Synopsis | Studyguide For Why Nato Endures By Thies, Wallace J., Isbn 9780521767293 – Video



Synopsis | Studyguide For Why Nato Endures By Thies, Wallace J., Isbn 9780521767293
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Synopsis | Studyguide For Why Nato Endures By Thies, Wallace J., Isbn 9780521767293 – Video

Wallace leads medical campus growth and future

By Marija B. Vader

Erik Wallace, M.D., is one of the newest staff members at the University of Colorado Colorado Springs. An internal medicine physician and associate dean, Wallace is working full-time getting the University of Colorado School of Medicines branch campus up and running. Hes recruiting students and faculty. In addition to his role at UCCS, Wallace plans to practice medicine in Colorado Springs. He had worked 10 years at the branch campus at the University of Oklahoma in Tulsa. When the job opened to establish a branch medical campus of the CU system, he jumped at the chance. His passion is medical education. Wallace and his wife Nichole have two daughters.

How has your career prepared you for your current position?

I completed medical school at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis and Internal Medicine training at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. Although I received an outstanding medical education, what I primarily learned was how to diagnose and treat illness from a doctors perspective. During my tenure as faculty at the University of Oklahoma School of Community Medicine, I learned about the individual and public health barriers that patients face when trying to be healthy and productive members of society. Understanding and addressing the social determinants of health from the patients perspective is essential for physicians to provide high-quality, interdisciplinary care in the 21st century. As a clinician-educator, I have had the opportunity to develop innovative medical education programs for students, residents and faculty at both local and national levels. Colorado Springs has not had a structure for medical education, so it now has an opportunity to develop unique education models that provide a superior experience for medical students who are engaged in improving the health of the community.

The Colorado Springs Branch is the first branch of the CU School of Medicine. How does one go about creating a medical school branch?

There has been tremendous growth in medical school branches in the past decade in the U.S. The branches not only help medical schools expand their class sizes to train more doctors, but these branches allow students to learn and work in communities where there are new clinical training opportunities and where there are physician shortages. The success of medical school branches, including the Colorado Springs branch, depends on the support of the main medical school campus and the support of the community where it is located. Creating a brand new medical school is extraordinarily expensive several hundred million dollars. Creating a branch of an existing medical school is far more cost-effective.

When will this campus have medical students?

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Wallace leads medical campus growth and future

Imaging Technology Could Unlock Mysteries of a Childhood Disease

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Newswise By the time theyre two, most children have had respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and suffered symptoms no worse than a bad cold. But for some children, especially premature babies and those with underlying health conditions, RSV can lead to pneumonia and bronchitis which can require hospitalization and have long-term consequences.

A new technique for studying the structure of the RSV virion and the activity of RSV in living cells could help researchers unlock the secrets of the virus, including how it enters cells, how it replicates, how many genomes it inserts into its hosts and perhaps why certain lung cells escape the infection relatively unscathed. That could provide scientists information they need to develop new antiviral drugs and perhaps even a vaccine to prevent severe RSV infections.

We want to develop tools that would allow us to get at how the virus really works, said Philip Santangelo, an associate professor in the Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering at Georgia Tech and Emory University. We really need to be able to follow the infection in a single living cell without affecting how the virus infects its hosts, and this technology should allow us to do that.

The research was supported by the National Institutes of Healths National Institute of General Medical Sciences and published online ahead of print in the journal ACS Nano on December 30, 2013. While RSV will be the first target for the work, the researchers believe the imaging technique they developed could be used to study other RNA viruses, including influenza and Ebola.

Weve shown that we can tag the genome using our probes, explained Santangelo. What weve learned from this is that the genome does get incorporated into the virion, and that the virus particles created are infectious. We were able to characterize some aspects of the virus particle itself at super-resolution, down to 20 nanometers, using direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM) imaging.

RSV can be difficult to study. For one thing, the infectious particle can take different forms, ranging from 10-micron filaments to ordinary spheres. The virus can insert more than one genome into the host cells and the RNA orientation and structure are disordered, which makes it difficult to characterize.

The research team, which included scientists from Vanderbilt University and Emory University, used a probe technology that quickly attaches to RNA within cells. The probe uses multiple fluorophores to indicate the presence of the viral RNA, allowing the researchers to see where it goes in host cells and to watch as infectious particles leave the cells to spread the infection.

Being able to see the genome and the progeny RNA that comes from the genome with the probes we use really give us much more insight into the replication cycle, Santangelo said. This gives us much more information about what the virus is really doing. If we can visualize the entry, assembly and replication of the virus, that would allow us to decide what to go after to fight the virus.

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Imaging Technology Could Unlock Mysteries of a Childhood Disease

'Defined Voices': Giap, Wallace, and freedom

‘Defined Voices’: Giap, Wallace, and freedom By Ramzy Baroud

“Nothing is more precious than freedom,” is quoted as being attributed to Vo Nguyen Giap, the Vietnamese general who led his country through two liberation wars. The first was against French colonialists, the second against the Americans. And despite heavy and painful losses, Vietnam prevailed, defeating the first colonial quest at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu (1954) and the second at Ho Chi Minh Campaign (1975).

General Giap, the son of a peasant scholar, stood tall in both

He died on Friday, October 4, at the age of 102.

On the same day, the former black panther Herman Wallace, who had spent 41-years of his life in solitary confinement in Louisiana State Penitentiary, died from incurable liver cancer at the age of 71. Just a few days before his death, Judge Brian Jackson had overturned a charge that robbed Herman of much of his life. According to Jackson, Herman’s 1974 conviction of killing a prison guard was ‘unconstitutional.’

Despite the lack of material evidence, discredited witnesses and a sham trial, Wallace, who was a poet and lover of literature, and two other prisoners known as the Angola Three, were locked up to spend a life of untold hardship for a crime they didn’t commit.

Now that Wallace is dead, two remain. One, Robert King, 70, was freed in 2001, and the other, Albert Woodfox, 66, is still in solitary confinement and “undergoes daily cavity searches,” according to reported the Independent newspaper.

“When his conviction was overturned it cleared the slate – he could die a man not convicted of a crime he was innocent of,” King said of the release of Wallace, who died few days later.

One of the last photos released while on his hospital bed, showed Wallace raising his clinched right fist, perpetuating the legendary defiance of a whole generation of African Americans and civil rights leaders. While some fought for civil rights in the streets of American cities, Wallace fought for the rights of prisoners. The four decades of solitary confinement were meant to break him. Instead, it made it him stronger.

“If death is the realm of freedom, then through death I escape to freedom” Wallace quoted Frantz Fanon in the introduction to a poem he wrote from prison in 2012.

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'Defined Voices': Giap, Wallace, and freedom

Ask Me Anything: Having a Forced Conversation with an Artificial Intelligence

In the early 1960s, Hanna-Barbera conceived an animated TV sitcom that imagined a typical American family in 2062: Dad commutes to work in a flying saucer; young Elroy putters to school by pushing buttons on his jet-pack; the women (ahem) shop futuristically. But the real stars of this Jetsonian utopia are the robots. They clean houses, repair appliances, and help raise kids. Others dispense advice. If the creators’ predictions come to pass, then we’re just 49 years removed from a world in which human minds are virtually indistinguishable from anthropomorphic machines.

If only it were that easy, says Richard Wallace, a computer scientist who has worked in artificial intelligence since the 1990s, when most robots were just inexpensive computers with simple sensors. Back then, Roomba vacuum cleaners were the gold standard. A minimalist gadget that could clean a house by itself was about as much as humans could expect from their technology.

That was around the time Wallace got fixated on the idea of making a robot with a personality and language skills. He’d read a New York Times article about the Loebner Contest, an annual competition launched in 1990 by Hugh Loebner American inventor, prostitution activist, and pariah among scientists (in 1995, MIT professor Marvin Minsky famously offered a $100 “Minsky prize” to anyone who could persuade Loebner to terminate his contest and “spare us the horror of this obnoxious and unproductive publicity campaign.”) Loebner has scoured the world for machines that could pass as humans, or that at least have enough comprehension of human language to answer such questions as, “How many plums can you fit in my shoe?” He’s a disciple of 20th-century mathematician Alan Turing, whose eponymous Turing Test required a judge to hold conversations with a computer and a human simultaneously, in order to compare the two. A machine could only pass if its responses were indistinguishable from a human’s. Loebner’s version of the test amounts to a lengthy interrogation conducted via instant-messaging.

But it seems his notion of a truly conversant “chatbot” is still a pipe dream. To this day, Loebner has never handed out a gold or silver medal, because no contender has even come close. But Wallace thinks that he and a small menagerie of Bay Area programmers have a shot. Barring that, they see huge commercial potential in chatbot software, in everything from smartphone language tutorials to entertainment apps to voice-activated “personal assistants” that compete with Siri. For Wallace and his ilk, bots are both an artistic muse and a line of products, and Loebner’s contest is a vehicle to help develop them.

Wallace’s East Bay company, Pandorabots, runs an open-source web service that allows anyone to create his or her own chatbot by cloning a primitive software language called AIML (Artificial Intelligence Markup Language). Wallace used it to create his own chatbot, called Alice, in the ’90s, modeling it on a primitive pattern-recognition program that breaks English down into key words and canned phrases. He used Alice to clinch the Loebner bronze medal in 2000, 2001, and 2004, and now he’s offering the prototype out to all fledgling programmers, and encouraging them to give it their own spin.

Ideally, each Pandorabot should have its own personality and backstory (a sassy alien, a nubile teenage girl, Siri if you gave her a pack of cigarettes and the voice of Julie Kavner). The good ones should be adept at making small talk and answering yes-no questions, which account for the majority of what we say to each other, Wallace says. “Humans aren’t as original with language as we like to think we are,” he says. The better bots should know how to take a theme and expound upon it.

Theoretically, you could create a chatbot to monologue exclusively about its cousin’s Bar Mitzvah or its new balsa-wood boat. But you could also program it to know Shakespeare, or provide the entire exegesis of 20-century UK pop music, or dazzle users with SAT vocabulary words. Perhaps it’s no surprise that English majors design the best chatbots, according to experts.

Pandorabots holds a “Diva Bots” pageant every March to cherry-pick its protgs, many of which go on to the Loebner finals; this year, three of the four Loebner finalists, including the winner, were on the Pandorabots team. The real contest happens every year in Ireland, and from Wallace’s description, it’s a kind of artificial intelligence version of Miss America, albeit with a lot of “aggressive questioning.” Four judges cross-examine each bot, and its human designer, on a split-screen computer, and try to distinguish which is which. Bots are scored on their ability to speak naturally and exhibit “human” intelligence. Only one ever fooled the judges, and that was because its human confederate tried to cheat by acting as robotic as possible.

This year’s (bronze) winner, a big-eyed ‘tween ‘bot named Mitsuku, seemed only as lifelike as her middle-aged handler, Steve Worswick. Nonetheless, we were intrigued. We decided to visit Mitsuku at her web page to try a little cross-examining of our own. Here’s what resulted:

Human: My name is Arlo

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Ask Me Anything: Having a Forced Conversation with an Artificial Intelligence

Douglas Wallace to Receive Gruber Foundation 2012 Genetics Prize

PHILADELPHIA Douglas C. Wallace, PhD, professor of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, at the Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, is the recipient of the 2012 Genetics Prize of the Gruber Foundation. Wallace is a pioneering genetics researcher who founded the field of mitochondrial genetics in humans. He is also the director of the Center for Mitochondrial and Epigenomic Medicine at The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia.

Wallace is being honored with this prestigious international award for his groundbreaking achievements in understanding the role of mitochondriathe “power plants” of cellsin the development of disease and as markers for human evolution. He is also being honored for training and inspiring numerous pre- and postdoctoral students who have gone on to have distinguished careers of their own.

Wallace will receive the award on November 9 at the annual meeting of the American Society of Human Genetics in San Francisco. The Gruber Foundation, now based at Yale University, announced the Genetics Prize on June 28. The Foundation’s Genetics Prize annually honors leading scientists for groundbreaking contributions to genetics research. The Peter and Patricia Gruber Foundation’s International Prize Program honors contemporary individuals in the fields of Cosmology, Genetics, Neuroscience, Justice and Women’s Rights, whose groundbreaking work provides new models that inspire and enable fundamental shifts in knowledge and culture. The Gruber Foundation’s Genetics Prize, a gold medal and an unrestricted $500,000 cash award for fundamental insights in the field of genetics, was established in 2001.

“Douglas Wallace’s contributions to our understanding of mitochondrial genetics have changed the way human and medical geneticists think about the role of mitochondria in human health and disease.” said Elizabeth Blackburn, chair of the Selection Advisory Board to the Prize. Blackburn is the 2006 Gruber Genetics Prize laureate and shared the 2009 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine.

Wallace began his research on mitochondrial biology 40 years ago, at a time when few people thought the study of mitochondria and its DNA (mtDNA) would have any significant applications for clinical medicine. In the late 1970s, Wallace demonstrated that human mtDNA is inherited solely through the mother. Using maternal inheritance as a guide, Wallace identified the first inherited mtDNA disease -Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy – and subsequently linked mtDNA mutations to a wide range of clinical symptoms, including deafness, neuropsychiatric disorders, cardiac and muscle problems, and metabolic diseases such as diabetes. Wallace also showed that mtDNA mutations accumulate in human tissue with age, and thus may play a role in age-related diseases, such as heart disease and cancer. In addition, he found that the levels of these age-related mtDNA mutations are higher in the brains of people with certain neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, and Huntington disease.

Wallace’s research has also made a major contribution to the field of molecular anthropology. Using mtDNA variation, he has reconstructed the origins and ancient migrations of women, tracing all mtDNA lineages back some 200,000 years to a single African origin the so-called mitochondrial Eve.

Wallace holds the Michael and Charles Barnett Endowed Chair in Pediatric Mitochondrial Medicine at Children’s Hospital. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, as well as the Academy’s Institute of Medicine, and is also a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Wallace joined the Penn Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine in 2010 and previously held academic positions at Stanford University, at Emory University, where he chaired the Department of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, and most recently at the University of California Irvine, where he was Director of the Center for Molecular and Mitochondrial Medicine and Genetics.

For more information, read the Gruber Foundation news release.

The Perelman School of Medicine is currently ranked #2 in U.S. News & World Report’s survey of research-oriented medical schools. The School is consistently among the nation’s top recipients of funding from the National Institutes of Health, with $479.3 million awarded in the 2011 fiscal year.

The University of Pennsylvania Health System’s patient care facilities include: The Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania — recognized as one of the nation’s top 10 hospitals by U.S. News & World Report; Penn Presbyterian Medical Center; and Pennsylvania Hospital the nation’s first hospital, founded in 1751. Penn Medicine also includes additional patient care facilities and services throughout the Philadelphia region.

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Douglas Wallace to Receive Gruber Foundation 2012 Genetics Prize

$500,000 Gruber Foundation Genetics Prize goes to Philadelphia scientist

Public release date: 28-Jun-2012 [ | E-mail | Share ]

Contact: Sara Hrera media@gruberprizes.org 203-432-6231 Yale University

Douglas C. Wallace, PhD, a pioneering genetics researcher who founded the field of mitochondrial genetics in humans, will receive the 2012 Genetics Prize of The Gruber Foundation. Wallace is being honored with this prestigious international award for his groundbreaking achievements in helping science understand the role of mitochondriathe “power plants” of cellsin the development of disease and as markers for human evolution.

He will receive the award November 9 in San Francisco at the Annual Meeting of the American Society of Human Genetics, where he will also deliver a lecture titled “A Bioenergetic Perspective on Origins, Health, and Disease”.

“Douglas Wallace’s contributions to our understanding of mitochondrial genetics have changed the way human and medical geneticists think about the role of mitochondria in human health and disease,” said Elizabeth Blackburn, chair of the Selection Advisory Board to the Prize. Blackburn is the 2006 Gruber Genetics Prize laureate and shared the 2009 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine.

Wallace began his research on mitochondrial biology 40 years ago, at a time when few people thought the study of mitochondria and its DNA (mtDNA) would have any significant applications for clinical medicine. In the early 1970s, Wallace and associates demonstrated that the mtDNA coded for heritable traits by developing the cybrid transfer technique and showing that chloramphenicol resistance was cytoplasmically inherited. This system permitted them to delineate the characteristics of cytoplasmic genetics. Then in the late 1970s, Wallace demonstrated that the human mtDNA is inherited solely through the mother. Using maternal inheritance as a guide, Wallace identified the first inherited mtDNA disease, Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON), and subsequently linked mtDNA mutations to a wide range of clinical symptoms, including deafness, neuropsychiatric disorders, cardiac and muscle problems, and metabolic diseases such as diabetes. Wallace also showed that mtDNA mutations accumulate in human tissue with age, and thus may play a role in age-related diseases, such as heart disease and cancer. In addition, he found that the levels of these age-related mtDNA mutations are higher in the brains of people with certain neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease and Huntington disease.

Wallace’s research has also made a major contribution to the field of molecular anthropology. Using mtDNA variation, he has reconstructed the origins and ancient migrations of women, tracing all mtDNA lineages back some 200,000 years to a single African originthe so-called mitochondrial Eve.

“The impact of Doug Wallace’s visionary research has been remarkable,” said Huda Zoghbi, a member of Selection Advisory Board and the 2011 laureate of the Gruber Neuroscience Prize. “His discovery of the first mtDNA mutations in humans opened up the field of mitochondrial genetics and demonstrated the role of mitochondria in many human diseases. It’s an extraordinary legacyand he is richly deserving of this award.”

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By agreement made in the spring of 2011 The Gruber Foundation has now been established at Yale University.

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$500,000 Gruber Foundation Genetics Prize goes to Philadelphia scientist

Genetic packing: Successful stem cell differentiation requires DNA compaction, study finds

Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining of sections of wild-type (top row) and H1 triple-knockout (bottom row) embryoid bodies. After 14 days in rotary suspension culture, the wild-type embryoid bodies showed more differentiated morphologies with cysts forming (black arrows) and the knockout embryoid bodies failed to form cavities (far right). (Credit: Yuhong Fan)

(Phys.org) — New research findings show that embryonic stem cells unable to fully compact the DNA inside them cannot complete their primary task: differentiation into specific cell types that give rise to the various types of tissues and structures in the body.

Researchers from the Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University found that chromatin compaction is required for proper embryonic stem cell differentiation to occur. Chromatin, which is composed of histone proteins and DNA, packages DNA into a smaller volume so that it fits inside a cell.

A study published on May 10, 2012 in the journal PLoS Genetics found that embryonic stem cells lacking several histone H1 subtypes and exhibiting reduced chromatin compaction suffered from impaired differentiation under multiple scenarios and demonstrated inefficiency in silencing genes that must be suppressed to induce differentiation.

While researchers have observed that embryonic stem cells exhibit a relaxed, open chromatin structure and differentiated cells exhibit a compact chromatin structure, our study is the first to show that this compaction is not a mere consequence of the differentiation process but is instead a necessity for differentiation to proceed normally, said Yuhong Fan, an assistant professor in the Georgia Tech School of Biology.

Fan and Todd McDevitt, an associate professor in the Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering at Georgia Tech and Emory University, led the study with assistance from Georgia Tech graduate students Yunzhe Zhang and Kaixiang Cao, research technician Marissa Cooke, and postdoctoral fellow Shiraj Panjwani.

The work was supported by the National Institutes of Healths National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS), the National Science Foundation, a Georgia Cancer Coalition Distinguished Scholar Award, and a Johnson & Johnson/Georgia Tech Healthcare Innovation Award.

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Phase contrast images showing that H1 triple-knockout (bottom) embryonic stem cells were unable to adequately form neurites and neural networks compared to wild-type embryonic stem cells (top). (Click image for high-resolution version. Credit: Yuhong Fan)

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Genetic packing: Successful stem cell differentiation requires DNA compaction, study finds