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Caribbean – Wikipedia

CaribbeanArea2,754,000km2 (1,063,000sqmi)Population43,601,839[1]Population density151.5/km2 (392/sqmi)Ethnic groupsAfro-Caribbean, European, Indo-Caribbean, Latino or Hispanic (Spanish, Portuguese, Mestizo, Mulatto, Pardo, and Zambo), Chinese Caribbean, Jewish, Arab, Javanese,[2] Amerindian, MultiracialReligionsChristianity, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, Buddhism, Rastafarianism, Native American religion, Yoruba, Bah’ Faith, Chinese folk religion (including Taoism and Confucianism), Kebatinan, Afro-American religion, Traditional African religion, and othersDemonymCaribbean, West IndianCountries13 sovereign statesDependencies17 dependent territoriesLanguagesSpanish, English, French, Dutch, French Creoles, English Creoles, Caribbean Hindustani, among othersTime zonesUTC5 to UTC4Internet TLDMultipleCalling codeMultipleLargest citiesList of metropolitan areas in the West IndiesSanto DomingoHavanaPort-au-PrinceSan JuanKingstonSantiago de CubaSantiago de los CaballerosCamageyCap-HatienSpanish TownChaguanasGeorgetownParamariboUN M.49 code029 Caribbean419 Latin America019 Americas001 World

The Caribbean (, locally )[3] is a region of North America that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea[4] and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean)[5] and the surrounding coasts. The region is southeast of the Gulf of Mexico and the North American mainland, east of Central America, and north of South America.

Situated largely on the Caribbean Plate, the region comprises more than 700 islands, islets, reefs and cays. (See the list of Caribbean islands.) These islands generally form island arcs that delineate the eastern and northern edges of the Caribbean Sea.[6] The Caribbean islands, consisting of the Greater Antilles on the north and the Lesser Antilles on the south and east (including the Leeward Antilles), are part of the somewhat larger West Indies grouping, which also includes the Lucayan Archipelago (comprising the Bahamas and Turks and Caicos Islands). The Lucayans and, less commonly, Bermuda, are also sometimes considered Caribbean despite the fact that none of these islands border the Caribbean Sea. In a wider sense, the mainland countries, regions, and territories of Belize, the Caribbean region of Colombia, Cozumel, the Yucatn Peninsula, Margarita Island, the Guyanas (Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Guayana Region in Venezuela, and Amap in Brazil), are often included due to their political and cultural ties with the region.[7]

Geopolitically, the Caribbean islands are usually regarded as a subregion of North America[8][9][10][11][12] and are organized into 30 territories including sovereign states, overseas departments, and dependencies. From December 15, 1954, to October 10, 2010, there was a country known as the Netherlands Antilles composed of five states, all of which were Dutch dependencies.[13] From January 3, 1958, to May 31, 1962, there was also a short-lived political union called the West Indies Federation composed of ten English-speaking Caribbean territories, all of which were then British dependencies. The West Indies cricket team continues to represent many of those nations.

The region takes its name from that of the Caribs, an ethnic group present in the Lesser Antilles and parts of adjacent South America at the time of the Spanish conquest of America.[14]

The two most prevalent pronunciations of “Caribbean” outside the Caribbean are (karr–BEE-n), with the primary stress on the third syllable, and (k-RIB-ee-n), with the stress on the second. Most authorities of the last century preferred the stress on the third syllable.[15] This is the older of the two pronunciations, but the stressed-second-syllable variant has been established for over 75 years.[16] It has been suggested that speakers of British English prefer (karr–BEE-n) while North American speakers more typically use (k-RIB-ee-n),[17] but major American dictionaries and other sources list the stress on the third syllable as more common in American English too.[18][19][20][21] According to the American version of Oxford Online Dictionaries, the stress on the second syllable is becoming more common in UK English and is increasingly considered “by some” to be more up to date and more “correct”.[22]

The Oxford Online Dictionaries claim that the stress on the second syllable is the most common pronunciation in the Caribbean itself, but according to the Dictionary of Caribbean English Usage, the most common pronunciation in Caribbean English is in fact on the first syllable, (KARR–bee-n).[3][22]

The word “Caribbean” has multiple uses. Its principal ones are geographical and political. The Caribbean can also be expanded to include territories with strong cultural and historical connections to slavery, European colonisation and the plantation system.

The geography and climate in the Caribbean region varies: Some islands in the region have relatively flat terrain of non-volcanic origin. These islands include Aruba (possessing only minor volcanic features), Curaao, Barbados, Bonaire, the Cayman Islands, Saint Croix, the Bahamas, and Antigua. Others possess rugged towering mountain-ranges like the islands of Saint Martin, Cuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, Jamaica, Dominica, Montserrat, Saba, Sint Eustatius, Saint Kitts, Saint Lucia, Saint Thomas, Saint John, Tortola, Grenada, Saint Vincent, Guadeloupe, Martinique and Trinidad and Tobago.

Definitions of the terms Greater Antilles and Lesser Antilles often vary. The Virgin Islands as part of the Puerto Rican bank are sometimes included with the Greater Antilles. The term Lesser Antilles is often used to define an island arc that includes Grenada but excludes Trinidad and Tobago and the Leeward Antilles.

The waters of the Caribbean Sea host large, migratory schools of fish, turtles, and coral reef formations. The Puerto Rico Trench, located on the fringe of the Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea just to the north of the island of Puerto Rico, is the deepest point in all of the Atlantic Ocean.[24]

The region sits in the line of several major shipping routes with the Panama Canal connecting the western Caribbean Sea with the Pacific Ocean.

The climate of the area is tropical, varying from tropical rainforest in some areas to tropical savanna in others. There are also some locations that are arid climates with considerable drought in some years.

Rainfall varies with elevation, size and water currents (cool upwellings keep the ABC islands arid). Warm, moist trade winds blow consistently from the east, creating both rain forest and semi arid climates across the region. The tropical rainforest climates include lowland areas near the Caribbean Sea from Costa Rica north to Belize, as well as the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico, while the more seasonal dry tropical savanna climates are found in Cuba, northern Venezuela, and southern Yucatan, Mexico. Arid climates are found along the extreme southern coast of Venezuela out to the islands including Aruba and Curacao, as well as the northern tip of Yucatan.

While the region generally is sunny much of the year, the wet season from May through November sees more frequent cloud cover (both broken and overcast), while the dry season from December through April is more often clear to mostly sunny. Seasonal rainfall is divided into ‘dry’ and ‘wet’ seasons, with the latter six months of the year being wetter than the first half. The air temperature is hot much of the year, varying from 25 to 33 C (77 F to 90 F) between the wet and dry seasons. Seasonally, monthly mean temperatures vary from only about 5 C (7 F) in the northern most regions, to less than 3 C in the southernmost areas of the Caribbean.

Hurricane season is from June to November, but they occur more frequently in August and September and more common in the northern islands of the Caribbean. Hurricanes that sometimes batter the region usually strike northwards of Grenada and to the west of Barbados. The principal hurricane belt arcs to northwest of the island of Barbados in the Eastern Caribbean. A great example being recent events of Hurricane Irma devastating the island of Saint Martin during the 2017 hurricane season.

Sea surface temperatures change little annually, normally running from 30C (87F) in the warmest months to 26C (76F) in the coolest months.

Aruba: Latitude 12N

Puerto Rico: Latitude 18N

Cuba: at Latitude 22N

Lucayan Archipelago[a]

Greater Antilles

Lesser Antilles

All islands at some point were, and a few still are, colonies of European nations; a few are overseas or dependent territories:

The British West Indies were united by the United Kingdom into a West Indies Federation between 1958 and 1962. The independent countries formerly part of the B.W.I. still have a joint cricket team that competes in Test matches, One Day Internationals and Twenty20 Internationals. The West Indian cricket team includes the South American nation of Guyana, the only former British colony on the mainland of that continent.

In addition, these countries share the University of the West Indies as a regional entity. The university consists of three main campuses in Jamaica, Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago, a smaller campus in the Bahamas and Resident Tutors in other contributing territories such as Trinidad.

Islands in and near the Caribbean

Maritime boundaries between the Caribbean (island) nations

The Caribbean islands have one of the most diverse eco systems in the world. The animals, fungi and plants, and have been classified as one of Conservation International’s biodiversity hotspots because of their exceptionally diverse terrestrial and marine ecosystems, ranging from montane cloud forests, to tropical rainforest, to cactus scrublands. The region also contains about 8% (by surface area) of the world’s coral reefs[38] along with extensive seagrass meadows,[39] both of which are frequently found in the shallow marine waters bordering the island and continental coasts of the region.

For the fungi, there is a modern checklist based on nearly 90,000 records derived from specimens in reference collections, published accounts and field observations.[40] That checklist includes more than 11,250 species of fungi recorded from the region. As its authors note, the work is far from exhaustive, and it is likely that the true total number of fungal species already known from the Caribbean is higher. The true total number of fungal species occurring in the Caribbean, including species not yet recorded, is likely far higher given the generally accepted estimate that only about 7% of all fungi worldwide have been discovered.[41] Though the amount of available information is still small, a first effort has been made to estimate the number of fungal species endemic to some Caribbean islands. For Cuba, 2200 species of fungi have been tentatively identified as possible endemics of the island;[42] for Puerto Rico, the number is 789 species;[43] for the Dominican Republic, the number is 699 species;[44] for Trinidad and Tobago, the number is 407 species.[45]

Many of the ecosystems of the Caribbean islands have been devastated by deforestation, pollution, and human encroachment. The arrival of the first humans is correlated with extinction of giant owls and dwarf ground sloths.[46] The hotspot contains dozens of highly threatened animals (ranging from birds, to mammals and reptiles), fungi and plants. Examples of threatened animals include the Puerto Rican amazon, two species of solenodon (giant shrews) in Cuba and the Hispaniola island, and the Cuban crocodile.

The region’s coral reefs, which contain about 70 species of hard corals and between 500700 species of reef-associated fishes[47] have undergone rapid decline in ecosystem integrity in recent years, and are considered particularly vulnerable to global warming and ocean acidification.[48] According to a UNEP report, the Caribbean coral reefs might get extinct in next 20 years due to population explosion along the coast lines, overfishing, the pollution of coastal areas and global warming.[49]

Some Caribbean islands have terrain that Europeans found suitable for cultivation for agriculture. Tobacco was an important early crop during the colonial era, but was eventually overtaken by sugarcane production as the region’s staple crop. Sugar was produced from sugarcane for export to Europe. Cuba and Barbados were historically the largest producers of sugar. The tropical plantation system thus came to dominate Caribbean settlement. Other islands were found to have terrain unsuited for agriculture, for example Dominica, which remains heavily forested. The islands in the southern Lesser Antilles, Aruba, Bonaire and Curaao, are extremely arid, making them unsuitable for agriculture. However, they have salt pans that were exploited by the Dutch. Sea water was pumped into shallow ponds, producing coarse salt when the water evaporated.[50]

The natural environmental diversity of the Caribbean islands has led to recent growth in eco-tourism. This type of tourism is growing on islands lacking sandy beaches and dense human populations.[51]

The Martinique amazon, Amazona martinicana, is an extinct species of parrot in the family Psittacidae.

At the time of European contact, the dominant ethnic groups in the Caribbean included the Tano of the Greater Antilles and northern Lesser Antilles, the Island Caribs of the southern Lesser Antilles, and smaller distinct groups such as the Guanajatabey of western Cuba and the Ciguayo of eastern Hispaniola. The population of the Caribbean is estimated to have been around 750,000 immediately before European contact, although lower and higher figures are given. After contact, social disruption and epidemic diseases such as smallpox and measles (to which they had no natural immunity)[52] led to a decline in the Amerindian population.[53] From 1500 to 1800 the population rose as slaves arrived from West Africa[54] such as the Kongo, Igbo, Akan, Fon and Yoruba as well as military prisoners from Ireland, who were deported during the Cromwellian reign in England.[citation needed] Immigrants from Britain, Italy, France, Spain, the Netherlands, Portugal and Denmark also arrived, although the mortality rate was high for both groups.[55]

The population is estimated to have reached 2.2 million by 1800.[56] Immigrants from India, China, Indonesia, and other countries arrived in the mid-19th century as indentured servants.[57] After the ending of the Atlantic slave trade, the population increased naturally.[58] The total regional population was estimated at 37.5 million by 2000.[59]

In Haiti and most of the French, Anglophone and Dutch Caribbean, the population is predominantly of African origin; on many islands there are also significant populations of mixed racial origin (including Mulatto-Creole, Dougla, Mestizo, Quadroon, Cholo, Castizo, Criollo, Zambo, Pardo, Asian Latin Americans, Chindian, Cocoa panyols, and Eurasian), as well as populations of European ancestry: Dutch, English, French, Italian, Portuguese and Spanish ancestry. Asians, especially those of Chinese, Indian descent, and Javanese Indonesians, form a significant minority in parts of the region. Indians form a plurality of the population in Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, and Suriname. Most of their ancestors arrived in the 19th century as indentured laborers.

The Spanish-speaking Caribbean populations are primarily of European, African, or racially mixed origins. Puerto Rico has a European majority with a mixture of European-African-Native American (tri-racial), and a large Mulatto (European-West African) and West African minority. Cuba also has a European majority, along with a significant population of African ancestry. The Dominican Republic has the largest mixed-race population, primarily descended from Europeans, West Africans, and Amerindians.

Jamaica has a large African majority, in addition to a significant population of mixed racial background, and has minorities of Chinese, Europeans, Indians, Latinos, Jews, and Arabs. This is a result of years of importation of slaves and indentured laborers, and migration. Most multi-racial Jamaicans refer to themselves as either mixed race or brown. Similar populations can be found in the Caricom states of Belize, Guyana and Trinidad and Tobago. Trinidad and Tobago has a multi-racial cosmopolitan society due to the arrivals of Africans, Indians, Chinese, Arabs, Jews, Spanish, Portuguese, and Europeans along with the Native Amerindians population. This multi-racial mix has created sub-ethnicities that often straddle the boundaries of major ethnicities and include Dougla, Chindian, Mulatto-Creole, Afro-Asians, Eurasian, Cocoa panyols, and Asian Latin Americans

Spanish, English, French, Dutch, Haitian Creole, and Papiamento are the predominant official languages of various countries in the region, although a handful of unique creole languages or dialects can also be found in virtually every Caribbean country. Other languages such as Caribbean Hindustani, Chinese, Indonesian, Amerindian languages, other African languages, other European languages, other Indian languages, and other Indonesian languages can also be found.

Christianity is the predominant religion in the Caribbean (84.7%).[60] Other religious groups in the region are Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, Rastafarianism, Buddhism, Chinese folk religion (Taoism and Confucianism), Bah’, Jainism, Sikhism, Zorastrianism, Kebatinan, Traditional African religions, Afro-American religions, Yoruba (Santera, Trinidad Orisha, Palo, Umbanda, Brujera, Hoodoo, Candombl, Quimbanda, Orisha, Xang de Recife, Xang do Nordeste, Comfa, Espiritismo, Santo Daime, Obeah, Candombl, Abaku, Kumina, Winti, Sanse, Cuban Vod, Dominican Vud, Louisiana Voodoo, Haitian Vodou, and Vodun).

Caribbean societies are very different from other Western societies in terms of size, culture, and degree of mobility of their citizens.[61] The current economic and political problems the states face individually are common to all Caribbean states. Regional development has contributed to attempts to subdue current problems and avoid projected problems. From a political and economic perspective, regionalism serves to make Caribbean states active participants in current international affairs through collective coalitions. In 1973, the first political regionalism in the Caribbean Basin was created by advances of the English-speaking Caribbean nations through the institution known as the Caribbean Common Market and Community (CARICOM)[62] which is located in Guyana.

Certain scholars have argued both for and against generalizing the political structures of the Caribbean. On the one hand the Caribbean states are politically diverse, ranging from communist systems such as Cuba toward more capitalist Westminster-style parliamentary systems as in the Commonwealth Caribbean. Other scholars argue that these differences are superficial, and that they tend to undermine commonalities in the various Caribbean states. Contemporary Caribbean systems seem to reflect a “blending of traditional and modern patterns, yielding hybrid systems that exhibit significant structural variations and divergent constitutional traditions yet ultimately appear to function in similar ways.”[63] The political systems of the Caribbean states share similar practices.

The influence of regionalism in the Caribbean is often marginalized. Some scholars believe that regionalism cannot exist in the Caribbean because each small state is unique. On the other hand, scholars also suggest that there are commonalities amongst the Caribbean nations that suggest regionalism exists. “Proximity as well as historical ties among the Caribbean nations has led to cooperation as well as a desire for collective action.”[64] These attempts at regionalization reflect the nations’ desires to compete in the international economic system.[64]

Furthermore, a lack of interest from other major states promoted regionalism in the region. In recent years the Caribbean has suffered from a lack of U.S. interest. “With the end of the Cold War, U.S. security and economic interests have been focused on other areas. As a result there has been a significant reduction in U.S. aid and investment to the Caribbean.”[65] The lack of international support for these small, relatively poor states, helped regionalism prosper.

Following the Cold War another issue of importance in the Caribbean has been the reduced economic growth of some Caribbean States due to the United States and European Union’s allegations of special treatment toward the region by each other.[clarification needed]

The United States under President Bill Clinton launched a challenge in the World Trade Organization against the EU over Europe’s preferential program, known as the Lom Convention, which allowed banana exports from the former colonies of the Group of African, Caribbean and Pacific states (ACP) to enter Europe cheaply.[66] The World Trade Organization sided in the United States’ favour and the beneficial elements of the convention to African, Caribbean and Pacific states has been partially dismantled and replaced by the Cotonou Agreement.[67]

During the US/EU dispute, the United States imposed large tariffs on European Union goods (up to 100%) to pressure Europe to change the agreement with the Caribbean nations in favour of the Cotonou Agreement.[68]

Farmers in the Caribbean have complained of falling profits and rising costs as the Lom Convention weakens. Some farmers have faced increased pressure to turn towards the cultivation of illegal drugs, which has a higher profit margin and fills the sizable demand for these illegal drugs in North America and Europe.[69][70]

Caribbean nations have also started to more closely cooperate in the Caribbean Financial Action Task Force and other instruments to add oversight of the offshore industry. One of the most important associations that deal with regionalism amongst the nations of the Caribbean Basin has been the Association of Caribbean States (ACS). Proposed by CARICOM in 1992, the ACS soon won the support of the other countries of the region. It was founded in July 1994. The ACS maintains regionalism within the Caribbean on issues unique to the Caribbean Basin. Through coalition building, like the ACS and CARICOM, regionalism has become an undeniable part of the politics and economics of the Caribbean. The successes of region-building initiatives are still debated by scholars, yet regionalism remains prevalent throughout the Caribbean.

The President of Venezuela, Hugo Chavez launched an economic group called the Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas (ALBA), which several eastern Caribbean islands joined. In 2012, the nation of Haiti, with 9 million people, became the largest CARICOM nation that sought to join the union.[71]

Here are some of the bodies that several islands share in collaboration:

Coordinates: 143132N 754906W / 14.52556N 75.81833W / 14.52556; -75.81833

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Caribbean – Wikipedia

Caribbean Cruises, Caribbean Cruise, Cruise Caribbean …

More ships cruise the Caribbean islands than any other region in the world, and Caribbean cruises treat vacationers to crystal-clear waters, pristine beaches, abundant water sports and duty-free shopping. Caribbean cruises are divided into three regions: Western Caribbean cruises, Southern Caribbean cruises and Eastern Caribbean cruises.

Western Caribbean cruises can take you to see Mayan ruins on Mexico’s Yucatan coast, snorkeling in the barrier reef off the coast of Belize or to Grand Cayman’s Seven Mile Beach. Southern Caribbean cruises can take you to the beautiful beaches of Aruba, the rain forest of Martinique or the beautiful beaches of Barbados. Eastern Caribbean cruises may call on ports in the Bahamas, San Juan, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands and Turks and Caicos.

Because so many people cruise the Caribbean islands, you’ll find the most competitive pricing and the best per-diem rates on a Caribbean cruise. This is especially true in the fall — just before the start of the peak Caribbean cruise season — when ships return to the Caribbean from Alaska and Europe.

Hurricane season runs from June 1 through November 30, but with the sophisticated radar and weather-tracking systems found on larger Caribbean cruise ships today, there is little cause for concern. Ships can easily change course to avoid storms and will substitute alternate Caribbean cruise ports as necessary.

For more information on the Western Caribbean, click here. For more information on the Eastern Caribbean, click here. For more information on the Southern Caribbean, click here.

For a list of Caribbean cruise ports, click here.

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Caribbean Cruises, Caribbean Cruise, Cruise Caribbean …

Caribbean Map / Map of the Caribbean – Maps and …

The Caribbean, long referred to as theWest Indies, includes more than 7,000 islands; of those, 13 are independent island countries (shown in red on the map), and some are dependencies or overseas territories of other nations.

In addition, that large number includes islets (very small rocky islands); cay’s (small, low islands composed largely of coral or sand) and a few inhabited reefs: See Belize.

In geographical terms the Caribbean area includes the Caribbean Sea and all of the islands located to the southeast of the Gulf of Mexico, east of Central America and Mexico, and to the north of South America. Some of its counted cay’s, islands, islets and inhabited reefs front the handful of countries that border the region.

TheBahamas and Turks and Caicos are not considered a part of the Caribbean, however, we show them here because of their cultural, geographical and political associations with the Greater Antilles and other Caribbean Islands.

At the beginning of the 15th century the population of the Caribbean was estimated to be nearly 900,000 indigenous people immediately before European contact.

Then in 1492, Christopher Columbus, the Italian explorer began his exploration of the Caribbean, becoming the firstEuropean to venture into the area.

After reportedly landing in the eastern Bahamas, Columbus named these islands theIndies, because he thought he had finally reached Asia (and the East Indies).

Numerous explorers followed in his path, then tens of thousands of settlers arrived from the Americas, China, European countries and India. Included in that mix were religious outcasts and a small army of pirates.

Across the Caribbean, slaves fromAfrica were imported in great numbers to work the sugar and tobacco plantations.

By then the indigenous populations of the islands were in severe decline as exposure to disease and brutal genocide wiped out much of their number.

Great military powers continually fought for control of the islands, and finally, a blended mix of African andEuropean cultures and languages transformed this large group of islands and its peoples into one of the premier tourist destinations on the planet.

Long called theWest Indies, the overall area is now commonly referred to as the Caribbean, a name that became popular after World War II.

Over the last few decades legions of travelers have journeyed to the Caribbean to enjoy the amenities. They frequently arrive in cruise ships that sail in and out, from ports in Florida and Puerto Rico.

Overall the Caribbean is a magical place of palm trees, white sand beaches, turquoise waters and sunshine, all blessed with a climate that consistently offers a much-needed break for those stuck in the cold weather doldrums of the north.

If you haven’t been, you should, and if you’ve been here more than once, you will come again, as these islands, these beach-ringed, jungle-covered rocks are home to thousands of historical surprises and activities galore.

So come wiggle you toes in the sand, and eat and sleep under the stars in the Caribbean.You won’t be disappointed.

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Caribbean Map / Map of the Caribbean – Maps and …

The Official Tourism Website of the Caribbean …

Explore the beauty of the Caribbean

Whether tying the knot, a honeymoon, an anniversary or hosting a vow renewal party St Maarten is a picture-perfect slice of sunny paradise. more

Vying for your holiday dollar, resorts have upped the ante with a boatload of family fun from fishing and diving to chocolate-making classes and more more

From Antigua to St. Maarten, check out and check into elegant new hotels, refurbished luxe resorts and rebranded bargains on the beach. more

See the article here:

The Official Tourism Website of the Caribbean …

Caribbean – Wikipedia

CaribbeanArea2,754,000km2 (1,063,000sqmi)Population43,601,839[1]Population density151.5/km2 (392/sqmi)Ethnic groupsAfro-Caribbean, European, Indo-Caribbean, Latino or Hispanic (Spanish, Portuguese, Mestizo, Mulatto, Pardo, and Zambo), Chinese Caribbean, Jewish, Arab, Javanese,[2] Amerindian, MultiracialReligionsChristianity, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, Buddhism, Rastafarianism, Native American religion, Yoruba, Bah’ Faith, Chinese folk religion (including Taoism and Confucianism), Kebatinan, Afro-American religion, Traditional African religion, and othersDemonymCaribbean, West IndianCountries13 sovereign statesDependencies17 dependent territoriesLanguagesSpanish, English, French, Dutch, French Creoles, English Creoles, Caribbean Hindustani, among othersTime zonesUTC5 to UTC4Internet TLDMultipleCalling codeMultipleLargest citiesList of metropolitan areas in the West IndiesSanto DomingoHavanaPort-au-PrinceSan JuanKingstonSantiago de CubaSantiago de los CaballerosCamageyCap-HatienSpanish TownChaguanasGeorgetownParamariboUN M.49 code029 Caribbean419 Latin America019 Americas001 World

The Caribbean (, locally )[3] is a region of North America that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea[4] and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean)[5] and the surrounding coasts. The region is southeast of the Gulf of Mexico and the North American mainland, east of Central America, and north of South America.

Situated largely on the Caribbean Plate, the region comprises more than 700 islands, islets, reefs and cays. (See the list of Caribbean islands.) These islands generally form island arcs that delineate the eastern and northern edges of the Caribbean Sea.[6] The Caribbean islands, consisting of the Greater Antilles on the north and the Lesser Antilles on the south and east (including the Leeward Antilles), are part of the somewhat larger West Indies grouping, which also includes the Lucayan Archipelago (comprising the Bahamas and Turks and Caicos Islands). The Lucayans and, less commonly, Bermuda, are also sometimes considered Caribbean despite the fact that none of these islands border the Caribbean Sea. In a wider sense, the mainland countries, regions, and territories of Belize, the Caribbean region of Colombia, Cozumel, the Yucatn Peninsula, Margarita Island, the Guyanas (Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Guayana Region in Venezuela, and Amap in Brazil), are often included due to their political and cultural ties with the region.[7]

Geopolitically, the Caribbean islands are usually regarded as a subregion of North America[8][9][10][11][12] and are organized into 30 territories including sovereign states, overseas departments, and dependencies. From December 15, 1954, to October 10, 2010, there was a country known as the Netherlands Antilles composed of five states, all of which were Dutch dependencies.[13] From January 3, 1958, to May 31, 1962, there was also a short-lived political union called the West Indies Federation composed of ten English-speaking Caribbean territories, all of which were then British dependencies. The West Indies cricket team continues to represent many of those nations.

The region takes its name from that of the Caribs, an ethnic group present in the Lesser Antilles and parts of adjacent South America at the time of the Spanish conquest of America.[14]

The two most prevalent pronunciations of “Caribbean” outside the Caribbean are (karr–BEE-n), with the primary stress on the third syllable, and (k-RIB-ee-n), with the stress on the second. Most authorities of the last century preferred the stress on the third syllable.[15] This is the older of the two pronunciations, but the stressed-second-syllable variant has been established for over 75 years.[16] It has been suggested that speakers of British English prefer (karr–BEE-n) while North American speakers more typically use (k-RIB-ee-n),[17] but major American dictionaries and other sources list the stress on the third syllable as more common in American English too.[18][19][20][21] According to the American version of Oxford Online Dictionaries, the stress on the second syllable is becoming more common in UK English and is increasingly considered “by some” to be more up to date and more “correct”.[22]

The Oxford Online Dictionaries claim that the stress on the second syllable is the most common pronunciation in the Caribbean itself, but according to the Dictionary of Caribbean English Usage, the most common pronunciation in Caribbean English is in fact on the first syllable, (KARR–bee-n).[3][22]

The word “Caribbean” has multiple uses. Its principal ones are geographical and political. The Caribbean can also be expanded to include territories with strong cultural and historical connections to slavery, European colonisation and the plantation system.

The geography and climate in the Caribbean region varies: Some islands in the region have relatively flat terrain of non-volcanic origin. These islands include Aruba (possessing only minor volcanic features), Curaao, Barbados, Bonaire, the Cayman Islands, Saint Croix, the Bahamas, and Antigua. Others possess rugged towering mountain-ranges like the islands of Saint Martin, Cuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, Jamaica, Dominica, Montserrat, Saba, Sint Eustatius, Saint Kitts, Saint Lucia, Saint Thomas, Saint John, Tortola, Grenada, Saint Vincent, Guadeloupe, Martinique and Trinidad and Tobago.

Definitions of the terms Greater Antilles and Lesser Antilles often vary. The Virgin Islands as part of the Puerto Rican bank are sometimes included with the Greater Antilles. The term Lesser Antilles is often used to define an island arc that includes Grenada but excludes Trinidad and Tobago and the Leeward Antilles.

The waters of the Caribbean Sea host large, migratory schools of fish, turtles, and coral reef formations. The Puerto Rico Trench, located on the fringe of the Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea just to the north of the island of Puerto Rico, is the deepest point in all of the Atlantic Ocean.[24]

The region sits in the line of several major shipping routes with the Panama Canal connecting the western Caribbean Sea with the Pacific Ocean.

The climate of the area is tropical, varying from tropical rainforest in some areas to tropical savanna in others. There are also some locations that are arid climates with considerable drought in some years.

Rainfall varies with elevation, size and water currents (cool upwellings keep the ABC islands arid). Warm, moist trade winds blow consistently from the east, creating both rain forest and semi arid climates across the region. The tropical rainforest climates include lowland areas near the Caribbean Sea from Costa Rica north to Belize, as well as the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico, while the more seasonal dry tropical savanna climates are found in Cuba, northern Venezuela, and southern Yucatan, Mexico. Arid climates are found along the extreme southern coast of Venezuela out to the islands including Aruba and Curacao, as well as the northern tip of Yucatan.

While the region generally is sunny much of the year, the wet season from May through November sees more frequent cloud cover (both broken and overcast), while the dry season from December through April is more often clear to mostly sunny. Seasonal rainfall is divided into ‘dry’ and ‘wet’ seasons, with the latter six months of the year being wetter than the first half. The air temperature is hot much of the year, varying from 25 to 33 C (77 F to 90 F) between the wet and dry seasons. Seasonally, monthly mean temperatures vary from only about 5 C (7 F) in the northern most regions, to less than 3 C in the southernmost areas of the Caribbean.

Hurricane season is from June to November, but they occur more frequently in August and September and more common in the northern islands of the Caribbean. Hurricanes that sometimes batter the region usually strike northwards of Grenada and to the west of Barbados. The principal hurricane belt arcs to northwest of the island of Barbados in the Eastern Caribbean. A great example being recent events of Hurricane Irma devastating the island of Saint Martin during the 2017 hurricane season.

Sea surface temperatures change little annually, normally running from 30C (87F) in the warmest months to 26C (76F) in the coolest months.

Aruba: Latitude 12N

Puerto Rico: Latitude 18N

Cuba: at Latitude 22N

Lucayan Archipelago[a]

Greater Antilles

Lesser Antilles

All islands at some point were, and a few still are, colonies of European nations; a few are overseas or dependent territories:

The British West Indies were united by the United Kingdom into a West Indies Federation between 1958 and 1962. The independent countries formerly part of the B.W.I. still have a joint cricket team that competes in Test matches, One Day Internationals and Twenty20 Internationals. The West Indian cricket team includes the South American nation of Guyana, the only former British colony on the mainland of that continent.

In addition, these countries share the University of the West Indies as a regional entity. The university consists of three main campuses in Jamaica, Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago, a smaller campus in the Bahamas and Resident Tutors in other contributing territories such as Trinidad.

Islands in and near the Caribbean

Maritime boundaries between the Caribbean (island) nations

The Caribbean islands have one of the most diverse eco systems in the world. The animals, fungi and plants, and have been classified as one of Conservation International’s biodiversity hotspots because of their exceptionally diverse terrestrial and marine ecosystems, ranging from montane cloud forests, to tropical rainforest, to cactus scrublands. The region also contains about 8% (by surface area) of the world’s coral reefs[38] along with extensive seagrass meadows,[39] both of which are frequently found in the shallow marine waters bordering the island and continental coasts of the region.

For the fungi, there is a modern checklist based on nearly 90,000 records derived from specimens in reference collections, published accounts and field observations.[40] That checklist includes more than 11,250 species of fungi recorded from the region. As its authors note, the work is far from exhaustive, and it is likely that the true total number of fungal species already known from the Caribbean is higher. The true total number of fungal species occurring in the Caribbean, including species not yet recorded, is likely far higher given the generally accepted estimate that only about 7% of all fungi worldwide have been discovered.[41] Though the amount of available information is still small, a first effort has been made to estimate the number of fungal species endemic to some Caribbean islands. For Cuba, 2200 species of fungi have been tentatively identified as possible endemics of the island;[42] for Puerto Rico, the number is 789 species;[43] for the Dominican Republic, the number is 699 species;[44] for Trinidad and Tobago, the number is 407 species.[45]

Many of the ecosystems of the Caribbean islands have been devastated by deforestation, pollution, and human encroachment. The arrival of the first humans is correlated with extinction of giant owls and dwarf ground sloths.[46] The hotspot contains dozens of highly threatened animals (ranging from birds, to mammals and reptiles), fungi and plants. Examples of threatened animals include the Puerto Rican amazon, two species of solenodon (giant shrews) in Cuba and the Hispaniola island, and the Cuban crocodile.

The region’s coral reefs, which contain about 70 species of hard corals and between 500700 species of reef-associated fishes[47] have undergone rapid decline in ecosystem integrity in recent years, and are considered particularly vulnerable to global warming and ocean acidification.[48] According to a UNEP report, the Caribbean coral reefs might get extinct in next 20 years due to population explosion along the coast lines, overfishing, the pollution of coastal areas and global warming.[49]

Some Caribbean islands have terrain that Europeans found suitable for cultivation for agriculture. Tobacco was an important early crop during the colonial era, but was eventually overtaken by sugarcane production as the region’s staple crop. Sugar was produced from sugarcane for export to Europe. Cuba and Barbados were historically the largest producers of sugar. The tropical plantation system thus came to dominate Caribbean settlement. Other islands were found to have terrain unsuited for agriculture, for example Dominica, which remains heavily forested. The islands in the southern Lesser Antilles, Aruba, Bonaire and Curaao, are extremely arid, making them unsuitable for agriculture. However, they have salt pans that were exploited by the Dutch. Sea water was pumped into shallow ponds, producing coarse salt when the water evaporated.[50]

The natural environmental diversity of the Caribbean islands has led to recent growth in eco-tourism. This type of tourism is growing on islands lacking sandy beaches and dense human populations.[51]

The Martinique amazon, Amazona martinicana, is an extinct species of parrot in the family Psittacidae.

At the time of European contact, the dominant ethnic groups in the Caribbean included the Tano of the Greater Antilles and northern Lesser Antilles, the Island Caribs of the southern Lesser Antilles, and smaller distinct groups such as the Guanajatabey of western Cuba and the Ciguayo of eastern Hispaniola. The population of the Caribbean is estimated to have been around 750,000 immediately before European contact, although lower and higher figures are given. After contact, social disruption and epidemic diseases such as smallpox and measles (to which they had no natural immunity)[52] led to a decline in the Amerindian population.[53] From 1500 to 1800 the population rose as slaves arrived from West Africa[54] such as the Kongo, Igbo, Akan, Fon and Yoruba as well as military prisoners from Ireland, who were deported during the Cromwellian reign in England.[citation needed] Immigrants from Britain, Italy, France, Spain, the Netherlands, Portugal and Denmark also arrived, although the mortality rate was high for both groups.[55]

The population is estimated to have reached 2.2 million by 1800.[56] Immigrants from India, China, Indonesia, and other countries arrived in the mid-19th century as indentured servants.[57] After the ending of the Atlantic slave trade, the population increased naturally.[58] The total regional population was estimated at 37.5 million by 2000.[59]

In Haiti and most of the French, Anglophone and Dutch Caribbean, the population is predominantly of African origin; on many islands there are also significant populations of mixed racial origin (including Mulatto-Creole, Dougla, Mestizo, Quadroon, Cholo, Castizo, Criollo, Zambo, Pardo, Asian Latin Americans, Chindian, Cocoa panyols, and Eurasian), as well as populations of European ancestry: Dutch, English, French, Italian, Portuguese and Spanish ancestry. Asians, especially those of Chinese, Indian descent, and Javanese Indonesians, form a significant minority in parts of the region. Indians form a plurality of the population in Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, and Suriname. Most of their ancestors arrived in the 19th century as indentured laborers.

The Spanish-speaking Caribbean populations are primarily of European, African, or racially mixed origins. Puerto Rico has a European majority with a mixture of European-African-Native American (tri-racial), and a large Mulatto (European-West African) and West African minority. Cuba also has a European majority, along with a significant population of African ancestry. The Dominican Republic has the largest mixed-race population, primarily descended from Europeans, West Africans, and Amerindians.

Jamaica has a large African majority, in addition to a significant population of mixed racial background, and has minorities of Chinese, Europeans, Indians, Latinos, Jews, and Arabs. This is a result of years of importation of slaves and indentured laborers, and migration. Most multi-racial Jamaicans refer to themselves as either mixed race or brown. Similar populations can be found in the Caricom states of Belize, Guyana and Trinidad and Tobago. Trinidad and Tobago has a multi-racial cosmopolitan society due to the arrivals of Africans, Indians, Chinese, Arabs, Jews, Spanish, Portuguese, and Europeans along with the Native Amerindians population. This multi-racial mix has created sub-ethnicities that often straddle the boundaries of major ethnicities and include Dougla, Chindian, Mulatto-Creole, Afro-Asians, Eurasian, Cocoa panyols, and Asian Latin Americans

Spanish, English, French, Dutch, Haitian Creole, and Papiamento are the predominant official languages of various countries in the region, although a handful of unique creole languages or dialects can also be found in virtually every Caribbean country. Other languages such as Caribbean Hindustani, Chinese, Indonesian, Amerindian languages, other African languages, other European languages, other Indian languages, and other Indonesian languages can also be found.

Christianity is the predominant religion in the Caribbean (84.7%).[60] Other religious groups in the region are Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, Rastafarianism, Buddhism, Chinese folk religion (Taoism and Confucianism), Bah’, Jainism, Sikhism, Zorastrianism, Kebatinan, Traditional African religions, Afro-American religions, Yoruba (Santera, Trinidad Orisha, Palo, Umbanda, Brujera, Hoodoo, Candombl, Quimbanda, Orisha, Xang de Recife, Xang do Nordeste, Comfa, Espiritismo, Santo Daime, Obeah, Candombl, Abaku, Kumina, Winti, Sanse, Cuban Vod, Dominican Vud, Louisiana Voodoo, Haitian Vodou, and Vodun).

Caribbean societies are very different from other Western societies in terms of size, culture, and degree of mobility of their citizens.[61] The current economic and political problems the states face individually are common to all Caribbean states. Regional development has contributed to attempts to subdue current problems and avoid projected problems. From a political and economic perspective, regionalism serves to make Caribbean states active participants in current international affairs through collective coalitions. In 1973, the first political regionalism in the Caribbean Basin was created by advances of the English-speaking Caribbean nations through the institution known as the Caribbean Common Market and Community (CARICOM)[62] which is located in Guyana.

Certain scholars have argued both for and against generalizing the political structures of the Caribbean. On the one hand the Caribbean states are politically diverse, ranging from communist systems such as Cuba toward more capitalist Westminster-style parliamentary systems as in the Commonwealth Caribbean. Other scholars argue that these differences are superficial, and that they tend to undermine commonalities in the various Caribbean states. Contemporary Caribbean systems seem to reflect a “blending of traditional and modern patterns, yielding hybrid systems that exhibit significant structural variations and divergent constitutional traditions yet ultimately appear to function in similar ways.”[63] The political systems of the Caribbean states share similar practices.

The influence of regionalism in the Caribbean is often marginalized. Some scholars believe that regionalism cannot exist in the Caribbean because each small state is unique. On the other hand, scholars also suggest that there are commonalities amongst the Caribbean nations that suggest regionalism exists. “Proximity as well as historical ties among the Caribbean nations has led to cooperation as well as a desire for collective action.”[64] These attempts at regionalization reflect the nations’ desires to compete in the international economic system.[64]

Furthermore, a lack of interest from other major states promoted regionalism in the region. In recent years the Caribbean has suffered from a lack of U.S. interest. “With the end of the Cold War, U.S. security and economic interests have been focused on other areas. As a result there has been a significant reduction in U.S. aid and investment to the Caribbean.”[65] The lack of international support for these small, relatively poor states, helped regionalism prosper.

Following the Cold War another issue of importance in the Caribbean has been the reduced economic growth of some Caribbean States due to the United States and European Union’s allegations of special treatment toward the region by each other.[clarification needed]

The United States under President Bill Clinton launched a challenge in the World Trade Organization against the EU over Europe’s preferential program, known as the Lom Convention, which allowed banana exports from the former colonies of the Group of African, Caribbean and Pacific states (ACP) to enter Europe cheaply.[66] The World Trade Organization sided in the United States’ favour and the beneficial elements of the convention to African, Caribbean and Pacific states has been partially dismantled and replaced by the Cotonou Agreement.[67]

During the US/EU dispute, the United States imposed large tariffs on European Union goods (up to 100%) to pressure Europe to change the agreement with the Caribbean nations in favour of the Cotonou Agreement.[68]

Farmers in the Caribbean have complained of falling profits and rising costs as the Lom Convention weakens. Some farmers have faced increased pressure to turn towards the cultivation of illegal drugs, which has a higher profit margin and fills the sizable demand for these illegal drugs in North America and Europe.[69][70]

Caribbean nations have also started to more closely cooperate in the Caribbean Financial Action Task Force and other instruments to add oversight of the offshore industry. One of the most important associations that deal with regionalism amongst the nations of the Caribbean Basin has been the Association of Caribbean States (ACS). Proposed by CARICOM in 1992, the ACS soon won the support of the other countries of the region. It was founded in July 1994. The ACS maintains regionalism within the Caribbean on issues unique to the Caribbean Basin. Through coalition building, like the ACS and CARICOM, regionalism has become an undeniable part of the politics and economics of the Caribbean. The successes of region-building initiatives are still debated by scholars, yet regionalism remains prevalent throughout the Caribbean.

The President of Venezuela, Hugo Chavez launched an economic group called the Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas (ALBA), which several eastern Caribbean islands joined. In 2012, the nation of Haiti, with 9 million people, became the largest CARICOM nation that sought to join the union.[71]

Here are some of the bodies that several islands share in collaboration:

Coordinates: 143132N 754906W / 14.52556N 75.81833W / 14.52556; -75.81833

Go here to see the original:

Caribbean – Wikipedia

Caribbean Cruises & Caribbean Cruise Vacations | Disney …

A onetime popular haunt for pirates, the Caribbean islands offer a treasure trove worth of excitement and fun for all. Cast off on a Caribbean cruise with Disney for an unforgettable adventure at some of the most breathtakingly beautiful locales under the sunwhile experiencing the unique family entertainment, exquisite dining and legendary service that makes a Disney cruise unlike any other.

More:

Caribbean Cruises & Caribbean Cruise Vacations | Disney …

Caribbean Cruises | Caribbean Vacations | Carnival Cruise Line

We dont have proof, but evidence suggests that the Caribbean was made for cruising. This evidence is all around you youll find in the Caribbean air, the sand and the water. And with more than 5,000 islands and cays spread across this amazing region, theres a lot of paradise to see. So how do you choose where to visit on a Caribbean cruise? We recommend you just go and see for yourself! Best of all, the mild climate means it doesnt even matter what time of year you go. A Carnival Caribbean cruise takes you to some of the coolest little hotspots stretching across the worlds designated hotspot.

More here:

Caribbean Cruises | Caribbean Vacations | Carnival Cruise Line

Caribbean Map / Map of the Caribbean – Maps and …

The Caribbean, long referred to as theWest Indies, includes more than 7,000 islands; of those, 13 are independent island countries (shown in red on the map), and some are dependencies or overseas territories of other nations.

In addition, that large number includes islets (very small rocky islands); cay’s (small, low islands composed largely of coral or sand) and a few inhabited reefs: See Belize.

In geographical terms the Caribbean area includes the Caribbean Sea and all of the islands located to the southeast of the Gulf of Mexico, east of Central America and Mexico, and to the north of South America. Some of its counted cay’s, islands, islets and inhabited reefs front the handful of countries that border the region.

TheBahamas and Turks and Caicos are not considered a part of the Caribbean, however, we show them here because of their cultural, geographical and political associations with the Greater Antilles and other Caribbean Islands.

At the beginning of the 15th century the population of the Caribbean was estimated to be nearly 900,000 indigenous people immediately before European contact.

Then in 1492, Christopher Columbus, the Italian explorer began his exploration of the Caribbean, becoming the firstEuropean to venture into the area.

After reportedly landing in the eastern Bahamas, Columbus named these islands theIndies, because he thought he had finally reached Asia (and the East Indies).

Numerous explorers followed in his path, then tens of thousands of settlers arrived from the Americas, China, European countries and India. Included in that mix were religious outcasts and a small army of pirates.

Across the Caribbean, slaves fromAfrica were imported in great numbers to work the sugar and tobacco plantations.

By then the indigenous populations of the islands were in severe decline as exposure to disease and brutal genocide wiped out much of their number.

Great military powers continually fought for control of the islands, and finally, a blended mix of African andEuropean cultures and languages transformed this large group of islands and its peoples into one of the premier tourist destinations on the planet.

Long called theWest Indies, the overall area is now commonly referred to as the Caribbean, a name that became popular after World War II.

Over the last few decades legions of travelers have journeyed to the Caribbean to enjoy the amenities. They frequently arrive in cruise ships that sail in and out, from ports in Florida and Puerto Rico.

Overall the Caribbean is a magical place of palm trees, white sand beaches, turquoise waters and sunshine, all blessed with a climate that consistently offers a much-needed break for those stuck in the cold weather doldrums of the north.

If you haven’t been, you should, and if you’ve been here more than once, you will come again, as these islands, these beach-ringed, jungle-covered rocks are home to thousands of historical surprises and activities galore.

So come wiggle you toes in the sand, and eat and sleep under the stars in the Caribbean.You won’t be disappointed.

Read more here:

Caribbean Map / Map of the Caribbean – Maps and …

Caribbean Cruises, Caribbean Cruise, Cruise Caribbean …

More ships cruise the Caribbean islands than any other region in the world, and Caribbean cruises treat vacationers to crystal-clear waters, pristine beaches, abundant water sports and duty-free shopping. Caribbean cruises are divided into three regions: Western Caribbean cruises, Southern Caribbean cruises and Eastern Caribbean cruises.

Western Caribbean cruises can take you to see Mayan ruins on Mexico’s Yucatan coast, snorkeling in the barrier reef off the coast of Belize or to Grand Cayman’s Seven Mile Beach. Southern Caribbean cruises can take you to the beautiful beaches of Aruba, the rain forest of Martinique or the beautiful beaches of Barbados. Eastern Caribbean cruises may call on ports in the Bahamas, San Juan, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands and Turks and Caicos.

Because so many people cruise the Caribbean islands, you’ll find the most competitive pricing and the best per-diem rates on a Caribbean cruise. This is especially true in the fall — just before the start of the peak Caribbean cruise season — when ships return to the Caribbean from Alaska and Europe.

Hurricane season runs from June 1 through November 30, but with the sophisticated radar and weather-tracking systems found on larger Caribbean cruise ships today, there is little cause for concern. Ships can easily change course to avoid storms and will substitute alternate Caribbean cruise ports as necessary.

For more information on the Western Caribbean, click here. For more information on the Eastern Caribbean, click here. For more information on the Southern Caribbean, click here.

For a list of Caribbean cruise ports, click here.

Read the original:

Caribbean Cruises, Caribbean Cruise, Cruise Caribbean …

Caribbean Map / Map of the Caribbean – Maps and …

The Caribbean, long referred to as theWest Indies, includes more than 7,000 islands; of those, 13 are independent island countries (shown in red on the map), and some are dependencies or overseas territories of other nations.

In addition, that large number includes islets (very small rocky islands); cay’s (small, low islands composed largely of coral or sand) and a few inhabited reefs: See Belize.

In geographical terms the Caribbean area includes the Caribbean Sea and all of the islands located to the southeast of the Gulf of Mexico, east of Central America and Mexico, and to the north of South America. Some of its counted cay’s, islands, islets and inhabited reefs front the handful of countries that border the region.

TheBahamas and Turks and Caicos are not considered a part of the Caribbean, however, we show them here because of their cultural, geographical and political associations with the Greater Antilles and other Caribbean Islands.

At the beginning of the 15th century the population of the Caribbean was estimated to be nearly 900,000 indigenous people immediately before European contact.

Then in 1492, Christopher Columbus, the Italian explorer began his exploration of the Caribbean, becoming the firstEuropean to venture into the area.

After reportedly landing in the eastern Bahamas, Columbus named these islands theIndies, because he thought he had finally reached Asia (and the East Indies).

Numerous explorers followed in his path, then tens of thousands of settlers arrived from the Americas, China, European countries and India. Included in that mix were religious outcasts and a small army of pirates.

Across the Caribbean, slaves fromAfrica were imported in great numbers to work the sugar and tobacco plantations.

By then the indigenous populations of the islands were in severe decline as exposure to disease and brutal genocide wiped out much of their number.

Great military powers continually fought for control of the islands, and finally, a blended mix of African andEuropean cultures and languages transformed this large group of islands and its peoples into one of the premier tourist destinations on the planet.

Long called theWest Indies, the overall area is now commonly referred to as the Caribbean, a name that became popular after World War II.

Over the last few decades legions of travelers have journeyed to the Caribbean to enjoy the amenities. They frequently arrive in cruise ships that sail in and out, from ports in Florida and Puerto Rico.

Overall the Caribbean is a magical place of palm trees, white sand beaches, turquoise waters and sunshine, all blessed with a climate that consistently offers a much-needed break for those stuck in the cold weather doldrums of the north.

If you haven’t been, you should, and if you’ve been here more than once, you will come again, as these islands, these beach-ringed, jungle-covered rocks are home to thousands of historical surprises and activities galore.

So come wiggle you toes in the sand, and eat and sleep under the stars in the Caribbean.You won’t be disappointed.

Read the original here:

Caribbean Map / Map of the Caribbean – Maps and …

Caribbean & Mexico Vacation Packages – All Inclusive …

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Hawksbill by Rex Resorts Antigua Hedonism II Hidden Beach Resort by Karisma Hideaway at Royalton Negril Hideaway at Royalton Punta Cana Hideaway at Royalton Riviera Cancun Hideaway at Royalton St. Lucia Hilton Aruba Caribbean Resort and Casino Hilton Barbados Hilton Cartagena Hilton Curacao Hilton Puerto Vallarta Resort Hodges Bay Resort & Spa All Inclusive Holiday Inn at the Panama Canal Holiday Inn Cartagena Morros Holiday Inn Resort Aruba – Beach Resort & Casino Holiday Inn Resort Aruba – Beach Resort & Casino All Inclusive Holiday Inn Resort Grand Cayman Holiday Inn Resort Ixtapa All Inclusive Holiday Inn Resort Los Cabos All Inclusive Holiday Inn Resort Montego Bay Jamaica – All Inclusive Hopkins Bay Belize Hotel Cozumel & Resort Hotel La Plantation Hotel Las Americas – Casa De Playa Hotel Las Americas – Torre Del Mar Hotel Magic Blue Playa del Carmen Hotel Marina El Cid Spa & Beach Resort Hotel Xcaret Mexico Hyatt Regency Aruba Resort Spa And Casino Hyatt Regency Cartagena Iberostar Bavaro Iberostar Cancun Iberostar Cancun Star Prestige Iberostar Costa Dorada Iberostar Cozumel Iberostar Dominicana Iberostar Grand Hotel Bavaro Iberostar Grand Hotel Paraiso Iberostar Grand Hotel Rose Hall Iberostar Hacienda Dominicus Iberostar Paraiso Beach Resort Iberostar Paraiso Del Mar Iberostar Paraiso Lindo Resort Iberostar Paraiso Maya Iberostar Playa Mita Iberostar Punta Cana Iberostar Quetzal Iberostar Rose Hall Beach Iberostar Rose Hall Suites Iberostar Tucan Intercontinental Cartagena De Indias InterContinental Miramar Panama InterContinental Presidente Cozumel InterContinental San Juan Isla Mujeres Palace Island Inn Hotel JW Marriott Guanacaste Resort & Spa JW Marriott Los Cabos Resort & Spa JW Marriott Los Cabos Resort & Spa All Inclusive Karibe Hotel Krystal Cancun Krystal Ixtapa Krystal Vallarta La Concha, A Renaissance Resort La Playa – Orient Bay Las Brisas Ixtapa Las Casitas Village, A Waldorf Astoria Resort Las Terrazas Le Blanc Spa Resort Le Blanc Spa Resort Los Cabos Legends Beach Resort Legends Beach Resort All Inclusive Lifestyle Tropical Beach Resort & Spa Lighthouse Pointe at Grand Lucayan All Inclusive Live Aqua Beach Resort Cancun Live Aqua Boutique Resort Playa Del Carmen Livingstone Jan Thiel Resort Lopesan Costa Bavaro Resort Spa & Casino Los Suenos Marriott Ocean & Golf Resort Luxury Bahia Principe Akumal Luxury Bahia Principe Ambar (Adults Only) Luxury Bahia Principe Bouganville (Adults Only) Luxury Bahia Principe Cayo Levantado (SDQ) Luxury Bahia Principe Esmeralda Luxury Bahia Principe Fantasia Luxury Bahia Principe Runaway Bay (Adults-Only) Luxury Bahia Principe Samana (Adults Only) Luxury Bahia Principe Sian Ka’an (Adults Only) Mahekal Beach Resort Majestic Colonial Punta Cana Majestic Elegance Punta Cana Majestic Mirage Punta Cana Manchebo Beach Resort & Spa Manchebo Beach Resort & Spa All Inclusive Mango Bay Hotel All Inclusive Margaritaville Beach Resort – Costa Rica Margaritaville Beach Resort All Inclusive – Costa Rica Margaritaville Beach Resort Grand Cayman Margaritaville Beach Resort Grand Cayman All Inclusive Marival Residences & World Spa Marival Resort & Suites Nuevo Vallarta Marriott Puerto Vallarta Resort & Spa Marriott Puerto Vallarta Resort & Spa All Inclusive ME Cabo by Melia Melia Braco Village Melia Caribe Beach Resort Melia Coco Beach Puerto Rico Melia Cozumel Golf – All Inclusive Melia Nassau Beach All Inclusive Melia Puerto Vallarta All Inclusive Melia Punta Cana Beach Resort Mill Resort & Suites Moon Palace Cancun Moon Palace Jamaica Moulin Sur Mer Beach Resort Natura Park Beach Eco Resort & Spa Newstead Belmont Hills Nickelodeon Hotels & Resorts Punta Cana Now Amber Puerto Vallarta Now Garden Punta Cana Now Jade Riviera Cancun Now Larimar Punta Cana Now Onyx Punta Cana Now Sapphire Riviera Cancun Oasis Cancun Lite Oasis Palm Oasis Tulum Lite Occidental at Xcaret Destination – All-Inclusive Occidental Caribe – All-Inclusive Occidental Costa Cancun – All-Inclusive Occidental Cozumel – All-Inclusive Occidental Nuevo Vallarta – All-Inclusive Occidental Papagayo – Adults-Only All-Inclusive Occidental Punta Cana – All-Inclusive Occidental Tamarindo – All-Inclusive Occidental Tucancun – All-Inclusive Ocean Blue & Sand Beach Resort Ocean Club Ocean Club West Ocean Coral & Turquesa Ocean El Faro Ocean Maya Royale Ocean Riviera Paradise Ocean Terrace Inn Ocean Two Old Bahama Bay Resort & Yacht Harbour Oualie Beach Resort Oyster Bay Beach Resort Palafitos Overwater Bungalows Gourmet All Inclusive by Karisma at El Dorado Maroma – Adults Only Palm Court Hotel Paradisus Cancun Paradisus Los Cabos Paradisus Palma Real Paradisus Playa del Carmen La Esmeralda Paradisus Playa del Carmen La Perla Paradisus Punta Cana Pelican Bay at Lucaya Pineapple Beach Club Antigua (Adults-Only) Planet Hollywood Beach Resort Platinum Yucatan Princess (Adults-Only) Playa Blanca All Inclusive Beach Resort Playacar Palace Portofino Beach Resort Ports of Call Resort – Turks & Caicos Presidential Suites Cofresi by Lifestyle Presidential Suites Punta Cana Princess Heights Pueblo Bonito Emerald Bay Resort & Spa Pueblo Bonito Pacifica Golf & Spa Resort Pueblo Bonito Rose Resort & Spa Pueblo Bonito Sunset Beach Golf & Spa Resort Punta Cana Princess All Suites Resort & Spa Radisson Aquatica Resort Barbados Reflect Krystal Grand Cancun Reflect Krystal Grand Los Cabos Reflect Krystal Grand Nuevo Vallarta Renaissance Aruba Resort & Casino Renaissance Aruba Resort & Casino All Inclusive Renaissance Curacao Resort and Casino Renaissance Curacao Resort and Casino All Inclusive Renaissance St. Croix Carambola Beach Resort & Spa Rendezvous St. Lucia Rincon Beach Resort Riu Bambu Riu Cancun Riu Caribe Riu Dunamar Riu Emerald Bay Riu Guanacaste Riu Jalisco Riu Lupita Riu Montego Bay Riu Naiboa Riu Negril Riu Ocho Rios Riu Palace Antillas Adults-Only Riu Palace Aruba Riu Palace Baja California Adults Only Riu Palace Bavaro Riu Palace Cabo San Lucas Riu Palace Costa Mujeres Riu Palace Costa Rica Riu Palace Jamaica (Adults-Only) Riu Palace Las Americas (Adults-Only) Riu Palace Macao (Adults-Only) Riu Palace Mexico Riu Palace Pacifico Riu Palace Paradise Island (Adults-Only) Riu Palace Peninsula Riu Palace Punta Cana Riu Palace Riviera Maya Riu Palace Tropical Bay Riu Playa Blanca Riu Playacar Riu Reggae (Adults-Only) Riu Republica (Adults-Only) Riu Santa Fe Riu Tequila Riu Vallarta Riu Yucatan Robert’s Grove Beach Resort Rooms on the Beach Ocho Rios Royal Decameron Club Caribbean Royal Decameron Complex Royal Decameron Cornwall Beach Royal Decameron Golf Beach Resort and Villas Royal Decameron Indigo Beach Royal Decameron Los Cabos Adults Only Royal Decameron Montego Beach Royal Hideaway Playacar – Adults-Only All-Inclusive Royal Solaris Cancun Royal Solaris Los Cabos Resort and Spa Royal West Indies Resort Royalton Antigua Royalton Bavaro Resort & Spa Royalton Blue Waters Royalton Cancun Royalton Negril Royalton Punta Cana Resort & Casino Royalton Riviera Cancun Royalton St. Lucia Royalton White Sands Sailrock Resort Samsara Cliff Resort Samsara Cliff Resort All Inclusive San Juan Marriott and Stellaris Casino San Juan Water & Beach Club Hotel Sandos Cancun Lifestyle Resort Sandos Caracol Eco Resort Sandos Finisterra Los Cabos Sandos Playacar Beach Resort Sands At Grace Bay Santa Barbara Beach & Golf Resort Sapphire Beach Resort Savannah Beach Hotel All Inclusive Sea Breeze Beach House (by Ocean Hotels) Seadust Cancun Family Resort Secrets Akumal Riviera Maya Secrets Aura Cozumel Secrets Cap Cana Resort & Spa Secrets Capri Riviera Cancun Secrets Huatulco Resort & Spa Secrets Maroma Beach Riviera Cancun Secrets Papagayo Resort & Spa Secrets Playa Mujeres Golf & Spa Resort Secrets Puerto Los Cabos Golf & Spa Resort Secrets Royal Beach Punta Cana Secrets Silversands Riviera Cancun Secrets St. James Montego Bay Secrets The Vine Cancun Secrets Vallarta Bay Puerto Vallarta Secrets Wild Orchid Montego Bay Serenity at Coconut Bay A Luxury Suite Resort Seven Stars Resort Sheraton Bijao Beach Resort All Inclusive Sheraton Old San Juan Hotel Sheraton Puerto Rico Hotel Sibonne Beach Hotel Silver Point Hotel SLS Baha Mar Somerset on Grace Bay Sonesta Maho Beach Resort Casino & Spa Sonesta Ocean Point (Adults-Only) South Gap Hotel Spice Island Beach Resort St. James’s Club & Villas St. James’s Club Morgan Bay Saint Lucia St. Kitts Marriott Resort & The Royal Beach Casino St. Kitts Marriott Resort & The Royal Beach Casino Experience Inclusive St. Regis Bahia Beach Resort Starfish Jolly Beach Resort Sugar Bay Barbados Sugar Bay Club Sugar Beach A Viceroy Resort Sun Palace SunBreeze Hotel SunBreeze Suites Sunscape Bavaro Beach Punta Cana Sunscape Cove Montego Bay Sunscape Curacao Resort Spa & Casino Sunscape Dominican Beach Punta Cana Sunscape Dorado Pacifico Ixtapa Sunscape Puerto Plata Sunscape Puerto Plata (STI) Sunscape Puerto Vallarta Resort Sunscape Sabor Cozumel Sunscape Splash Montego Bay Sunscape Star Cancun Sunset at the Palms Resort & Spa Sunshine Suites Resort Grand Cayman Tamarijn Aruba All Inclusive Tamarind Hotel Taste of Costa Rica-6 nights Temptation Cancun Resort Tesoro Ixtapa Tesoro Los Cabos The Club Barbados The Crane Resort The Ellysian Boutique Hotel The Explorean Cozumel All Inclusive The Fives Azul Beach Resort by Karisma Gourmet All Inclusive The Grand at Moon Palace Cancun The Landings Resort and Spa The Landings Resort and Spa All Inclusive The Level at Melia Nassau Beach All Inclusive The Palms Turks & Caicos The Pyramid at Grand Oasis The Regent Grand The Reserve at Paradisus Palma Real The Reserve at Paradisus Punta Cana The Ritz-Carlton Aruba The Ritz-Carlton Grand Cayman The Ritz-Carlton San Juan The Shore Club Turks and Caicos The Sian Ka’an at Grand Tulum The Verandah Resort & Spa Antigua Time Out Hotel Timothy Beach Resort Treasure Beach by Elegant Hotels Treasure Cay Beach, Marina & Golf Resort Tropical Princess Beach Resort & Spa Tropicana Aruba Resort & Casino TRS Coral 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Caribbean & Mexico Vacation Packages – All Inclusive …

Caribbean Cruises, Caribbean Cruise, Cruise Caribbean …

More ships cruise the Caribbean islands than any other region in the world, and Caribbean cruises treat vacationers to crystal-clear waters, pristine beaches, abundant water sports and duty-free shopping. Caribbean cruises are divided into three regions: Western Caribbean cruises, Southern Caribbean cruises and Eastern Caribbean cruises.

Western Caribbean cruises can take you to see Mayan ruins on Mexico’s Yucatan coast, snorkeling in the barrier reef off the coast of Belize or to Grand Cayman’s Seven Mile Beach. Southern Caribbean cruises can take you to the beautiful beaches of Aruba, the rain forest of Martinique or the beautiful beaches of Barbados. Eastern Caribbean cruises may call on ports in the Bahamas, San Juan, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands and Turks and Caicos.

Because so many people cruise the Caribbean islands, you’ll find the most competitive pricing and the best per-diem rates on a Caribbean cruise. This is especially true in the fall — just before the start of the peak Caribbean cruise season — when ships return to the Caribbean from Alaska and Europe.

Hurricane season runs from June 1 through November 30, but with the sophisticated radar and weather-tracking systems found on larger Caribbean cruise ships today, there is little cause for concern. Ships can easily change course to avoid storms and will substitute alternate Caribbean cruise ports as necessary.

For more information on the Western Caribbean, click here. For more information on the Eastern Caribbean, click here. For more information on the Southern Caribbean, click here.

For a list of Caribbean cruise ports, click here.

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Caribbean Cruises, Caribbean Cruise, Cruise Caribbean …

Caribbean travel – Lonely Planet

A Caribbean Mosaic

The Caribbean is a joyous mosaic of islands beckoning paradise-hunters, an explosion of color, fringed by beaches and soaked in rum. Its a lively and intoxicating profusion of people and places spread over 7000 islands (fewer than 10% are inhabited). But, for all they share, theres also much that makes them different. Can there be a greater contrast than between bustling Barbados and its neighbor, the seemingly unchanged-since-colonial-times St Vincent? Revolutionary Cuba and its next-door banking capital, the Caymans? Or between booming British-oriented St Kitts and its sleepy, Dutch-affiliated neighbor Sint Eustatius, just across a narrow channel?

Azure seas, white beaches, green forests so vivid they actually hurt the eyes there is nothing subtle about the landscapes of the Caribbean. Swim below the waters for a color chart of darting fish and corals. Feel the sand between your toes at any one of a thousand picture-perfect beaches. Hike into emerald wilderness and spot the accents of red orchids and yellow parrots. Outdoor-adventure enthusiasts make a beeline for unspoilt islands such as nature-lovers Dominica and St Lucias iconic lush Piton mountains, which send out a siren call to climbers.

The tropical sunlight is infectious. Like birds shedding dull adolescent plumage, visitors leave their wardrobes of gray and black behind when they step off the plane and don the Caribbean palette. Even the food is colorful, with rainbows of produce brightening up the local markets. Youll also see every hue at intense, costume-filled festivities like Carnival, celebrated throughout the region but particularly in Trinidad. Glorious crumbling Cuba, reggae-rolling Jamaica and Vodou-loving Haiti top the wish lists for travelers seeking unique cultural experiences and Unesco heritage havens.

You can find any kind of island adventure here. With so many islands, beaches, cultures, flavors and waves to choose from, how could this not be vacation paradise? You can do nothing on the sand, party at a resort, explore a new community, hop between islands, discover wonders under the water or catch a perfect wave above, revel in a centuries-old culture (and sway to some of the world’s greatest music while you’re at it), and then run off to find your inner pirate Just about anything is possible in the Caribbean.

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Caribbean travel – Lonely Planet

Caribbean travel – Lonely Planet

A Caribbean Mosaic

The Caribbean is a joyous mosaic of islands beckoning paradise-hunters, an explosion of color, fringed by beaches and soaked in rum. Its a lively and intoxicating profusion of people and places spread over 7000 islands (fewer than 10% are inhabited). But, for all they share, theres also much that makes them different. Can there be a greater contrast than between bustling Barbados and its neighbor, the seemingly unchanged-since-colonial-times St Vincent? Revolutionary Cuba and its next-door banking capital, the Caymans? Or between booming British-oriented St Kitts and its sleepy, Dutch-affiliated neighbor Sint Eustatius, just across a narrow channel?

Azure seas, white beaches, green forests so vivid they actually hurt the eyes there is nothing subtle about the landscapes of the Caribbean. Swim below the waters for a color chart of darting fish and corals. Feel the sand between your toes at any one of a thousand picture-perfect beaches. Hike into emerald wilderness and spot the accents of red orchids and yellow parrots. Outdoor-adventure enthusiasts make a beeline for unspoilt islands such as nature-lovers Dominica and St Lucias iconic lush Piton mountains, which send out a siren call to climbers.

The tropical sunlight is infectious. Like birds shedding dull adolescent plumage, visitors leave their wardrobes of gray and black behind when they step off the plane and don the Caribbean palette. Even the food is colorful, with rainbows of produce brightening up the local markets. Youll also see every hue at intense, costume-filled festivities like Carnival, celebrated throughout the region but particularly in Trinidad. Glorious crumbling Cuba, reggae-rolling Jamaica and Vodou-loving Haiti top the wish lists for travelers seeking unique cultural experiences and Unesco heritage havens.

You can find any kind of island adventure here. With so many islands, beaches, cultures, flavors and waves to choose from, how could this not be vacation paradise? You can do nothing on the sand, party at a resort, explore a new community, hop between islands, discover wonders under the water or catch a perfect wave above, revel in a centuries-old culture (and sway to some of the world’s greatest music while you’re at it), and then run off to find your inner pirate Just about anything is possible in the Caribbean.

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Caribbean travel – Lonely Planet

Caribbean – Wikipedia

CaribbeanArea2,754,000km2 (1,063,000sqmi)Population43,601,839[1]Population density151.5/km2 (392/sqmi)Ethnic groupsAfro-Caribbean, European, Indo-Caribbean, Latino or Hispanic (Spanish, Portuguese, Mestizo, Mulatto, Pardo, and Zambo), Chinese Caribbean, Jewish, Arab, Javanese,[2] Amerindian, MultiracialReligionsChristianity, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, Buddhism, Rastafarianism, Native American religion, Yoruba, Bah’ Faith, Chinese folk religion (including Taoism and Confucianism), Kebatinan, Afro-American religion, Traditional African religion, and othersDemonymCaribbean, West IndianCountries13 sovereign statesDependencies17 dependent territoriesLanguagesSpanish, English, French, Dutch, French Creoles, English Creoles, Caribbean Hindustani, among othersTime zonesUTC5 to UTC4Internet TLDMultipleCalling codeMultipleLargest citiesList of metropolitan areas in the West IndiesSanto DomingoHavanaPort-au-PrinceSan JuanKingstonSantiago de CubaSantiago de los CaballerosCamageyCap-HatienSpanish TownChaguanasGeorgetownParamariboUN M.49 code029 Caribbean419 Latin America019 Americas001 World

The Caribbean (, locally )[3] is a region of North America that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea[4] and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean)[5] and the surrounding coasts. The region is southeast of the Gulf of Mexico and the North American mainland, east of Central America, and north of South America.

Situated largely on the Caribbean Plate, the region comprises more than 700 islands, islets, reefs and cays. (See the list of Caribbean islands.) These islands generally form island arcs that delineate the eastern and northern edges of the Caribbean Sea.[6] The Caribbean islands, consisting of the Greater Antilles on the north and the Lesser Antilles on the south and east (including the Leeward Antilles), are part of the somewhat larger West Indies grouping, which also includes the Lucayan Archipelago (comprising the Bahamas and Turks and Caicos Islands). The Lucayans and, less commonly, Bermuda, are also sometimes considered Caribbean despite the fact that none of these islands border the Caribbean Sea. In a wider sense, the mainland countries, regions, and territories of Belize, the Caribbean region of Colombia, Cozumel, the Yucatn Peninsula, Margarita Island, the Guyanas (Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Guayana Region in Venezuela, and Amap in Brazil), are often included due to their political and cultural ties with the region.[7]

Geopolitically, the Caribbean islands are usually regarded as a subregion of North America[8][9][10][11][12] and are organized into 30 territories including sovereign states, overseas departments, and dependencies. From December 15, 1954, to October 10, 2010, there was a country known as the Netherlands Antilles composed of five states, all of which were Dutch dependencies.[13] From January 3, 1958, to May 31, 1962, there was also a short-lived political union called the West Indies Federation composed of ten English-speaking Caribbean territories, all of which were then British dependencies. The West Indies cricket team continues to represent many of those nations.

The region takes its name from that of the Caribs, an ethnic group present in the Lesser Antilles and parts of adjacent South America at the time of the Spanish conquest of America.[14]

The two most prevalent pronunciations of “Caribbean” outside the Caribbean are (karr–BEE-n), with the primary stress on the third syllable, and (k-RIB-ee-n), with the stress on the second. Most authorities of the last century preferred the stress on the third syllable.[15] This is the older of the two pronunciations, but the stressed-second-syllable variant has been established for over 75 years.[16] It has been suggested that speakers of British English prefer (karr–BEE-n) while North American speakers more typically use (k-RIB-ee-n),[17] but major American dictionaries and other sources list the stress on the third syllable as more common in American English too.[18][19][20][21] According to the American version of Oxford Online Dictionaries, the stress on the second syllable is becoming more common in UK English and is increasingly considered “by some” to be more up to date and more “correct”.[22]

The Oxford Online Dictionaries claim that the stress on the second syllable is the most common pronunciation in the Caribbean itself, but according to the Dictionary of Caribbean English Usage, the most common pronunciation in Caribbean English is in fact on the first syllable, (KARR–bee-n).[3][22]

The word “Caribbean” has multiple uses. Its principal ones are geographical and political. The Caribbean can also be expanded to include territories with strong cultural and historical connections to slavery, European colonisation and the plantation system.

The geography and climate in the Caribbean region varies: Some islands in the region have relatively flat terrain of non-volcanic origin. These islands include Aruba (possessing only minor volcanic features), Curaao, Barbados, Bonaire, the Cayman Islands, Saint Croix, the Bahamas, and Antigua. Others possess rugged towering mountain-ranges like the islands of Saint Martin, Cuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, Jamaica, Dominica, Montserrat, Saba, Sint Eustatius, Saint Kitts, Saint Lucia, Saint Thomas, Saint John, Tortola, Grenada, Saint Vincent, Guadeloupe, Martinique and Trinidad and Tobago.

Definitions of the terms Greater Antilles and Lesser Antilles often vary. The Virgin Islands as part of the Puerto Rican bank are sometimes included with the Greater Antilles. The term Lesser Antilles is often used to define an island arc that includes Grenada but excludes Trinidad and Tobago and the Leeward Antilles.

The waters of the Caribbean Sea host large, migratory schools of fish, turtles, and coral reef formations. The Puerto Rico Trench, located on the fringe of the Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea just to the north of the island of Puerto Rico, is the deepest point in all of the Atlantic Ocean.[24]

The region sits in the line of several major shipping routes with the Panama Canal connecting the western Caribbean Sea with the Pacific Ocean.

The climate of the area is tropical, varying from tropical rainforest in some areas to tropical savanna in others. There are also some locations that are arid climates with considerable drought in some years.

Rainfall varies with elevation, size and water currents (cool upwellings keep the ABC islands arid). Warm, moist trade winds blow consistently from the east, creating both rain forest and semi arid climates across the region. The tropical rainforest climates include lowland areas near the Caribbean Sea from Costa Rica north to Belize, as well as the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico, while the more seasonal dry tropical savanna climates are found in Cuba, northern Venezuela, and southern Yucatan, Mexico. Arid climates are found along the extreme southern coast of Venezuela out to the islands including Aruba and Curacao, as well as the northern tip of Yucatan.

While the region generally is sunny much of the year, the wet season from May through November sees more frequent cloud cover (both broken and overcast), while the dry season from December through April is more often clear to mostly sunny. Seasonal rainfall is divided into ‘dry’ and ‘wet’ seasons, with the latter six months of the year being wetter than the first half. The air temperature is hot much of the year, varying from 25 to 33 C (77 F to 90 F) between the wet and dry seasons. Seasonally, monthly mean temperatures vary from only about 5 C (7 F) in the northern most regions, to less than 3 C in the southernmost areas of the Caribbean.

Hurricane season is from June to November, but they occur more frequently in August and September and more common in the northern islands of the Caribbean. Hurricanes that sometimes batter the region usually strike northwards of Grenada and to the west of Barbados. The principal hurricane belt arcs to northwest of the island of Barbados in the Eastern Caribbean. A great example being recent events of Hurricane Irma devastating the island of Saint Martin during the 2017 hurricane season.

Sea surface temperatures change little annually, normally running from 30C (87F) in the warmest months to 26C (76F) in the coolest months.

Aruba: Latitude 12N

Puerto Rico: Latitude 18N

Cuba: at Latitude 22N

Lucayan Archipelago[a]

Greater Antilles

Lesser Antilles

All islands at some point were, and a few still are, colonies of European nations; a few are overseas or dependent territories:

The British West Indies were united by the United Kingdom into a West Indies Federation between 1958 and 1962. The independent countries formerly part of the B.W.I. still have a joint cricket team that competes in Test matches, One Day Internationals and Twenty20 Internationals. The West Indian cricket team includes the South American nation of Guyana, the only former British colony on the mainland of that continent.

In addition, these countries share the University of the West Indies as a regional entity. The university consists of three main campuses in Jamaica, Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago, a smaller campus in the Bahamas and Resident Tutors in other contributing territories such as Trinidad.

Islands in and near the Caribbean

Maritime boundaries between the Caribbean (island) nations

The Caribbean islands have one of the most diverse eco systems in the world. The animals, fungi and plants, and have been classified as one of Conservation International’s biodiversity hotspots because of their exceptionally diverse terrestrial and marine ecosystems, ranging from montane cloud forests, to tropical rainforest, to cactus scrublands. The region also contains about 8% (by surface area) of the world’s coral reefs[38] along with extensive seagrass meadows,[39] both of which are frequently found in the shallow marine waters bordering the island and continental coasts of the region.

For the fungi, there is a modern checklist based on nearly 90,000 records derived from specimens in reference collections, published accounts and field observations.[40] That checklist includes more than 11,250 species of fungi recorded from the region. As its authors note, the work is far from exhaustive, and it is likely that the true total number of fungal species already known from the Caribbean is higher. The true total number of fungal species occurring in the Caribbean, including species not yet recorded, is likely far higher given the generally accepted estimate that only about 7% of all fungi worldwide have been discovered.[41] Though the amount of available information is still small, a first effort has been made to estimate the number of fungal species endemic to some Caribbean islands. For Cuba, 2200 species of fungi have been tentatively identified as possible endemics of the island;[42] for Puerto Rico, the number is 789 species;[43] for the Dominican Republic, the number is 699 species;[44] for Trinidad and Tobago, the number is 407 species.[45]

Many of the ecosystems of the Caribbean islands have been devastated by deforestation, pollution, and human encroachment. The arrival of the first humans is correlated with extinction of giant owls and dwarf ground sloths.[46] The hotspot contains dozens of highly threatened animals (ranging from birds, to mammals and reptiles), fungi and plants. Examples of threatened animals include the Puerto Rican amazon, two species of solenodon (giant shrews) in Cuba and the Hispaniola island, and the Cuban crocodile.

The region’s coral reefs, which contain about 70 species of hard corals and between 500700 species of reef-associated fishes[47] have undergone rapid decline in ecosystem integrity in recent years, and are considered particularly vulnerable to global warming and ocean acidification.[48] According to a UNEP report, the Caribbean coral reefs might get extinct in next 20 years due to population explosion along the coast lines, overfishing, the pollution of coastal areas and global warming.[49]

Some Caribbean islands have terrain that Europeans found suitable for cultivation for agriculture. Tobacco was an important early crop during the colonial era, but was eventually overtaken by sugarcane production as the region’s staple crop. Sugar was produced from sugarcane for export to Europe. Cuba and Barbados were historically the largest producers of sugar. The tropical plantation system thus came to dominate Caribbean settlement. Other islands were found to have terrain unsuited for agriculture, for example Dominica, which remains heavily forested. The islands in the southern Lesser Antilles, Aruba, Bonaire and Curaao, are extremely arid, making them unsuitable for agriculture. However, they have salt pans that were exploited by the Dutch. Sea water was pumped into shallow ponds, producing coarse salt when the water evaporated.[50]

The natural environmental diversity of the Caribbean islands has led to recent growth in eco-tourism. This type of tourism is growing on islands lacking sandy beaches and dense human populations.[51]

The Martinique amazon, Amazona martinicana, is an extinct species of parrot in the family Psittacidae.

At the time of European contact, the dominant ethnic groups in the Caribbean included the Tano of the Greater Antilles and northern Lesser Antilles, the Island Caribs of the southern Lesser Antilles, and smaller distinct groups such as the Guanajatabey of western Cuba and the Ciguayo of eastern Hispaniola. The population of the Caribbean is estimated to have been around 750,000 immediately before European contact, although lower and higher figures are given. After contact, social disruption and epidemic diseases such as smallpox and measles (to which they had no natural immunity)[52] led to a decline in the Amerindian population.[53] From 1500 to 1800 the population rose as slaves arrived from West Africa[54] such as the Kongo, Igbo, Akan, Fon and Yoruba as well as military prisoners from Ireland, who were deported during the Cromwellian reign in England.[citation needed] Immigrants from Britain, Italy, France, Spain, the Netherlands, Portugal and Denmark also arrived, although the mortality rate was high for both groups.[55]

The population is estimated to have reached 2.2 million by 1800.[56] Immigrants from India, China, Indonesia, and other countries arrived in the mid-19th century as indentured servants.[57] After the ending of the Atlantic slave trade, the population increased naturally.[58] The total regional population was estimated at 37.5 million by 2000.[59]

In Haiti and most of the French, Anglophone and Dutch Caribbean, the population is predominantly of African origin; on many islands there are also significant populations of mixed racial origin (including Mulatto-Creole, Dougla, Mestizo, Quadroon, Cholo, Castizo, Criollo, Zambo, Pardo, Asian Latin Americans, Chindian, Cocoa panyols, and Eurasian), as well as populations of European ancestry: Dutch, English, French, Italian, Portuguese and Spanish ancestry. Asians, especially those of Chinese, Indian descent, and Javanese Indonesians, form a significant minority in parts of the region. Indians form a plurality of the population in Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, and Suriname. Most of their ancestors arrived in the 19th century as indentured laborers.

The Spanish-speaking Caribbean populations are primarily of European, African, or racially mixed origins. Puerto Rico has a European majority with a mixture of European-African-Native American (tri-racial), and a large Mulatto (European-West African) and West African minority. Cuba also has a European majority, along with a significant population of African ancestry. The Dominican Republic has the largest mixed-race population, primarily descended from Europeans, West Africans, and Amerindians.

Jamaica has a large African majority, in addition to a significant population of mixed racial background, and has minorities of Chinese, Europeans, Indians, Latinos, Jews, and Arabs. This is a result of years of importation of slaves and indentured laborers, and migration. Most multi-racial Jamaicans refer to themselves as either mixed race or brown. Similar populations can be found in the Caricom states of Belize, Guyana and Trinidad and Tobago. Trinidad and Tobago has a multi-racial cosmopolitan society due to the arrivals of Africans, Indians, Chinese, Arabs, Jews, Spanish, Portuguese, and Europeans along with the Native Amerindians population. This multi-racial mix has created sub-ethnicities that often straddle the boundaries of major ethnicities and include Dougla, Chindian, Mulatto-Creole, Afro-Asians, Eurasian, Cocoa panyols, and Asian Latin Americans

Spanish, English, French, Dutch, Haitian Creole, and Papiamento are the predominant official languages of various countries in the region, although a handful of unique creole languages or dialects can also be found in virtually every Caribbean country. Other languages such as Caribbean Hindustani, Chinese, Indonesian, Amerindian languages, other African languages, other European languages, other Indian languages, and other Indonesian languages can also be found.

Christianity is the predominant religion in the Caribbean (84.7%).[60] Other religious groups in the region are Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, Rastafarianism, Buddhism, Chinese folk religion (Taoism and Confucianism), Bah’, Jainism, Sikhism, Zorastrianism, Kebatinan, Traditional African religions, Afro-American religions, Yoruba (Santera, Trinidad Orisha, Palo, Umbanda, Brujera, Hoodoo, Candombl, Quimbanda, Orisha, Xang de Recife, Xang do Nordeste, Comfa, Espiritismo, Santo Daime, Obeah, Candombl, Abaku, Kumina, Winti, Sanse, Cuban Vod, Dominican Vud, Louisiana Voodoo, Haitian Vodou, and Vodun).

Caribbean societies are very different from other Western societies in terms of size, culture, and degree of mobility of their citizens.[61] The current economic and political problems the states face individually are common to all Caribbean states. Regional development has contributed to attempts to subdue current problems and avoid projected problems. From a political and economic perspective, regionalism serves to make Caribbean states active participants in current international affairs through collective coalitions. In 1973, the first political regionalism in the Caribbean Basin was created by advances of the English-speaking Caribbean nations through the institution known as the Caribbean Common Market and Community (CARICOM)[62] which is located in Guyana.

Certain scholars have argued both for and against generalizing the political structures of the Caribbean. On the one hand the Caribbean states are politically diverse, ranging from communist systems such as Cuba toward more capitalist Westminster-style parliamentary systems as in the Commonwealth Caribbean. Other scholars argue that these differences are superficial, and that they tend to undermine commonalities in the various Caribbean states. Contemporary Caribbean systems seem to reflect a “blending of traditional and modern patterns, yielding hybrid systems that exhibit significant structural variations and divergent constitutional traditions yet ultimately appear to function in similar ways.”[63] The political systems of the Caribbean states share similar practices.

The influence of regionalism in the Caribbean is often marginalized. Some scholars believe that regionalism cannot exist in the Caribbean because each small state is unique. On the other hand, scholars also suggest that there are commonalities amongst the Caribbean nations that suggest regionalism exists. “Proximity as well as historical ties among the Caribbean nations has led to cooperation as well as a desire for collective action.”[64] These attempts at regionalization reflect the nations’ desires to compete in the international economic system.[64]

Furthermore, a lack of interest from other major states promoted regionalism in the region. In recent years the Caribbean has suffered from a lack of U.S. interest. “With the end of the Cold War, U.S. security and economic interests have been focused on other areas. As a result there has been a significant reduction in U.S. aid and investment to the Caribbean.”[65] The lack of international support for these small, relatively poor states, helped regionalism prosper.

Following the Cold War another issue of importance in the Caribbean has been the reduced economic growth of some Caribbean States due to the United States and European Union’s allegations of special treatment toward the region by each other.[clarification needed]

The United States under President Bill Clinton launched a challenge in the World Trade Organization against the EU over Europe’s preferential program, known as the Lom Convention, which allowed banana exports from the former colonies of the Group of African, Caribbean and Pacific states (ACP) to enter Europe cheaply.[66] The World Trade Organization sided in the United States’ favour and the beneficial elements of the convention to African, Caribbean and Pacific states has been partially dismantled and replaced by the Cotonou Agreement.[67]

During the US/EU dispute, the United States imposed large tariffs on European Union goods (up to 100%) to pressure Europe to change the agreement with the Caribbean nations in favour of the Cotonou Agreement.[68]

Farmers in the Caribbean have complained of falling profits and rising costs as the Lom Convention weakens. Some farmers have faced increased pressure to turn towards the cultivation of illegal drugs, which has a higher profit margin and fills the sizable demand for these illegal drugs in North America and Europe.[69][70]

Caribbean nations have also started to more closely cooperate in the Caribbean Financial Action Task Force and other instruments to add oversight of the offshore industry. One of the most important associations that deal with regionalism amongst the nations of the Caribbean Basin has been the Association of Caribbean States (ACS). Proposed by CARICOM in 1992, the ACS soon won the support of the other countries of the region. It was founded in July 1994. The ACS maintains regionalism within the Caribbean on issues unique to the Caribbean Basin. Through coalition building, like the ACS and CARICOM, regionalism has become an undeniable part of the politics and economics of the Caribbean. The successes of region-building initiatives are still debated by scholars, yet regionalism remains prevalent throughout the Caribbean.

The President of Venezuela, Hugo Chavez launched an economic group called the Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas (ALBA), which several eastern Caribbean islands joined. In 2012, the nation of Haiti, with 9 million people, became the largest CARICOM nation that sought to join the union.[71]

Here are some of the bodies that several islands share in collaboration:

Coordinates: 143132N 754906W / 14.52556N 75.81833W / 14.52556; -75.81833

See original here:

Caribbean – Wikipedia

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By destination Antigua Aruba Bahamas – Abaco – via Marsh Harbour Airport (MHH) Bahamas – Abaco – via Treasure Cay Airport (TCB) Bahamas – Grand Bahama Island Bahamas – Nassau Bahamas – Nassau and Paradise Island Bahamas – Paradise Island Bahamas – Treasure Cay Barbados Belize Bermuda Cartagena Cayman Islands Costa Rica-Arenal Volcano/Monteverde Area Costa Rica-Guanacaste Beach Region Costa Rica-Puntarenas/Jaco/Manuel Antonio Areas Costa Rica-Tambor/Mal Pais Curacao Dominican Republic – La Romana Dominican Republic – Puerto Plata Dominican Republic – Puerto Plata/Santiago Dominican Republic – Punta Cana Dominican Republic – Samana via Samana Airport Grenada Jamaica Mexico – Cancun Mexico – Cancun and Riviera Maya Mexico – Cozumel Mexico – Huatulco Mexico – Ixtapa/Zihuatanejo Mexico – Los Cabos Mexico – Manzanillo Mexico – Mazatlan Mexico – Puerto Vallarta Mexico – Puerto Vallarta and Riviera Nayarit Mexico – Riviera Maya Mexico – Riviera Nayarit Nicaragua Panama Puerto Rico Puerto Rico – Vieques St. Kitts St. Lucia St. Maarten/St. Martin Turks & Caicos USVI St. Croix USVI St. John and St. Thomas USVI St. Thomas

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By resort Abaco Beach Resort and Boat Harbour Marina Acoya Curacao Resort All Inclusive Alexandra Resort – All-Inclusive Allegro Cozumel – All-Inclusive Allegro Playacar – All-Inclusive Allure Bonbon Hotel by Karisma Allure Chocolat Hotel by Karisma Alsol Tiara Cap Cana Ambergris Cay – Turks & Caicos Islands – All Inclusive Amsterdam Manor Beach Resort Ancora Punta Cana Antilles Sapphire Beach Resort and Marina Arenal Lodge Aruba Marriott Resort & Stellaris Casino Avila Hotel Azul Beach Resort Negril by Karisma Gourmet All Inclusive Azul Beach Resort Riviera Cancun by Karisma Gourmet All Inclusive Azul Beach Resort Riviera Maya by Karisma Bahama Beach Club Banyan Bay Suites Barcelo Aruba – All-Inclusive Barcelo Bavaro Beach – Adults-Only All-Inclusive Barcelo Bavaro Palace (Family Club) – All-Inclusive Barcelo Bavaro Palace (Premium Level) – All-Inclusive Barcelo Bavaro Palace – All-Inclusive Barcelo Gran Faro Los Cabos – All-Inclusive Barcelo Huatulco – All-Inclusive Barcelo Ixtapa – 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Caribbean & Mexico Vacation Packages – All Inclusive …

Caribbean Map / Map of the Caribbean – Worldatlas.com

The Caribbean, long referred to as theWest Indies, includes more than 7,000 islands; of those, 13 are independent island countries (shown in red on the map), and some are dependencies or overseas territories of other nations.

In addition, that large number includes islets (very small rocky islands); cay’s (small, low islands composed largely of coral or sand) and a few inhabited reefs: See Belize.

In geographical terms the Caribbean area includes the Caribbean Sea and all of the islands located to the southeast of the Gulf of Mexico, east of Central America and Mexico, and to the north of South America. Some of its counted cay’s, islands, islets and inhabited reefs front the handful of countries that border the region.

TheBahamas and Turks and Caicos are not considered a part of the Caribbean, however, we show them here because of their cultural, geographical and political associations with the Greater Antilles and other Caribbean Islands.

At the beginning of the 15th century the population of the Caribbean was estimated to be nearly 900,000 indigenous people immediately before European contact.

Then in 1492, Christopher Columbus, the Italian explorer began his exploration of the Caribbean, becoming the firstEuropean to venture into the area.

After reportedly landing in the eastern Bahamas, Columbus named these islands theIndies, because he thought he had finally reached Asia (and the East Indies).

Numerous explorers followed in his path, then tens of thousands of settlers arrived from the Americas, China, European countries and India. Included in that mix were religious outcasts and a small army of pirates.

Across the Caribbean, slaves fromAfrica were imported in great numbers to work the sugar and tobacco plantations.

By then the indigenous populations of the islands were in severe decline as exposure to disease and brutal genocide wiped out much of their number.

Great military powers continually fought for control of the islands, and finally, a blended mix of African andEuropean cultures and languages transformed this large group of islands and its peoples into one of the premier tourist destinations on the planet.

Long called theWest Indies, the overall area is now commonly referred to as the Caribbean, a name that became popular after World War II.

Over the last few decades legions of travelers have journeyed to the Caribbean to enjoy the amenities. They frequently arrive in cruise ships that sail in and out, from ports in Florida and Puerto Rico.

Overall the Caribbean is a magical place of palm trees, white sand beaches, turquoise waters and sunshine, all blessed with a climate that consistently offers a much-needed break for those stuck in the cold weather doldrums of the north.

If you haven’t been, you should, and if you’ve been here more than once, you will come again, as these islands, these beach-ringed, jungle-covered rocks are home to thousands of historical surprises and activities galore.

So come wiggle you toes in the sand, and eat and sleep under the stars in the Caribbean.You won’t be disappointed.

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Caribbean Map / Map of the Caribbean – Worldatlas.com


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