What is AI (artificial intelligence)? – Definition from …

AI (artificial intelligence) is the simulation of human intelligence processes by machines, especially computer systems. These processes include learning (the acquisition of information and rules for using the information), reasoning (using rules to reach approximate or definite conclusions) and self-correction. Particular applications of AI include expert systems, speech recognition and machine vision.

AI can be categorized in any number of ways, but here are two examples.

The first classifies AI systems as either weak AI or strong AI.Weak AI, also known as narrow AI, is an AI system that is designed and trained for a particular task. Virtual personal assistants, such as Apple’s Siri, are a form of weak AI.

Strong AI, also known as artificial general intelligence, is an AI system with generalized human cognitive abilities so that when presented with an unfamiliar task, it has enough intelligence to find a solution. TheTuring Test, developed by mathematician Alan Turing in 1950, is a method used to determine if a computer can actually think like a human, although the method is controversial.

Alec Ross on AI and robotics

The second example comes from Arend Hintze, an assistant professor of integrative biology and computer science and engineering at Michigan State University. He categorizes AI into four types, from the kind of AI systems that exist today to sentient systems, which do not yet exist. His categories are as follows:

AI is incorporated into a variety of different types of technology. Here are seven examples.

Artificial intelligence has made its way into a number of areas. Here are six examples.

While AI tools present a range of new functionality for businesses, artificial intellignce also raises some ethical questions. Deep learning algorithms, which underpin many of the most advanced AI tools, only know what’s in the data used during training. Most available data sets for training likely contain traces of human bias. This in turn can make the AI tools biased in their function. This has been seen in the Microsoft chatbot Tay, which learned a misogynistic and anti-Semitic vocabulary from Twitter users, and the Google Photo image classification tool that classified a group of African Americans as gorillas.

The application of AI in the realm of self-driving cars also raises ethical concerns. When an autonomous vehicle is involved in an accident, liability is unclear. Autonomous vehicles may also be put in a position where an accident is unavoidable, forcing it to make ethical decisions about how to minimize damage.

Another major concern is the potential for abuse of AI tools. Hackers are starting to use sophisticated machine learning tools to gain access to sensitive systems, complicating the issue of security beyond its current state.

Deep learning-based video and audio generation tools also present bad actors with the tools necessary to create so-called deepfakes, convincingly fabricated videos of public figures saying or doing things that never took place.

Despite these potential risks, there are few regulations governing the use AI tools, and where laws do exist, the typically pertain to AI only indirectly. For example, federal Fair Lending regulations require financial institutions to explain credit decisions to potential customers, which limit the extent to which lenders can use deep learning algorithms, which by their nature are typically opaque. Europe’s GDPR puts strict limits on how enterprises can use consumer data, which impedes the training and functionality of many consumer-facing AI applications.

In 2016, the National Science and Technology Council issued a report examining the potential role governmental regulation might play in AI development, but it did not recommend specific legislation be considered. Since that time the issue has received little attention from lawmakers.

John McCarthy, an American computer scientist, coined the term “artificial intelligence” in 1956 at the Dartmouth Conference where the discipline was born. Today, it is an umbrella term that encompasses everything from robotic process automation to actual robotics. It has gained prominence recently due, in part, tobig data, or the increase in speed, size and variety of data businesses now collect. AI can perform tasks such as identifying patterns in data more efficiently than humans, enabling businesses to gain more insight from theirdata.

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What is AI (artificial intelligence)? – Definition from …

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