Wahbi Tal (Arar), Tayseer Sboul, Nahed Hattar, Fadi Zaghmout and others.

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Jordan | History, Population, Flag, Map, & Facts | Britannica

Jordan, Arab country of Southwest Asia, in the rocky desert of the northern Arabian Peninsula.

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Jordan is a young state that occupies an ancient land, one that bears the traces of many civilizations. Separated from ancient Palestine by the Jordan River, the region played a prominent role in biblical history. The ancient biblical kingdoms of Moab, Gilead, and Edom lie within its borders, as does the famed red stone city of Petra, the capital of the Nabatean kingdom and of the Roman province of Arabia Petraea. British traveler Gertrude Bell said of Petra, It is like a fairy tale city, all pink and wonderful. Part of the Ottoman Empire until 1918 and later a mandate of the United Kingdom, Jordan has been an independent kingdom since 1946. It is among the most politically liberal countries of the Arab world, and, although it shares in the troubles affecting the region, its rulers have expressed a commitment to maintaining peace and stability.

The capital and largest city in the country is Ammannamed for the Ammonites, who made the city their capital in the 13th century bce. Amman was later a great city of Middle Eastern antiquity, Philadelphia, of the Roman Decapolis, and now serves as one of the regions principal commercial and transportation centres as well as one of the Arab worlds major cultural capitals.

Slightly smaller in area than the country of Portugal, Jordan is bounded to the north by Syria, to the east by Iraq, to the southeast and south by Saudi Arabia, and to the west by Israel and the West Bank. The West Bank area (so named because it lies just west of the Jordan River) was under Jordanian rule from 1948 to 1967, but in 1988 Jordan renounced its claims to the area. Jordan has 16 miles (26 km) of coastline on the Gulf of Aqaba in the southwest, where Al-Aqabah, its only port, is located.

Jordan has three major physiographic regions (from east to west): the desert, the uplands east of the Jordan River, and the Jordan Valley (the northwest portion of the great East African Rift System).

The desert region is mostly within the Syrian Desertan extension of the Arabian Desertand occupies the eastern and southern parts of the country, comprising more than four-fifths of its territory. The deserts northern part is composed of volcanic lava and basalt, and its southern part of outcrops of sandstone and granite. The landscape is much eroded, primarily by wind. The uplands east of the Jordan River, an escarpment overlooking the rift valley, have an average elevation of 2,0003,000 feet (600900 metres) and rise to about 5,755 feet (1,754 metres) at Mount Ramm, Jordans highest point, in the south. Outcrops of sandstone, chalk, limestone, and flint extend to the extreme south, where igneous rocks predominate.

The Jordan Valley drops to about 1,410 feet (430 metres) below sea level at the Dead Sea, the lowest natural point on Earths surface.

The Jordan River, approximately 186 miles (300 km) in length, meanders south, draining the waters of Lake Tiberias (better known as the Sea of Galilee), the Yarmk River, and the valley streams of both plateaus into the Dead Sea, which occupies the central area of the valley. The soil of its lower reaches is highly saline, and the shores of the Dead Sea consist of salt marshes that do not support vegetation. To its south, Wadi al-Arabah (also called Wadi al-Jayb), a completely desolate region, is thought to contain mineral resources.

In the northern uplands several valleys containing perennial streams run west; around Al-Karak they flow west, east, and north; south of Al-Karak intermittent valley streams run east toward Al-Jafr Depression.

The countrys best soils are found in the Jordan Valley and in the area southeast of the Dead Sea. The topsoil in both regions consists of alluviumdeposited by the Jordan River and washed from the uplands, respectivelywith the soil in the valley generally being deposited in fans spread over various grades of marl.

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Jordan Brands Latest Lifestyle Shoe Will Come Packaged In a Hard Case – Footwear News

Jordan Brand will soon introduce a new sneaker from its lifestyle division known as Jordan AJNT23.

Having already released overseas, the basketball-focused brand has once again tapped legendary designer Tinker Hatfield to design its latest model. According to its product description, the shoe features a high-tech one-pull system that fastens both the knobs and the strap seen across the breathable black nylon upper. Elevating the look are gold accents including the Jumpman embroidery and hardware found on the tip of the aforementioned strap. The look is completed with a white foam midsole and a speckled translucent outsole.

The Air Jordan AJNT23.


The lateral side of the Air Jordan AJNT23.


The medial side of the Air Jordan AJNT23.


Aside from the sneakers, the product images reveal that the shoe will come packaged with a Jordan-branded metal case. This isnt the first time that the brand released sneakers in protective cases. When the Air Jordan 17 debuted in 2002, the shoe was bundled with a metal carrying case and came with a $200 price tag, which was the most expensive Air Jordans to ever hit shelves at that time.

A top view of the Air Jordan AJNT23.


The heel of the Air Jordan AJNT23.

The outsole of the Air Jordan AJNT23.


The Jordan AJNT23 in its metal case.


The metal case of the Jordan AJNT23.


At the time of press, Jordan Brand has yet to announce the release information surrounding the Jordan AJNT23 but its expected to drop on Nike.com and at select Jordan Brand retailers.

In related Air Jordan news, readers will be able to buy the latest Air Jordan 1 Retro High OG Smoke Grey starting tomorrow. It will launch on the SNKRS app and at select retailers for $170.

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Jordan Brands Latest Lifestyle Shoe Will Come Packaged In a Hard Case - Footwear News

Jordan attempts to recover taxes, boost economy in wake of coronavirus lockdown – Cleveland Jewish News

King Abdullah of Jordan said on Sunday that the country was handling outbreaks of COVID-19 and making moves to boost the economy.

We have successfully dealt with the coronavirus, which today is under control in Jordan, he said in a meeting with Jordanian figures, according to AFP.

The king said in a statement that the focus is now on addressing poverty and unemployment brought on by the global pandemic. He added that Jordan would become even stronger after overcoming the coronavirus.

Meanwhile, Jordans Prime Minister Omar al-Razzaz said on Sunday that the government was also going to crack down on tax evasion.

Protecting public money and fighting corruption is a national duty, Razzaz said in a national TV speech, reported Reuters.

As such, the government froze the assets of dozens of companies and businessmen for allegedly evading paying taxes.

It is now trying to recoup such sums after a virus-related lockdown that led to the biggest economic downturn in Jordan 20 years and drastically cut state revenues, the report said.

The post Jordan attempts to recover taxes, boost economy in wake of coronavirus lockdown appeared first on JNS.org.

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Jordan attempts to recover taxes, boost economy in wake of coronavirus lockdown - Cleveland Jewish News

Jordan King Warns That Israel’s Annexation Plans Jeopardize Regional Peace – The New York Times

AMMAN Jordan's King Abdullah warned on Monday that any unilateral Israeli moves to annex territory in the occupied West Bank would fuel instability and dim hopes of a final settlement of the decades-old Arab-Israeli conflict.

The monarch told British lawmakers the only path to a comprehensive and lasting Middle East peace was the establishment of an independent Palestinian state based on land captured by Israel in the 1967 war, and with East Jerusalem as its capital.

"Any unilateral Israeli measure to annex lands in the West Bank is unacceptable, as it would undermine the prospects of achieving peace and stability in the Middle East," the monarch was quoted in a palace statement as telling British foreign and defence parliamentary committee members in a virtual meeting.

Jordan has led a diplomatic campaign along with most other European countries that opposes Israeli plans that envisage annexing parts of the occupied West Bank as part of a deal being promoted by U.S. President Donald Trumps administration.

King Abdullah, a staunch U.S. ally, has also in recent months warned that Israeli policies along with Trump's peace plan would lead to conflict and deal a blow to Israeli-Jordanian relations.

Amman lost the West Bank including East Jerusalem to Israel during the 1967 Arab-Israeli war. Jordan is the second Arab country after Egypt to sign a peace treaty with Israel and many of its more than 7 million citizens are of Palestinian origin.

(Reporting by Suleiman Al-Khalidi in Amman; Editing by Matthew Lewis)

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Jordan King Warns That Israel's Annexation Plans Jeopardize Regional Peace - The New York Times

First Look at the Hyper Royal Air Jordan 13 – Footwear News

The popular Air Jordan 13 sneaker could be releasing in a brand new colorway soon.

According to the sneaker leaker account zSneakerheadz, the upcoming Hyper Royal iteration of Michael Jordans 13th signature basketball sneaker is scheduled to hit shelves on Dec. 19. The model was designed by the industry veteran Tinker Hatfield in the late 90s and MJ debuted the sneakers on the NBA courts during the 1997-98 season.

Playing off of Jordans Black Cat nickname, the silhouette itself incorporates design elements that are inspired a panther including a holographic eye detail by the ankle collar as well as the outsole resembling the cats paw.

This pair features a vibrant blue suede upper thats paired with a black leather toe box and reflective 3M details on the ballistic mesh overlays. The blue hue continues onto the midsole, which boasts a carbon fiber plate and Zoom Air cushioning aimed to give ballers support and responsiveness on the court.

Jordan Brand hasnt announced the release info surrounding the Air Jordan 13 Retro Hyper Royal but the shoe is expected to launch on the SNKRS app and at select Jordan Brand retailers on Dec. 19 for $190.

In related Air Jordan news, the highly-anticipated Off-White x Air Jordan 4 Retro collaboration in the Sail colorway is releasing on July 25 on the SNKRS app and at select retailers for $200. It will arrive exclusively in womens sizing from a 3.5 up to 16.5.

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First Look at the Hyper Royal Air Jordan 13 - Footwear News

People That Would Vote for Michael Jordan Don’t Have the Perspective: Kareem Abdul-Jabbar not Amused by All-Time Rankings – Essentially Sports

Horace Grant, Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, Kurt Rambis, and James Worthy. What do these names have in common? They are all NBA legends who also wore glasses each time they stepped into the court. They say the NBA in the 60s and 70s was different than what it is today. Now, this can be said for every sport under the sun. So why is it that we forget about this when we vote for an all-time greatest list? Is Michael Jordan really the best ever?

In the UFC, we have this widely used term called pound-for-pound. Using this, it is analyzed and measured who is a better player relative to various weight categories. It is interesting to see whether a welterweight can be better than a middleweight. However, there is no such data analytics tool in place, at least not until today, that can measure and claim that a given player from the 90s is better than one who played in the 60s. So how fair is it to compare two legends who played in totally different eras?

ESPN dropped its rankings of the College Basketballs Greatest of All Time bracket poll earlier this year. Fans voted for these NCAA level plays, with some head-turning results. Jordan and Larry Bird made it successfully to the Top 2 with a tie. Later on, Jordan was given the top rank after polling on Instagram.

Shaquille ONeal and Magic Johnson were some of those other big names that made the list. However, MJs following beat everyone.

In an interview, Kareem Abdul-Jabbar explained why this comparison does not make any sense. He said, Its not important to me because the people that would vote for Michael Jordan dont have the perspective. They didnt see me play. I wish I had seen Oscar [Robertson] play. They really change their mind about that Michael wasnt anywhere near the college flavor that Oscar was. So you know, it all depends on your perspective.

Although The Tower from Power is bigger than any ranking published out there, he looked disappointed. He would take names of many legends who played even before him and spoke about why the comparison is not good. He added, People who didnt see Bill Russell play have no idea. Hes stifled the whole league for 11 world championships. Michael Jordan had six. Its no comparison but people dont understand whats being compared.

The man with six rings and the whole of the 90s to his name had a charisma that was unbeatable. He scored a grand total of 1788 points in three college seasons. But still, players like Larry Bird comfortably averaged better than MJ. None of it mattered much to the millennials because they would majorly vote for the NBA champion they grew up watching.

So what is your take on this? Do you believe such rankings point towards anything or are they just to satiate a curious mind? Let us know your important views.

Read also- Hated To Leave: LeBron James Unhappy About Being Away From Family

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People That Would Vote for Michael Jordan Don't Have the Perspective: Kareem Abdul-Jabbar not Amused by All-Time Rankings - Essentially Sports

Jordan’s Andrew Fogarty finds success on college mat – SW News Media

There have been a lot of Scott West wrestlers that have found success on the college mat.

For Jordans Andrew Fogarty, hes in the running to have one the best college wrestling careers of any Scott West wrestler after he wrapped up his college career this past spring.

The other Scott West wrestlers in that conversation are Pat McNamara and Micheal Kroells, who both finished their careers as three-time All-Americans.

Fogarty finished his four-year wrestling career at North Dakota State University with a career record of 96-35 (28 career pinfalls), a four-time NCAA Championships qualifier, three-time Big 12 runner-up, and with a 2020 National Wrestling Coaches Association All-America Team Honorable Mention honor.

My time at NDSU I would say was both very fast and very slow at the same time, Fogarty said. I say this because the wrestling season can be very long and grueling especially with it being about a six-month long season. The workouts were tough but you had a whole team that was doing everything with you which made it easier misery loves company.

His wrestling career didnt end on the mat as he had hoped as the COVID-19 pandemic forced the NCAA Wrestling Championships to be canceled.

It was supposed to be a crowning moment for Fogarty as the championship was scheduled to be held in front of family and Scott West fans at U.S. Bank Stadium in Minneapolis.

It was a disappointment at first knowing that this was supposed to be the biggest turnout for fans at a NCAA wrestling tournament and in my home state, Fogarty said. I quickly got over that since it was not my goal to wrestle in front of a lot of people. A few days later we learned that the tournament was completely canceled. For me, I did not know exactly what to think and was hard to put in words. For about the last 10 years of my life I had gotten the chance to end my wrestling season either on a high or low note. But that chance was no longer available. I couldnt really be mad at myself nor happy with myself so I simply took it for what it was worth and moved on. That was the end of my wrestling career but it wasnt the end of the school year. So I focused on finishing out the year as best I could in the classroom.

Fogarty graduated from NDSU with a bachelors degree in criminal justice and plans on enlisting in the Army this summer.

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As Fogarty looks back at his time in Fargo, North Dakota wrestling for the Bison its not the matches that hell remember but the team.

The best thing about college wrestling as with any sport I have ever played was the brotherhood you develop with your teammates, he said. There is something special and nothing I like more than being a part of a team, where I know every guy has my back and I have theirs. And when one of us falls the next guy is there to pick you and the team up.

Thats not to say he doesnt a favorite match that he looks back at fondly.

That match came in his redshirt freshman year and in the first match of the year against No. 14-ranked Iowa State and Cyclone senior Dane Pestano.

It was our first home match against Iowa State, who I believe we had never wrestled before, Fogarty said. During the third period I needed a takedown to win and ended up getting it and riding him out for my first varsity win.

Fogarty won that match 10-7 which helped the Bison upset Iowa St. 25-16.

That match would propel him to a 23-13 record that season which ended with a 1-2 record at the NCAA Wrestling Championship.

He would go on to qualify for the NCAA Championships the next three years to wrap up a great career at NDSU.

My senior season was by far my favorite season of college wrestling, Fogarty said. Mostly because I was a senior and had the experience which can be a huge advantage in wrestling. It was also a good year for our team whom I had become very close to.

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Jordan's Andrew Fogarty finds success on college mat - SW News Media

Where To Buy The Off-White x Air Jordan 4 WMNS Sail – Sneaker News

Official images of Virgil Ablohs Off-White Jordan 4 have surfaced, revealing in detail what could be one of the years most coveted sneaker release. Decked out in a near-tonal cream upper with opaque fixtures on the lace eyelets, tongue/upper netting, and heel-tab, this latest release by the Louis Vuitton figurehead throws in the trademark touches in the Helvetica text on the upper and the AIR boldly bannered above the visible Air unit. The construction of these Off-White Jordans are also consistent with Virgils previous two Air Jordan drops, with exposed sponge at the sockliner and synthetic overlays attributing to that deconstructed look that the entire The Ten has been notable for. Zip-ties and classic Air Jordan hangtags will come attached, while the OG-style shoebox features enlarged holes. Recently, Virgil donated an autographed pair to be auctioned off for charity, raising over $100,000 towards key organizations that support the Black Lives Matter movement.

Prior to the COVID-19 situation, Nike had planned to release a full catalog of imaginative collaborations at the height of the Tokyo Olympics, done by the likes of Virgil Abloh, Yoon Ahn of Ambush, Matthew M. Williams, UNDERCOVER, and sacai. Although this Air Jordan 4 was not previewed at the brands Future Forum fashion show back in February, it was very much assumed that these would be available throughout the scheduled Games. Of course this years Olympics have been cancelled, but the Jordan release is fully expected to go down.

See the full official images of this Off-White x Air Jordan 4 by Virgil Abloh ahead and stay tuned for the official release on July 25th.

Update: Off-White x Air Jordan 4 WMNS Sail confirmed for July 25 release, $200 on Nike SNKRS.Update: Sizes for this release will begin with womens 3.5/mens 2 through womens 16.5/mens 16.

Off-White x Air Jordan 4 WMNSRelease Date: July 25th, 2020$200Style Code: CV9388-100

Make sure to follow @kicksfinder for live tweets during the release date.

Where to Buy (After-Market)

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Where To Buy The Off-White x Air Jordan 4 WMNS Sail - Sneaker News

Outstanding Teachers of 2020 – West Jordan Journal

By Jet Burnham | [emailprotected]

Jordan Education Foundation honored 61 teachersone from every school in Jordan Districtas this years Outstanding Educators. JEF members were joined by proud principals, colleagues, family members and even neighbors to surprise the educators with balloons, yard signs, gift bags, honking and cheering outside their homes and schools.

I think the timing could not have been better, said JEF Executive Director Steven Hall, who acknowledged teachers have worked extra hard this year. I think it was an absolute morale boost for all of our teachers, not just the ones who were recognized, but all of the teachers that were able to celebrate. They don't expect pats on the back, but they deserve them.

The 2020 JEF Outstanding Educators from this area are:

Cara Hagman, Columbia Elementary Astros West Jordan

Lorene Fullmer, Copper Canyon Elementary

Heather Saunders, Falcon Ridge School

Clareen Arnold, Fox Hollow Elementary

Sharra Palmer, Hayden Peak Elementary

Amelia Paasi, Heartland Elementary

Marci Law, Jordan Hills Elementary School

Suzette Johnson, Majestic Elementary

Kasey Dahl, Mountain Shadows Elementary School

Tracey Davies, Oakcrest Elementary School

Megan Daly, Oquirrh Elementary

Emily Mitarai, Riverside Elementary School

Kristi Matthews, Terra Linda Elementary

Amy Allen, West Jordan Elementary

Larah Lewis, Westland Elementary School

Amanda Moon, Westvale Elementary

Jose Farias, Joel P Jensen Middle School

Joey Davis, Sunset Ridge Middle School

Carina Whiteside, West Hills Middle School

Jorge Ibanez, West Jordan Middle School

Rae Boren, Copper Hills High School

Michael Jacobson, West Jordan High School

Kari Worthington, JATC North Campus

Trevor Stookey, South Valley School

Local recipients of JEF student scholarships:

Aniuska Semprun, Copper Hills High School

Jacquelinne Bolanos, West Jordan High School

Emily Rhodes, Valley High School

Mitchelle Vallejo, Bingham High School

Ezra McFarland, Riverton High School

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Outstanding Teachers of 2020 - West Jordan Journal

Terry Rozier: I didnt know Michael Jordans Bulls three-peated twice until watching The Last Dance – Yahoo Sports

Michael Jordan led the Bulls to championships in 1991, 1992 and 1993. Terry Rozier who now plays for the Jordan-owned Hornets was born in 1994. Jordan led the Bulls to championships in 1996, 1997 and 1998.

Like many younger people, Rozier gained new perspective by watching The Last Dance.

Rozier, via Jonathan Abrams of Bleacher Report:

Just actually seeing this documentary, I learned so much, he said. I didnt even know that they won three straight [championships two times]. Im just being honest. To do things like that in this league, you have to be super special.

Rozier previously said Jordan was the reason he chose Charlotte in free agency. And to not know even this?

Whatever else you think about Rozier, I respect this admission. It takes guts to be this embarrassingly honest.

Terry Rozier: I didnt know Michael Jordans Bulls three-peated twice until watching The Last Dance originally appeared on NBCSports.com

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Terry Rozier: I didnt know Michael Jordans Bulls three-peated twice until watching The Last Dance - Yahoo Sports

A one-of-a-kind piece: Backboard from Michael Jordan’s ‘Shot’ sold in auction – The Athletic

Craig Ehlo doesnt mind talking about The Shot now. But for 10 or so years following the 1989 game in which the Cavaliers lost to the Bulls in Game 5 of their first-round playoff series, he didnt like to discuss it, much less watch the replay.

The Shot resurfaced again recently as Episode 3 of ESPNs The Last Dance documentary highlighted one of the more iconic moments of Michael Jordans legacy.

Over the years, Ehlo, now 58, has come to realize he is an important part of NBA history. Even if hes on the wrong side.

I remember my dad told me right after the game that if anybody writes about it or teases you about it, just say, Were you there? Were you the one guarding him? Were you the one that got the opportunity? Ehlo recalled. I mean, thats what we all want is the opportunity. And to be there and, sure, you came up short on that...

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A one-of-a-kind piece: Backboard from Michael Jordan's 'Shot' sold in auction - The Athletic

Seen it in the Past with Michael Jordan: Ex-NBA Player Reveals What Giannis Antetokounmpo Must Do to be Counted Among All Time Greats – Essentially…

Former NBA player Caron Butler joined Sekou Smith in the NBA Hangtime podcast to talk about Milwaukee Bucks and their superstar Giannis Antetokounmpo.

Butler felt there will be a lot of attention on the Bucks and Antetokounmpo once the season restarts. One of the reasons, he believed, was the approaching free agency of the 25-year old.

All the focus is really gonna be on the Bucks and Giannis because you think about the free agency possibilities. If he dont win, is he going to be a disgruntled superstar? I think he loves Milwaukee and I dont think that is going to be the case, he said.

By disgruntled superstar Butler meant not winning the championship before making moving to another team. Giannis is undoubtedly one of the best players in the league currently. For the past few years, he has been leading the Bucks to the playoffs. He won the league MVP last season and is one of the favorites to win the award again this season. Although he has evolved into a great player, Butler believed he needs to win championships to be considered among the all-time greatest players.

I do think that the conversations that weve had from all the former greats. It is like, okay if you dont win a championship, you will be criticized, Butler said.

Weve seen it in the past with Michael Jordan. Weve seen it in the past with the late, great Kobe Bryant, weve seen it with LeBron James and the list goes on. I think now he is starting to become subject to that because, lets face it, he is an elite talent. He is a unicorn in the game when we talk about his ability on the court.

But in order to be compared to the LeBrons, the Kawhi Leonards and Kevin Durants, he is going to have to win championships.

Giannis was closest to winning the title last season where the Bucks lost to Toronto Raptors in the Eastern Conference finals. They still boast of a great roster and had the best record in the NBA prior to the leagues suspension. They will be disappointed with anything less than a championship this season.

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Seen it in the Past with Michael Jordan: Ex-NBA Player Reveals What Giannis Antetokounmpo Must Do to be Counted Among All Time Greats - Essentially...

The Last Dance: One Story From Michael Jordans Past That Didnt Make It Into The Docuseries – Cinema Blend

One of the interviewees featured in The Last Dance was Michael Jordans mother, Deloris. Mrs. Jordan shared a number of fun stories about her son and even read some of the letters he would send her while he was attending college. But one story she told, which was ultimately omitted from the docuseries, was a tale involving Jordans father, which is sure to give you a better idea as to where the Hall of Famers noted work ethic comes from:

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The Last Dance: One Story From Michael Jordans Past That Didnt Make It Into The Docuseries - Cinema Blend

Detroit Tigers’ patience with Jordan Zimmermann can be shorter than ever in 2020 – Detroit Free Press

Detroit Tigers sidearmer Nolan Blackwood faces Harold Castro in the intrasquad game on Sunday, July 12, 2020, at Comerica Park. Detroit Free Press

Jordan Zimmermann walked off the mound frustrated after his first inning on Sunday afternoon.

It was a familiar scene: Zimmermann, the veteran right-hander, has made far too many of these walks during his five seasons with the Detroit Tigers.

Once a power pitcher who would throw consistently deep into games, Zimmermann was bitten by the injury bug a month into the 2016 season he was the American League Pitcher of the Month that April and has often walked back to the dugout in the middle innings or earlier since.

Sometimes, its after getting pulled. Others, after a rough inning.

But on Sunday, in his first intersquad appearance, Zimmermann walked off without recording three outs. In that first-inning struggle, Zimmermann was hit hard. He wasnt missing bats and his pitch count exceeded the teams limit.

Jordan Zimmermann struggled in the first inning of an intrasquad scrimmage at Comerica Park in Detroit on Sunday, July 12, 2020.(Photo: Kirthmon F. Dozier/Detroit Free Press)

[ Harold Castro keeps hitting: How does he fit into the Tigers' plans? ]

First inning, there wasnt much coming out, Tigers manager Ron Gardenhire said. He didnt have much command of his fastball and that happens. But hes been around a long time, so those types of things happen and then he made some pitches in the second inning out there and he was fine after that.

Now 34 and in the final season of a five-year, $110 million deal Zimmermann is due just over $8 million in 2020, prorated hes pitching for his career.

With his contract essentially a sunk cost and the teams top pitching prospects on the cusp of debuting at some point this season, Zimmermann will have to stay healthy and pitch effectively to stick in the rotation.

And while staying healthy may be easier in a shortened season, thats merely one half of the battle: With every inning carrying added importance this season, especially with the teams top prospects needing them to develop, Zimmermann needs to pitch capably.

Detroit Tigers right-hander Jordan Zimmermann pitches during an intrasquad scrimmage at Comerica Park in Detroit on Sunday, July 12, 2020.(Photo: Kirthmon F. Dozier/Detroit Free Press)

[ Tigers place five more players on IL, including top prospects ]

After that first inning full of hard contact and line drives, Zimmermann pitched around an error in the second and retired six batters in a row to end his outing.

He spun the ball a little bit better and threw the ball a little bit better after that, Gardenhire said. Spun it pretty good but hes a veteran guy, well see how he feels tomorrow and go from there.

Gardenhire said over the weekend that there were no physical issues with Zimmermann. The pitcher himself said he felt beyond that and did not need to receive a nerve block injection in the offseason, contrary to his past few seasons.

Considering that his outing contained the first intrasquad pitches hes thrown this camp, Zimmermann is certainly afforded some time. He is entering his 12th season in the majors.

But given his performance with the Tigers going 25-41 with a 5.61 ERA and 1.431 WHIP in 96 starts Zimmermann doesnt have much ofit to turn things around.

Detroit Tigers' Jordan Zimmermann pitches during an intrasquad scrimmage at Comerica Park in Detroit on Sunday, July 12, 2020.(Photo: Kirthmon F. Dozier/Detroit Free Press)

Still, the Tigers are in no hurry to pass judgment. While the reinforcements are coming, Zimmermann could still provide valuable innings this season. He has put together solid stretches when healthy.

[ Casey Mize takes down Miguel Cabrera with no fear: 'He was filthy' ]

And already down one man in the starting rotation lefty Daniel Norris is on the 10-day injured listwhile he waits for COVID-19 clearance another vacancy could put the Tigers in an uncomfortable spot early, given the caution with which they plan to use their young pitchers.

Lets just get through these things, first, Gardenhire said, when asked about the starting rotation. We just started doing this, but yeah, were trying to see up a five-man rotation and however best it goes, were trying to let it play out on the field and make decisions closer to the season starting.

The Tigers open the season on July 24 against the Reds in Cincinnati.

Jordan Zimmermann pitches for the Detroit Tigers during an intrasquad scrimmage at Comerica Park in Detroit on Sunday, July 12, 2020.(Photo: Kirthmon F. Dozier/Detroit Free Press)

Barring an injury this camp, Zimmermann will be in the Tigers starting rotation then.

With his contract expiring, how long he stays in it will depend on him reversing a trend that has continued for the past five years, seen again at Comerica Park in an intrasquad game on Sunday.

Contact Anthony Fenech at afenech@freepress.com. Follow him on Twitter @anthonyfenech. Read more on the Detroit Tigers and sign up for our Tigers newsletter.

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Detroit Tigers' patience with Jordan Zimmermann can be shorter than ever in 2020 - Detroit Free Press

Stanford expedites review of requests for Jordan Hall renaming and statue removal | Stanford News – Stanford University News

Stanford has accelerated the timeline for considering requests to rename Jordan Hall and remove a statue above its entrance.

Jordan Hall is home to the Department of Psychology, whose faculty members voted unanimously to request the name change and removal of the statue. (Image credit: Kate Chesley)

President Marc Tessier-Lavigne has appointed a review committee and charged it with delivering recommendations before the beginning of fall quarter.

Stanford law Professor Bernadette Meyler will chair the committee, which will include faculty, staff, students and alumni.

In April, Stanford announced plans for a committee to consider requests from the faculty of the Department of Psychology, which is housed in Jordan Hall, and the student-led Stanford Eugenics History Project, to change the name. Jordan Hall is named for Stanfords founding president, David Starr Jordan (1851-1931). The Psychology faculty also requested removal of the statue of Agassiz (1807-1873), who was Jordans mentor.

The requests for the building changes cite Jordans engagement in the American eugenics movement and the promotion of polygenism by Agassiz, who had no direct connection to the university.

At the time of the April announcement, much of Stanfords activity had moved online due to the pandemic, and the university planned to convene the committee when we have returned to campus in person. But Tessier-Lavigne said he is moving up the timetable in recognition of Stanfords commitment to racial justice and the fact that plans for a phased return to campus will prevent full in-person engagement.

Since then, it has become clear that next academic year will include a mixture of in-person and online activity, he said in emails to Psychology chair Anthony Wagner and history project founder Ben Maldonado. The committee will, therefore, need to engage virtually whenever it convenes, removing the rationale for a delay. At the same time, the past month has seen a heightened sense of urgency to tackling issues of racial justice both in our country and on our campus.

The committee will apply principles adopted in 2018 to evaluate requests for renaming campus features and will develop an approach for applying the principles to the request for the removal of the statue.

In addition to Meyler, committee members are Peter Chen, 80, a partner with Covington & Burling LLP; Diane T. Chin, a Stanford Law School associate dean; Ari Y. Kelman, associate professor in the Graduate School of Education; Ato Quayson, professor of English; and Vaughn Williams, JD 69, a retired partner with Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom LLP.

The committee plans to include one undergraduate and one graduate student. The university has asked the ASSU Nominating Commission for student nominations, with the final appointments to be made by the committee chair.

The full committee charge and other information can be found at campusnames.stanford.edu. Those wishing to provide input to the committee can do so at [emailprotected]. An open forum town hall will be held at 10 a.m. on Aug. 10 for those who wish to provide input via a virtual meeting.

During this process, the university will place a sign in the buildings foyer indicating that the review is underway.

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Neolithic flint tools found in Jordan are ‘earliest human figures’ – The Times

Archaeologists studying a cache of more than 100 prehistoric flint objects found in Jordan have concluded they are figurines of humans rather than tools as originally thought.

The Spanish researchers said that the 10,000 year-old flints found at Kharaysin, near Amman, have no sign of the wear and tear that would be expected if they were used as scrapers or cutting tools.

Instead, they suggested that their notched violin shapes resemble the humanoid forms of later Neolithic sculptures and, as they were found near burial sites, they may have been used to represent ancestors or the dead.

The Zarqa valley in Jordan has been the site of many Neolithic discoveries


The results lead us to suggest that these flint artefacts are figurines that depict the human body in a form not previously documented, the study, published in the

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Neolithic flint tools found in Jordan are 'earliest human figures' - The Times

Jordan Staal: Theres a ton of sacrifices you have to make to win the cup – Canes Country

Hockey is returning around the league for those teams taking part in the Return-to-Play plan. With Phase 3 starting, training camp has kicked off and players are eager to prepare for postseason hockey.

Hurricanes captain Jordan Staal knows what it takes to be successful in the playoffs and he is ready to help push his team over the edge in his first full year as a solo captain.

He spoke with the media over Zoom following Mondays practice. Here is some of the highlights of what he had to say.

On if it feels exciting for hockey to return: Everyone here is excited to get going. Just a lot of energy out there. The boys are excited to see each other again and it was good to see them, but its back on. Were back on the ice and were going to be fighting for a chance for the Cup. Its exciting times and you dont get this opportunity a whole lot.

On if team still has a lot of work to do to get ready: Were going to want to get our level of play to the highest level we can at practice. It isnt easy to do just in practice, so were going to have to push each other and wrap up as best we can to get to a playoff level. Everyone out there is not quite there yet, including myself, and were going to push as best we can.

On if it feels like a new season: Its got kind of the same feel as a new season. Im sure well be going over a lot of system stuff and the video and working on all that stuff throughout the practices. Not a lot of games or exhibition games either, so its going to feel a little bit like a training camp, but still in the back of your mind you know youre going to be stepping into a playoff game very quickly. Its gonna be a little more intense and were going to have to keep the level up the best we can these next two weeks.

On how this training camp feels: The only difference from this and normal training camp is theres no extra players out there. Theres no guys fighting for spots. We already got a team thats all ready to push each other and thats ready to go. We got guys that are hopefully going to step into their roles and hopefully understand that we have to push each other to get some wins together and get a streak going.

I think its a little different in the regard that we have our guys. We have our group ready to go and we just got to step right into it too. Theres no tip-toeing into exhibition games and hoping to have a good start to the season. Were definitely going to have some urgency and were going to have to have that throughout this week. Thats going to be on the players, thats going to be on myself and a lot of the guys in this room that theyre ready to go.

On if the teams playoff experience last year helps: It wont hurt. Experience always helps. Just understanding the importance of every shift and every play. You could feel that throughout the playoffs. Every time you start to realize that little mistakes, if they add up, can end up in the back of your net and I think the guys started to understand that and realize when to take risks when we needed to and when to be smarter with the puck and just understanding how to win games. I think our team learned a lot last year and we got another group that is hungry for another run and hungry for a cup so hopefully its a good recipe for success.

On the sacrifices he has to make in regards to family: Its... unfortunate. Theres a lot of people hurting throughout this whole pandemic and its a sacrifice Ill have to make. A difficult one. Im going to miss my boys first steps and his first birthday and stuff like that and stuff I want to be there for. But opportunities like this dont come often and the guys in that room want it just as much as I do, so Im here to win. Its part of the sacrifices we have to make and theres a ton of other sacrifices that you have to make to win cups and thats just one of them this year.

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Jordan Staal: Theres a ton of sacrifices you have to make to win the cup - Canes Country