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WW3: Forgotten letter reveals how JFK avoided end of the world during nuclear stand-off – Express.co.uk

While the worlds eye has turned to combatting the coronavirus pandemic, its widely understood that a greater challenge and threat may lie on the horizon. Despite international cooperation to develop a vaccine for COVID-19, its known that this brief period of peace and unity will certainly not last. World War 3 could be lying just around the corner and the all-out nuclear warthat couldwipe-out humanity once and for all. Escalating tensions with Iran, North Korea and other nations, send tremors along the carefully constructed balance that is held together by peace treaties and unilateral agreements.Theconcerning challenges world leaders face today are not too dissimilar from thoseseen by John F Kennedy(JFK), during the Cuban Missile Crisis. It was then feared that a failed reconnaissance mission leading to the only death during that period could have provoked a nuclear attack. An unearthed letter shared withExpress.co.uk, revealed the tragic tale of that one casualty and how his death led to the lifesaving de-escalation that would keep humanity safe for decades.

At the time President Kennedy wasembroiled in a bitter stand-off with the Soviet Union, where every decision he made could have had life-altering consequences for the world.

Tensions were feared to have been escalated beyond breaking point, when Cuba shot down a U-2 spy plane dispatched by the US to secretly photograph the growing arsenal of world-ending weapons amassed by the nation.

The failed reconnaissance mission, which caused the only death of the Cuban Missile Crisis, was feared to be an aggressive action that would start all-out-war.

This was considered to bethemost concerning moment of the stand-off and would lead to President Kennedy offering Cuban leader Fidel Castro a top secret peace deal.

An unearthed letter from the US President at that time reveals the heartbreak and immense pressure consuming the leader.

The historically important condolence note, which had been hidden away for decades, was sold by Heritage Auctions on Thursday and was revealed toExpress.co.uk.

Heritage Auctions sold the extremely rare piece typed and signed by President Kennedy for a staggering $20,000 (16,100).

One of their historians Curtis Lindner explained why this letter to the widow of Rudolf Anderson Jr, was part of such a seminal moment in US history.

He toldExpress.co.uk:It holds such historical meaning because of what was going on in our country at that time.

People truly lived in the fear that there would be a nuclear war and more than 100 million Americans would be killed.

This may have been a different world had President Kennedy not have handled it the way that he did.

The letter praised Mr Anderson Jrs courage and the outstanding abilities demonstrated throughout his military career before an incredible admission.

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Present Kennedy wrote the heartfelt note onNovember 5, 1962,just over a week after Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev agreed to dismantle and remove the missiles from Cuba.

This wasnt the only letter the US leader was revealed to have written to the grieving widow a second lies in the National Archives according to Heritage Auctions.

Mr Lindner toldExpress.co.uk: The President wrote to the widow offering the condolences of him and the country - there he explained that her husband was a hero.

We dont know why he chose the second draft that we have up for auction but it could have been that he might not have liked the wording.

The letter read: In recent weeks, Major Anderson responded to the urgent requirements of his country.

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His tragic loss on a mission of the most vital national urgency was the supreme sacrifice of a brave and patriotic man.

On behalf of a grateful nation, I wish to convey to you and your children the heartfelt condolences of all the people.

In recognition of his exceptionally meritorious service, President Kennedy awarded him a Distinguished Service Medal.

The letter, which went under the hammer on Tuesday, was snapped up for more than double the estimate which Mr Lindner believes was due to the importance of President Kennedys assassination.

He said: Just like Princess Diana, Martin Luther King and others, with items related to President Kennedy there is a lot of interest because of the What ifs of their lives.

With Kennedy who knows what great things he could have gone on to do.

He also believes the importance of the lot detailing the only casually of the Cuban Missile Crisis could have peaked collectors interests coupled with the fear that was associated with that dark time in history.

Mr Lindner said: People were terrified, they put in underground bunkers, children had drills in schools where they had to hide under their desks.

Even President Kennedy told his wife Jacqueline to take their herself and their children to asafeplace in Virginia, fearing something horrible was about to happen to the country.

My parents were convinced there would be nuclear war too, they never thought myself or my brother would live into adulthood.

So when all of the missiles were taken out of Cuba, America breathed a giant sigh of relief.

For more information on future auctions, visit:www.ha.com

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WW3: Forgotten letter reveals how JFK avoided end of the world during nuclear stand-off - Express.co.uk

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The 9 nuclear superpowers that could spark WW3 ending the world in 60 seconds – Daily Star

While the coronavirus crisis continues to grip the globe, a potentially far-more deadly disaster looms on the horizon.

Tensions between top nuclear powers have reached an all-time high, with China facing the wrath of US President Donald Trump, who is demanding answers as millions risk dying from the deadly disease.

Fears have grown so much in Beijing that Chinas leaders have warned of a massive international backlash amid claims the country did not sound the alarm early enough to prevent the global pandemic.

Amid the fiery tirades being aimed at the Communist Party from Washington, Chinas leaders are also alleged to have given the green light to carry out a nuclear test last year.

In a US State Department report published on April 15, the nuclear exercises are believed to have happened underground at the Lop Nur test site.

This is despite China having signed up to an international treaty that forbids such tests.

It has sparked fears that new webs of complex alliances could emerge on the horizon as the US flexes its military muscles just as a groundbreaking treaty - designed to curb the number of nukes - is set to expire next year.

If it is not renewed, a fresh arms race could be ignited - with all nuclear superpowers potentially looking to up their arsenals.

Any increase in the world's nuclear warheads would also bolster the chances of life being wiped out on Earth, with the Global Catastrophic Risk Conference in Oxford claiming in 2008 that as many as one billion people could die in such a conflict.

It did, however, put the chances of a full-scale WW3 -like conflict happening by the end of the century as low as 1/100. But, they did warn that smaller-scale nuclear wars between rival nations could be far more likely.

These are some of the power plays that could be made by superpowers, which could end the world as we know it within minutes.

United States

By far the biggest superpower that has pumped the most cash into its military, the US is estimated to have just under half of the worlds estimated 13,000 nuclear weapons.

Its massive arsenal dwarfs all other powers combined with the exception of old Cold War enemy Russia and could be used as leverage against Trumps rivals once the coronavirus crisis comes to an end.

He could even remind China, that the US President always has the nuclear football a briefcase with which to order a nuke strike near him at all times and could launch an attack in less than 60 seconds.

There is hope, however, that Trump can ease the situation with China after he offered the nation to be a part of a new triple arms control treaty.

Unfortunately, there is a snag with the plan, namely China itself.

Arms Control Association (ACA) estimated nuclear weapons: 6,185

China

Leaders in Beijing have been dominating global affairs for the last two decades, with Chinas Communist Party building alliances, expanding its influence and carving out lucrative deals in Africa and Asia.

Beijings bureaucrats will be wanting to hold onto whatever influence they have and there have been allegations made by US National Security advisors that China wants to expand its small number of nuclear warheads to gain a level footing with both Russia and Washington.

It has so far rejected any calls to sign up to a three-way deal with the US and Russia to limit its nukes, claiming its arsenal is too small to be considered a serious threat.

But with the US leading the charge of demanding swift action from China on transparency and other issues once the coronavirus comes to an end, Beijing bosses could feel backed into a corner and up the ante with building even more nukes.

Chinese leaders have insisted in the past they can hold off the US, as long as they have the ability to strike back at a small number of targets presumably US cities.

This would allow it to stop any foreign invasion if it decides to push its claims on Taiwan, which China considers to be a break-away county.

ACA estimated number of warheads: 290

North Korea

The most recent addition to the nuclear powers list, the Hermit Kingdom first acquired the weapons of mass destruction in 2006 as a desperate bid to preserve its existence.

Free to panic about a sudden invasion or foreign-backed coup attempt, North Korea uses its nuclear weapons as a means to get leverage from outside nations.

This tactic was in effect most recently back in 2016, when Pyongyang leaders claimed to have carried out the countrys first hydrogen bomb test.

North Koreas shameless antics continued through into 2017-18, with the communist nation carrying out a series of missile and nuclear tests, which resulted in the US coming very close to engaging in some sort of retaliation according to White House representative Nick Rivero.

But, the North managed to get US President Donald Trump to the negotiation table something that might happen with China in a number of failed denuclearisation meetings between the leader of the free world and Kim Jong-un.

ACA estimated number of warheads: 30

Russia

Russia is the worlds dominant nuclear superpower if judged purely on their arsenal and could form a pact aimed at holding off US influence around the globe.

There are murmurings in Russia that a deal between Moscow and Beijing could lead to both being able to make serious power play moves out from the USs showdown.

Alex Abratov, head of the Centre for International Security at the Institute of World Economy and International Relations in Moscow said if the US expands its arsenal closer to both China and Russia, that a pact could form between them.

He told the Nikkei Asian Review: If the Americans will commit the stupidity of deploying missiles in East Asia in a way that is threatening to both Russia and China, then our relationship with China will effectively cross a certain line and become a military alliance.

There are even hints that Russian President Vladimir Putin is already adding the biggest beast yet to his nuclear arsenal with hypersonic "Satan-2" officially called RS-28 Sarmat.

ACA estimated number of warheads: 6,490

India

India has held nuclear weapons for decades in a bid to keep its rivals Pakistan at bay as they jostle for power in the region each having claims on the other's lands.

Fortunately, tensions have not spilled over into full-blown conflict for decades with the last full-blown armed war between Pakistan and India ending several decades ago.

But, Hindu nationalist President Narendra Modi has stoked the ire of its rival Pakistan when his government stripped Muslim-majority Kashmir county of its autonomy.

Pakistan was enraged by the move and have started to shoot down Indian drones as tensions flare up along the border.

Shelling also happened along the Pakistan-Indian border, which resulted in at least three people being killed.

This comes after border tensions blighted Kashmir last year, with suicide bombings and armed skirmishes taking place between the two countries.

ACA estimated warheads: 140

Pakistan

Starting following the Bangladesh Liberation War, Pakistans leaders felt outmaneuvered and isolated from the larger powers.

In a fresh move to take control of the situation and avoid being plunged into an unwanted war, Pakistan gave the green light to develop its nuclear weapons and become the first Muslim power in the world to have weapons of mass destruction.

That goal was achieved in the 80s when the country carried out its first successful test.

It is now being held as a last resort should its rivals attempt to carry out a large-scale attack inside its borders.

ACA estimated number of warheads: 160

UK

The UK has held nuclear weapons since the 1950s but has never used them outside test conditions.

Despite that, then-Prime Minister Theresa May said in 2016 that she would give the go-ahead to authorise a nuclear strike if the UK was under threat.

Her comments sparked outrage from opposition MPs over her plans to issue a first strike.

ACA estimated number of warheads: 200

France

Not to be outdone by the Brits, France has more warheads than the UK and is the third-largest nuclear power in the world.

French law demands like the UK that at least one of its four nuclear submarines be on patrol in the Atlantic at any given time.

Since 2006, France has warned it would use nuclear weapons against a state that attacked France using terrorism.

It has also not signed up to the UN treaty on the prohibition of nuclear weapons.

ACA estimated number of warheads: 300

Israel

The curveball on the list, as Israel has never publicly announced it has nuclear weapons although it is accepted by the international community that they do.

Its weapons were possibly built as a means to preserve the country following a handful of successful defensive wars against its neighbours that preserved the Jewish nation.

The first exposure of Israels nuclear programme happened in 1986, following revelations from Mordechai Vanunu - a former technician formerly employed at the Shimon Peres Negev Nuclear Research Center.

He was soon kidnapped by Mossad and brought back to Israel where he was sentenced to 18 years behind bars for treason and espionage.

ACA estimated number of warheads: 90

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The 9 nuclear superpowers that could spark WW3 ending the world in 60 seconds - Daily Star

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World War 3 MAPPED: The SIX places where WW3 could break out in 2020 – Express.co.uk

World War 3 concerns were triggered around the globe following the death of Iranian Major General Qassem Soleimani in a US airstrike on January 3. Now World War 3 concerns have arisen again after China sent a survey ship back into Vietnam's exclusive economic zone. Given the tense relations between countries around the world, Express.co.uk has compiled a guide for the flashpoints where World War 3 is most likely to erupt in 2020.

On Friday, January 3, the USA undertook a drone airstrike following a series of orchestrated attacks on coalition bases in Iraq over the past few months and attacks on the US Embassy in Baghdad, all of which was done on the orders of General Soleimani.

US President Donald Trump approved of the assault on General Soleimani claiming the action was undertaken to make the world a safer place.

In a statement, the Pentagon said: At the direction of the President, the US military has taken decisive defensive action to protect US personnel abroad by killing Qassem Soleimani.

It added: This strike was aimed at deterring future Iranian attack plans.

The United States will continue to take all necessary action to protect our people and our interests wherever they are around the world.

Now Iran has sworn harsh revenge and promised to turn day into night.

This assassination has been dubbed by many high-ranking Iranians a declaration of war.

Donald Trump has warned the US could act disproportionately if Iran targets any American person or target in revenge for the killing of Major General Qassem Soleimani.

Since that time, Iran "unintentionally" shot down a Ukranian passenger jet which saw 176 people killed.

READ MORE:Iran attack: Ukranian plane shot down accidentally, says US

Tensions between Iran and Israel have been frustrated for a while with low-intensity warfare raging across the Middle East as a result.

The former nation supports anti-Israel groups in Gaza, Syria and Lebanon in particular, while Israel often strikes at Iranian forces across the region.

Overall, Israel has endeavoured to create an anti-Iran coalition at a diplomatic level, while Iran has invested in cultivating ties with militias and non-state actors.

While it may be difficult to claim these nations will launch into a wider war if Iran is determined to restart its nuclear program, Israel may choose to engage in wider strikes hitting the Iranian homeland directly.

This type of assault could have wider implications as it could prove to be a threat to global oil supplies which would inevitably cause more nations to intercede.

Tensions between the US and Turkey has heightened over the past year, initially as a result of the US providing authorisation to Turkey to clear the Syrian border of US-supported Kurds.

However, immediately afterwards, the US threatened Ankara with sanctions, causing tensions to rise.

Additionally, Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan suggested he has aspirations for Turkey which could involve nuclear weapons.

As a result, the state of the US-Turkey relationship has worsened, causing fear about the subsequent impact on the NATO alliance.

President Erdogan is known for being passionate about his plan which could force Washington and Ankara to the very edge and have a result on Russia who is a neighbouring nation.

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In the past 10 years, the relationship between India and Pakistan has worsened, bringing the countries to the brink of war.

Since the partition of British India in 1947 and the subsequent creation of India and Pakistan, the two countries have been involved in a number of wars, conflicts and military stand-offs interspersed with periods of harmony and peace.

In 2019, Prime Minister Narendra Modi attempted to reduce the autonomy of Kashmir and to change citizenship policies within the rest of India.

These steps have caused some unrest within India and highlighted the long-standing tensions between Delhi and Islamabad.

Further domestic disturbances in India and Pakistan could lead to World War 3.

While this is unlikely, it could lead to terrorist attacks internationally or in Kashmir.

President Modi might then feel forced to bring on a more serious conflict and given Chinas vicinity, and the growing relationship between Delhi and Washington could lead to more disastrous international implications.

Fundamental tensions at the heart of the US-North Korea relationship could result in combative action.

Tensions between the two countries now stand as high as at any time since 2017, and the impending US election could imperil relations further.

President Trumps administration appears to hold out hope a deal with North Korea could improve its electoral prospects in November.

But North Korea has little to no interest in Mr Trumps offering.

Recently, North Korea promised a Christmas present that many in the United States worried would be a nuclear or ballistic missile test.

However, this was not the case, but if the country did undertake a nuclear test, the US might be forced to intervene.

Last Thursday, the Hai Yang Di Zhi 8 left the port of Sanya, on China's Hainan Island and was joined by the CCG vessels this week.

These vessels were 92 nautical miles off the coast of Vietnams Binh Dinh province as of yesterday morning, deep into the 200-nautical mile EEZ, and were further accompanied two Chinese maritime militia ships, the Dongtongxiao00235 and the Min Xia Yu 00013, Radio Free Asia reported.

Gregory Poling, director of the Asia Maritime Transparency Initiative in Washington, told the Foreign Correspondents Association of the Philippines in an online news conference: What is pretty obvious is Chinas not going to stop.

"If a global pandemic doesnt cause China to calm things down in the South China Sea, theres not much that will.

The number one thing that we should think to look into is international economic sanctions.

We have never had a discussion about sanctioning the actors behind the Chinese maritime militia."

"China admits it has a maritime militia, and its a clear violation of international law.

They are operating on the same policy framework which is to go out, assert rights, harass neighbours, do whatever you want."

The US-China relationship has been particularly tense in recent years.

A trade deal between the two countries would seem to alleviate some tensions but implementation remains in question.

Currently, the worlds two largest economies are locked in a bitter trade battle.

The dispute, which has simmered for nearly 18 months, has seen the US and China impose tariffs on hundreds of billions of dollars worth of one anothers goods.

President Trump has long accused China of unfair trading practices and intellectual property theft, while in China, there is a perception that the US is endeavouring to curb its rise as a global economic power.

At the same time, China has worked defiantly to assure its relations with Russia, while the US has sparked controversies with both South Korea and Japan, its two closest allies in the region.

Donald Trump and President Xi have staked much of their political reputations on the trade situations in each country and therefore both have incentives for diplomatic and economic escalation.

If the situation were to escalate, it could lead to military confrontation in areas such as the South or East China Seas.

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Trade Shows: Best of Kingpins24 and Transformers ED – Sportswear International

For two days we tuned in, listened carefully and selected some of the best quotes from Kingpins24 and Transformers ED. Here they are:

KINGPINS24Menno Van Meurs, co-founder, Tenue de Nimes, Amsterdam:Our business needed a reset and difficult roads sometimes lead to beautiful destinations. I know that the situation is difficult but it also brought new energy.

The Internet brought us lots of education. Consumers are better informed to me and that is all very positive. I do believe we should do a better job as retailers and manufacturers to inform the consumer.

After every crisis people tend to go on quality again and products they trust. In quarantine we learned that we only need a handful of productsa pair of jeans, a few T-shirts and a coat. I strongly hope people will start to invest in clothes they need and not buy mass.

Piero Turk, designer:Denim mills should create denim that can be very flexible. It is a challenge to have one denim that can used to be for a tailored blazer, a dress, an overall and a five-pocket jean with normal or extreme washes. Instead of using 30 different denims, brands can use 10.

My advice to the post-Covid industry is to take responsibility, transparency as a must, which finally means being responsible for the planet and honest with the consumers.

Alberto De Conti, Rudolf Group:Responsible apparel brands and retailers have to share knowledge with their audience because pushing consumers to have a different caring attitude towards denim is of paramount importance. The environmental impact of domestic washing is being poorly considered although it contributes to 20-25% of water consumption and to 35-40% of climate change.

Andrew Olah:My feeling of this situation is devastating. The supply chain is like after a bombing and you dont know what is left in the supply chain like being bombed so we dont know what was left. Letters of credit opened, companies that cannot pay, have no cash and we dont know how long this will last. Some countries are not even given assistance like in Bangladesh and Vietnam. I call this WW3, and these people have been attacked the most.

Nicolas Prophte, PVH:My challenge today is focusing on postconsumer products which are asking for always more transparent practice. The challenge we have in the industry now is the alignment, probably because of too many certifications and guidelines. We have to align ourself in our industry about what is sustainable according a holistic vision. Its not one parameter you take out of the context. We should scan all of our process - from the cotton seed to the consumers behaviour.

"The message outside at the consumer level is also so confusing as each brand has a different way to communicate sometimes consfusing or based upon greenwashing - and not always guided by the same expertise in denim. For this some brands often adopt a message too fast without checking the real topics behind it. Thats why the message is very difficult to understand and why probably the consumer is lost.

Asad Soorty, SoortyAfter the pandemic consumers will become price-conscious consumers, but will also look after quality, though maybe if they will discover a vaccine people forget that it ever happened and go back to fast fashion.

Sedef Uncu Aki, Orta:My hope for the future is denim because it is a cultural and iconic item and touches everybody.

When people say that the world after Corona wont be the same I ask myself: Was the world normal before?

My hope for this pandemic is that we will have a great global reset. And that this will force the global fashion industry to rethink. We had some crises but it now affects both supply chain and consumers. We as an industry must come together and work together.

Stefano Aldighieri, Another Design Studio:We cannot go back to business as usual. For a while I had already seen many people wearing a mask in Japan, China and Korea. Everyone will be wearing one from now on. Plus many will have to close down. The whole business will have to work with always smaller quantities, short-term commitments and probably closer to home.

Kingpins Transformers Ed

Michael Kininmonth, Lenzing:Producing viscose requires many different chemicals and a long process of about 24 hours from pulp to fiber. Producing Lyocell (Tencel) requires one chemical and takes three hours only form pulp to fiber.

Jacob Krzysko, Dystar:BASFs Dystar is a pre-reduced liquid indigo dye that is less polluting, requires only water and its safer for workers. It is an alternative to powder indigo which is much more polluting and requires many chemical agents. Between 2014 and 2018 many companies have switched to pre-reduced indigo. Unfortunately only Chinese denim manufacturers, which hold the biggest share of worldwide denim manufacturing, continue to use it probably because it is mostly made in China, cheaper and widely available.

Alberto Candiani, Candiani Denim:Before COVID-19 our company produced 22 million meters per year, the equivalent of a production of about 16 million pairs of jeans. Competitors that sell apparently similar fabrics offer them at half of our price. This is because of the global industry and volumes. The worldwide jeans total production is 140 billion units, the double of 2008.

"There is a yearly overproduction of about 250 million garments that goes to landfill or burnt. Even more scary is that 30 more vertically integrated denim mills appeared in the market in the last ten years. So we will produce even more and expect the denim capacity will go over three billion meters in the next five to 10 years. Unfortunately, the old capitalistic assumption that the world will consume always more denim is wrong. This is changing and mills should produce a different type of denim, not the old school commodity that consumes so much chemicals and causes a pretty huge damage for the planet. This old way of thinking doesnt make sense anymore.

Tony Tonnaer, founder, Kings Of Indigo:Eighty percent of a products environmental footprint is decided in the design stage. When you design a product make sure you define all of its pillars. Today 60% more clothing is being produced compared to the year 2000. We wear our clothes for an average 2.2 years.

Our vision for the future of fashion is based upon these aspects: The industry finally woke up, its time to develop a benchmark. Stimulate big players to really join the change and not greenwash. Find an alternative for cotton and focus on recycling and upcycling. Think circular and cradle-to-cradle. Wash and dye without water and chemicals like PP and bleach. Sell more quality to last longer. Less seasonals; more classics. Less waste, less sale.

Sanjeev Bahl, Saitex:In 2001 my company followed a very simple model business: We made a five-pocket jeans from one factory and one fabric mill in China and then after selling to the US, we operated in many countries. What I could see around we belonged in a system we could not recognize hunger, poverty and inadequate sanitation. Then in 2010 we moved to Vietnam where I built a new theory of change and a new system. It was an experiment. We put 1% of our revenues in poverty elevation programs. I consider Saitex to be an empathetic organization. We recycle 98% of the water we use, dry our jeans hanging them inside our company, produce our solar energy and reached break-even in six years. We also host farms and grow food for fighting hunger.

Stefano Aldighieri, Another Design Studio:We cannot go back to business as usual. Everyone will be wearing [a mask] from now on. Plus many will have to close down. The whole business will have to work with always smaller quantities, short-term commitments and probably closer to home.

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Trade Shows: Best of Kingpins24 and Transformers ED - Sportswear International

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‘We’ll be out in WW3 if we have to’ – bus drivers vow to plough on – Coventry Telegraph

Chatting in front of their squeaky-clean double-deckers at a deserted bus stand, two bus drivers are waiting for passengers who never arrive.

Even though the doors are open and the services are running like clockwork, theres barely a passer-by at the interchange in Warwick. Both drivers, however, spoke of their continued love for the job despite the Covid-19 pandemic and Government lockdown bringing the country to a near-halt.

They are currently driving spotless double-deckers for Stagecoach Midlands, which is operating an enhanced Sunday service in response to the restrictions and social distancing measures.

In normal times, Matt would serve a total of around 150 passengers on his bus in the course of a day on the roads in Coventry and Warwickshire. At present, the total number is around 20.

We still enjoy driving, despite the fact its very, very quiet, he said.

Were constantly running early and even the rush hour is dead.

Ive never driven a bus in conditions as quiet as they are now, but I still love it. I still have that passion for my job, whether its busy or whether its quiet.

Bus drivers have a hardy reputation for keeping going through sleet, snow and ice and its said that not even the Luftwaffe managed to stop Londons services during World War Two. Its something the key workers are aware of as they ease along deserted roads in Coventry and Warwickshire.

They spoke on Thursday, the day before the Government announced it will cover the losses of bus companies in England for the next three months so they can stay on the road. A new 167million fund is intended to ensure that key workers in the NHS, who will be able to hop on and off for free, and other public services can get to work and people can make essential journeys, such as to pick up food.

Matt, who became a bus driver after passing his driving test as a teenager, spoke as he stood beside his empty double-decker at the collection of stands.

Bus drivers have been running services through rain, sun, sleet, snow and war, he said.

Well be out in World War Three if we have to. We like to keep the service going, especially to help elderly and vulnerable people to get out, and we feel more valued now were known as key workers.

Well keep going as long as there isnt a complete lockdown.

Despite wanting to help less mobile members of the community, the drivers have noticed not all trips appear to fall into the definition of essential travel as laid down by the Government.

Matts colleague Rachel said: We do see people going out for a bit of a jolly, getting on for a couple of stops before getting off again. I think the stay-at-home message needs to be pushed a bit harder.

But there are still people who genuinely need us and its nice to feel valued after a days work.

The drivers have been given hand gel and gloves by Stagecoach, though Matt was choosing to wear a sturdier pair he had brought from home.

Rachel said: I love my job. You hear drivers complaining or saying they end up talking to themselves when theres nobody to make conversation with, but I still enjoy driving.

"We are two drivers who love our jobs, there are others who don't. It can be lonely and dispiriting when theres nobody on your bus but its not going to stay that way forever. People will eventually be allowed back out, and they will be allowed back onto the buses.

"Its not the end of the world.

Stagecoach has told customers that it is running revised services based on the latest Government guidelines. Passengers have been asked to practise social distancing by sitting alone where possible, using contactless payments and taking newspapers home.

*Matt and Rachel were speaking under assumed names as they had not been given permission by Stagecoach to give this interview

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'We'll be out in WW3 if we have to' - bus drivers vow to plough on - Coventry Telegraph

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Unusual Comparisons Isnt The Fight Against Coronavirus Exactly Like The WW3 We Dreaded? – ED Times

Unusual Comparisons: An ED Original content style, where we take 2 very opposite and different items and show you, exactly how similar they might be.

In the beginning of 2020, rumours of WW3 surfaced with the President of the USA, Trump air-strike killing the Iranian General. Somehow the events took a different turn and we are in the middle of a pandemic. However, if we look closely, the fight against coronavirus seems to be the modern WW3, different from WW1 or WW2 but quite similar in its effects on humanity, society and economy.

War claims millions of lives, displaces families and leaves a void with every life lost. The death toll of WW2 was 85 million in a span of six years. We are just a few months into this pandemic and the death count has already surpassed 20k. Similar mass destruction would have been observed if WW3 had commenced but owing to the number of deaths we are already in a war.

Particular groups or states are put under Curfew during war which would likely be the scenario had WW3 erupted. Looking at the current scenario, it is worse than any war could have been. Australia has imposed a 6 months long lock down to escape the atrocities of coronavirus. Many other countries have also adopted the same measures but for fewer months.

Day to day activities would be disrupted during war as people cannot continue to work or keep their businesses open, causing damages to the economy. Amidst the pandemic, complete lockdown has been issued having a negative impact on the economy. IMF says we are already in recession due to Covid-19.

Due to conflict during WW3, education would have suffered as an economic crisis arises and schools would be shut. Deaths and fear has had the same effect on education today. Schools are unable to operate and most of the exams have been cancelled or postponed affecting a large population. Poor people cannot afford to keep their kids in school due to lack of earning sources as everything is shut down.

During war, soldiers play an important role and fight for their country giving up their lives in the process. Amidst the Coronavirus pandemic, doctors have taken over the role of the army, fighting against the virus day and night, not caring about their own lives.

In many ways, WW3 would have been quite similar to the crisis we are in right now. The only difference is, during WW3 countries would be turned against each other whereas now every country stands united against a common enemy, COVID-19.

Lets pray we win this war and claim victory over the evil that has taken over our earth.

Image Credits-Google Images

Sources- hindustantimes.com, Business Today, World Population Review

Find The Blogger-@SharmaPrachi2

Why Pay Scales Of Nurses, Teachers & Biological Researchers Should Be More Than Sportsperson/Actors

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Unusual Comparisons Isnt The Fight Against Coronavirus Exactly Like The WW3 We Dreaded? - ED Times

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Features Helpful Tips for the elderly in Isolation —— week two By Joe Adambery 30th March 2020 – Gibraltar Chronicle

Last week I offered some tips for a daily routine for the elderly in isolation which hopefully were taken onboard and tweaked to suit whoever embarked on a routine to pass the time more fruitfully in these long days of quarantine.

This time among other tips my suggestions are aimed to help you rationalise in your shopping, because we discovered that wonderful as the delivery shopping is, there is a minimum value which you can order.

For example if you were to order from two separate establishments on the same day you would probably have to spend 50 and end up buying more than what two people really need, so think carefully in order to avoid wastage and stockpiling. This is not WW3 yet by any stretch of the imagination.

If you are not on supplements yet perhaps now is a good time to think of including some to improve your health and build up your reserves at a time when we move about much less and we may inadvertently not be caring for ourselves as well as we should.

However before we take any supplements we need to check that there are no contra indications to other medicines that we may already be taking. If you are not sure and dont read up on any - dont take them.

Vitamin C is a good start and apart from your daily intake of fresh fruit which should include bananas, apples, oranges and tangerines apart from a handful of dried red fruit and nuts, a vitamin C supplement will help to support immune system.

Turmeric is an anti inflammatory which is quite beneficial as well. Cod liver oil is a fish oil supplement which can be bought with included vitamins A and D plus Glucosamine for joint support. Better than WD 40! Ive been taking all of the above for years and I noted that omega in fish oil also helps in keeping down levels of cholesterol. Our local heath shops all stock a variety of these supplements so give them a ring and discuss but dont go overboard on them.

Sensible and nostalgic cooking will keep us in good shape and remind us of a certain age about the days when there were no other menus!

Nobody eats enough greens nowadays and the easiest way to change that is to make it a point to have green salads and green beans regularly.

Green beans in glass jars can make a delicious omelette meal for two by using just a half jar of them at a time.

Simply heat up a little oil and add two finely diced garlic cloves till they start to go golden, add the drained beans and toss them around for a bit, then add two beaten eggs to make a torta de habichuelas which are a healthier substitute to the usual torta patatas any day. This serves two for a light supper. Double up on beans and on eggs and you can have four servings but not as light.

Two bunches of broccoli and a medium, chopped cauliflower can be boiled together and garnished with a little lemon juice and a touch of olive oil. The mix can be kept in the fridge and you can have regular meals with added salad for a few occasions.

Remember the old corned beef pie? Well start by mashing up four good sized potatoes into a creamy mix perhaps adding a little butter, salt and a dash of milk to taste. In an oiled pan heat up a diced onion, garlic clove and mix in the contents of a tin of corned beef into a creamy paste. Roll out a pack of frozen short crust pastry and make a bottom and a top for your pie dish.

Place the bottom layer of pastry weighted down and cook lightly in medium oven. Once ready spread the corned beef paste evenly all round and cover the top of the pastry with a brushed beaten egg for gloss. Bake until golden brown and this will serve two for a good lunch (seconds allowed). Keep the other half of the pie for next day in the fridge. Recommended for lunch.

Stuffed green peppers are also an old favourite and easy to make. Six generous peppers washed and opened at their tops. The stuffing needs breadcrumbs, a couple of eggs, two or three chopped slices of ham or luncheon meat, marjoram, grated cheese and finely chopped garlic then mash into a fairly thick paste that can be spooned into the peppers. Seal stuffed ends by dipping into flour after compacting, always leaving some space for expansion during frying.

Cook peppers in a pan with a tin of tomate frito and a carton of tomate triturado (which should first be cooked separately in the pan of oil). When both tomatoes units are blended mix in 2 teaspoons of sugar and place the stuffed peppers to cook in the tomatoe sauce for a half hour or until you can pierce them to test. If during cooking there is too much stuffing remove it before the peppers burst.

Theres enough here for one generous meal or for two light meals if you add mash or fries as a side. As with all recipes you can tweak and season with your favourite spices and add your favourite sides, however go easy because we seniors shouldnt go out to exercise during quarantine. Pimientos rellenos are recommended for lunch and not supper.

Remember we have more time on our hands and cooking is a great pastime so help out if you dont cook yourself bearing in mind that this is a part of the daily routine which you should have mapped out and be executing in order to better spend the time in isolation and come out sane and fit when we get through this. Stay safe and keep busy and positive, that too is contagious in a good way. Till next time enjoy the recipes.

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Features Helpful Tips for the elderly in Isolation ------ week two By Joe Adambery 30th March 2020 - Gibraltar Chronicle

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Letter to the Observer: Stop panicking and preparing for WW3 – Albuquerque Journal

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Editor:

On my usual weekly trip to Targetand Albertsons on NM 528 and Ridgecrest, I was appalledby the people hoarding and stockpiling food and everyday items due to the coronavirus.

I have neverbeen sodisgusted by the actions of our fellow community members. What ever happened to the sense of community, decency, treat your fellow man/woman as you would yourself?

The I got mine, screw you attitude will be our downfall. Not very Christian, in my humble opinion.

All of you who seem to think you need 100 rolls of toilet paper, 80 pounds of potatoes, a cartload of canned vegetables, box upon box of Saltines and so onare an absolute disgrace to society.

This isnt World War III. Try being rational, wash your hands and do as the CDC and our local government advises.

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................................................................

At least our governor is taking action and is ahead of the curve on this.

Stop the panic, people. It does no good whatsoever.

William Rehm

Rio Rancho

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Letter to the Observer: Stop panicking and preparing for WW3 - Albuquerque Journal

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World War 3 | WW3 | WWIII | Endtime Ministries | Irvin …

By Irvin Baxter

The question is not, Is there going to be a World War III? It is in your Bible. There is not a one tenth of one percent chance that it is not going to happen. Another world war is coming, and it will be the biggest world war ever. According to the Bible, one out of three people on the earth will die in this war of all wars! The prophecy is found in Revelation chapter nine, verse 15: And the four angels were loosed, which were prepared for an hour, and a day, and a month, and a year, for to slay the third part of men.

The third part of men would be over two billion people! Other translations read one-third of the human race, one-third of all the people on earth, one-third of humanity. They all say the same thing. A war is just ahead that will wipe out over two billion human beings!

Prior to the 20th Century, there had never been a war with one million fatalities. Then came World War I in 1914, with 8.2 million dead. They called it The Great War. With the founding of the League of Nations, we had hoped that this type of carnage would never happen again. Twenty years later, 52 million people died in World War II. As if something had come unhinged in the human soul, we cried out, How can we ever stop this? With the founding of the United Nations we had hoped that the solution to world peace was at hand. I have the dreadful assignment of telling you, it is not fixed. There is another war coming. There will neither be 8 million dead nor 52 million dead. This war that is coming will kill 2.2 billion, forty times World War II. It will be the worst war ever.

I cant tell you exactly when this is going to happen, but the Bible tells us where World War III will originate. The Sixth Trumpet prophecy is found in Revelation 9:14-15:

Saying to the sixth angel which had the trumpet, Loose the four angels which are bound in the great river Euphrates.And the four angels were loosed, which were prepared for an hour, and a day, and a month, and a year, for to slay the third part of men.

These angels were bound in the Euphrates River, which flows through Turkey, Syria, and Iraq, and empties into the Persian Gulf. War has been raging up and down the Euphrates River since 2003 when the U.S. invaded Iraq. When they are loosed, these evil angels will carry out their assignment to kill one-third of mankind.

Out of the chaos and destruction, a strong leader will rise to promise peace and security. The Antichrist will step onto the world scene at just the right moment. He will provide firm direction but he will also demand absolute obedience.

There are four prophetic developments occurring right now that demonstrate how close we are to the Euphrates River War, otherwise known as World War III.

In Genesis 15:18, God entered into a covenant with Abraham, affirming that the Promised Land would be given to his descendants. The Antichrist, according to Daniel 9: 27 will confirm this covenant with many for seven years. A peace agreement which confirms the covenant will establish Israels right to exist in the Holy Land and will mark the beginning of the final seven years to Armageddon. U. S. Secretary of State John Kerry has set the goal of April 29, 2014 to reach just such a peace agreement between Palestinians and Israelis. A viable two-state solution is the only way this conflict can end, he said, and there is not much time to achieve it, and there is no other alternative.

Halfway through the final seven years, the Antichrist will order the stopping of animal sacrifices on the Temple Mount, which will have been resumed by then. He will then stand in the temple claiming to be God.

II Thessalonians 2:3-4 and Revelation 11:1-2 describe a temple standing on the Temple Mount three and one-half years before Armageddon. Israel has been subsidizing nonprofit organizations that advocate the building of the Third Temple atop Jerusalems holiest site. The Temple Institute is dedicated to the vision of the Temples rebuilding, and has already recreated several items to be used when services are resumed on the Temple Mount.

Revelation 13:16-17 describes the control system which will be implemented during the reign of the Antichrist. During the Great Tribulation, every person on earth will be coerced into pledging allegiance to the Antichrist. Those who do so will be given a unique identification mark or number permitting them to participate in the world economy. Those who refuse will be denied the privilege of buying and selling.

The REAL ID Act mandates that Americans produce federally approved identification upon demand. Although it has repeatedly postponed implementation penalties, the Department of Homeland Security has announced a gradual rollout for enforcing the law, beginning in April, 2014. The Affordable Care Act, often referred to as Obamacare, implements a national ID system disguised within a data hub, and a unique patient identifier to verify eligibility. Concurrently making its way through Congress, as part of an immigration reform bill, is E-Verify, a mandated universal biometric ID required for federal approval for employment.

Middle East unrest continues to boil in Libya, Iraq, Egypt and Jordan. Syria is on the brink of expanding to a full-scale war that could involve the major world powers. Analysts believe Syria may soon become a flashpoint that would divide the region along a battle lines drawn between Shia and Sunni Muslims. Iran is one of Americas and Israels foremost enemies and the Islamic Republic has become one of the most serious threats to stability in the Middle East. As Iran is rapidly achieving nuclear capability, the region will become far more dangerous as the number of countries engaged in nuclear activities grows. The Deputy Commander of Irans Revolutionary Guard has threatened that Tehran is able to destroy every spot in Israel. Germany views Iran as a potential threat not just to Israel, but also to European countries.

WWIII Entrance Ramp for the Antichrist details how this war is going to come out of the Euphrates River area, resulting in the killing of one-third of the human race. It is going to happen and it will affect us, our families, our nation, our world, everything. And it looks like it is coming sooner, rather than later.

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World War 3 | WW3 | WWIII | Endtime Ministries | Irvin ...

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WW3 warning: 3AM White House call that saved US from total annihilation exposed – Express.co.uk

The incident came at the height of the Cold War, as the US and Soviet Union jostled to become the ultimate global superpower.On November 9, 1979, acomputer errorat the North American Aerospace Defence Command (NORAD) headquarters caused an alarm and full preparation for alarge-scale nuclear attackfrom the USSR. It led tonational security adviserZbigniew Brzezinskibeing awoken at 3AM to the news that 2,200 ballistic missiles were on their way.

It was a false alarm, but Brzezinski was not to know that and any form of retaliation would have been enough to start a real nuclear war thanks to Mutually Assured Destruction.

Lance Geiger, a history researcher and the man behind The History Guy on YouTube revealed the sobering details on his channel.

He said in 2018:In the early morning of November 9, 1979, in the worlds most advanced bunker, using the brand-new and robust early warning system, the unthinkable happened.

Decades of strategy around massive retaliation, Mutually Assured Destruction collapsed as the screens at the NORAD command centre showed indisputable that Americas worst nightmare had occurred.

The Soviet Union had launched an all-out nuclear attack on the US

Lance Geiger

The Soviet Union had launched an all-out nuclear attack on the US, designed to destroy our command functions and our nuclear weapons.

This was no drill, the Pentagons National Military Command Centre and the Alternate National Military Command Centre all showed the same thing the Soviets had launched more than 200 submarine-launched ballistic missiles.

Following procedure, the launch control centres for Americas 550 Minuteman 3 and 450 Minuteman 2 missiles were given a preliminary warning to prepare for a counter-attack.

Mr Geiger, 55, went on to detail the chain of events that followed.

He added: The crews of the SAC-ready alert bombers were moved to their aircraft emerging from their mole holes to man their B-52 bombers and started their engines.

READ MORE:World War 3: PM's demand to 'monitor' French nukesafter'EU deal'backfired exposed

The entire Continental Air Defence interceptor force, fighter aircrafts tasked to defend the US, was put on alert and at least 10 F-106 Delta Dart fighter interceptors were launched to protect US airspace.

Finally, the Presidents Doomsday Plane, the national emergency airborne command post, was launched without the President or Secretary of Defence on board.

US national security advisor Zbigniew Brzezinski was woken at 3AM by a call from his military assistant Major General William Odom, who informed him that 250Soviet ballistic missiles were headed to the US.

Brzezinski knew that the Presidents decision time to order a retaliation was just three to seven minutes and they were still waiting for satellite confirmation.

A moment later, Odom called again to tell him that the Soviets had now launched 2,200 missilesan all-out nuclear attack.

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But, Brzezinski somehow kept a cool head and though before ordering a retaliation.

That bought enough time for a third phone call.

Mr Geiger said: As Brzezinski prepared to call the President, he made a silent decision of his own, he chose not to wake his wife.

If the world was going to end in half an hour, he would let her go quietly.

Moments later, Odom called for a third time, data from the early-warning satellites were seeing nothing, it was a false alarm.

Later it was determined that software simulating a nuclear attack, intended to test the new system, had inexplicably been transferred into the regular warning display.

As all command centres were linked, they were all showing the same thing.

Unfortunately, the mistake was not the last of its kind, as a computer glitch at NORAD caused three more false alarms a year later.

By May 1981, Soviet fears had reached an all-time high as General SecretaryLeonid Brezhnev andKGB chairmanYuri Andropovbluntly announced that theUSwas preparing a secret nuclear attack on theUSSR.

Andropov revealed the KGB would beginOperation RYaN (Nuclear Missile Attack) the largest, most comprehensive intelligence operation in Soviet history.

Consequently, mass paranoia set in among Soviet leaders regarding the US plans, asmemoriesofNazi Germany's surprise invasion of the USSRstill haunted them.

These fears were not helped by the actionsand rhetoricofnewly-electedUS President Ronald Reagan.

He announced a new medium-range nuclear missile to be introduced into Europe Pershing II which could reach the Soviet Union from West Germany in six minutes.

On March 8, 1983, Reagan brandished the Soviet Union an evil empireduring a press conference, sparkingfury in the Kremlin, who became obsessed Reagan was attempting to smear the communist ideology.

The timing of NATOs yearly Able Archer exercise could not have come at a worse time for the USSR.

In November, Able Archer 83, an exercise to simulate nuclear war, was carried out by NATO forces.

While it was simply a communications test, paranoid Soviet agents believed this was exactly how the US would mask a real attack.

The operation introduced several new elements not seen in previous years, including anewunique format of coded communication,radio silences, and the participation ofheads of government.

It also simulated a move through all alert phases, from DEFCON 5 to DEFCON 1, which KGB agents wrongly assumed to be a real move into the highest nuclear threat.

TheSoviet politburo believed theironly chance of surviving a NATO strike was to preempt it, and so readied its nuclear arsenal.

Days later, on November 11,1983,Soviet fears were completely ended upon learning the Able Archer exercise had finished thanks to double agent Oleg Gordievsky.

Many historians including Thomas Blanton, Director of theNational Security Archive, andTom Nichols, a professor at theNaval War College, have since argued that Able Archer 83 was one of the times when the world has come closest tonuclear warsince theCuban Missile Crisisin 1962.

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World War 3 panic: How Russia lost control of nuclear weapon in shocking test blunder – Express.co.uk

The 9M730 Burevestnik is a Russian experimental nuclear-powered and nuclear-armed cruise missile, which has been dubbed a game-changer for its revolutionary design.The missile is claimed to have virtually unlimited range and was one of six new strategic weapons unveiled by President Vladimir Putin on March 1, 2018, The claims are enough to send a warning to any other nation planning to go into conflict with the Kremlin, but it appears the weapon is quite unreliable.

According to US intelligence, only one of 12 tests have been successful, and the Russian military actually has no idea where one of them went, Dark5s documentary: The Race to Find Russias Lost Nuke revealed.

The series said in 2018: In November of 2017, Russian defence forces launched a high-tech, nuclear-armed missile from a small base called Pankovo on Yuzhny Island, an uninhabited strip of land which has been used in nuclear weapons testing since the Fifties.

The launch was an early-phase test of the extremely powerful Burevestnik missile.

The Burevestnik programme is an attempt by the Kremlin to develop a weapon that is both nuclear-armed and nuclear-powered, meaning it is driven by a sustained nuclear reaction that could potentially allow it to travel unlimited distances and stay in flight for a nearly unlimited amount of time.

During the test launch, however, the missile only travelled for a brief two-minutes before it lost directional control and was sent screaming out of the sky into the remote waters somewhere off the northern coast of Russia.

The series went on to reveal how Russia attempted to find their lost nuke.

It added: After the missile splashed down, the Russian government lost track of its location, and search teams were unable to recover it intact or locate any possible debris.

Given its short flight time, the radius that the missile could have travelled before crashing is limited.

READ MORE: WW3 warning: 3AM White House call that saved US from total annihilation exposed

Yuzhny Island is the southern island of the Novaya Zemlya archipelago that splits the Barents Sea to the west from the Kara Sea to the east.

Given that the launch angle of the missile was decidedly in the northwest direction, away from civilisation, it seems most likely that the downed Burevestnik, a top-secret and potentially game-changing weapon, is still hiding somewhere in the sprawling Barents Sea.

With this information now leaked into the public sphere, its a safe bet that the Russians arent the only ones hunting for it.

In 2018 a Russian naval flotilla set off from Severomorsk.

Theeight ship task forcewas allegedly on a safety of navigation exercise, but the presence of the crane ship KIL-143 raised suspicions that the vessel's real purpose was to recover the lostBurevestnik.

In August last year, a mysterious nuclear blast in the Barents Sea killed seven people.

The US suspected the two events were connected, but Russia has refuted the claims and no evidence has been put forward thus far.

Vyacheslav Solovyov, the scientific director of theRussian Federal Nuclear Centre, said in an interview with a local newspaper that the institute had been studying small-scale sources of energy with the use of fissile materials."

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World War 3 panic: How Russia lost control of nuclear weapon in shocking test blunder - Express.co.uk

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US military hinted at using HAARP weather machine in WW3 in 12-year-old report – Daily Star

Conspiracy theorists have long speculated that the defunct HAARP project is secretly being used in warfare, but a 12-year-old document and a speech from the 1990s suggest the US military have at least considered the idea.

The High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) is a cutting edge transmitter facility used to study the properties and behaviour of the ionosphere, located in Alaska.

Its military-funded construction was completed in 2007, but just seven years later the programme was shut down and ownership of HAARP and its capabilities were transferred to the University of Alaska.

For years conspiracy theorists have speculated that the US government is using HAARP to control the weather, an allegation that's been repeatedly denied by officials and scientists.

The recent flare-up in tensions between the US and Iran reignited interest in the theory, with some speculating that should full-scale war break out HAARP would be used by American troops to defeat Iran.

A spate of earthquakes near Iran's Bushehr nuclear power plant only fuelled the theories.

In 2017 the Iranian Deputy Interior Minister for Security and Law Enforcement, Mohammad Hossein Zolfaqari, was forced to issue a public statement denying a connection between the region's repeated earthquakes and HAARP.

American magazine National Review reports that in a speech in 1997, the US Secretary of Defence William Cohen made an oblique reference to military technology that could cause earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.

"...some scientists in their laboratories trying to devise certain types of pathogens that would be ethnic specific so that they could just eliminate certain ethnic groups and races; and others are designing some sort of engineering, some sort of insects that can destroy specific crops," he said.

"Others are engaging even in an eco-type of terrorism whereby they can alter the climate, set off earthquakes, volcanoes remotely through the use of electromagnetic waves."

National Review speculates he may have been referring to a HAARP prototype, but casts doubt on whether members of the Trump administration could quiet about possessing earthquake weapons.

A 12-year-old document also contains evidence that the US military planned to invest in "weather modification" technology in the interest of national security.

Air Force 2025, a 3,300-page report featuring contributions from technologists, futurists, science fiction writers, scientists, historians, active military officers and retired Air Force generals, was published in 2008.

It predicts the most pressing dangers facing the US in the decades to come, and devises potential defence strategies to combat them.

One such proposal was the creation of a "Spacebased High-Energy Laser System" - a hugely powerful chemical laser with the ability to hit targets on the ground, in the air and in space.

"At lower power settings, it could disable enemy optics, perform passive sensing missions, actively illuminate a target with a laser, or even modify the weather," an article analysing the report reads. "Between fifteen and twenty such satellites could provide global coverage."

In an excerpt from the report itself published by Global Research, experts seem convinced that militarised weather manipulation is not a far-fetched fantasy but only a matter of time.

"Weather modification will become a part of domestic and international security and could be done unilaterally," it reads.

"It could have offensive and defensive applications and even be used for deterrence purposes. The ability to generate precipitation, fog, and storms on earth or to modify space weather, and the production of artificial weather all are a part of an integrated set of technologies which can provide substantial increase in US, or degraded capability in an adversary, to achieve global awareness, reach, and power."

It's unlikely that Iran's earthquakes were caused by HAARP or that the programme will be used in future attacks, but there's ample evidence its potential capabilities once formed a key part of the US defence strategy.

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US military hinted at using HAARP weather machine in WW3 in 12-year-old report - Daily Star

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USA vs Iran: Tehran’s ally list and FIRST point of attack exposed in terrifying prediction – Express.co.uk

Fears of an all-out war have seemingly been silenced by both the US and Irans determination to find a peaceful resolution to the killing of Iranian General Qassem Soleimani. However, Iran international editor and presenter Sadeq Saba argued this could be short-lived. He told Express.co.uk in a massive conflict in the Middle East, Iran would likely strike the USAs allies in the region.

He said: I think if there is a serious war between Iran and the United States Iran may ask its allies in Lebanon to attack.

Iran itself may fire missiles against targets in the Gulf countries like Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and other countries.

This is because they cannot reach American soil.

But they can reach American bases in both countries.

DON'T MISS:WW3 shock: Who Russia and China will side with in US Middle East war

Iran has repeatedly said if America uses its bases from any country in the Persian Gulf area, Iran will see those countries as enemies.

And Iran will retaliate.

Mr Saba also explained who China and Russia would side with, in a major Middle Eastern conflict against the US.

The Iran expert said China would likely stay neutral in the conflict.

He noted Russia would be most likely to side with the West but may continue to arm Iran with weapons and technology.

However, Mr Saba explained Russia would not send Russian forces to support Iran or its allies in a major Middle Eastern conflict.

The Iran expert said: The way that history goes when it comes to the crunch is China usually remains neutral.

READ MORE:Iran on the brink: Ex-Trump aide exposes exactly why US[INSIGHT]World War 3: Missile strike kills eight pro-Iranian militia members[EXPLAINER]World War 3 outbreak: BBC expert stuns Newsnight in Iran crash claim[ANALYSIS]

Russia will vote with the West.

I remember when there was some kind of a resolution against Irans nuclear activities, Russia always voted with the West.

Yes, Iran is becoming more and more reliant on Russia for weapons and technology.

Although on the surface Russia is friendly with Iran, ideologically they are worlds apart.

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USA vs Iran: Tehran's ally list and FIRST point of attack exposed in terrifying prediction - Express.co.uk

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EU warning: How defence restrictions were imposed on UK despite WW3 threat – Express

During the Seventies, as the Cold War raged, the UK boasted a huge nuclear arsenal of 520 strong warheads as a continuous deterrent to the Soviet Union and the rest of the world.But, since joining Euratom a treaty established by the EU's precursor, the EEC, in 1973 the UK has gradually reduced those numbers to 120, which arenow fielded solely by its Vanguard-class submarines under its maritime-only deterrence strategy, which house the Trident nuclear system.Euratom implements nuclear safeguards, including the United Nations' sponsored Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) to reduced nuclear capabilities and safeguard nuclear activities inside Europe, reporting back to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on their steps towards the complete removal of nuclear deterrence.

In accordance to the treaty,the UK decommissioned fissile material production facilities or converted them for peaceful use in 1995 and three years later dismantled thelast of its Nuclear Gravity Bombs at AWEAldermaston.

The UK has also decreased the number of warheads each Vanguard-class submarine can carry from 48 to 40,decreased the requirement for available warheads from 160 to 120, and decreased the number of operational missiles on each submarine to 8.

In addition, Downing Street hascommittedto reducing the country's nuclearweapons capabilities to 180 missiles by mid-2020.

Meanwhile,the UK provided significant financial support to EU security activities through its contribution to theBrusselsbudget, financing approximately 16 percent.

READ MORE:World War 3: How US came seconds from total annihilation after horrific nuclear mishap

It also provided personnel, expertise and equipment for EU missions, most notably maritime support to combat piracy off the Horn of Africa and to prevent smuggling in the Mediterranean.

The Ministry of Defences Permanent Joint Headquarters is the operational headquarters for some EU missions, including Operation Atalanta.

As of today, it is oneof only two member states possessing full-spectrum military capabilities, the last remaining nuclear deterrence and joined all other nuclear weapon-possessing states in boycotting the 2017 Nuclear Ban Treaty.

Euratom was established on March 25, 1957, with the original purpose of creating a specialist market for nuclear power in Europeby developing nuclear energy and distributing it to its member states while selling the surplus to non-member states.

It is legallydistinct from theEUbut has the samemembership, and is governed by many of thebloc's institutions.

It isthe only remaining community organisation that is independent of theblocand therefore outside the regulatory control of the European Parliament.

Europe's defence is not a competence of the EU, NATO is the overarching structure for international co-operation, yet theUK participates in EU security and defence initiatives through the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP).

Withdrawal from Euratom will require changes in the UK approach to safeguards and in domestic provisions for providing IAEA information and access.

Some experts argue that the UK will need to renegotiate its voluntary access safeguards agreement and additional protocol with the IAEA, given that the Euratom measures are part of the UK arrangements with the agency.

Dame Sue Ion, Chair of the UK Nuclear Innovation and Research Advisory Board,told a House of Lords Select Committee in 2019that the UK will need to evolve other arrangements between the UK regulator and the IAEA.

She said that the Government will need new arrangements that pretty much mirror Euratom.

There is Government interest in remaining in Euratom, as leaving will see a stoppage of trade of nuclear isotopes, used in many diagnostics and treatment applications by the NHS.

Currently, these medical radioisotopes cannot be produced in the UK, and many of them have a shelf-life of only a few days.

Without replacement Nuclear Trade Agreements in place by the time of Brexit, access to these materials would be lost.

After Friday, the Office for Nuclear Regulation (ONR) will assume these responsibilities. ONR will require additional support, funding, staff, skills, tools and equipment in order to discharge these new duties.

An addition of approximately 4million will be required annually for this purpose.

However, it is very possible the UK will complete a separate deal with Euratom, becoming an "associated state" like Switzerland.

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EU warning: How defence restrictions were imposed on UK despite WW3 threat - Express

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WW3 news: How has the world responded to the US-Iran conflict? – Express.co.uk

On Wednesday, Iran fired around 20 rockets toward US airbases in Iraq which housed American military personnel. This was in retaliation for the killing of a top Iranian General - Quassem Soleimani.

A US sanctioned drone strike killed General Soleimani more than a week ago and sparked fury from Iran and fears of an all-out war.

However following the missiles hitting the US bases in Iraq, President Donald Trump gave a speech from the White House declaring very little damage was caused by the Iranian missiles, and no personnel were harmed.

Mr Trump also said: Iran appears to be standing down, which is a good thing for all parties concerned and a very good thing for the world.

However, the President pledged to immediately impose additional punishing economic sanctions on the Iranian regime."

Read More:Iran-US war: Iraq furious at escalating tensions as they refuse war

The Iranian government had previously repeatedly denied Western accusations that it was responsible.

The plane was shot down early on Wednesday, hours after Iran launched a ballistic missile attack on two military bases housing US troops in Iraq in retaliation for the killing of Iranian General Qassem Soleimani in an American airstrike in Baghdad. No-one was wounded in the attack on the bases.

A military statement carried by state media said the plane was mistaken for a "hostile target" after it turned towards a "sensitive military centre" of the Revolutionary Guard.

The military was at its "highest level of readiness," it said, amid the heightened tensions with the US.

"In such a condition, because of human error and in an unintentional way, the flight was hit," the military said. It apologised and said it would upgrade its systems to prevent future tragedies.

This came despite Mr Trumps calls for the UK to follow the US in abandoning the 2015 nuclear agreement.

Speaking to Rouhani Mr Johnson also spoke of the "continued detention of mistreatment of Nazanin Zaghari-Ratcliffe and other dual nationals, asking for their release.

Saudi Arabia condemned Iran's attacks on Iraqi bases hosting US forces as a "violation of Iraqi sovereignty", Saudi state TV reported.

Iran fired around 20 rockets toward US bases in Iraq, but there have been no recorded fatalities and only minor damage according to US President Donald Trump.

A statement carried by the official SPA news agency said: The kingdom denounces and condemns the Iranian violations of Iraqi sovereignty.

"Saudi Arabia calls on all parties to exercises self-restraint.

Also following on from the attack on US airbases, a statement from Turkeys foreign minister said they do not want Iraq to become a battle zone.

Mevlut Cavusoglu told a press conference along with his Iraqi counterpart in Baghdad, Iraqi capital: We don't want Iraq to be the battle zone of the foreign forces.

In response to Iran scrapping the limits imposed on their nuclear enrichment, Germanys foreign minister called for European powers to put forward a joint response.

Heiko Maas told reporters on Tuesday: What Iran has announced is, we believe, not the right course and so we need to find a joint response.

Iran cannot build its own nuclear weapons.

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WW3 news: How has the world responded to the US-Iran conflict? - Express.co.uk

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WW3: Is World War 3 about to happen? Will there be another war? – Express.co.uk

On Friday, January 3, a US drone strike killed Iranian general Qassem Soleimani - triggering outrage and pledges for retaliation from Iran. World leaders called for de-escalations following the assassination US PresidentDonald Trump sanctioned, but Iran responded on Wedensday with 20 rockets hitting US bases in Iraq.

The attack - carried out on Wednesday morning - saw Iran send around 20 ballistic missiles to airbases housing US troops in Iraq.

Iran's Revolutionary Guards said the attack was in retaliation for the death of General Soleimani on Friday.

Soleimani was regarded as the second-most important person in Iran, behind only Iran's Supreme Leader Ayatollah.

Now, following his death,Iran has said it will not be respecting the restrictions laid out in the 2015 nuclear accord.

A statement released last Sunday said: Iran will continue its nuclear enrichment with no limitations and based on its technical needs.

Read More:WATCH Iran plane crash: Unseen footage shows moment of fiery blast

The head of the European Commission said on Monday that Iran must comply with the 2015 nuclear deal adding her voice to international calls for Iran to help salvage the pact that US PresidentDonald Trumpwithdrew from in 2018.

European Commission President Ursula von der Leyen said in a statement: We are deeply concerned by Iran's announcement that it will not respect the limit set by the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) any longer,"

"From a European viewpoint, it is important for Iran to return to the nuclear deal. We have to convince Iran that it's also in its own interest.

Ms Von der Leyen confirmed EU foreign ministers will hold a special session on Friday.

All eyes are on the promised retaliation from Iran, who has vowed severe revenge against the US.

But after the Iranian missile attacks, the nation's Foreign Minister Mohammad Javad Zarif said on Twitter: Iran took & concluded proportionate measures in self-defence under Article 51 of UN Charter targeting base from which cowardly armed attack against our citizens & senior officials were launched.

We do not seek escalation or war, but will defend ourselves against any aggression.

There has as of yet been no declaration of war between the US and Iran.

Many fear the recent attacks could be the start ofWorld War 3with the hashtags #WW3 and #WorldWar3 trending on Twitter shortly after Soleimani's death was announced.

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Ali Alfoneh, a senior fellow at the Arab Gulf States Institute in Washington said: "Iran has no choice but to strike back and retaliate for the assassination of Major General Soleimani.

"But the Islamic Republic is patient and the timing and nature of that strike is not yet known to us."

US President Donald Trump has published a series of tweets following Irans decision to not respect the 2015 accord.

In his tweets, he spoke of the US military being by far the BEST in the World and vowing to return any attack Iran made against the US.

Mr Trump wrote: The United States just spent Two Trillion Dollars on Military Equipment. We are the biggest and by far the BEST in the World!

If Iran attacks an American Base or any American, we will be sending some of that brand new beautiful equipment their way...and without hesitation!

He later tweeted: They [Iran] attacked us, & we hit back.

If they attack again, which I would strongly advise them not to do, we will hit them harder than they have ever been hit before!

He also tweeted in entirely capital letters: IRAN WILL NEVER HAVE A NUCLEAR WEAPON!

Mr Trump reiterated this in an address from the White House on Wednesday, saying while he was in office he would make sure Iran would never possess nuclear weapons.

He called on the UK, Germany, France, Greece, China and Russia to abandon the Nuclear accord which the US withdrew from in 2018.

The US President said:"Iran must abandon its nuclear ambitions and end its support for terrorism.The time has come for the United Kingdom,Germany,France, Russia and China to recognize this reality.

"They must now break away from the remnants of the Iran deal -- or JCPOA -- and we must all work together toward making a deal with Iran that makes the world a safer and more peaceful place."

Iran has now announced its military "unintentionally" shot down the Ukrainian jetliner which crashed earlier this week, killing all 176 aboard.

The Iranian government had previously repeatedly denied Western accusations that it was responsible.

The plane was shot down early on Wednesday, hours after Iran launched a ballistic missile attack on two military bases housing US troops in Iraq in retaliation for the killing of Iranian General Qassem Soleimani in an American airstrike in Baghdad. No-one was wounded in the attack on the bases.

A military statement carried by state media said the plane was mistaken for a "hostile target" after it turned towards a "sensitive military centre" of the Revolutionary Guard.

The military was at its "highest level of readiness," it said, amid the heightened tensions with the US.

"In such a condition, because of human error and in an unintentional way, the flight was hit," the military said. It apologised and said it would upgrade its systems to prevent future tragedies.

Allies of both Iran and the US have weighed in on the conflict, calling for a de-escalation.

Foreign Secretary Dominic Raab became the latest Government figure to distance the UK from US President Donald Trump's suggestion that Iranian cultural sites could be targeted.

He said: "We have been very clear that cultural sites are protected under international law and we would expect that to be respected."

Speaking after a meeting of senior ministers to discuss the crisis, Mr Raab said: "Clearly our first priority is to make sure that UK nationals, citizens, shipping, diplomatic missions and military personnel are safe.

"We've changed our travel advice, we are going to be reinforcing in due course the Royal Navy protection for shipping in the Strait of Hormuz.

"On a diplomatic front our overwhelming message that the Prime Minister and I are conveying to our European and American counterparts, and also critically our partners in the Middle East, is the importance of deescalating the tensions and finding a diplomatic way through this crisis."

However, Mr Trump has been adamant the US took action to stop a war, not to start one.

However Iranian general Esmail Ghaani, who has taken Soleimanis place as head of Irans Quds Force, has stated Iran will be taking actions against the US as revenge for the death of Soleimani.

Ghaani told Iranian state television on Monday: God the almighty has promised to get his revenge, and God is the main avenger. Certainly, actions will be taken.

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WW3: Is World War 3 about to happen? Will there be another war? - Express.co.uk

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How Americans and Iranians are using memes and hashtags to cope with conflict – CNN

That's right, memes, those images you see on social media that are created, shared, remixed and shared again.

A cursory glance at any of the content posted there is sure to leave the impression of a disingenuous and foolhardy person. But a deeper look reveals a far more complex portrait of a people using humor to mask their deep sense of dread.

One person familiar with the feeling is Kate Hewitt, a federal contractor and adviser at Girl Security, a nonprofit organization that educates girls in middle and high school on national security. She has authored several articles on Iran and researched the country's nuclear and ballistic missile programs.

"People are certainly afraid and sometimes pictures, GIFs, memes and tweets can express what you either don't know how to or don't want to fully articulate," she told CNN.

"It's certainly easier for some people to see a meme that takes a serious issue, like what's happening with rising US-Iranian tensions, and makes you laugh either because it is absurd or you're afraid or you don't fully understand the issue," Hewitt said.

The threat of "WWIII" has loomed large on the internet for years

The subreddit languished for more than two years until a week ago. The forum's growth has been extraordinary, Price said.

"It was a huge shock. I actually completely forgot about the subreddit until it started growing last week," Price told CNN. "I think memes just happen whenever there's a big cultural event, regardless of the nature of it. A few years ago, a movement seemed to start where the darker the joke was, the more popular the meme was and I guess these new ww3 memes are just an extension of that."

Withorne cited the overuse of "the draft," instead of "conscription" or "selective service" on Twitter, and how people feared getting called up to serve in the US military.

"I think the language used specifically in the memes is particularly interesting and perhaps indicates that the people making them are not familiar with international conflict," Withorne told CNN via email. "I think this unawareness of the linguistics they are using is indicative of an unawareness about the nature of conflict itself and could be potentially dangerous as tensions continue to rise."

The simmering tension in the Middle East hits close to home for Iranians

While many Americas are using memes to filter their fears, Reza Akbari, a 22-year-old from Mashhad, Iran, used his Twitter account to share his unadulterated feelings.

Many of Akbari's other tweets include anger over the airstrikes that killed Soleimani, a revered and powerful figure. Soleimani loomed large in Iran as the head of the Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps elite Quds Force and the leader of the country's overseas operations.

"Still tears streaming down our eyes with his name and his memory ... and only with a vengeance on his killers Iran will lose a bit of our sadness ...Iran have nothing to do with the common people of US. Iran is taking revenge on US politicians," Reza told CNN through a Twitter message after the funeral.

Hannah Kaviani, a journalist at Radio Farda, the Iranian service of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, believes that recent history may explain why Iranians have responded on social media in their own way.

Iran, no stranger to military conflicts, has lived under the threat of war before.

"There are still pictures of soldiers of that war on the walls of cities and many streets around town bear their names. The state media is also very much trying to keep that memory alive through its own propaganda tools. But then I also think youth in Iran, due to so many different reasons, get involved in socio-political matters much sooner than in the West," Kaviani said.

"You see jokes going around on social media and messaging apps, about all sort of heavy news coming from inside and outside of the country," Kaviani told CNN.

"Obviously the talk of heightened tension between Iran and the US in the past days is the number one topic being discussed among Persian-speaking users on all platforms, and it has caused hot debates among those who believe a confrontation with the US can rid Iran from its current regime, those who are against war, and others who think Islamic Republic should confront the US."

CNN's Nick Paton Walsh, Zachary B. Wolf, Amir Vera and Veronica Stracqualursi contributed to this story.

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How Americans and Iranians are using memes and hashtags to cope with conflict - CNN

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#WW3 may be trending, but experts say its unlikely – CBC.ca

UPDATE: When we originally published this article on Jan. 8, we said there was no evidence to connect a plane crash that killed 63 Canadians in Iran to the death of Qassem Soleimani. On Jan. 9, Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau announced that the plane was likely shot down by an Iranian missile. He added that it "may have been" an accident and called for a thorough investigation.

When the news came out that U.S. President Donald Trump had ordered the death of one of Irans most powerful military commanders, #WW3 started trending on TikTok and Twitter.

Many of the early posts were sort of darkly funny, using the idea of a Third World War as the inspiration for a series of gloomy memes.

But as the situation started to escalate, some people got scared.

Turns out, that whole #WW3 thing? Not likely to happen any time soon, many experts say.

There will be no World War Three due to the current confrontation between Iran and U.S. - Political scientist Houchang Hassan-Yari

But lets back up. Why was #WW3 trending in the first place?

Iranian Maj.-Gen. Qassem Soleimani was killed in a U.S. airstrike on Jan. 3.

Why? The U.S. Defence Department said Soleimani had approved plans to attack Americans in the past and was preparing to do it again.

U.S. President Donald Trump spoke about the attack on Soleimani to the media on Jan. 3. He said it wasnt an act of war, but a way to prevent it. (Tom Brenner/Reuters)

Iran called it an act of terrorism and promised revenge.

On Tuesday, the Middle Eastern country retaliated by firing missiles at two Iraqi military bases where U.S. soldiers were staying.

No Canadians were hurt in the attack, even though Canada has about 500 troops stationed in Iraq as part of an effort to fight a militant group called ISIS.

That mission is now on hold until Canada can ensure the safety of its soldiers.

The U.S. and Iran have been enemies for a long time and their relationship had become worse in recent months.

Some are suggesting these recent attacks could cause even more damage to that relationship.

But dont panic.

There will be no World War Three due to the current confrontation between Iran and U.S., said Houchang Hassan-Yari, a professor emeritus in political science at the Royal Military College of Canada in Kingston, Ont.

The conflict is confined to a small part of the world, he told CBC Kids News.

Also, many of the more powerful nations on the planet arent directly involved, Hassan-Yari said. There is no desire among big powers to confront each other.

BBC defence and diplomatic correspondent Jonathan Marcus echoed that idea when answering questions from the public online.

The fact that countries like Russia and China are not significant players in this drama will help ensure the conflict doesnt get too big, he said.

This will not prompt World War Three, said Marcus.

Some people are taking to the streets in the U.S. and Canada to voice their concerns about the increased tension between the U.S. and Iran. (Trent Nelson/The Salt Lake Tribune/The Associated Press)

The CBCs Nahlah Ayed, who has reported on a number of clashes across the Middle East, also said the fact that both Iran and the U.S. are heading into elections soon means all-out war isnt likely.

Still worried? Here are some tips for dealing with sad or scary news.

On Wednesday, 63 Canadians were killed when a plane crashed shortly after leaving Tehran, which is the capital of Iran.

On Thursday, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau said evidence suggests the plane was shot down by an Iranian missile and it may have been an accident.

Iranian officials have denied any involvement.

The investigation continues.

With files from CBC News, The Associated Press

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#WW3 may be trending, but experts say its unlikely - CBC.ca

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WW3: Britons in this country urged to leave immediately as FCO issue new travel warning – Express

World War Three is alarmingly seeming more likely than ever as Iran/USA tensions boil. The Iranian crisis escalated after the USA killed Iranian general Qassem Soleimani in a drone strike. Iran threatened severe revenge in response and on Tuesday Tehran fired ballistic missiles at two Iraqi bases home to American troops.

Iran's Revolutionary Guard went on to warn the USA and its allies against responding militarily to any Iranian retaliation for the assassination of Soleimani.

The Guard issued the warning via a statement: We are warning all American allies, who gave their bases to its terrorist army, that any territory that is the starting point of aggressive acts against Iran will be targeted, reported Iran's state-run IRNA news agency.

As tensions rise, the UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) have updated their travel advice to affected areas.

A number of countries in the Middle East now come with travel warnings, including Dubai, Turkey and Egypt.

READ MORE:World War Three: Safest countries in the world mapped

Today, the FCO issued an urgent warning to Britons in Iran and urged them to return home.

They now warn against travelling to the country. The FCO said: The Foreign and Commonwealth Office advise against all travel to Iran.

Additionally, the FCO advise against all air travel to, from and within Iran. If youre in Iran, you should review your departure options and consider leaving the country.

There are heightened tensions in the region. On 8 January 2020, Iran fired missiles against two military bases in Iraq containing US personnel.

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Tensions between Iran and other countries could escalate rapidly. Anger inside Iran is high, following the death of Iranian General Qasem Soleimani in a US strike in Baghdad on 3 January.

There is a possibility of an increased threat against Western interests and the security situation could worsen with little warning.

To add to the escalating tensions, a Ukraine International Airlines plane crashed moments after it left Imam Khomeini International Airport in Tehran at 6.10am local time (2.40am GMT) on Wednesday, bound for the Ukrainian capital Kyiv. There were 176 passengers on board flight PS752, all of whom died.

UK Prime Minister Boris Johnson has since said he has "a body of information" that shows Iran is to blame for the crash.

However, Irans government spokesperson Ali Rabiei has since denied the country is responsible for the crash.

He said reports that a missile hit the Ukrainian plane is a psychological warfare against Tehran.

The FCO said of the tragedy: There is uncertainty surrounding the crash on 8 January of a Ukrainian International Airlines flight shortly after take-off from Imam Khomeini International Airport in Tehran.

If you decide to travel by air against FCO advice, contact your airline or travel company for the latest information before travelling.

Flight schedules may be subject to cancellation at short notice. There are alternative land and sea-based routes to leave Iran.

The Foreign Office issued advice to anyone still in Iran at this time. In the event of a sudden deterioration in the security station, there may be limits to the assistance the FCO can provide, depending on the security and transport situation, said the FCO.

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WW3: Britons in this country urged to leave immediately as FCO issue new travel warning - Express

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WW3 news: What are the rules of military conscription? Who is exempt? – Express.co.uk

World War 3 has trended on most social media websites and Google since Friday last week when a US drone strike killed Irans top military General Qasem Soleimani. The General was responsible for commanding Irans extraterritorial military presence, and his death prompted a severe reaction from the country, which has vowed swift revenge.

Military conscription is an aged concept, rarely used outside of times of national crisis.

Conscription is otherwise known as the draft and compels people into military service during war.

Several countries have a permanent draft in place, while others only use it in times of crisis.

In countries where it isnt currently active, such as the US and UK, governments can introduce the draft.

In the UK, the draft was introduced on two occasions, during World War One and World War Two, while the US kept the draft until 1973.

Traditionally, those eligible for the draft comprise of men aged 18 to 25, with women ineligible.

However, rules can vary by country.

READ MORE:WW3: Is it safe for Britons to travel to Turkey?

The US modern-day military is currently an all-volunteer force, and has approximately 1.2 million active-duty troops.

To change this, Congress would have to pass a law reinstating the draft, and the president would have to sign it.

These are actions which would likely need extensive political support.

All men from 18 to 25 years old in the United States are required to register with the Selective Service System (SSS).

The SSS was founded in May 1917 and has minimal practical effect today due to the voluntary nature of the military.

Many men check a box to register when receiving their drivers license, and others sign up when they apply for federal student aid to go to college.

However, just because you have registered does not mean you will be drafted.

Jennifer Mittelstadt, a professor of history at Rutgers University who has studied the military told the New York Times: Right now, registering for selective service really means nothing about the likelihood of you serving in the current military.

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With most active drafts, there are conditions which exempt people from compulsory service.

If a government introduced a military draft, it would also need to issue a classification programme specifying who would not need to serve.

The same programme would also define the various forms of service people might have to perform.

According to howstuffworks.com, people deemed fit to serve immediately in the US will receive an induction notice and classified as 1-A.

In the US, an induction notice would then come from the SSS.

If people deemed 1-A have good reason not to serve, they have 10 days to file a reclassification claim.

To do so successfully, they must fall within one of several outlined groups.

According to the SSS, the following groups are exempt from service:

- High school students: Younger than 20 and in full-time education

- College students: Seniors may postpone for a year, freshman, sophomore and juniors until the end of the semester

- Religious ministers: Must be practising

- Ministerial students: Full-time students working to become an ordained minister

- Armed forces members on active duty

- Men with dependents: Men with dependents can defer the draft if it would cause hardship for those they look after

- Government officials: Judges and elected officials are deferred

- Non-citizens and dual nationals

- Conscientious objectors: Those strongly against war for moral or religious reasons

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