This article serves as an overview of the topic. For more specific articles and other uses, see Freedom (disambiguation).
Freedom, generally, is having an ability to act or change without constraint. A thing is “free” if it can change its state easily and is not constrained in its present state. In philosophy and religion, it is associated with having free will and being without undue or unjust constraints, or enslavement, and is an idea closely related to the concept of liberty. A person has the freedom to do things that will not, in theory or in practice, be prevented by other forces. Outside of the human realm, freedom generally does not have this political or psychological dimension. A rusty lock might be oiled so that the key has freedom to turn, undergrowth may be hacked away to give a newly planted sapling freedom to grow, or a mathematician may study an equation having many degrees of freedom. In mechanical engineering, “freedom” describes the number of independent motions that are allowed to a body or system, which is generally referred to as degrees of freedom.”
In philosophical discourse, freedom is discussed in the context of free will and self-determination, balanced by moral responsibility.
Advocates of free will regard freedom of thought as innate to the human mind, while opponents regard the mind as thinking only the thoughts that a purely deterministic brain happens to be engaged in at the time.
In political discourse, political freedom is often associated with liberty and autonomy in the sense of “giving oneself one’s own laws”, and with having rights and the civil liberties with which to exercise them without undue interference by the state. Frequently discussed kinds of political freedom include freedom of assembly, freedom of association, freedom of choice, and freedom of speech.
In some circumstances, particularly when discussion is limited to political freedoms, the terms “freedom” and “liberty” tend to be used interchangeably. Elsewhere, however, subtle distinctions between freedom and liberty have been noted. JohnStuartMill, differentiated liberty from freedom in that freedom is primarily, if not exclusively, the ability to do as one wills and what one has the power to do; whereas liberty concerns the absence of arbitrary restraints and takes into account the rights of all involved. As such, the exercise of liberty is subject to capability and limited by the rights of others.
Wendy Hui Kyong Chun explains the differences in terms of their relation to institutions:
Liberty is linked to human subjectivity; freedom is not. The Declaration of Independence, for example, describes men as having liberty and the nation as being free. Free willthe quality of being free from the control of fate or necessitymay first have been attributed to human will, but Newtonian physics attributes freedomdegrees of freedom, free bodiesto objects.
Freedom differs from liberty as control differs from discipline. Liberty, like discipline, is linked to institutions and political parties, whether liberal or libertarian; freedom is not. Although freedom can work for or against institutions, it is not bound to themit travels through unofficial networks. To have liberty is to be liberated from something; to be free is to be self-determining, autonomous. Freedom can or cannot exist within a state of liberty: one can be liberated yet unfree, or free yet enslaved (Orlando Patterson has argued in Freedom: Freedom in the Making of Western Culture that freedom arose from the yearnings of slaves).
Another distinction that some political theorists have deemed important is that people may aspire to have freedom from limiting forces (such as freedom from fear, freedom from want, and freedom from discrimination), but descriptions of freedom and liberty generally do not invoke having liberty from anything. To the contrary, the concept of negative liberty refers to the liberty one person may have to restrict the rights of others.
Other important fields in which freedom is an issue include economic freedom, academic freedom, intellectual freedom, and scientific freedom.
In purely physical terms, freedom is used much more broadly to describe the limits to which physical movement or other physical processes are possible. This relates to the philosophical concept to the extent that people may be considered to have as much freedom as they are physically able to exercise. The number of independent variables or parameters for a system is described as its number of degrees of freedom. For example the movement of a vehicle along a road has two degrees of freedom; to go fast or slow, or to change direction by turning left or right. The movement of a ship sailing on the waves has four degrees of freedom, since it can also pitch nose-to-tail and roll side-to-side. An aeroplane can also climb and sideslip, giving it six degrees of freedom.
Degrees of freedom in mechanics describes the number of independent motions that are allowed to a body, or, in case of a mechanism made of several bodies, the number of possible independent relative motions between the pieces of the mechanism. In the study of complex motor control, there may be so many degrees of freedom that a given action can be achieved in different ways by combining movements with different degrees of freedom. This issue is sometimes called the degrees of freedom problem.
In mathematics freedom is the ability of a variable to change in value.
Some equations have many such variables. This notion is formalized as the dimension of a manifold or an algebraic variety. When degrees of freedom is used instead of dimension, this usually means that the manifold or variety that models the system is only implicitly defined. Such degrees of freedom appear in many mathematical and related disciplines, including degrees of freedom as used in physics and chemistry to explain dependence on parameters, or the dimensions of a phase space; and degrees of freedom in statistics, the number of values in the final calculation of a statistic that are free to vary.
Read the original:
- Superintelligence - Wikipedia - April 21st, 2019
- Nick Bostrom - Wikipedia - April 21st, 2019
- Grady Booch: Don't fear superintelligent AI | TED Talk - April 21st, 2019
- What is Artificial Superintelligence (ASI)? - Definition ... - April 21st, 2019
- Chill: Robots Wont Take All Our Jobs | WIRED - April 21st, 2019
- Freedom | Definition of Freedom by Merriam-Webster - April 20th, 2019
- Freedom | Define Freedom at Dictionary.com - April 20th, 2019
- Freedom - Wikipedia - April 20th, 2019
- Freedom - Block Websites, Apps, and the Internet - April 20th, 2019
- Ripple Price Forecast: XRP vs SWIFT, SEC Updates, and More - April 12th, 2019
- Cryptocurrency News: This Week on Bitfinex, Tether, Coinbase, & More - April 12th, 2019
- Cryptocurrency News: Looking Past the Bithumb Crypto Hack - April 12th, 2019
- Cryptocurrency News: Bitcoin ETFs, Andreessen Horowitz, and Contradictions in Crypto - April 12th, 2019
- Cryptocurrency News: What You Need to Know This Week - April 12th, 2019
- Cryptocurrency News: XRP Validators, Malta, and Practical Tokens - April 12th, 2019
- Cryptocurrency News: Bitcoin ETF Rejection, AMD Microchip Sales, and Hedge Funds - April 12th, 2019
- Cryptocurrency News: New Exchanges Could Boost Crypto Liquidity - April 12th, 2019
- Cryptocurrency News: Vitalik Buterin Doesn’t Care About Bitcoin ETFs - April 12th, 2019
- Bitcoin Rise: Is the Recent Bitcoin Price Surge a Sign of Things to Come or Another Misdirection? - April 12th, 2019
- Seven Ways Cannabis Legalization Will Make the Future Better - April 11th, 2019
- Chinese Scientists Gene-Hacked Super Smart Human-Monkey Hybrids - April 11th, 2019
- Scientists: Next Black Hole Image Will Be Way Clearer - April 11th, 2019
- Zapping Elderly People’s Brains Supercharges Their Working Memory - April 11th, 2019
- Tesla Says Autopilot Is Statistically Safer Than a Human Driver - April 11th, 2019
- China Is Trying to Scrub Bikinis and Smoking From the Internet - April 11th, 2019
- Undersea Robots Are Helping Save the Great Barrier Reef - April 11th, 2019
- Walmart Is Rolling Out Floor-Cleaning Robots in 1,500 Stores - April 11th, 2019
- Some People Are Exceptionally Good at Predicting the Future - April 11th, 2019
- Amazon Is Fighting South American Govs to Control “.Amazon” Domains - April 11th, 2019
- Scientists Say New Quantum Material Could “‘Download’ Your Brain” - April 11th, 2019
- Scientists Find a New Way to Kickstart Stable Fusion Reactions - April 11th, 2019
- The Israeli Moon Lander Is About to Touch Down - April 11th, 2019
- MIT Prof: If We Live in a Simulation, Are We Players or NPCs? - April 11th, 2019
- Here’s How Big the M87 Black Hole Is Compared to the Earth - April 11th, 2019
- Amazon Workers Listen to Your Alexa Conversations, Then Mock Them - April 11th, 2019
- NASA Is Funding the Development of 18 Bizarre New Projects - April 11th, 2019
- Report: Tesla Doc Is Playing Down Injuries to Block Workers’ Comp - April 11th, 2019
- Infertile Couple Gives Birth to “Three-Parent Baby” - April 11th, 2019
- Freedom | Define Freedom at Dictionary.com - April 7th, 2019
- Freedom | Definition of Freedom by Merriam-Webster - April 7th, 2019
- Freedom House - Freedom House - April 7th, 2019
- Freedom - Wikipedia - April 7th, 2019
- Freedom! - YouTube - April 7th, 2019
- Elon Musk: $47,000 Model Y SUV “Will Ride Like a Sports Car” - March 16th, 2019
- Special Announcement: Futurism Media and Singularity University - March 16th, 2019
- Just 19 Percent of Americans Trust Self-Driving Cars With Kids - March 16th, 2019
- This Guy Spent a Whole Week In a VR Headset - March 16th, 2019
- How Can We Build Cities to Accommodate 6.5 Billion People? - March 16th, 2019
- Samsung Is Working on Phone With “Invisible” Camera Behind Screen - March 16th, 2019
- Presidential Hopeful Beto O’Rourke Belonged to Infamous Hacker Group - March 16th, 2019
- Elon Musk: 2019 Will Be “the Year of the Solar Roof” - March 16th, 2019
- Here’s How Hackers Stole $15 Million From Mexican Banks - March 16th, 2019
- Slack Just Removed a Bunch of Hate Groups - March 16th, 2019
- States Are Approving Cannabis to Fight Opioid Addiction - March 16th, 2019
- This Tech Could Secure Medical Implants Against Hackers - March 16th, 2019
- NASA: Space Travel Is Causing Astronauts’ Herpes to Flare Up - March 16th, 2019
- New Robot Hand Works Like a Venus Flytrap to Grip Objects - March 16th, 2019
- Computer Fraud Laws are Flawed, this Lawyer is Fighting Against Them - March 16th, 2019
- NASA Engineer: Humans Should Consider Settling Saturn’s Moon Titan - March 16th, 2019
- New Rocket Engine Could Whip You From London to Sydney in 4 Hours - March 16th, 2019
- Astronomers Just Found 83 Giant Black Holes at Universe’s Edge - March 16th, 2019
- The Pentagon Wants an Orbital Space Weapon to Blast Enemy Missiles - March 16th, 2019
- Pilots Were Worried About Boeing 737 Max Before Deadly Crash - March 14th, 2019
- Russian Scientists Used a Quantum Computer to Turn Back Time - March 14th, 2019
- See the Robot Head That Might Interview You for Your Next Job - March 14th, 2019
- Get Ready For More Interactive Netflix Programming - March 14th, 2019
- NASA Might Send Astronauts Around the Moon on Commercial Rocket - March 14th, 2019
- Ethicist Warns: Future AI Could Take Revenge for How We Treat It Now - March 14th, 2019
- Why IBM Thinks Quantum Computers Will Boost Machine Learning - March 14th, 2019
- First Graphene-Based Device Is A “Few Months” Away, Says Startup - March 14th, 2019
- Experts Call for Temporary World Ban on Gene-Hacked Children - March 14th, 2019
- This Guy is Hacking Printers to Warn About Job-Stealing AI - March 14th, 2019
- Mercury Is Every Planet in the Solar System’s Closest Neighbor - March 14th, 2019
- New Google App Describes Objects to Blind People - March 14th, 2019
- Mayor Announces $10 Billion Plan to Save NYC From Rising Seas - March 14th, 2019
- Facebook Had a Terrible, Horrible, No Good, Very Bad Day - March 14th, 2019
- DARPA Is Building an Open Source Voting Machine - March 14th, 2019
- New Research: People Who Get Defeated By AI Feel Horrible - March 14th, 2019
- See the Most Breathtaking Views of the Martian Surface Yet - March 14th, 2019
- This Autonomous Robot Arm Feeds People Who Can’t Feed Themselves - March 14th, 2019