Animal euthanasia – Wikipedia

This article is about mercy killing of animals. For compassionate death in humans, see Euthanasia.

Animal euthanasia (euthanasia from Greek: ; “good death”) is the act of putting an animal to death or allowing it to die by withholding extreme medical measures. Reasons for euthanasia include incurable (and especially painful) conditions or diseases,[1] lack of resources to continue supporting the animal, or laboratory test procedures. Euthanasia methods are designed to cause minimal pain and distress. Euthanasia is distinct from animal slaughter and pest control although in some cases the procedure is the same.

In domesticated animals, this process is commonly referred to by euphemisms such as “put down” or “put to sleep”.

The methods of euthanasia can be divided into pharmacological and physical methods. Acceptable pharmacological methods include injected drugs and gases that first depress the central nervous system and then cardiovascular activity. Acceptable physical methods must first cause rapid loss of consciousness by disrupting the central nervous system. The most common methods are discussed here, but there are other acceptable methods used in different situations.[2]

Unconsciousness, respiratory then cardiac arrest follow rapidly, usually within 30seconds.[3] Observers generally describe the method as leading to a quick and peaceful death.

Some veterinarians perform a two-stage process: an initial injection that simply renders the pet unconscious and a second shot that causes death.[citation needed] This allows the owner the chance to say goodbye to a live pet without their emotions stressing the pet. It also greatly mitigates any tendency toward spasm and other involuntary movement which tends to increase the emotional upset that the pet’s owner experiences.

For large animals, the volumes of barbiturates required are considered by some to be impractical, although this is standard practice in the United States.[4] For horses and cattle, other drugs may be available. Some specially formulated combination products are available, such as Somulose (Secobarbital/Cinchocaine) and Tributame (Embutramide/Chloroquine/Lidocaine), which cause deep unconsciousness and cardiac arrest independently with a lower volume of injection, thus making the process faster, safer, and more effective.

Occasionally, a horse injected with these mixtures may display apparent seizure activity before death. This may be due to premature cardiac arrest. However, if normal precautions (e.g., sedation with detomidine) are taken, this is rarely a problem.[5] Anecdotal reports that long-term use of phenylbutazone increases the risk of this reaction are unverified.

After the animal has died, it is not uncommon for the body to have posthumous body jerks, or for the animal to have a sudden bladder outburst.

Gas anesthetics such as isoflurane and sevoflurane can be used for euthanasia of very small animals. The animals are placed in sealed chambers where high levels of anesthetic gas are introduced. Death may also be caused using carbon dioxide once unconsciousness has been achieved by inhaled anaesthetic.[6] Carbon dioxide is often used on its own for euthanasia of wild animals.[7] There are mixed opinions on whether it causes distress when used on its own, with human experiments lending support to the evidence that it can cause distress and equivocal results in non-humans.[8] In 2013, the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) issued new guidelines for carbon dioxide induction, stating that a flow rate of 10% to 30% volume/min is optimal for the humane euthanization of small rodents.[9]

Carbon monoxide is often used, but some states in the US have banned its use in animal shelters: although carbon monoxide poisoning is not particularly painful, the conditions in the gas chamber are often not humane.[10]Nitrogen has been shown to be effective, although some young animals are rather resistant[11] and it currently is not widely used.

Cervical dislocation, or displacement (breaking or fracturing) of the neck, is an older yet less common method of killing small animals such as mice. Performed properly it is intended to cause as painless death as possible and has no cost or equipment involved. The handler must know the proper method of executing the movement which will cause the cervical displacement and without proper training and method education there is a risk of not causing death and can cause severe pain and suffering. It is unknown how long an animal remains conscious, or the level of suffering it goes through after a correct snapping of the neck, which is why it has become less common and often substituted with inhalants.

When intravenous injection is not possible, euthanasia drugs such as pentobarbital can be injected directly into a heart chamber or body cavity.

While intraperitoneal injection is fully acceptable (although it may take up to 15 minutes to take effect in dogs and cats[6]), an intracardiac (IC) injection may only be performed on an unconscious or deeply sedated animal. Performing IC injections on a fully conscious animal in places with humane laws for animal handling is often a criminal offense.[12]

This can be an appropriate means of euthanasia for large animals (e.g., horses, cattle, deer) if performed properly. This may be performed by means of:

The reasons for euthanasia of pets and other animals include:

Small animal euthanasia is typically performed in a veterinary clinic or hospital or in an animal shelter and is usually carried out by a veterinarian or a veterinary technician working under the veterinarian’s supervision. Often animal shelter workers are trained to perform euthanasia as well. Some veterinarians will perform euthanasia at the pet owner’s homethis is virtually mandatory in the case of large animal euthanasia. In the case of large animals which have sustained injuries, this will also occur at the site of the accident, for example, on a racecourse.

Some animal rights organizations support animal euthanasia in certain circumstances and practice euthanasia at shelters that they operate.[15]

In the U.S., for companion animals euthanized in animal shelters, 14 states prescribe intravenous injection as the required method. These laws date to 1990, when Georgia’s “Humane Euthanasia Act” became the first state law to mandate this method. Before that, gas chambers and other means were commonly employed. The Georgia law was resisted by the Georgia Commissioner of Agriculture, Tommy Irvin, who was charged with enforcing the act. In March 2007, he was sued by former State Representative Chesley V. Morton, who wrote the law, and subsequently ordered by the Court to enforce all provisions of the Act.[16]

Many pet owners choose to have their pets cremated or buried after the pet is euthanized,[17] and there are pet funeral homes that specialize in animal burial or cremation.[18] Otherwise, the animal facility will often freeze the body and subsequently send it to the local landfill.[19]

In some instances, animals euthanized at shelters or animal control agencies have been sent to meat rendering facilities[20][21][22] to be processed for use in cosmetics, fertilizer, gelatin, poultry feed, pharmaceuticals and pet food.[23] It was proposed that the presence of pentobarbital in dog food may have caused dogs to become less responsive to the drug when being euthanized.[24] However, a 2002 FDA study found no dog or cat DNA in the foods they tested, so it was theorized that the drug found in dog food came from euthanized cattle and horses. Furthermore, the level of the drug found in pet food was safe.[25]

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Animal euthanasia – Wikipedia

Evolution | Castle Clash Wiki | FANDOM powered by Wikia

IGG released a new features in the (Sept/Oct 2015) update, which enables Legendary 10 star Heroes to continue getting tougher and gain a new look.

Currently only Legendary Heroes can be evolved and although evolve, their HP per level does not.

AlsoHarpy Queen is subject to an anomalous drop in her HP base.

A Hero must fulfil all the evolutionary (evo) Hero requirements before a it can be evolved. When a Hero is ready to evolve it will appear in the Heroes Altar with the its Star Level shining and the Hero will have Evolve where you typically see the Upgrade button:

The initialmove speed will drop to the 4 Starspeed for evo1 and 5 Starspeed for evo2.

The returned books must be claimed from your mailbox within 7 days.

The following tables shows the minimum number of books that are returned for each level, what level these books can level a new hero to and for each level where the next 500k break starts on that level (add 500k steps to this number to find where the subsequent breaks start, ie for 183 the first break is 313,501 , so the next break will be at 313,501 + 500,000, the next at 313,501 + 2 x 500,000 etc).

Honor Badges are also used to increase the Star level of a hero, which raises it’s maximum level capacity:

Use the “Base Evo Stats (Level Up)” shown in a Hero’s “Info Box” (found at the top right of each Hero’s page) to calculate a Hero’s damage (DMG) and Hit/Health Points (HP) for a given HeroLevel:

Spirit Mage example withDamage: [669+] 378 (+13) andHitpoints:[10230+] 1680 (+90):

Evolved Heroes Star level evolve from level 1 with 3 +evolution generationStars.This means that the Hero’s Stars will not increase until the evolved Hero reaches the relevant level to Star level, ie, level 80 to go above 4Stars, level 100 to goabove 5Stars.

EvolvedHeroesstill follow the standard stats formula with these exceptions:

This now means that calculating evolved stats includes theHero’sunique fixedbaseas well as newbase stats(be careful not to confusebasewithbase stats) which is typically shown in [x+] in theHero’sInfo Box” andStarswill not start to increase until theHeroreaches 4 or moreStars.

The evo1 heroes’ stats have many advantages over their counterparts including starting out with a massive base making them up to around 3.0x – 1.88x HP and about 1.6x – 1.33x DMG than their counterparts. But this is partially offset byStarlevelingup increases not starting until theHeroreaches 5Stars.

Evo1 HP and Evo1 DMG are larger than its equivalent counterpart but the biggest increase is with HP with DMG being much smaller increase.

For HP, an evo1 hero at level 66e1-68e1 will typically be match the HP of its level 180 counterpart and 132e1-135e1 for DMG. But at 66e1-68e1 an evo1’s hero DMG will still be well under will that of the level 180, but rather be close to that of level 104-110. It is not until an evo1 hero gets to level 132e1 that its DMG becomes a close match for its counterpart at level 180.

In battle simulations an evo1 level of between 100e1 and 120e1 typically matchesits level 180 counterpart. But this does vary from hero to hero with some heroes able to match at 100e1 and others only barely at 120e1.

– Hero must reach 10 Stars (at least level 180 )

– 1 Evolution Rune (can be obtained by spending 1000 Fame collected from Lost Battlefield)

– 1,000 Red Crystals

– 1 duplicate of the same Hero, you can provide the duplicate by 3 ways:

All Experience gained by the hero after reaching level 180 (10Stars)will be returned inBless Tome experience books (500,000 exp), typically rounded up to the nearest 500,000 exp.

– Hero must reach 10 Stars of the first Evolution system

– 5 Evolution Runes

– 2,000 Red Crystals

– 3 duplicates of the same Hero

If Hero has a higher level than 185, the Experience gained after reaching 185 will be returned in Bless Tome || experience books (500,000 exp).

Honor Badges aren’t used for evolving heroes but they will be used to level them up.

Evolution Compare: Evo2 versus Evo1 @ level 185

Evo2 versus Evo1 at level 185: Comparing Evo2 (all levels) to Evo1 at level 185 to see differences in the evolution from evo1 level 185 to evo2.

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Evolution | Castle Clash Wiki | FANDOM powered by Wikia

Vigliotti: Human Rights and Technology – Carroll County Times

Facebook has announced that it has shut down an artificial intelligence experiment after the AI forms involved began speaking in their own language. This comes not long after Elon Musk, founder and CEO of aerospace company SpaceX, drew criticism for cautions against AI in a speech to American governors July 15. Musk has maintained the position that AI is civilizations greatest risk, and that laws must be put into place to regulate it. He has been criticized for his approach by many, but Musks concerns should be welcomed amid a seemingly unquestioning, relentlessly popular push to advance technology and shatter boundaries. In light of this progress, humanity and human rights must be fundamentally significant.

That Musk should appeal to American governors is no surprise. Musk, a South African by birth, has described himself as nauseatingly pro-American and has displayed tremendous love and respect for the United States. Musk knows it is a place of opportunity and possibility especially for technology.

History bears this out. Elbert Smith, in his book The Presidencies of Zachary Taylor and Millard Fillmore, touches upon the historic centrality of technological advancement to the American makeup as the country began to function in earnest: In the development of new technology the brash young nation was unsurpassed. Between 1840 and 1850, budding American inventors applied for 13,297 patents and received 6,033.

These innovations included new ways of cultivating and harvesting grain; steel plows designed to cut through prairie earth; newer and faster trains with greater carrying capacity both for passengers and goods; and Yankee clippers, designed for trade by water. Today as then, men like Elon Musk, American by birth or by immigration, manifest the future.

Musk also knows many Americans carefully consider these innovations. We know innovation can come at a price. New devices, systems, machines, software and other creations can be used for harm as well as for good; and can bear negative consequences as well as positive outcomes. Americans are by no means Luddites seeking to tear up train tracks, but Americans are careful in their approach to particular forms of new technology. We rightfully worry about those who would sooner pay attention to their smartphones than the human being sitting across the restaurant table, to cite one common example.

When the focus is on the machine and not the man, we know there is cause for concern. Interactivity with the machine instead of interaction with our fellow human beings creates a kind of selfish isolation: We are dulled to human connection, and distanced from love of the other. A machine, for the moment, is subject to our control; and a human being other than ourselves is a free agent who cannot be controlled in the same fashion. And so we turn away from the other to ourselves.

In so doing, we lose the respect of recognition of the other, and the other becomes unimportant. We lose what philosopher Roger Scruton refers to as the you-I relationship. Philosopher Gilbert Ryles contention that there is no ghost in the machine (read: human body) that there is no mind or soul that exists within the human body that distinguishes it is artificially upheld by our own choosing of technology. That ghost our God-breathed souls is rendered irrelevant. The human becomes merely a body, or a machine. Our humanity is therefore lost, and those whom we disagree with and cannot control become second to technology. Machines can therein become a means to control those whom with which we disagree, by indoctrination, systematic enforcement or violence. And in the case of Facebooks AI, the machines can take on a life of their own.

Musks precautions have been criticized by many as being grounded more in science fiction films than in reality but it is clear Musks concerns have merit. Typically, we consider movies like those of the Terminator series against a backdrop of dystopian novels and films to attempt to gain a broader understanding of the limits of our progress, and the ramifications of unchecked innovation. History and current events tell us the same. They tell us that free societies and totalitarian regimes tend toward different ends, will use the technology available to them, and will set out to innovate from the present. (Consider the level of technologically-based censorship of information in North Korea.) We know that a free society can descend into tyranny, even predicated on good intentions. Fiction often reflects reality, and fiction can explore the theoretical. Combined, these things prove to be an omen.

We come away from this with a simple philosophical precept that has existed for thousands of years: Just because it can be done, does not mean it should be done. Before we commit to any course, we have to ask fundamental questions regarding our humanity, our culture and our laws. For example, do we allow private ownership of AI forms that have the ability to wield or act as weapons? Do we limit or regulate the kinds of activities and functions these AI forms can engage in, such as work, parenting, sex and inventing their own languages? Do we limit the level and range of intelligence and adaptability an AI form may possess? Do we consider the AI form to have any rights, or a different kind of rights and would this affect our own human rights and humanity as whole? What do we do when a company fails to self-regulate, and a situation like Facebooks is not succinctly concluded? Do we have a right to do anything at all?

This is not alarmism, but proactivism. We must be optimistic, but cautious; and we must be hopeful yet realistic. Technological innovation and progress are beautiful things but these things can also impose dangers. That two of Facebooks AI forms could begin communicating in a language known only to them is immensely disturbing, and removes a barrier between science fiction and reality. Before we act, we have to have answers to fundamental questions else, innovation will be our undoing.

Joe Vigliotti is a writer and a Taneytown city councilman. He can be reached through his website at http://www.jvigliotti.com.

Originally posted here:

Vigliotti: Human Rights and Technology – Carroll County Times