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World War III – Wikipedia

World War III (WWIII or WW3) and the Third World War are names given to a hypothetical third worldwide large-scale military conflict subsequent to World War I and World War II. The term has been in use since at least as early as 1941. Some have applied it loosely to refer to limited or smaller conflicts such as the Cold War or the War on Terror, while others have operated under the assumption that such a conflict would surpass both prior World Wars in both the level of its widespread scope and of its overall destructive impact.[1]

Because of the development and use of nuclear weapons near the end of World War II and their subsequent acquisition and deployment by many countries, the potential risk of a nuclear devastation of Earth’s civilization and life is a common theme in speculations of a Third World War. Another major concern is that biological warfare could cause a very large number of casualties, either intentionally or inadvertently by an accidental release of a biological agent, the unexpected mutation of an agent, or its adaptation to other species after use. High-scale apocalyptic events like these, caused by advanced technology used for destruction, could potentially make Earth’s surface uninhabitable.

Prior to the beginning of the Second World War, the First World War (19141918) was believed to have been the “war to end all wars,” as it was popularly believed that never again could there possibly be a global conflict of such magnitude. During the inter-war period between the two World Wars, WWI was typically referred to simply as “The Great War”. The outbreak of World War II in 1939 disproved the hope that mankind might have already “outgrown” the need for such widespread global wars.

With the advent of the Cold War in 1945 and with the spread of nuclear weapons technology to the Soviet Union, the possibility of a third global conflict became more plausible. During the Cold War years the possibility of a Third World War was anticipated and planned for by military and civil authorities in many countries. Scenarios ranged from conventional warfare to limited or total nuclear warfare. At the height of the Cold War, a scenario referred to as Mutually Assured Destruction (“MAD”) had been calculated which determined that an all-out nuclear confrontation would most certainly destroy all or nearly all human life on the planet. The potential absolute destruction of the human race may have contributed to the ability of both American and Soviet leaders to avoid such a scenario.

The Cold War ended in 1991 when the Soviet Union dissolved, leaving the United States as the sole global superpower of the time. With the end of the Cold War, it was believed that the likelihood of a fully unrestricted nuclear confrontation between two superpowers was significantly diminished. However figures released by Google and published in 2017 reveal that the number of users searching the internet for various phases including “World War 3” and “Nuclear War” was at an all time high amid the election of US president Donald Trump and such ongoing flash points for potential superpower confrontation as the Syrian civil war.[2]

Time magazine was an early adopter if not originator of the “World War III.” Perhaps the first usage appears in its November 3, 1941, issue (preceding the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941) under its “National Affairs” section and entitled “World War III?” about Nazi refugee Dr. Hermann Rauschning, who had just arrived in the United States.[3] In its March 22, 1943, issue under its “Foreign News” section, Time reused the same title “World War III?” with regard to statements by then-U.S. Vice President Henry A. Wallace: “We shall decide some time in 1943 or 1944… whether to plant the seeds of World War III.”[4][5] Time continued to entitle with or mention in stories the term “World War III” for the rest of the decade (and onwards): 1944,[6][7] 1945,[8][9] 1946 (“bacterial warfare”),[10] 1947,[11] and 1948.[12] (Time persists in using this term, e.g., this 2015 book review, entitled “This Is What World War III Will Look Like.”[13])

Military planners have been war gaming various scenarios, preparing for the worst, since the early days of the Cold War. Some of those plans are now out of date and have been partially or fully declassified.[citation needed]

British Prime Minister Winston Churchill was concerned that, with the enormous size of Soviet forces deployed in Europe at the end of WWII and the unreliability of the Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, there was a serious threat to Western Europe. In AprilMay 1945, British Armed Forces developed Operation Unthinkable, thought to be the first scenario of the Third World War.[14] Its primary goal was “to impose upon Russia the will of the United States and the British Empire”.[15] The plan was rejected by the British Chiefs of Staff Committee as militarily unfeasible.

“Operation Dropshot” was the 1950s United States contingency plan for a possible nuclear and conventional war with the Soviet Union in the Western European and Asian theaters.

At the time the US nuclear arsenal was limited in size, based mostly in the United States, and depended on bombers for delivery. “Dropshot” included mission profiles that would have used 300 nuclear bombs and 29,000 high-explosive bombs on 200 targets in 100 cities and towns to wipe out 85% of the Soviet Union’s industrial potential at a single stroke. Between 75 and 100 of the 300 nuclear weapons were targeted to destroy Soviet combat aircraft on the ground.

The scenario was devised prior to the development of intercontinental ballistic missiles. It was also devised before U.S. President John F. Kennedy and his Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara changed the US Nuclear War plan from the ‘city killing’ countervalue strike plan to a “counterforce” plan (targeted more at military forces). Nuclear weapons at this time were not accurate enough to hit a naval base without destroying the city adjacent to it, so the aim in using them was to destroy the enemy industrial capacity in an effort to cripple their war economy.

In January 1950, the North Atlantic Council approved NATO’s military strategy of containment.[16] NATO military planning took on a renewed urgency following the outbreak of the Korean War in the early 1950s, prompting NATO to establish a “force under a centralised command, adequate to deter aggression and to ensure the defence of Western Europe”. Allied Command Europe was established under General of the Army Dwight D. Eisenhower, US Army, on 2 April 1951.[17][18] The Western Union Defence Organization had previously carried out Exercise Verity, a 1949 multilateral exercise involving naval air strikes and submarine attacks.

Exercise Mainbrace brought together 200 ships and over 50,000 personnel to practice the defence of Denmark and Norway from Russian attack in 1952. It was the first major NATO exercise. The exercise was jointly commanded by Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic Admiral Lynde D. McCormick, USN, and Supreme Allied Commander Europe General Matthew B. Ridgeway, US Army, during the autumn of 1952.

The US, UK, Canada, France, Denmark, Norway, Portugal, Netherlands, and Belgium all participated.

Exercises Grand Slam and Longstep were naval exercises held in the Mediterranean Sea during 1952 to practice dislodging an enemy occupying force and amphibious assault. It involved over 170 warships and 700 aircraft under the overall command of Admiral Carney. The overall exercise commander, Admiral Carney summarized the accomplishments of Exercise Grand Slam by stating: “We have demonstrated that the senior commanders of all four powers can successfully take charge of a mixed task force and handle it effectively as a working unit.”[citation needed]

The USSR called the exercises “war-like acts” by NATO, with particular reference to the participation of Norway and Denmark, and prepared for its own military maneuvers in the Soviet Zone.[19][20]

This was a major NATO naval exercise held in 1957, simulating a response to an all-out Soviet attack on NATO. The exercise involved over 200 warships, 650 aircraft, and 75,000 personnel from the United States Navy, the United Kingdom’s Royal Navy, the Royal Canadian Navy, the French Navy, the Royal Netherlands Navy, and the Royal Norwegian Navy. As the largest peacetime naval operation up to that time, Operation Strikeback was characterized by military analyst Hanson W. Baldwin of The New York Times as “constituting the strongest striking fleet assembled since World War II”.[21]

Exercise Reforger (from return of forces to Germany) was an annual exercise conducted, during the Cold War, by NATO. The exercise was intended to ensure that NATO had the ability to quickly deploy forces to West Germany in the event of a conflict with the Warsaw Pact.The Warsaw Pact outnumbered NATO throughout the Cold War in conventional forces, especially armor. Therefore, in the event of a Soviet invasion, in order not to resort to tactical nuclear strikes, NATO forces holding the line against a Warsaw Pact armored spearhead would have to be quickly resupplied and replaced. Most of this support would have come across the Atlantic from the US and Canada.

Reforger was not merely a show of forcein the event of a conflict, it would be the actual plan to strengthen the NATO presence in Europe. In that instance, it would have been referred to as Operation Reforger. Important components in Reforger included the Military Airlift Command, the Military Sealift Command, and the Civil Reserve Air Fleet.

Seven Days to the River Rhine was a top secret military simulation exercise developed in 1979 by the Warsaw Pact. It started with the assumption that NATO would launch a nuclear attack on the Vistula river valley in a first-strike scenario, which would result in as many as two million Polish civilian casualties.[22] In response, a Soviet counter-strike would be carried out against West Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands and Denmark, with Warsaw Pact forces invading West Germany and aiming to stop at the River Rhine by the seventh day. Other USSR plans stopped only upon reaching the French border on day nine. Individual Warsaw Pact states were only assigned their own subpart of the strategic picture; in this case, the Polish forces were only expected to go as far as Germany. The Seven Days to the Rhine plan envisioned that Poland and Germany would be largely destroyed by nuclear exchanges, and that large numbers of troops would die of radiation sickness. It was estimated that NATO would fire nuclear weapons behind the advancing Soviet lines to cut off their supply lines and thus blunt their advance. While this plan assumed that NATO would use nuclear weapons to push back any Warsaw Pact invasion, it did not include nuclear strikes on France or the United Kingdom. Newspapers speculated when this plan was declassified, that France and the UK were not to be hit in an effort to get them to withhold use of their own nuclear weapons.

Exercise Able Archer was an annual exercise by the United States military in Europe that practiced command and control procedures, with emphasis on transition from solely conventional operations to chemical, nuclear, and conventional operations during a time of war.

“Able Archer 83” was a five-day North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) command post exercise starting on 7 November 1983, that spanned Western Europe, centered on the Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE) Headquarters in Casteau, north of the city of Mons. Able Archer exercises simulated a period of conflict escalation, culminating in a coordinated nuclear attack.[23]

The realistic nature of the 1983 exercise, coupled with deteriorating relations between the United States and the Soviet Union and the anticipated arrival of strategic Pershing II nuclear missiles in Europe, led some members of the Soviet Politburo and military to believe that Able Archer 83 was a ruse of war, obscuring preparations for a genuine nuclear first strike.[23][24][25][26] In response, the Soviets readied their nuclear forces and placed air units in East Germany and Poland on alert.[27][28]This “1983 war scare” is considered by many historians to be the closest the world has come to nuclear war since the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962.[29] The threat of nuclear war ended with the conclusion of the exercise on 11 November, however.[30][31]

The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was proposed by U.S. President Ronald Reagan on 23 March 1983.[32] In the later part of his presidency, numerous factors (which included watching the 1983 movie The Day After and hearing through a Soviet defector that Able Archer 83 almost triggered a Russian first strike) had turned Ronald Reagan against the concept of winnable nuclear war, and he began to see nuclear weapons as more of a “wild card” than a strategic deterrent. Although he later believed in disarmament treaties slowly blunting the danger of nuclear weaponry by reducing their number and alert status, he also believed a technological solution might allow incoming ICBMs to be shot down, thus making the US invulnerable to a first strike. However the USSR saw the SDI concept as a major threat, since unilateral deployment of the system would allow the US to launch a massive first strike on the Soviet Union without any fear of retaliation.

The SDI concept was to use ground-based and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles. The initiative focused on strategic defense rather than the prior strategic offense doctrine of Mutual Assured Destruction (MAD). The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) was set up in 1984 within the United States Department of Defense to oversee the Strategic Defense Initiative.

NATO operational plans for a Third World War have involved NATO allies who do not have their own nuclear weapons, using nuclear weapons supplied by the United States as part of a general NATO war plan, under the direction of NATO’s Supreme Allied Commander.

Of the three nuclear powers in NATO (France, the United Kingdom and the United States), only the United States has provided weapons for nuclear sharing. As of November2009[update], Belgium, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and Turkey are still hosting US nuclear weapons as part of NATO’s nuclear sharing policy.[33][34] Canada hosted weapons until 1984,[35] and Greece until 2001.[33][36] The United Kingdom also received US tactical nuclear weapons such as nuclear artillery and Lance missiles until 1992, despite the UK being a nuclear weapons state in its own right; these were mainly deployed in Germany.

In peace time, the nuclear weapons stored in non-nuclear countries are guarded by US airmen though previously some artillery and missile systems were guarded by US Army soldiers; the codes required for detonating them are under American control. In case of war, the weapons are to be mounted on the participating countries’ warplanes. The weapons are under custody and control of USAF Munitions Support Squadrons co-located on NATO main operating bases who work together with the host nation forces.[33]

As of 2005[update], 180 tactical B61 nuclear bombs of the 480 US nuclear weapons believed to be deployed in Europe fall under the nuclear sharing arrangement.[37] The weapons are stored within a vault in hardened aircraft shelters, using the USAF WS3 Weapon Storage and Security System. The delivery warplanes used are F-16s and Panavia Tornados.[38]

With the initiation of the Cold War arms race in the 1950s, an apocalyptic war between the United States and the Soviet Union became a real possibility. During the Cold War era (19471991), a number of military events have been described as having come quite close to potentially triggering World War III.

The Korean War was a war between two coalitions fighting for control over the Korean Peninsula: a communist coalition including North Korea, China and the USSR, and a capitalist coalition including South Korea, the United States, and the UN. Many then believed that the conflict was likely to soon escalate into a full-scale war between the three countries, the US, the USSR, and China. CBS war correspondent Bill Downs wrote in 1951 that, “To my mind, the answer is: Yes, Korea is the beginning of World War III. The brilliant landings at Inchon and the cooperative efforts of the American armed forces with the United Nations Allies have won us a victory in Korea. But this is only the first battle in a major international struggle which now is engulfing the Far East and the entire world.”[39] Downs afterwards repeated this belief on ABC Evening News while reporting on the USS Pueblo incident in 1968.[40]

The Cuban Missile Crisis: a confrontation on the stationing of Soviet nuclear missiles in Cuba, in response to the failed Bay of Pigs Invasion, is considered as having been the closest to a nuclear exchange, which could have precipitated a Third World War. The crisis peaked on 27 October, with three separate major incidents occurring on the same day, all of these incidents having been initiated by the US military.

Despite what many believe to be the closest the world has come to a nuclear conflict, throughout the entire standoff, the Doomsday Clock, which is run by the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists to estimate how close the end of the world, or doomsday, is, with midnight being the apocalypse, stayed at a relatively stable seven minutes to midnight. This has been explained as being due to the brevity of the crisis, since the clock monitored more long term factors such as leadership of countries, conflicts, wars, and political upheavals, as well as societies reactions to said factors.

The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists now credits the political developments resulting from the Cuban Missile Crisis with having actually enhanced global stability. The Bulletin posits that future crises and occasions that might otherwise escalate, were rendered as more stable due to two major factors:

The Yom Kippur War, also known as the Ramadan War, or October War, began with Arab victories. Israel successfully counterattacked. Tensions grew between the US (which supported Israel) and the Soviet Union (which sided with the Arab states). American and Soviet naval forces came close to firing upon each other. Admiral Murphy of the US reckoned the chances of the Soviet squadron attempting a first strike against his fleet at 40 percent. The Pentagon moved Defcon status from 4 to 3.[42] The superpowers had been pushed to the brink of war, but tensions eased with the ceasefire brought in under UNSC 339.[43][44]

The United States made emergency retaliation preparations after NORAD saw on-screen indications that a full-scale Soviet attack had been launched.[45] No attempt was made to use the “red telephone” hotline to clarify the situation with the USSR and it was not until early-warning radar systems confirmed no such launch had taken place that NORAD realized that a computer system test had caused the display errors. A senator inside the NORAD facility at the time described an atmosphere of absolute panic. A GAO investigation led to the construction of an off-site test facility to prevent similar mistakes.[46]

A false alarm occurred on the Soviet nuclear early warning system, showing the launch of American Minuteman ICBMs from bases in the United States. A retaliatory attack was prevented by Stanislav Petrov, an officer of the Soviet Air Defence Forces, who realised the system had simply malfunctioned (which was borne out by later investigations).[47][48]

During Able Archer 83, a ten-day NATO exercise simulating a period of conflict escalation that culminated in a DEFCON 1 nuclear strike, some members of the Soviet Politburo and armed forces treated the events as a ruse of war concealing a genuine first strike. In response, the military prepared for a coordinated counter-attack by readying nuclear forces and placing air units stationed in the Warsaw Pact states of East Germany and Poland under high alert. However, the state of Soviet preparation for retaliation ceased upon completion of the Able Archer exercises.[23]

The Norwegian rocket incident is the only World War III close call to occur outside the Cold War. This incident occurred when Russia’s Olenegorsk early warning station accidentally mistook the radar signature from a Black Brant XII research rocket (being jointly launched by Norwegian and US scientists from Andya Rocket Range), as appearing to be the radar signature of the launch of a Trident SLBM missile. In response, Russian President Boris Yeltsin was summoned and the Cheget nuclear briefcase was activated for the first and only time. However, the high command was soon able to determine that the rocket was not entering Russian airspace, and promptly aborted plans for combat readiness and retaliation. It was retrospectively determined that, while the rocket scientists had informed thirty states including Russia about the test launch, the information had not reached Russian radar technicians.[49][50]

In 2004, neoconservative commentator Norman Podhoretz proposed that the Cold War might rightly be called World War III.[51] In 2006 on CNBC’s Kudlow and Company, host Lawrence Kudlow, discussing a book by former deputy Under-Secretary of Defense Jed Babbin, agreed with Podhoretz, adding, “World War IV is the terror war, and war with China would be World War V.”[52]

Still the majority of historians would seem to hold that World War III would necessarily have to be a worldwide “war in which large forces from many countries fought” [53] and a war that “involves most of the principal nations of the world.” [54] In his book Secret Weapons of the Cold War, Bill Yenne explains that the military standoff that occurred between the two ‘Superpowers’, namely the United States and the Soviet Union, from the 1940s through to 1991, was only the Cold War, which ultimately helped to enable mankind to avert the possibility of an all out nuclear confrontation, and that it certainly was not World War III itself.[55]

The so-called “War on Terror” that began with the September 11 attacks has been claimed by some to be World War III[56][57] or sometimes as World War IV.[58] Others have disparaged such claims as “distorting American history.” While there is general agreement amongst historians regarding the definitions and extent of the first two World Wars, namely due to the unmistakable global scale of aggression and self-destruction of these two wars, a few have claimed that a “World War” might now no longer require such worldwide and large scale aggression and carnage. Still, such claims of a new “lower threshold of aggression,” that might now be sufficient to qualify a war as a “World War” have not gained such widespread acceptance and support as the definitions of the first two World Wars have received amongst historians.[59]

On 1 February 2015, Iraqi Foreign Minister Ibrahim al-Jaafari declared that the War on ISIL was effectively “World War III”, due to ISIL’ declaration of a Worldwide Caliphate, its aims to conquer the world, and its success in spreading the conflict to multiple countries outside of the Levant region.[60] In response to the November 2015 Paris attacks, King of Jordan Abdullah II said “We are facing a Third World War [within Islam].[61]

In his State of the Union Address on 12 January 2016, U.S. President Barack Obama warned that news reports granting ISIL the supposed ability to foment WW III might be excessive and irresponsible, stating that, “as we focus on destroying ISIL, over-the-top claims that this is World War III just play into their hands. Masses of fighters on the back of pickup trucks and twisted souls plotting in apartments or garages pose an enormous danger to civilians and must be stopped. But they do not threaten our national existence.”[62]

In multiple recorded interviews under somewhat casual circumstances, comparing the conflagrations of World Wars I and II to the ongoing lower intensity wars of the 21st century, Pope Francis has said, “The world is at war, because it has lost peace,” and “perhaps one can speak of a third war, one fought piecemeal.”[63][64]

In 1949, after the unleashing of nuclear weaponry at the end of WWII, physicist Albert Einstein suggested that any outcome of a possible WWIII would be so dire as to revert mankind back to the Stone Age. When asked by journalist Alfred Werner, what types of weapons Einstein believed World War III might be fought with, Einstein warned, “I know not with what weapons World War III will be fought, but World War IV will be fought with sticks and stones”.[65] It can be inferred here that Einstein assumed that World War III would either exterminate, or else nearly exterminate the human race (presumably due to nuclear warfare).[1][verification needed]

In his book Destined for War, Graham Allison views the global rivalry between the established power, US, and the rising power, China, as an example of the Thucydides Trap. Past examples have often led to war, and in this case World War Three is possible but not inevitable.[66]

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Mankind still recovering from WW3, goes to war against a hostile alien race. SC story.

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The SC video that started it all. The spark that started WW3, the invasion of Taiwan.

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World War III – Wikipedia

World War III (WWIII or WW3) and the Third World War are names given to a hypothetical third worldwide large-scale military conflict subsequent to World War I and World War II. The term has been in use since at least as early as 1941. Some have applied it loosely to refer to limited or smaller conflicts such as the Cold War or the War on Terror, while others have operated under the assumption that such a conflict would surpass both prior World Wars in both the level of its widespread scope and of its overall destructive impact.[1]

Because of the development and use of nuclear weapons near the end of World War II and their subsequent acquisition and deployment by many countries, the potential risk of a nuclear devastation of Earth’s civilization and life is a common theme in speculations of a Third World War. Another major concern is that biological warfare could cause a very large number of casualties, either intentionally or inadvertently by an accidental release of a biological agent, the unexpected mutation of an agent, or its adaptation to other species after use. High-scale apocalyptic events like these, caused by advanced technology used for destruction, could potentially make Earth’s surface uninhabitable.

Prior to the beginning of the Second World War, the First World War (19141918) was believed to have been the “war to end all wars,” as it was popularly believed that never again could there possibly be a global conflict of such magnitude. During the inter-war period between the two World Wars, WWI was typically referred to simply as “The Great War”. The outbreak of World War II in 1939 disproved the hope that mankind might have already “outgrown” the need for such widespread global wars.

With the advent of the Cold War in 1945 and with the spread of nuclear weapons technology to the Soviet Union, the possibility of a third global conflict became more plausible. During the Cold War years the possibility of a Third World War was anticipated and planned for by military and civil authorities in many countries. Scenarios ranged from conventional warfare to limited or total nuclear warfare. At the height of the Cold War, a scenario referred to as Mutually Assured Destruction (“MAD”) had been calculated which determined that an all-out nuclear confrontation would most certainly destroy all or nearly all human life on the planet. The potential absolute destruction of the human race may have contributed to the ability of both American and Soviet leaders to avoid such a scenario.

The Cold War ended in 1991 when the Soviet Union dissolved, leaving the United States as the sole global superpower of the time. With the end of the Cold War, it was believed that the likelihood of a fully unrestricted nuclear confrontation between two superpowers was significantly diminished. However figures released by Google and published in 2017 reveal that the number of users searching the internet for various phases including “World War 3” and Nuclear War was at an all time high amid the election of US president Donald Trump and such ongoing flash points for potential superpower confrontation as the Syrian civil war.[2]

Time magazine was an early adopter if not originator of the “World War III.” Perhaps the first usage appears in its November 3, 1941, issue (preceding the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941) under its “National Affairs” section and entitled “World War III?” about Nazi refugee Dr. Hermann Rauschning, who had just arrived in the United States.[3] In its March 22, 1943, issue under its “Foreign News” section, Time reused the same title “World War III?” with regard to statements by then-U.S. Vice President Henry A. Wallace: “We shall decide some time in 1943 or 1944… whether to plant the seeds of World War III.”[4][5] Time continued to entitle with or mention in stories the term “World War III” for the rest of the decade (and onwards): 1944,[6][7] 1945,[8][9] 1946 (“bacterial warfare”),[10] 1947,[11] and 1948.[12] (Time persists in using this term, e.g., this 2015 book review, entitled “This Is What World War III Will Look Like.”[13])

Military planners have been war gaming various scenarios, preparing for the worst, since the early days of the Cold War. Some of those plans are now out of date and have been partially or fully declassified.[citation needed]

British Prime Minister Winston Churchill was concerned that, with the enormous size of Soviet forces deployed in Europe at the end of WWII and the unreliability of the Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, there was a serious threat to Western Europe. In AprilMay 1945, British Armed Forces developed Operation Unthinkable, thought to be the first scenario of the Third World War.[14] Its primary goal was “to impose upon Russia the will of the United States and the British Empire”.[15] The plan was rejected by the British Chiefs of Staff Committee as militarily unfeasible.

“Operation Dropshot” was the 1950s United States contingency plan for a possible nuclear and conventional war with the Soviet Union in the Western European and Asian theaters.

At the time the US nuclear arsenal was limited in size, based mostly in the United States, and depended on bombers for delivery. “Dropshot” included mission profiles that would have used 300 nuclear bombs and 29,000 high-explosive bombs on 200 targets in 100 cities and towns to wipe out 85% of the Soviet Union’s industrial potential at a single stroke. Between 75 and 100 of the 300 nuclear weapons were targeted to destroy Soviet combat aircraft on the ground.

The scenario was devised prior to the development of intercontinental ballistic missiles. It was also devised before U.S. President John F. Kennedy and his Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara changed the US Nuclear War plan from the ‘city killing’ countervalue strike plan to a “counterforce” plan (targeted more at military forces). Nuclear weapons at this time were not accurate enough to hit a naval base without destroying the city adjacent to it, so the aim in using them was to destroy the enemy industrial capacity in an effort to cripple their war economy.

In January 1950, the North Atlantic Council approved NATO’s military strategy of containment.[16] NATO military planning took on a renewed urgency following the outbreak of the Korean War in the early 1950s, prompting NATO to establish a “force under a centralised command, adequate to deter aggression and to ensure the defence of Western Europe”. Allied Command Europe was established under General of the Army Dwight D. Eisenhower, US Army, on 2 April 1951.[17][18] The Western Union Defence Organization had previously carried out Exercise Verity, a 1949 multilateral exercise involving naval air strikes and submarine attacks.

Exercise Mainbrace brought together 200 ships and over 50,000 personnel to practice the defence of Denmark and Norway from Russian attack in 1952. It was the first major NATO exercise. The exercise was jointly commanded by Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic Admiral Lynde D. McCormick, USN, and Supreme Allied Commander Europe General Matthew B. Ridgeway, US Army, during the autumn of 1952.

The US, UK, Canada, France, Denmark, Norway, Portugal, Netherlands, and Belgium all participated.

Exercises Grand Slam and Longstep were naval exercises held in the Mediterranean Sea during 1952 to practice dislodging an enemy occupying force and amphibious assault. It involved over 170 warships and 700 aircraft under the overall command of Admiral Carney. The overall exercise commander, Admiral Carney summarized the accomplishments of Exercise Grand Slam by stating: “We have demonstrated that the senior commanders of all four powers can successfully take charge of a mixed task force and handle it effectively as a working unit.”[citation needed]

The USSR called the exercises “war-like acts” by NATO, with particular reference to the participation of Norway and Denmark, and prepared for its own military maneuvers in the Soviet Zone.[19][20]

This was a major NATO naval exercise held in 1957, simulating a response to an all-out Soviet attack on NATO. The exercise involved over 200 warships, 650 aircraft, and 75,000 personnel from the United States Navy, the United Kingdom’s Royal Navy, the Royal Canadian Navy, the French Navy, the Royal Netherlands Navy, and the Royal Norwegian Navy. As the largest peacetime naval operation up to that time, Operation Strikeback was characterized by military analyst Hanson W. Baldwin of The New York Times as “constituting the strongest striking fleet assembled since World War II”.[21]

Exercise Reforger (from return of forces to Germany) was an annual exercise conducted, during the Cold War, by NATO. The exercise was intended to ensure that NATO had the ability to quickly deploy forces to West Germany in the event of a conflict with the Warsaw Pact.The Warsaw Pact outnumbered NATO throughout the Cold War in conventional forces, especially armor. Therefore, in the event of a Soviet invasion, in order not to resort to tactical nuclear strikes, NATO forces holding the line against a Warsaw Pact armored spearhead would have to be quickly resupplied and replaced. Most of this support would have come across the Atlantic from the US and Canada.

Reforger was not merely a show of forcein the event of a conflict, it would be the actual plan to strengthen the NATO presence in Europe. In that instance, it would have been referred to as Operation Reforger. Important components in Reforger included the Military Airlift Command, the Military Sealift Command, and the Civil Reserve Air Fleet.

Seven Days to the River Rhine was a top secret military simulation exercise developed in 1979 by the Warsaw Pact. It started with the assumption that NATO would launch a nuclear attack on the Vistula river valley in a first-strike scenario, which would result in as many as two million Polish civilian casualties.[22] In response, a Soviet counter-strike would be carried out against West Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands and Denmark, with Warsaw Pact forces invading West Germany and aiming to stop at the River Rhine by the seventh day. Other USSR plans stopped only upon reaching the French border on day nine. Individual Warsaw Pact states were only assigned their own subpart of the strategic picture; in this case, the Polish forces were only expected to go as far as Germany. The Seven Days to the Rhine plan envisioned that Poland and Germany would be largely destroyed by nuclear exchanges, and that large numbers of troops would die of radiation sickness. It was estimated that NATO would fire nuclear weapons behind the advancing Soviet lines to cut off their supply lines and thus blunt their advance. While this plan assumed that NATO would use nuclear weapons to push back any Warsaw Pact invasion, it did not include nuclear strikes on France or the United Kingdom. Newspapers speculated when this plan was declassified, that France and the UK were not to be hit in an effort to get them to withhold use of their own nuclear weapons.

Exercise Able Archer was an annual exercise by the United States military in Europe that practiced command and control procedures, with emphasis on transition from solely conventional operations to chemical, nuclear, and conventional operations during a time of war.

“Able Archer 83” was a five-day North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) command post exercise starting on 7 November 1983, that spanned Western Europe, centered on the Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE) Headquarters in Casteau, north of the city of Mons. Able Archer exercises simulated a period of conflict escalation, culminating in a coordinated nuclear attack.[23]

The realistic nature of the 1983 exercise, coupled with deteriorating relations between the United States and the Soviet Union and the anticipated arrival of strategic Pershing II nuclear missiles in Europe, led some members of the Soviet Politburo and military to believe that Able Archer 83 was a ruse of war, obscuring preparations for a genuine nuclear first strike.[23][24][25][26] In response, the Soviets readied their nuclear forces and placed air units in East Germany and Poland on alert.[27][28]This “1983 war scare” is considered by many historians to be the closest the world has come to nuclear war since the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962.[29] The threat of nuclear war ended with the conclusion of the exercise on 11 November, however.[30][31]

The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was proposed by U.S. President Ronald Reagan on 23 March 1983.[32] In the later part of his presidency, numerous factors (which included watching the 1983 movie The Day After and hearing through a Soviet defector that Able Archer 83 almost triggered a Russian first strike) had turned Ronald Reagan against the concept of winnable nuclear war, and he began to see nuclear weapons as more of a “wild card” than a strategic deterrent. Although he later believed in disarmament treaties slowly blunting the danger of nuclear weaponry by reducing their number and alert status, he also believed a technological solution might allow incoming ICBMs to be shot down, thus making the US invulnerable to a first strike. However the USSR saw the SDI concept as a major threat, since unilateral deployment of the system would allow the US to launch a massive first strike on the Soviet Union without any fear of retaliation.

The SDI concept was to use ground-based and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles. The initiative focused on strategic defense rather than the prior strategic offense doctrine of Mutual Assured Destruction (MAD). The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) was set up in 1984 within the United States Department of Defense to oversee the Strategic Defense Initiative.

NATO operational plans for a Third World War have involved NATO allies who do not have their own nuclear weapons, using nuclear weapons supplied by the United States as part of a general NATO war plan, under the direction of NATO’s Supreme Allied Commander.

Of the three nuclear powers in NATO (France, the United Kingdom and the United States), only the United States has provided weapons for nuclear sharing. As of November2009[update], Belgium, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and Turkey are still hosting US nuclear weapons as part of NATO’s nuclear sharing policy.[33][34] Canada hosted weapons until 1984,[35] and Greece until 2001.[33][36] The United Kingdom also received US tactical nuclear weapons such as nuclear artillery and Lance missiles until 1992, despite the UK being a nuclear weapons state in its own right; these were mainly deployed in Germany.

In peace time, the nuclear weapons stored in non-nuclear countries are guarded by US airmen though previously some artillery and missile systems were guarded by US Army soldiers; the codes required for detonating them are under American control. In case of war, the weapons are to be mounted on the participating countries’ warplanes. The weapons are under custody and control of USAF Munitions Support Squadrons co-located on NATO main operating bases who work together with the host nation forces.[33]

As of 2005[update], 180 tactical B61 nuclear bombs of the 480 US nuclear weapons believed to be deployed in Europe fall under the nuclear sharing arrangement.[37] The weapons are stored within a vault in hardened aircraft shelters, using the USAF WS3 Weapon Storage and Security System. The delivery warplanes used are F-16s and Panavia Tornados.[38]

With the initiation of the Cold War arms race in the 1950s, an apocalyptic war between the United States and the Soviet Union became a real possibility. During the Cold War era (19471991), a number of military events have been described as having come quite close to potentially triggering World War III.

The Korean War was a war between two coalitions fighting for control over the Korean Peninsula: a communist coalition including North Korea, China and the USSR, and a capitalist coalition including South Korea, the United States, and the UN. Many then believed that the conflict was likely to soon escalate into a full-scale war between the three countries, the US, the USSR, and China. CBS war correspondent Bill Downs wrote in 1951 that, “To my mind, the answer is: Yes, Korea is the beginning of World War III. The brilliant landings at Inchon and the cooperative efforts of the American armed forces with the United Nations Allies have won us a victory in Korea. But this is only the first battle in a major international struggle which now is engulfing the Far East and the entire world.”[39] Downs afterwards repeated this belief on ABC Evening News while reporting on the USS Pueblo incident in 1968.[40]

The Cuban Missile Crisis: a confrontation on the stationing of Soviet nuclear missiles in Cuba, in response to the failed Bay of Pigs Invasion, is considered as having been the closest to a nuclear exchange, which could have precipitated a Third World War. The crisis peaked on 27 October, with three separate major incidents occurring on the same day, all of these incidents having been initiated by the US military.

Despite what many believe to be the closest the world has come to a nuclear conflict, throughout the entire standoff, the Doomsday Clock, which is run by the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists to estimate how close the end of the world, or doomsday, is, with midnight being the apocalypse, stayed at a relatively stable seven minutes to midnight. This has been explained as being due to the brevity of the crisis, since the clock monitored more long term factors such as leadership of countries, conflicts, wars, and political upheavals, as well as societies reactions to said factors.

The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists now credits the political developments resulting from the Cuban Missile Crisis with having actually enhanced global stability. The Bulletin posits that future crises and occasions that might otherwise escalate, were rendered as more stable due to two major factors:

The Yom Kippur War, also known as the Ramadan War, or October War, began with Arab victories. Israel successfully counterattacked. Tensions grew between the US (which supported Israel) and the Soviet Union (which sided with the Arab states). American and Soviet naval forces came close to firing upon each other. Admiral Murphy of the US reckoned the chances of the Soviet squadron attempting a first strike against his fleet at 40 percent. The Pentagon moved Defcon status from 4 to 3.[42] The superpowers had been pushed to the brink of war, but tensions eased with the ceasefire brought in under UNSC 339.[43][44]

The United States made emergency retaliation preparations after NORAD saw on-screen indications that a full-scale Soviet attack had been launched.[45] No attempt was made to use the “red telephone” hotline to clarify the situation with the USSR and it was not until early-warning radar systems confirmed no such launch had taken place that NORAD realized that a computer system test had caused the display errors. A senator inside the NORAD facility at the time described an atmosphere of absolute panic. A GAO investigation led to the construction of an off-site test facility to prevent similar mistakes.[46]

A false alarm occurred on the Soviet nuclear early warning system, showing the launch of American Minuteman ICBMs from bases in the United States. A retaliatory attack was prevented by Stanislav Petrov, an officer of the Soviet Air Defence Forces, who realised the system had simply malfunctioned (which was borne out by later investigations).[47][48]

During Able Archer 83, a ten-day NATO exercise simulating a period of conflict escalation that culminated in a DEFCON 1 nuclear strike, some members of the Soviet Politburo and armed forces treated the events as a ruse of war concealing a genuine first strike. In response, the military prepared for a coordinated counter-attack by readying nuclear forces and placing air units stationed in the Warsaw Pact states of East Germany and Poland under high alert. However, the state of Soviet preparation for retaliation ceased upon completion of the Able Archer exercises.[23]

The Norwegian rocket incident is the only World War III close call to occur outside the Cold War. This incident occurred when Russia’s Olenegorsk early warning station accidentally mistook the radar signature from a Black Brant XII research rocket (being jointly launched by Norwegian and US scientists from Andya Rocket Range), as appearing to be the radar signature of the launch of a Trident SLBM missile. In response, Russian President Boris Yeltsin was summoned and the Cheget nuclear briefcase was activated for the first and only time. However, the high command was soon able to determine that the rocket was not entering Russian airspace, and promptly aborted plans for combat readiness and retaliation. It was retrospectively determined that, while the rocket scientists had informed thirty states including Russia about the test launch, the information had not reached Russian radar technicians.[49][50]

In 2004, neoconservative commentator Norman Podhoretz proposed that the Cold War might rightly be called World War III.[51] In 2006 on CNBC’s Kudlow and Company, host Lawrence Kudlow, discussing a book by former deputy Under-Secretary of Defense Jed Babbin, agreed with Podhoretz, adding, “World War IV is the terror war, and war with China would be World War V.”[52]

Still the majority of historians would seem to hold that World War III would necessarily have to be a worldwide “war in which large forces from many countries fought” [53] and a war that “involves most of the principal nations of the world.” [54] In his book Secret Weapons of the Cold War, Bill Yenne explains that the military standoff that occurred between the two ‘Superpowers’, namely the United States and the Soviet Union, from the 1940s through to 1991, was only the Cold War, which ultimately helped to enable mankind to avert the possibility of an all out nuclear confrontation, and that it certainly was not World War III itself.[55]

The so-called “War on Terror” that began with the September 11 attacks has been claimed by some to be World War III[56][57] or sometimes as World War IV.[58] Others have disparaged such claims as “distorting American history.” While there is general agreement amongst historians regarding the definitions and extent of the first two World Wars, namely due to the unmistakable global scale of aggression and self-destruction of these two wars, a few have claimed that a “World War” might now no longer require such worldwide and large scale aggression and carnage. Still, such claims of a new “lower threshold of aggression,” that might now be sufficient to qualify a war as a “World War” have not gained such widespread acceptance and support as the definitions of the first two World Wars have received amongst historians.[59]

On 1 February 2015, Iraqi Foreign Minister Ibrahim al-Jaafari declared that the War on ISIL was effectively “World War III”, due to ISIL’ declaration of a Worldwide Caliphate, its aims to conquer the world, and its success in spreading the conflict to multiple countries outside of the Levant region.[60] In response to the November 2015 Paris attacks, King of Jordan Abdullah II said “We are facing a Third World War [within Islam].[61]

In his State of the Union Address on 12 January 2016, U.S. President Barack Obama warned that news reports granting ISIL the supposed ability to foment WW III might be excessive and irresponsible, stating that, “as we focus on destroying ISIL, over-the-top claims that this is World War III just play into their hands. Masses of fighters on the back of pickup trucks and twisted souls plotting in apartments or garages pose an enormous danger to civilians and must be stopped. But they do not threaten our national existence.”[62]

In multiple recorded interviews under somewhat casual circumstances, comparing the conflagrations of World Wars I and II to the ongoing lower intensity wars of the 21st century, Pope Francis has said, “The world is at war, because it has lost peace,” and “perhaps one can speak of a third war, one fought piecemeal.”[63][64]

In 1949, after the unleashing of nuclear weaponry at the end of WWII, physicist Albert Einstein suggested that any outcome of a possible WWIII would be so dire as to revert mankind back to the Stone Age. When asked by journalist Alfred Werner, what types of weapons Einstein believed World War III might be fought with, Einstein warned, “I know not with what weapons World War III will be fought, but World War IV will be fought with sticks and stones”.[65] It can be inferred here that Einstein assumed that World War III would either exterminate, or else nearly exterminate the human race (presumably due to nuclear warfare).[1][verification needed]

In his book Destined for War, Graham Allison views the global rivalry between the established power, US, and the rising power, China, as an example of the Thucydides Trap. Past examples have often led to war, and in this case World War Three is possible but not inevitable.[66]

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World War III – Wikipedia

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They Bleed Like Us

Mankind still recovering from WW3, goes to war against a hostile alien race. SC story.

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Chillingly accurate 200-year-old letter predicts WW3 and …

Albert Pike, who was a captain for the US army during the American Civil War, is said to have written a doctrine to an Italian politician outlining plans for the trio global conflicts.

The letter plots how and why the first and second world wars broke out in the 1900s and provides an even more chilling prophecy over a third and final battle.

The document allegedly suggested World War One was planned to overthrow the Tsars in Russia and make the country a communist stronghold.

The Second World War was sparked as a catalyst to destroy Nazism, according to the letter, so communism could take over wearier governments and for a sovereign state of Israel to be set up in Palestine.

A third world war, according to Mr Pike, will be fought against the West and leaders of the Islamic war.

Mr Pike warned the third war would be “the most bloody turmoil”.

The document, revealed by the Daily Star, features heavily in the book Satan, Prince of this World, by former naval officer William Guy Carr.

Mr Pike is said to have written, according to Mr Carr’s book: “The First World War must be brought about in order to permit the Illuminati to overthrow the power of the Tsars in Russia and of making that country a fortress of atheistic Communism.”

It was reportedly sent by Pike, a freemason, to Italian politician Giuseppe Mazzini and was dated August 15, 1871.

The letter allegedly said: “The Third World War must be fomented by taking advantage of the differences caused by the ‘agentur’ of the ‘Illuminati’ between the political Zionists and the leaders of Islamic World.

“The war must be conducted in such a way that Islam (the Moslem Arabic World) and political Zionism (the State of Israel) mutually destroy each other.

“Meanwhile the other nations, once more divided on this issue will be constrained to fight to the point of complete physical, moral, spiritual and economical exhaustion.

“We shall unleash the Nihilists and the atheists, and we shall provoke a formidable social cataclysm which in all its horror will show clearly to the nations the effect of absolute atheism, origin of savagery and of the most bloody turmoil.”

It was originally claimed the text was on show at the British Museum’s Library and was mysteriously taken down in the 1970s and never seen again.

Both the British Museum and the British Library confirmed there is no record of the letter being in the establishment’s possession.

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Chillingly accurate 200-year-old letter predicts WW3 and …

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World War III – Wikipedia

World War III (WWIII or WW3) and the Third World War are names given to a hypothetical third worldwide large-scale military conflict subsequent to World War I and World War II. The term has been in use since at least as early as 1941. Some have applied it loosely to refer to limited or smaller conflicts such as the Cold War or the War on Terror, while others have operated under the assumption that such a conflict would surpass both prior World Wars in both the level of its widespread scope and of its overall destructive impact.[1]

Because of the development and use of nuclear weapons near the end of World War II and their subsequent acquisition and deployment by many countries, the potential risk of a nuclear devastation of Earth’s civilization and life is a common theme in speculations of a Third World War. Another major concern is that biological warfare could cause a very large number of casualties, either intentionally or inadvertently by an accidental release of a biological agent, the unexpected mutation of an agent, or its adaptation to other species after use. High-scale apocalyptic events like these, caused by advanced technology used for destruction, could potentially make Earth’s surface uninhabitable.

Prior to the beginning of the Second World War, the First World War (19141918) was believed to have been the “war to end all wars,” as it was popularly believed that never again could there possibly be a global conflict of such magnitude. During the inter-war period between the two World Wars, WWI was typically referred to simply as “The Great War”. The outbreak of World War II in 1939 disproved the hope that mankind might have already “outgrown” the need for such widespread global wars.

With the advent of the Cold War in 1947 and with the spread of nuclear weapons technology to the Soviet Union, the possibility of a third global conflict became more plausible. During the Cold War years the possibility of a Third World War was anticipated and planned for by military and civil authorities in many countries. Scenarios ranged from conventional warfare to limited or total nuclear warfare. At the height of the Cold War, a scenario referred to as Mutually Assured Destruction (“MAD”) had been calculated which determined that an all-out nuclear confrontation would most certainly destroy all or nearly all human life on the planet. The spectre of the potential of the absolute destruction of the human race may have contributed to the ability of both American and Soviet leaders to avoid such a scenario.

The Cold War ended in 1991 when the Soviet Union dissolved, leaving the United States as the sole global superpower of the time. With the end of the Cold War, it was believed that the likelihood of a fully unrestricted nuclear confrontation between two superpowers was significantly diminished.

Contents

Time magazine was an early adopter if not originator of the “World War III.” Perhaps the first usage appears in its November 3, 1941, issue (preceding the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941) under its “National Affairs” section and entitled “World War III?” about Nazi refugee Dr. Hermann Rauschning, who had just arrived in the United States.[2] In its March 22, 1943, issue under its “Foreign News” section, Time reused the same title “World War III?” with regard to statements by then-Vice President Henry A. Wallace: “We shall decide some time in 1943 or 1944… whether to plant the seeds of World War III.”[3][4] Time continued to entitle with or mention in stories the term “World War III” for the rest of the decade (and onwards): 1944,[5][6] 1945,[7][8] 1946 (“bacterial warfare”),[9] 1947,[10] and 1948.[11] (Time persists in using this term, e.g., this 2015 book review, entitled “This Is What World War III Will Look Like.”[12])

Military planners have been war gaming various scenarios, preparing for the worst, since the early days of the Cold War. Some of those plans are now out of date and have been partially or fully declassified.[citation needed]

British Prime Minister Winston Churchill was concerned that, with the enormous size of Soviet forces deployed in Europe at the end of WWII and the unreliability of the Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, there was a serious threat to Western Europe. In AprilMay 1945, British Armed Forces developed Operation Unthinkable, thought to be the first scenario of the Third World War.[13] Its primary goal was “to impose upon Russia the will of the United States and the British Empire”.[14] The plan was rejected by the British Chiefs of Staff Committee as militarily unfeasible.

“Operation Dropshot” was the 1950s United States contingency plan for a possible nuclear and conventional war with the Soviet Union in the Western European and Asian theaters.

At the time the US nuclear arsenal was limited in size, based mostly in the United States, and depended on bombers for delivery. “Dropshot” included mission profiles that would have used 300 nuclear bombs and 29,000 high-explosive bombs on 200 targets in 100 cities and towns to wipe out 85% of the Soviet Union’s industrial potential at a single stroke. Between 75 and 100 of the 300 nuclear weapons were targeted to destroy Soviet combat aircraft on the ground.

The scenario was devised prior to the development of intercontinental ballistic missiles. It was also devised before President John F. Kennedy and his Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara changed the US Nuclear War plan from the ‘city killing’ countervalue strike plan to a “counterforce” plan (targeted more at military forces). Nuclear weapons at this time were not accurate enough to hit a naval base without destroying the city adjacent to it, so the aim in using them was to destroy the enemy industrial capacity in an effort to cripple their war economy.

In January 1950, the North Atlantic Council approved NATO’s military strategy of containment.[15] NATO military planning took on a renewed urgency following the outbreak of the Korean War in the early 1950s, prompting NATO to establish a “force under a centralised command, adequate to deter aggression and to ensure the defence of Western Europe”. Allied Command Europe was established under General of the Army Dwight D. Eisenhower, US Army, on 2 April 1951.[16][17] The Western Union Defence Organization had previously carried out Exercise Verity, a 1949 multilateral exercise involving naval air strikes and submarine attacks.

Exercise Mainbrace brought together 200 ships and over 50,000 personnel to practice the defence of Denmark and Norway from Russian attack in 1952. It was the first major NATO exercise. The exercise was jointly commanded by Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic Admiral Lynde D. McCormick, USN, and Supreme Allied Commander Europe General Matthew B. Ridgeway, US Army, during the autumn of 1952.

The US, UK, Canada, France, Denmark, Norway, Portugal, Netherlands, and Belgium all participated.

Exercises Grand Slam and Longstep were naval exercises held in the Mediterranean Sea during 1952 to practice dislodging an enemy occupying force and amphibious assault. It involved over 170 warships and 700 aircraft under the overall command of Admiral Carney. The overall exercise commander, Admiral Carney summarized the accomplishments of Exercise Grand Slam by stating: “We have demonstrated that the senior commanders of all four powers can successfully take charge of a mixed task force and handle it effectively as a working unit.”[citation needed]

The USSR called the exercises “war-like acts” by NATO, with particular reference to the participation of Norway and Denmark, and prepared for its own military maneuvers in the Soviet Zone.[18][19]

This was a major NATO naval exercise held in 1957, simulating a response to an all-out Soviet attack on NATO. The exercise involved over 200 warships, 650 aircraft, and 75,000 personnel from the United States Navy, the United Kingdom’s Royal Navy, the Royal Canadian Navy, the French Navy, the Royal Netherlands Navy, and the Royal Norwegian Navy. As the largest peacetime naval operation up to that time, Operation Strikeback was characterized by military analyst Hanson W. Baldwin of The New York Times as “constituting the strongest striking fleet assembled since World War II”.[20]

Exercise Reforger (from return of forces to Germany) was an annual exercise conducted, during the Cold War, by NATO. The exercise was intended to ensure that NATO had the ability to quickly deploy forces to West Germany in the event of a conflict with the Warsaw Pact. The Warsaw Pact outnumbered NATO throughout the Cold War in conventional forces, especially armor. Therefore, in the event of a Soviet invasion, in order not to resort to tactical nuclear strikes, NATO forces holding the line against a Warsaw Pact armored spearhead would have to be quickly resupplied and replaced. Most of this support would have come across the Atlantic from the US and Canada.

Reforger was not merely a show of forcein the event of a conflict, it would be the actual plan to strengthen the NATO presence in Europe. In that instance, it would have been referred to as Operation Reforger. Important components in Reforger included the Military Airlift Command, the Military Sealift Command, and the Civil Reserve Air Fleet.

Seven Days to the River Rhine was a top secret military simulation exercise developed in 1979 by the Warsaw Pact. It started with the assumption that NATO would launch a nuclear attack on the Vistula river valley in a first-strike scenario, which would result in as many as two million Polish civilian casualties.[21] In response, a Soviet counter-strike would be carried out against West Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands and Denmark, with Warsaw Pact forces invading West Germany and aiming to stop at the River Rhine by the seventh day. Other USSR plans stopped only upon reaching the French border on day nine. Individual Warsaw Pact states were only assigned their own subpart of the strategic picture; in this case, the Polish forces were only expected to go as far as Germany. The Seven Days to the Rhine plan envisioned that Poland and Germany would be largely destroyed by nuclear exchanges, and that large numbers of troops would die of radiation sickness. It was estimated that NATO would fire nuclear weapons behind the advancing Soviet lines to cut off their supply lines and thus blunt their advance. While this plan assumed that NATO would use nuclear weapons to push back any Warsaw Pact invasion, it did not include nuclear strikes on France or the United Kingdom. Newspapers speculated when this plan was declassified, that France and the UK were not to be hit in an effort to get them to withhold use of their own nuclear weapons.

Exercise Able Archer was an annual exercise by the United States military in Europe that practiced command and control procedures, with emphasis on transition from solely conventional operations to chemical, nuclear, and conventional operations during a time of war.

“Able Archer 83” was a five-day North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) command post exercise starting on 7 November 1983, that spanned Western Europe, centered on the Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE) Headquarters in Casteau, north of the city of Mons. Able Archer exercises simulated a period of conflict escalation, culminating in a coordinated nuclear attack.[22]

The realistic nature of the 1983 exercise, coupled with deteriorating relations between the United States and the Soviet Union and the anticipated arrival of strategic Pershing II nuclear missiles in Europe, led some members of the Soviet Politburo and military to believe that Able Archer 83 was a ruse of war, obscuring preparations for a genuine nuclear first strike.[22][23][24][25] In response, the Soviets readied their nuclear forces and placed air units in East Germany and Poland on alert.[26][27] This “1983 war scare” is considered by many historians to be the closest the world has come to nuclear war since the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962.[28] The threat of nuclear war ended with the conclusion of the exercise on 11 November, however.[29][30]

The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was proposed by US President Ronald Reagan on 23 March 1983.[31] In the later part of his Presidency, numerous factors (which included watching the 1983 movie The Day After and hearing through a Soviet defector that Able Archer 83 almost triggered a Russian first strike) had turned Ronald Reagan against the concept of winnable nuclear war, and he began to see nuclear weapons as more of a “wild card” than a strategic deterrent. Although he later believed in disarmament treaties slowly blunting the danger of nuclear weaponry by reducing their number and alert status, he also believed a technological solution might allow incoming ICBMs to be shot down, thus making the US invulnerable to a first strike. However the USSR saw the SDI concept as a major threat, since unilateral deployment of the system would allow the US to launch a massive first strike on the Soviet Union without any fear of retaliation.

The SDI concept was to use ground-based and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles. The initiative focused on strategic defense rather than the prior strategic offense doctrine of Mutual Assured Destruction (MAD). The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) was set up in 1984 within the United States Department of Defense to oversee the Strategic Defense Initiative.

NATO operational plans for a Third World War have involved NATO allies who do not have their own nuclear weapons, using nuclear weapons supplied by the United States as part of a general NATO war plan, under the direction of NATO’s Supreme Allied Commander.

Of the three nuclear powers in NATO (France, the United Kingdom and the United States), only the United States has provided weapons for nuclear sharing. As of November2009[update], Belgium, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and Turkey are still hosting US nuclear weapons as part of NATO’s nuclear sharing policy.[32][33] Canada hosted weapons until 1984,[34] and Greece until 2001.[32][35] The United Kingdom also received US tactical nuclear weapons such as nuclear artillery and Lance missiles until 1992, despite the UK being a nuclear weapons state in its own right; these were mainly deployed in Germany.

In peace time, the nuclear weapons stored in non-nuclear countries are guarded by US airmen though previously some artillery and missile systems were guarded by US Army soldiers; the codes required for detonating them are under American control. In case of war, the weapons are to be mounted on the participating countries’ warplanes. The weapons are under custody and control of USAF Munitions Support Squadrons co-located on NATO main operating bases who work together with the host nation forces.[32]

As of 2005[update], 180 tactical B61 nuclear bombs of the 480 US nuclear weapons believed to be deployed in Europe fall under the nuclear sharing arrangement.[36] The weapons are stored within a vault in hardened aircraft shelters, using the USAF WS3 Weapon Storage and Security System. The delivery warplanes used are F-16s and Panavia Tornados.[37]

With the initiation of the Cold War arms race in the 1950s, an apocalyptic war between the United States and the Soviet Union became a real possibility. During the Cold War era (19471991), a number of military events have been described as having come quite close to potentially triggering World War III.

The Korean War was a war between two coalitions fighting for control over the Korean Peninsula: a communist coalition including North Korea, China and the USSR, and a capitalist coalition including South Korea, the United States, and the UN. Many then believed that the conflict was likely to soon escalate into a full-scale war between the three countries, the US, the USSR, and China. CBS war correspondent Bill Downs wrote in 1951 that, “To my mind, the answer is: Yes, Korea is the beginning of World War III. The brilliant landings at Inchon and the cooperative efforts of the American armed forces with the United Nations Allies have won us a victory in Korea. But this is only the first battle in a major international struggle which now is engulfing the Far East and the entire world.”[38] Downs afterwards repeated this belief on ABC Evening News while reporting on the USS Pueblo incident in 1968.[39]

The Cuban Missile Crisis: a confrontation on the stationing of Soviet nuclear missiles in Cuba, in response to the failed Bay of Pigs Invasion, is considered as having been the closest to a nuclear exchange, which could have precipitated a Third World War. The crisis peaked on 27 October, with three separate major incidents occurring on the same day, all of these incidents having been initiated by the US military.

Despite what many believe to be the closest the world has come to a nuclear conflict, throughout the entire standoff, the Doomsday Clock, which is run by the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists to estimate how close the end of the world, or doomsday, is, with midnight being the apocalypse, stayed at a relatively stable seven minutes to midnight. This has been explained as being due to the brevity of the crisis, since the clock monitored more long term factors such as leadership of countries, conflicts, wars, and political upheavals, as well as societies reactions to said factors.

The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists now credits the political developments resulting from the Cuban Missile Crisis with having actually enhanced global stability. The Bulletin posits that future crises and occasions that might otherwise escalate, were rendered as more stable due to two major factors:

The Yom Kippur War, also known as the Ramadan War, or October War, began with Arab victories. Israel successfully counterattacked. Tensions grew between the US (which supported Israel) and the Soviet Union (which sided with the Arab states). American and Soviet naval forces came close to firing upon each other. Admiral Murphy of the US reckoned the chances of the Soviet squadron attempting a first strike against his fleet at 40 percent. The Pentagon moved Defcon status from 4 to 3.[41] The superpowers had been pushed to the brink of war, but tensions eased with the ceasefire brought in under UNSC 339.[42][43]

The United States made emergency retaliation preparations after NORAD saw on-screen indications that a full-scale Soviet attack had been launched.[44] No attempt was made to use the “red telephone” hotline to clarify the situation with the USSR and it was not until early-warning radar systems confirmed no such launch had taken place that NORAD realized that a computer system test had caused the display errors. A senator inside the NORAD facility at the time described an atmosphere of absolute panic. A GAO investigation led to the construction of an off-site test facility to prevent similar mistakes.[45]

A false alarm occurred on the Soviet nuclear early warning system, showing the launch of American Minuteman ICBMs from bases in the United States. A retaliatory attack was prevented by Stanislav Petrov, an officer of the Soviet Air Defence Forces, who realised the system had simply malfunctioned (which was borne out by later investigations).[46][47]

During Able Archer 83, a ten-day NATO exercise simulating a period of conflict escalation that culminated in a DEFCON 1 nuclear strike, some members of the Soviet Politburo and armed forces treated the events as a ruse of war concealing a genuine first strike. In response, the military prepared for a coordinated counter-attack by readying nuclear forces and placing air units stationed in the Warsaw Pact states of East Germany and Poland under high alert. However, the state of Soviet preparation for retaliation ceased upon completion of the Able Archer exercises.[22]

The Norwegian rocket incident occurred when the Russian Federation’s Olenegorsk early warning station accidentally mistook the radar signature from a Black Brant XII research rocket (being jointly launched by Norwegian and US scientists from Andya Rocket Range), as appearing to be the radar signature of the launch of a Trident SLBM missile. In response, President Boris Yeltsin was summoned and the Cheget nuclear briefcase was activated for the first and only time. However, the high command was soon able to determine that the rocket was not entering Russian airspace, and promptly aborted plans for combat readiness and retaliation. It was retrospectively determined that, while the rocket scientists had informed thirty states including Russia about the test launch, the information had not reached Russian radar technicians.[48][49]

In 2004, neoconservative commentator Norman Podhoretz proposed that the Cold War might rightly be called World War III.[50] In 2011 on CNBC’s Kudlow and Company, host Lawrence Kudlow, discussing a book by former deputy Under-Secretary of Defense Jed Babbin, agreed with Podhoretz, adding, “World War IV is the terror war, and war with China would be World War V.”[51]

Still the majority of historians would seem to hold that World War III would necessarily have to be a worldwide “war in which large forces from many countries fought” [52] and a war that “involves most of the principal nations of the world.” [53] In his book Secret Weapons of the Cold War, Bill Yenne explains that the military standoff that occurred between the two ‘Superpowers’, namely the United States and the Soviet Union, from the 1940s through to 1991, was only the Cold War, which ultimately helped to enable mankind to avert the possibility of an all out nuclear confrontation, and that it certainly was not World War III itself.[54]

The so-called “War on Terror” that began with the September 11 attacks has been claimed by some to be World War III[55][56] or sometimes as World War IV.[57] Others have disparaged such claims as “distorting American history.” While there is general agreement amongst historians regarding the definitions and extent of the first two World Wars, namely due to the unmistakable global scale of aggression and self-destruction of these two wars, a few have claimed that a “World War” might now no longer require such worldwide and large scale aggression and carnage. Still, such claims of a new “lower threshold of aggression,” that might now be sufficient to qualify a war as a “World War” have not gained such widespread acceptance and support as the definitions of the first two World Wars have received amongst historians.[58]

On 1 February 2015, Iraq’s Prime Minister declared that the War on ISIL was effectively “World War III”, due to ISIL’ declaration of a Worldwide Caliphate, its aims to conquer the world, and its success in spreading the conflict to multiple countries outside of the Levant region.[59] In response to the November 2015 Paris attacks, King of Jordan Abdullah II said “We are facing a Third World War [within Islam].[60]

In his State of the Union Address on 12 January 2016, U.S. president Barack Obama warned that news reports granting ISIL the supposed ability to foment WW III might be excessive and irresponsible, stating that, “as we focus on destroying ISIL, over-the-top claims that this is World War III just play into their hands. Masses of fighters on the back of pickup trucks and twisted souls plotting in apartments or garages pose an enormous danger to civilians and must be stopped. But they do not threaten our national existence.”[61]

In multiple recorded interviews under somewhat casual circumstances, comparing the conflagrations of World Wars I and II to the ongoing lower intensity wars of the 21st century, Pope Francis has said, “The world is at war, because it has lost peace,” and “perhaps one can speak of a third war, one fought piecemeal.”[62][63]

In 1949, after the unleashing of nuclear weaponry at the end of WWII, physicist Albert Einstein suggested that any outcome of a possible WWIII would be so dire as to revert mankind back to the Stone Age. When asked by journalist Alfred Werner, what types of weapons Einstein believed World War III might be fought with, Einstein warned, “I know not with what weapons World War III will be fought, but World War IV will be fought with sticks and stones”.[64] It can be inferred here that Einstein assumed that World War III would either exterminate, or else nearly exterminate the human race (presumably due to nuclear warfare).[1][verification needed]

In his book Destined for War, Graham Allison views the global rivalry between the established power, US, and the rising power, China, as an example of the Thucydides Trap. Past examples have often led to war, and in this case World War Three is possible but not inevitable.[65]

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World War III Has Begun – Truth And Action

The rumors of wars has certainly begun as we have more and more political figures either stating WW3 is just around the corner or is already here.

Has World War III already begun? WWI began with an assassination, WWII began with Hitlers invasion of Poland. But WWIII could certainly start differently.

As conservative talk show host Glenn Beck stated this month, WW3 is on the horizon and nobody will recognize it yet.

Lets look at a few of the prominent figures that warn us of WW3.

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World War III Has Begun – Truth And Action

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World War III Has Begun – Truth And Action

Claim Your Free Pocket Survival Guide Now:

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The rumors of wars has certainly begun as we have more and more political figures either stating WW3 is just around the corner or is already here.

Has World War III already begun? WWI began with an assassination, WWII began with Hitlers invasion of Poland. But WWIII could certainly start differently.

As conservative talk show host Glenn Beck stated this month, WW3 is on the horizon and nobody will recognize it yet.

Lets look at a few of the prominent figures that warn us of WW3.

MORE ON PAGE 2:

See original here:

World War III Has Begun – Truth And Action

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World War 3: Has WW3 already begun? Why May 13 is an important date about the world’s end – Express.co.uk

The start of joint-military drills between the US and South Korea yesterday, prompted fears that a nuclear conflict could be approaching.

North Korea furiously reacted to the drills, with the regime’s state-run newspaper Rodong Sinmun warning that this could lead to an “uncontrollable phase of a nuclear war”.

“The Trump group’s declaration of the reckless nuclear war exercises against the DPRK… is a reckless behaviour driving the situation into the uncontrollable phase of a nuclear war,” the paper claimed.

However one mystic’s bold prophecies suggest that WW3 could already be here, and that it broke out on May 13.

A mystic who accurately foretold the rise of US President Donald Trump, also predicted in April that 2017 would be the year World War 3 finally begun.

Horacio Villegas, who has proclaimed himself the “messenger of God”, believed that May 13 was the day the catastrophic conflict would begin.

Mr Villegas who is a devout Catholic, spectacularly claimed that Donald Trump would trigger the war on the 100th anniversary of the visitation of the Virgin Mary in Fatima in 1917.

The mother of Jesus allegedly made several miraculous appearances to three children in the Portuguese village, and on her last visit on October 13, 1917, she warned: The war is going to end, and the soldiers will soon return to their homes.

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This has led Mr Villegas to believe that Donald Trump would trigger a devastating six-month-long conflict between May and October.

Between May 13th and October 13 2017, this war will occur and be over with much devastation, shock and death

Horacio Villegas, Mystic

Explaining his theory, Mr Villegas said: The main message that people need to know in order be prepared is that between May 13th and October 13 2017, this war will occur and be over with much devastation, shock and death.

The mystic went on to also say that at the world would be tricked by “a false flag” of conflicts in North Korea and Syria between April 13 and May 13.

He said: The reason I feel the coming false flag might be during this Holy Week is because just as Christ suffered on a Good Friday at one time, the world is about to enter its Good Friday moment as well and it would fit in Gods timeline as to the start of this dark period in human period in human history that this war would be sparked near Good Friday 2017.

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North Korea’s intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM), Hwasong-14 being lauched at an undisclosed place in North Korea

Yet despite these bold claims no global war has broken out on May 13, and the stand-off between the US and North Korea has remained purely verbal.

In fact on that day Choi Son Hui, North Korea’s foreign ministry director, opened up to the idea of direct talks with the United States if the conditions satisfied Kim Jong-un.

Yet Mr Villegas is not the only mystic to have predicted the outbreak of WW3 in 2017.

READ MORE:WW3 PREDICTIONS WILL WW3 BREAK OUT THIS YEAR?

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Nostradamus, a famous French physician who is believed to have prophesied several global events, wrote of a conflict between the East and the West.

The 16th century prophet wrote: “Twice put up and twice cast down, the East will also weaken the West. Its adversary after several battles chased by sea will fail at time of need.”

However these claims remain purely speculative and are open to interpretation.

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World War 3: Has WW3 already begun? Why May 13 is an important date about the world’s end – Express.co.uk

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Where to find your nearest nuclear bunker in the event of WW3 – Coventry Telegraph

Donald Trump has issued fresh threats towards North Korea – declaring the US military “locked and loaded”.

The US President also warned that the communist country’s leader “will regret it fast” if he takes any action against American territories or allies.

The warnings came in a cascade of unscripted statements throughout the day, each ratcheting up a rhetorical stand-off between the two nuclear nations.

The US president appeared to draw another red line that would trigger an attack against North Korea and “big, big trouble” for its leader Kim Jong Un.

The comments from Mr Trump have led many to fear the prospect of a Third World War.

Hundreds of thousands of people would be killed if a nuclear blast hit Coventry and Warwickshire.

Imagining the bomb went off at ground level in Broadgate, the city centre would be turned into a 300m wide and 200m deep crater, according to interactive data site Nukemap .

The city would be dependent on outsiders and national agencies for help after the blast.

In the fallout survivors would find dozens of hospitals and medical facilities would have been destroyed.

A dozen fire stations would also have been wiped out.

At the same moment around 200 schools and hundreds of churches, mosques, gurdwaras and temples could have been levelled or badly damaged.

So, where could you find shelter?

Following the end of the Cold War, the nationwide network of bunkers fell into disrepair and were sold off.

Some of the bunkers entered active military service, whilst others were sold off privately.

Local councils also have hardened control rooms which mainly date back to the Cold War and Nuclear era.

However these now act as emergency control rooms, and are not referred to as nuclear bunkers.

Don’t panic, though, because there are still a string of bunkers dotted across the country.

And, handily, you can find your nearest one in the West Midlands by clicking here.

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Where to find your nearest nuclear bunker in the event of WW3 – Coventry Telegraph

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World War III Has Begun – Truth And Action

The rumors of wars has certainly begun as we have more and more political figures either stating WW3 is just around the corner or is already here.

Has World War III already begun? WWI began with an assassination, WWII began with Hitlers invasion of Poland. But WWIII could certainly start differently.

As conservative talk show host Glenn Beck stated this month, WW3 is on the horizon and nobody will recognize it yet.

Lets look at a few of the prominent figures that warn us of WW3.

MORE ON PAGE 2:

Read the original here:

World War III Has Begun – Truth And Action

Posted in Ww3

World War III – Wikipedia

World War III (WWIII or WW3) and the Third World War are names given to a hypothetical third worldwide large-scale military conflict subsequent to World War I and World War II. The term has been in use since the end of World War II. Some have applied it loosely to refer to limited or smaller conflicts such as the Cold War or the War on Terror, while others have operated under the assumption that such a conflict would surpass both prior World Wars in both the level of its widespread scope and of its overall destructive impact.[1]

Because of the development and use of nuclear weapons near the end of World War II and their subsequent acquisition and deployment by many countries, the potential risk of a nuclear devastation of Earth’s civilization and life is a common theme in speculations of a Third World War. Another major concern is that biological warfare could cause a very large number of casualties, either intentionally or inadvertently by an accidental release of a biological agent, the unexpected mutation of an agent, or its adaptation to other species after use. High-scale apocalyptic events like these, caused by advanced technology used for destruction, could potentially make Earth’s surface uninhabitable, what prompts many to believe that after the war, humans would live either in underground facilities or in colonies in space (such as on the Moon or Mars or in a space vehicle).

Prior to the advent of the Second World War, the First World War (19141918) was believed to have been the “war to end all wars,” as it was popularly believed that never again could there possibly be a global conflict of such magnitude. During the inter-war period between the two World Wars, WWI was typically referred to simply as “The Great War”. The outbreak of World War II in 1939 disproved the hope that mankind might have already “outgrown” the need for such widespread global wars.

With the advent of the Cold War in 1947 and with the spread of nuclear weapons technology to the Soviet Union, the possibility of a third global conflict became more plausible. During the Cold War years the possibility of a Third World War was anticipated and planned for by military and civil authorities in many countries. Scenarios ranged from conventional warfare to limited or total nuclear warfare. At the height of the Cold War, a scenario referred to as MAD (Mutually Assured Destruction), had been calculated which determined that an all-out nuclear confrontation would most certainly destroy all or nearly all human life on the planet. The spectre of the potential of the absolute destruction of the human race may have contributed to the ability of both American and Soviet leaders to avoid such a scenario.

The Cold War ended in 1991 when the Soviet Union collapsed, leaving the United States as the sole global superpower. With the end of the Cold War, it was believed that the likelihood of a fully unrestricted nuclear confrontation between two superpowers was significantly diminished.

Time magazine was an early adopter if not originator of the “World War III.” Perhaps the first usage appears in its November 3, 1941, issue (preceding the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941) under its “National Affairs” section and entitled “World War III?” about Nazi refugee Dr. Hermann Rauschning, who had just arrived in the United States.[2] In its March 22, 1943, issue under its “Foreign News” section, Time reused the same title “World War III?” with regard to statements by then-Vice President Henry A. Wallace: “We shall decide some time in 1943 or 1944… whether to plant the seeds of World War III.”[3][4]Time continued to entitle with or mention in stories the term “World War III” for the rest of the decade (and onwards): 1944,[5][6] 1945,[7][8] 1946 (“bacterial warfare”),[9] 1947,[10] and 1948.[11] (Time persists in using this term, e.g., this 2015 book review, entitled “This Is What World War III Will Look Like.”[12])

Military planners have been war gaming various scenarios, preparing for the worst, since the early days of the Cold War. Some of those plans are now out of date and have been partially or fully declassified.[citation needed]

British Prime Minister Winston Churchill was concerned that, with the enormous size of Soviet forces deployed in Europe at the end of WWII and the unreliability of the Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, there was a serious threat to Western Europe. In AprilMay 1945, British Armed Forces developed Operation Unthinkable, thought to be the first scenario of the Third World War.[13] Its primary goal was “to impose upon Russia the will of the United States and the British Empire”.[14] The plan was rejected by the British Chiefs of Staff Committee as militarily unfeasible.

“Operation Dropshot” was the 1950s United States contingency plan for a possible nuclear and conventional war with the Soviet Union in the Western European and Asian theaters.

At the time the US nuclear arsenal was limited in size, based mostly in the United States, and depended on bombers for delivery. “Dropshot” included mission profiles that would have used 300 nuclear bombs and 29,000 high-explosive bombs on 200 targets in 100 cities and towns to wipe out 85% of the Soviet Union’s industrial potential at a single stroke. Between 75 and 100 of the 300 nuclear weapons were targeted to destroy Soviet combat aircraft on the ground.

The scenario was devised prior to the development of intercontinental ballistic missiles. It was also devised before President John F. Kennedy and his Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara changed the US Nuclear War plan from the ‘city killing’ countervalue strike plan to a “counterforce” plan (targeted more at military forces). Nuclear weapons at this time were not accurate enough to hit a naval base without destroying the city adjacent to it, so the aim in using them was to destroy the enemy industrial capacity in an effort to cripple their war economy.

In January 1950, the North Atlantic Council approved NATO’s military strategy of containment.[15] NATO military planning took on a renewed urgency following the outbreak of the Korean War in the early 1950s, prompting NATO to establish a “force under a centralised command, adequate to deter aggression and to ensure the defence of Western Europe”. Allied Command Europe was established under General of the Army Dwight D. Eisenhower, US Army, on 2 April 1951.[16][17] The Western Union Defence Organization had previously carried out Exercise Verity, a 1949 multilateral exercise involving naval air strikes and submarine attacks.

Exercise Mainbrace brought together 200 ships and over 50,000 personnel to practice the defence of Denmark and Norway from Russian attack in 1952. It was the first major NATO exercise. The exercise was jointly commanded by Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic Admiral Lynde D. McCormick, USN, and Supreme Allied Commander Europe General Matthew B. Ridgeway, US Army, during the Fall of 1952.

The US, UK, Canada, France, Denmark, Norway, Portugal, Netherlands, and Belgium all participated.

Exercises Grand Slam and Longstep were naval exercises held in the Mediterranean Sea during 1952 to practice dislodging an enemy occupying force and amphibious assault. It involved over 170 warships and 700 aircraft under the overall command of Admiral Carney. The overall exercise commander, Admiral Carney summarized the accomplishments of Exercise Grand Slam by stating: “We have demonstrated that the senior commanders of all four powers can successfully take charge of a mixed task force and handle it effectively as a working unit.”[citation needed]

The USSR called the exercises “war-like acts” by NATO, with particular reference to the participation of Norway and Denmark, and prepared for its own military maneuvers in the Soviet Zone.[18][19]

This was a major NATO naval exercise held in 1957, simulating a response to an all-out Soviet attack on NATO. The exercise involved over 200 warships, 650 aircraft, and 75,000 personnel from the United States Navy, the United Kingdom’s Royal Navy, the Royal Canadian Navy, the French Navy, the Royal Netherlands Navy, and the Royal Norwegian Navy. As the largest peacetime naval operation up to that time, Operation Strikeback was characterized by military analyst Hanson W. Baldwin of The New York Times as “constituting the strongest striking fleet assembled since World War II”.[20]

Exercise Reforger (from return of forces to Germany) was an annual exercise conducted, during the Cold War, by NATO. The exercise was intended to ensure that NATO had the ability to quickly deploy forces to West Germany in the event of a conflict with the Warsaw Pact. The Warsaw Pact outnumbered NATO throughout the Cold War in conventional forces, especially armor. Therefore, in the event of a Soviet invasion, in order not to resort to tactical nuclear strikes, NATO forces holding the line against a Warsaw Pact armored spearhead would have to be quickly resupplied and replaced. Most of this support would have come across the Atlantic from the US and Canada.

Reforger was not merely a show of forcein the event of a conflict, it would be the actual plan to strengthen the NATO presence in Europe. In that instance, it would have been referred to as Operation Reforger. Important components in Reforger included the Military Airlift Command, the Military Sealift Command, and the Civil Reserve Air Fleet.

Seven Days to the River Rhine was a top secret military simulation exercise developed in 1979 by the Warsaw Pact. It started with the assumption that NATO would launch a nuclear attack on the Vistula river valley in a first-strike scenario, which would result in as many as two million Polish civilian casualties.[21] In response, a Soviet counter-strike would be carried out against West Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands and Denmark, with Warsaw Pact forces invading West Germany and aiming to stop at the River Rhine by the seventh day. Other USSR plans stopped only upon reaching the French border on day nine. Individual Warsaw Pact states were only assigned their own subpart of the strategic picture; in this case, the Polish forces were only expected to go as far as Germany. The Seven Days to the Rhine plan envisioned that Poland and Germany would be largely destroyed by nuclear exchanges, and that large numbers of troops would die of radiation sickness. It was estimated that NATO would fire nuclear weapons behind the advancing Soviet lines to cut off their supply lines and thus blunt their advance. While this plan assumed that NATO would use nuclear weapons to push back any Warsaw Pact invasion, it did not include nuclear strikes on France or the United Kingdom. Newspapers speculated when this plan was declassified, that France and the UK were not to be hit in an effort to get them to withhold use of their own nuclear weapons.

Exercise Able Archer was an annual exercise by the United States military in Europe that practiced command and control procedures, with emphasis on transition from solely conventional operations to chemical, nuclear, and conventional operations during a time of war.

“Able Archer 83” was a five-day North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) command post exercise starting on 7 November 1983, that spanned Western Europe, centered on the Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE) Headquarters in Casteau, north of the city of Mons. Able Archer exercises simulated a period of conflict escalation, culminating in a coordinated nuclear attack.[22]

The realistic nature of the 1983 exercise, coupled with deteriorating relations between the United States and the Soviet Union and the anticipated arrival of strategic Pershing II nuclear missiles in Europe, led some members of the Soviet Politburo and military to believe that Able Archer 83 was a ruse of war, obscuring preparations for a genuine nuclear first strike.[22][23][24][25] In response, the Soviets readied their nuclear forces and placed air units in East Germany and Poland on alert.[26][27] This “1983 war scare” is considered by many historians to be the closest the world has come to nuclear war since the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962.[28] The threat of nuclear war ended with the conclusion of the exercise on 11 November.[29][30]

The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was proposed by US President Ronald Reagan on 23 March 1983.[31] In the later part of his Presidency, numerous factors (which included watching the 1983 movie The Day After and hearing through a Soviet defector that Able Archer 83 almost triggered a Russian first strike) had turned Ronald Reagan against the concept of winnable nuclear war, and he began to see nuclear weapons as more of a “wild card” than a strategic deterrent. Although he later believed in disarmament treaties slowly blunting the danger of nuclear weaponry by reducing their number and alert status, he also believed a technological solution might allow incoming ICBMs to be shot down, thus making the US invulnerable to a first strike. However the USSR saw the SDI concept as a major threat, since unilateral deployment of the system would allow the US to launch a massive first strike on the Soviet Union without any fear of retaliation.

The SDI concept was to use ground-based and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles. The initiative focused on strategic defense rather than the prior strategic offense doctrine of Mutual Assured Destruction (MAD). The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) was set up in 1984 within the United States Department of Defense to oversee the Strategic Defense Initiative.

NATO operational plans for a Third World War have involved NATO allies who do not have their own nuclear weapons, using nuclear weapons supplied by the United States as part of a general NATO war plan, under the direction of NATO’s Supreme Allied Commander.

Of the three nuclear powers in NATO (France, the United Kingdom and the United States), only the United States has provided weapons for nuclear sharing. As of November 2009[update], Belgium, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and Turkey are still hosting US nuclear weapons as part of NATO’s nuclear sharing policy.[32][33]Canada hosted weapons until 1984,[34] and Greece until 2001.[32][35] The United Kingdom also received US tactical nuclear weapons such as nuclear artillery and Lance missiles until 1992, despite the UK being a nuclear weapons state in its own right; these were mainly deployed in Germany.

In peace time, the nuclear weapons stored in non-nuclear countries are guarded by US airmen though previously some artillery and missile systems were guarded by US Army soldiers; the codes required for detonating them are under American control. In case of war, the weapons are to be mounted on the participating countries’ warplanes. The weapons are under custody and control of USAF Munitions Support Squadrons co-located on NATO main operating bases who work together with the host nation forces.[32]

As of 2005[update], 180 tactical B61 nuclear bombs of the 480 US nuclear weapons believed to be deployed in Europe fall under the nuclear sharing arrangement.[36] The weapons are stored within a vault in hardened aircraft shelters, using the USAF WS3 Weapon Storage and Security System. The delivery warplanes used are F-16s and Panavia Tornados.[37]

With the development of the arms race in the 1950s, an apocalyptic war between the United States and the Soviet Union was considered possible, and a number of events have been described as potential triggers for a nuclear conflict.

In 2004 neoconservative commentator Norman Podhoretz proposed that the Cold War might rightly be called World War III.[50] In 2011 on CNBC’s Kudlow and Company, host Lawrence Kudlow, discussing a book by former deputy Under-Secretary of Defense Jed Babbin, agreed with Podhoretz, adding, “World War IV is the terror war, and war with China would be World War V.”[51]

Still the majority of historians would seem to hold that World War III would necessarily have to be a worldwide “war in which large forces from many countries fought” [52] and a war that “involves most of the principal nations of the world.” [53] In his book Secret Weapons of the Cold War, Bill Yenne explains that the military standoff that occurred between the two ‘Superpowers’, namely the United States and the Soviet Union, from the 1940s through to 1991, was only the Cold War, which ultimately helped to enable mankind to avert the possibility of an all out nuclear confrontation, and that it certainly was not World War III itself.[54]

The so-called “War on Terror” that began with the September 11 attacks has been claimed by some to be World War III[55][56] or sometimes as World War IV.[57] Others have disparaged such claims as “distorting American history.” While there is general agreement amongst historians regarding the definitions and extent of the first two World Wars, namely due to the unmistakable global scale of aggression and self-destruction of these two wars, a few have claimed that a “World War” might now no longer require such worldwide and large scale aggression and carnage. Still such claims of a new “lower threshold of aggression,” that might now be sufficient to qualify a war as a “World War” have not gained such widespread acceptance and support as the definitions of the first two World Wars have received amongst historians.[58]

On 1 February 2015, Iraq’s Prime Minister declared that the War on ISIL was effectively “World War III”, due to ISIL’ declaration of a Worldwide Caliphate, its aims to conquer the world, and its success in spreading the conflict to multiple countries outside of the Levant region.[59] In response to the November 2015 Paris attacks, King of Jordan Abdullah II said “We are facing a Third World War [within Islam].[60]

In his State of the Union Address on 12 January 2016, US president Barack Obama warned that news reports granting ISIL the supposed ability to foment WW III might be excessive and irresponsible, stating that, “as we focus on destroying ISIL, over-the-top claims that this is World War III just play into their hands. Masses of fighters on the back of pickup trucks and twisted souls plotting in apartments or garages pose an enormous danger to civilians and must be stopped. But they do not threaten our national existence.”[61]

In multiple recorded interviews under somewhat casual circumstances, comparing the conflagrations of World Wars I and II to the ongoing lower intensity wars of the 21st century, Pope Francis has said, “The world is at war, because it has lost peace,” and “perhaps one can speak of a third war, one fought piecemeal.”[62][63]

In 1949, after the unleashing of nuclear weaponry at the end of WWII, physicist Albert Einstein suggested that any outcome of a possible WWIII would be so dire as to revert mankind back to the Stone Age. When asked by journalist Alfred Werner, what types of weapons Einstein believed World War III might be fought with, Einstein warned, “I know not with what weapons World War III will be fought, but World War IV will be fought with sticks and stones”. By inference, it must be deduced here that Einstein assumed that World War III would either exterminate, or else nearly exterminate the human race (presumably due to nuclear warfare).[1]

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World War 3: Has WW3 already begun? Why May 13 is an important date about the world’s end – Express.co.uk

The start of joint-military drills between the US and South Korea yesterday, prompted fears that a nuclear conflict could be approaching.

North Korea furiously reacted to the drills, with the regime’s state-run newspaper Rodong Sinmun warning that this could lead to an “uncontrollable phase of a nuclear war”.

“The Trump group’s declaration of the reckless nuclear war exercises against the DPRK… is a reckless behaviour driving the situation into the uncontrollable phase of a nuclear war,” the paper claimed.

However one mystic’s bold prophecies suggest that WW3 could already be here, and that it broke out on May 13.

A mystic who accurately foretold the rise of US President Donald Trump, also predicted in April that 2017 would be the year World War 3 finally begun.

Horacio Villegas, who has proclaimed himself the “messenger of God”, believed that May 13 was the day the catastrophic conflict would begin.

Mr Villegas who is a devout Catholic, spectacularly claimed that Donald Trump would trigger the war on the 100th anniversary of the visitation of the Virgin Mary in Fatima in 1917.

The mother of Jesus allegedly made several miraculous appearances to three children in the Portuguese village, and on her last visit on October 13, 1917, she warned: The war is going to end, and the soldiers will soon return to their homes.

GETTY

This has led Mr Villegas to believe that Donald Trump would trigger a devastating six-month-long conflict between May and October.

Between May 13th and October 13 2017, this war will occur and be over with much devastation, shock and death

Horacio Villegas, Mystic

Explaining his theory, Mr Villegas said: The main message that people need to know in order be prepared is that between May 13th and October 13 2017, this war will occur and be over with much devastation, shock and death.

The mystic went on to also say that at the world would be tricked by “a false flag” of conflicts in North Korea and Syria between April 13 and May 13.

He said: The reason I feel the coming false flag might be during this Holy Week is because just as Christ suffered on a Good Friday at one time, the world is about to enter its Good Friday moment as well and it would fit in Gods timeline as to the start of this dark period in human period in human history that this war would be sparked near Good Friday 2017.

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AFP/Getty Images

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North Korea’s intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM), Hwasong-14 being lauched at an undisclosed place in North Korea

Yet despite these bold claims no global war has broken out on May 13, and the stand-off between the US and North Korea has remained purely verbal.

In fact on that day Choi Son Hui, North Korea’s foreign ministry director, opened up to the idea of direct talks with the United States if the conditions satisfied Kim Jong-un.

Yet Mr Villegas is not the only mystic to have predicted the outbreak of WW3 in 2017.

READ MORE:WW3 PREDICTIONS WILL WW3 BREAK OUT THIS YEAR?

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Nostradamus, a famous French physician who is believed to have prophesied several global events, wrote of a conflict between the East and the West.

The 16th century prophet wrote: “Twice put up and twice cast down, the East will also weaken the West. Its adversary after several battles chased by sea will fail at time of need.”

However these claims remain purely speculative and are open to interpretation.

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World War 3: Has WW3 already begun? Why May 13 is an important date about the world’s end – Express.co.uk

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WW3: Forget North Korea – two other Asian giants are gearing up for nuclear battle – Express.co.uk

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With the worlds attention on the deteriorating situation in Pyongyang, trouble brewing among its neighbours has been overshadowed.

But the Asian continent could erupt into full-blown conflict as India and China – both nuclear-armed – have been at loggerheads over their shared border.

Despite the actual dividing line between the emerging economies situated in uninhabited, inhospitable wasteland, it is a flashpoint for conflict.

China, the powerhouse of the region, is battling neighbour India, another of the developing BRICS nations, for dominance as the sub-continent grows in strength.

Since June armed forces from both countries have been locked in a stand-off along the border, known as the Donglang in China and Doklam in India.

Troops had been amassing due to a spat over the Chinese building a road through a territory Indias ally and neighbour Bhutan disputes.

And on Tuesday soldiers from both sides were involved in a skirmish.

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The fall-out came just before Indian prime minister Narenda Modis 70th birthday, and he boldly declared the country was “strong enough to overcome those who try to act against our country.

With both parties locked into the disagreement for several months, there are fears the situation is a tinderbox which could ignite at any moment.

And as both are nuclear-armed, it could escalate very quickly with devastating consequences.

North Korea State Media

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Both sides stand to lose tremendously

Shailesh Kumar

Eurasia Group Asia analyst, Shailesh Kumar, said: “Both sides stand to lose tremendously, economically speaking, should this boil over into an actual war.

Earlier this month Chinese state news platform Xinhua published an article “India must not flirt with disaster, claiming Indias involvement in the Doklam area was “an offense to China’s sovereignty.”

Provocative headlines could stoke the flames of war, with both sides posturing.

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But Alyssa Ayres, senior fellow for India at the Council on Foreign Relations, placed the blame on China.

She said the dispute was a “conflict that China has created.

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But she added the the “Chinese military has more to lose.

The bubbling tension comes as Chinese quasi-ally North Korea had the world on edge as it dangled threats of a nuclear strike.

China has been criticised for its sympathetic attitude towards Kim Jong-uns regime, but recent developments which have seen Pyongyang threaten the US territory of Guam have been met with equal force from US president Donald Trump.

He vowed to retaliate with fire and fury.

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WW3: Forget North Korea – two other Asian giants are gearing up for nuclear battle – Express.co.uk

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Where to find your nearest nuclear bunker in the event of WW3 – Coventry Telegraph

Donald Trump has issued fresh threats towards North Korea – declaring the US military “locked and loaded”.

The US President also warned that the communist country’s leader “will regret it fast” if he takes any action against American territories or allies.

The warnings came in a cascade of unscripted statements throughout the day, each ratcheting up a rhetorical stand-off between the two nuclear nations.

The US president appeared to draw another red line that would trigger an attack against North Korea and “big, big trouble” for its leader Kim Jong Un.

The comments from Mr Trump have led many to fear the prospect of a Third World War.

Hundreds of thousands of people would be killed if a nuclear blast hit Coventry and Warwickshire.

Imagining the bomb went off at ground level in Broadgate, the city centre would be turned into a 300m wide and 200m deep crater, according to interactive data site Nukemap .

The city would be dependent on outsiders and national agencies for help after the blast.

In the fallout survivors would find dozens of hospitals and medical facilities would have been destroyed.

A dozen fire stations would also have been wiped out.

At the same moment around 200 schools and hundreds of churches, mosques, gurdwaras and temples could have been levelled or badly damaged.

So, where could you find shelter?

Following the end of the Cold War, the nationwide network of bunkers fell into disrepair and were sold off.

Some of the bunkers entered active military service, whilst others were sold off privately.

Local councils also have hardened control rooms which mainly date back to the Cold War and Nuclear era.

However these now act as emergency control rooms, and are not referred to as nuclear bunkers.

Don’t panic, though, because there are still a string of bunkers dotted across the country.

And, handily, you can find your nearest one in the West Midlands by clicking here.

See more here:

Where to find your nearest nuclear bunker in the event of WW3 – Coventry Telegraph

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‘We will reach point of NO RETURN’ Russia pleads for North Korea calm amid WW3 fears – Express.co.uk

Amid soaring tensions between Washington and Pyongyang, the influence of Russia and China could determine whether war breaks out as North Korea continues to develop its nuclear and missile programmes.

Maria Zakharova, a spokeswoman for the Russian Foreign Ministry, told reporters in Moscow: “Any attempt to resolve the problem over the Korean Peninsula by force will lead to a massive tragedy and enormous loss of life.

Tensions appear to be gradually winding down after North Korean media reported Kim Jong-un had decided to postpone plans to fire four missile toward the US territory of Guam.

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In response, US President Donald Trump took to Twitter to praise the despot leader.

He wrote: “Kim Jong Un of North Korea made a very wise and well reasoned decision. The alternative would have been both catastrophic and unacceptable!”

But Mr Trump is continuing to test Kim by staging joint military exercises with Japan.

The drill, which is part of a 19-day exercise, was conducted on the northern island of Hokkaido.

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Troops fired live ammunition from armed vehicles as part of the Northern Viper 2017 exercise, which involves 3,300 US and Japanese troops.

Kim Jong Un of North Korea made a very wise and well reasoned decision

US President Donald Trump

A defence ministry spokesman said: “It is the first joint exercise between the GSDF [Japan’s Ground Self-Defence Force] and US Marines in Hokkaido.

But he denied any link between the drill and recent tensions with North Korea.

He said: “This is not conducted with a particular country or region in mind.

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Meanwhile, Japanese jets conducted air manoeuvres with US bombers southwest of the Korean peninsula on Wednesday.

The exercise in the East China Sea involved two US B-1B Lancer bombers flying from Andersen Air Force Base on the Pacific island of Guam and two Japanese F-15 jet fighters.

AFP/Getty Images

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Soldiers from Japan’s Ground Self-Defense Force take part in a field drill with US Marines during joint military exercises with in Eniwa, Hokkaido prefecture

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The US Air Force said in a statement: These training flights with Japan demonstrate the solidarity and resolve we share with our allies to preserve peace and security in the Indo-Asia-Pacific.

North Korea regards the US exercises with South Korea and Japan as preparations to invade it and has strongly condemned previous drills.

The exercises also frustrates China, which says they do nothing to ease regional tensions.

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‘We will reach point of NO RETURN’ Russia pleads for North Korea calm amid WW3 fears – Express.co.uk

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Where to find your nearest nuclear bunker in the event of WW3 – Coventry Telegraph

Donald Trump has issued fresh threats towards North Korea – declaring the US military “locked and loaded”.

The US President also warned that the communist country’s leader “will regret it fast” if he takes any action against American territories or allies.

The warnings came in a cascade of unscripted statements throughout the day, each ratcheting up a rhetorical stand-off between the two nuclear nations.

The US president appeared to draw another red line that would trigger an attack against North Korea and “big, big trouble” for its leader Kim Jong Un.

The comments from Mr Trump have led many to fear the prospect of a Third World War.

Hundreds of thousands of people would be killed if a nuclear blast hit Coventry and Warwickshire.

Imagining the bomb went off at ground level in Broadgate, the city centre would be turned into a 300m wide and 200m deep crater, according to interactive data site Nukemap .

The city would be dependent on outsiders and national agencies for help after the blast.

In the fallout survivors would find dozens of hospitals and medical facilities would have been destroyed.

A dozen fire stations would also have been wiped out.

At the same moment around 200 schools and hundreds of churches, mosques, gurdwaras and temples could have been levelled or badly damaged.

So, where could you find shelter?

Following the end of the Cold War, the nationwide network of bunkers fell into disrepair and were sold off.

Some of the bunkers entered active military service, whilst others were sold off privately.

Local councils also have hardened control rooms which mainly date back to the Cold War and Nuclear era.

However these now act as emergency control rooms, and are not referred to as nuclear bunkers.

Don’t panic, though, because there are still a string of bunkers dotted across the country.

And, handily, you can find your nearest one in the West Midlands by clicking here.

Original post:

Where to find your nearest nuclear bunker in the event of WW3 – Coventry Telegraph

Posted in Ww3

Verge of WW3? North Korea tells USA to prepare for imminent ‘uncontrollable nuclear war’ – Express.co.uk

Despot Kim Jong-un has sent Donald Trumpa dire warning through the hermit states propaganda network in the wake of weeks of escalating tension.

Amid an ever-tightening spiral of threat and counter-threat, North Korea warned America to prepare for an outright attack in retaliation for joint military drills between the USA and South Korea.

These drills, held annually, are detested in North Korea where they are seen as preparation for an invasion by Kims Western enemies.

The dictator said via a state-run news agency: The Trump group’s declaration of the reckless nuclear war exercises against the DPRK is a reckless behaviour driving the situation into the uncontrollable phase of a nuclear war.

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The Korean People’s Army is keeping a high alert, fully ready to contain the enemies

North Korea state media

Pyongyang also reiterated its claim the USA was now in direct threat of a military strike, warning Hawaii, Guam and the American mainland cannot dodge the merciless strike.

The rogue state added it was on high alert and ready to lash out at the slightest provocation.

The propaganda report said: The Korean People’s Army is keeping a high alert, fully ready to contain the enemies. It will take resolute steps the moment even a slight sign of the preventive war is spotted.

READ MORE:Will the USA attack North Korea?

This most recent North Korea crisis was sparked by US president Donald Trump, who ignored historic US foreign policy towards North Korea and instead promised fire and fury towards the country if they did not soften their war-hungry rhetoric.

This was immediately undermined by Kim, who promised to attack the US island territory of Guam.

Mr Trumps comments have since been criticised by several Washington heavyweights, including former presidential candidate John McCain.

READ MORE: Does North Korea have nuclear weapons?

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He said the US president should have showed restraint and had instead had his bluff called by Kim.

Mr McCain said: “I take exception to the President’s comments because you’ve got to be sure that you can do what you say you’re going to do.

“The great leaders I’ve seen don’t threaten unless they’re ready to act and I’m not sure President Trump is ready to act.

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Verge of WW3? North Korea tells USA to prepare for imminent ‘uncontrollable nuclear war’ – Express.co.uk

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Secret North Korea talks with US RESURRECTED to calm WW3 fears, former official declares – Express.co.uk

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The talks are being conducted using a New York channel through the United Nations, it has been reported.

Key players in the talks are reported to be Joseph Yun, a former US ambassador to Malaysia and now the US special representative for North Korea policy, and North Korea’s senior diplomat, Choe Son Hui, who is head of the Foreign Ministry’s North American office.

Previous secret talks between the countries in Norway are understood to have led to the release of American student Otto Warmbier from North Korea.

Robert Einhorn, a former State Department official and now Brookings senior fellow who was involved in the Norway talks, said: “Since that episode, I’m told that the ‘New York channel’ has been resurrected and there are periodic contacts.

The current back-channel talks between the two nations have been going on for several months, it was reported last week.

Mr Einhorn said the New York channel was resurrected after being interrupted about a year ago when the Obama administration imposed sanctions on North Korea for human rights violations, and also designated dictator Kim Jong Un as one of the targeted individuals.

He said: The North Koreans retaliated by cutting off the New York channel, and what that meant was no official contacts between the United States and North Korea.

Mr Einhorn was also sceptical about the prospect of the US engaging in a formal dialogue with Pyongyang to talk about denuclearisation of North Korea.

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He said: The impression that the US has is that the North Koreans are not eager for such a dialogue.

The US has indicated that before talks can begin that the North Koreans would have to take some steps to demonstrate their sincerity.”

James Carafano, vice president of foreign and defence policy studies at the Heritage Institute, said: “Back-channels are useful tools for sending messages back and forth but they won’t be any kind of path forward in terms of setting up negotiations or resolving things.

Meanwhile, the North Korean regime yesterday said that South Korean President Moon Jae-in miserably failed to improve ties between the two nations during his first 100 days in office.

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Rodong Sinmun, the hermit kingdoms propaganda mouthpiece, said: “In particular, he failed in inter-Korean relations.

He spoke of dialogue and an implementation of inter-Korean agreements, but in reality, he acted in the opposite direction.”

Mr Moon marked his 100th day in office on Thursday.

The South Korean Presidents parents were refugees from North Korea.

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Secret North Korea talks with US RESURRECTED to calm WW3 fears, former official declares – Express.co.uk

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