What does molecular medicine mean? – Definitions.net

Molecular medicine

Molecular medicine is a broad field, where physical, chemical, biological and medical techniques are used to describe molecular structures and mechanisms, identify fundamental molecular and genetic errors of disease, and to develop molecular interventions to correct them. The molecular medicine perspective emphasizes cellular and molecular phenomena and interventions rather than the previous conceptual and observational focus on patients and their organs. In November 1949, with the seminal paper, “Sickle Cell Anemia, a Molecular Disease”, in Science magazine, Linus Pauling, Harvey Itano and their collaborators laid the groundwork for establishing the field of molecular medicine. In 1956, Roger J. Williams wrote Biochemical Individuality, a prescient book about genetics, prevention and treatment of disease on a molecular basis, and nutrition which is now variously referred to as individualized medicine and orthomolecular medicine. Another paper in Science by Pauling in 1968, introduced and defined this view of molecular medicine that focuses on natural and nutritional substances used for treatment and prevention. Published research and progress was slow until the 1970s’ “biological revolution” that introduced many new techniques and commercial applications.

Continued here:

What does molecular medicine mean? – Definitions.net

MOVIE REVIEW: 'Transcendence'

There is a tradition of excellent cinematic explorations of artificial intelligence from Alphaville to 2001 to The Matrix. However, Transcendence belongs to that subgenre of usually terrible films about the Internet.

Johnny Depp plays Will Caster, a computer scientist who is on the verge of a series of breakthroughs that would permit sentient brain functions to be uploaded into a computer, creating a human form of artificial intelligence. Hes a bit of a self-parody purporting to be publicity shy, but posing for a Wired magazine cover that he repeatedly is called upon to autograph.

His work has drawn the attention of a neo-Luddite terrorist network who believe that true artificial intelligence will make human civilization obsolete or even subservient to computer overlords.

Will is shot at point-blank range in a coordinated terrorist attack. However, thanks to some shockingly poor marksmanship, Will is only grazed in the assault.

But it turns out that the shooter has hedged against this possibility with the use of a polonium-laced bullet, and a wasting radiation sickness soon follows. Will has a few months, therefore, to lay the groundwork necessary to upload his consciousness with the help of his devoted wife Evelyn (Rebecca Hall) and his best friend and colleague Max (Paul Bettany).

Once Will is uploaded and online, he moves quickly to squeeze money out of the stock market to provide Evelyn with funds to build a remote, solar-powered cloud computing facility deep in the desert badlands of the American West.

He lords over his creation as a ubiquitous and unsleeping image, projected like Big Brother onto thousands of high-definition monitors.

There, freed from almost all restraint, Wills intelligence expands to create computerized tools to take over and network human minds, repair bodies with nanotechnology, and even grow human tissue from scratch. Some mad scientists reanimate brains, others reformat them its just a question of technology.

Word leaks out about the restorative powers of Wills researches, and his underground lair becomes a kind of Lourdes for pilgrims seeking his healing touch. (The religious overtones are kind of tacked on, but unmistakable.)

At the same time, he also draws the attention of the authorities, including Joseph Tagger, a government scientist played by Morgan Freeman. Tagger takes charge of a surprisingly low-key effort to take down the looming global threat posed by Wills computer incarnation.

Go here to read the rest:

MOVIE REVIEW: 'Transcendence'

Tomorrow's Medicine

See Inside

A look at some of the most promising medical devices now in development

Photographs by Dan Saelinger

Over the past few years researchers have taken advantage of unprecedented advances in biology, electronics and human genetics to develop an impressive new tool kit for protecting and improving human health. Sophisticated medical technology and complex data analysis are now on the verge of breaking free of their traditional confines in the hospital and computer lab and making their way into our daily lives.

Physicians of the future could use these tools to monitor patients and predict how they will respond to particular treatment plans based on their own unique physiology, rather than on the average response rates of large groups of people in clinical trials. Advances in computer chip miniaturization, bioengineering and material sciences are also laying the groundwork for new devices that can take the place of complex organs such as the eye or pancreasor at least help them to function better.

2014 Scientific American, a Division of Nature America, Inc.

View Mobile Site All Rights Reserved.

Give a 1 year subscription as low as $14.99

Subscribe Now >>

Continue reading here:

Tomorrow's Medicine

Molecular medicine – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Molecular medicine is a broad field, where physical, chemical, biological and medical techniques are used to describe molecular structures and mechanisms, identify fundamental molecular and genetic errors of disease, and to develop molecular interventions to correct them. The molecular medicine perspective emphasizes cellular and molecular phenomena and interventions rather than the previous conceptual and observational focus on patients and their organs.[1]

In November 1949, with the seminal paper, “Sickle Cell Anemia, a Molecular Disease”,[2] in Science magazine, Linus Pauling, Harvey Itano and their collaborators laid the groundwork for establishing the field of molecular medicine.[3] In 1956, Roger J. Williams wrote Biochemical Individuality,[4] a prescient book about genetics, prevention and treatment of disease on a molecular basis, and nutrition which is now variously referred to as individualized medicine[5] and orthomolecular medicine.[6] Another paper in Science by Pauling in 1968,[7] introduced and defined this view of molecular medicine that focuses on natural and nutritional substances used for treatment and prevention.

Published research and progress was slow until the 1970s’ “biological revolution” that introduced many new techniques and commercial applications.[8]

Molecular medicine is a new scientific discipline in European universities. Combining contemporary medical studies with the field of biochemistry, it offers a bridge between the two subjects. At present only a handful of universities offer the course to undergraduates. With a degree in this discipline the graduate is able to pursue a career in medical sciences, scientific research, laboratory work and postgraduate medical degrees.

Core subjects are similar to biochemistry courses and typically include gene expression, research methods, proteins, cancer research, immunology, biotechnology and many more besides. In some universities molecular medicine is combined with another discipline such as chemistry, functioning as an additional study to enrich the undergraduate program.

See original here:

Molecular medicine – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

NASA Outpost Beyond Moon Could Lead to Mars

Sending astronauts to a deep-space outpost beyond the moon’s far side could help lay the groundwork for more ambitious manned missions to Mars, some researchers say.

Such a lunar effort would take humanity farther from Earth than it’s ever been before, allowing scientists and engineers to work their way up to even more distant targets such as asteroids and Marsin a stepwise fashion, advocates say.

“It’s a really good way to basically dip your toes in deep space,” Josh Hopkins, a space exploration architect for Lockheed Martin Space Systems in Denver, said during a Nov. 14 presentation with NASA’s Future In-Space Operations working group.

Beyond the lunar far side

NASA is apparently thinking seriously about launching astronauts to Earth-moon L2, a spot in space beyond the moon’s far side. EML-2 is a so-called libration point where the gravitational pulls of the moon and Earth roughly balance out, allowing spacecraft to essentially park there. [Visions of Deep-Space Stations (Gallery)]

Astronauts would ride to EML-2 aboard NASA’s Orion capsule, which is being built by Lockheed Martin. Orion would get off the ground atop the Space Launch System(SLS), the agency’s huge new deep-space rocket.

The launcher’s first unmanned test flight is slated for 2017, and NASA hopes the SLS-Orion combo will begin carrying crews by 2021.

EML-2 is an interesting target in its own right, Hopkins said. From there, astronauts could teleoperate rovers on the far side with relative ease, helping explore a part of the moon that remains little-studied to date.

Such rovers could gather samples for a possible return to Earth, he said, which could shed light on the moon’s mysterious impact history.

The robots could also deploy huge antennas, helping set up a powerful instrument that would take advantage of the radio “quiet zone” found on the lunar far side to investigate some of the universe’s deepest mysteries.

Visit link:

NASA Outpost Beyond Moon Could Lead to Mars

Britain's Gurdon, Japan's Yamanaka share Nobel medicine prize for stem cell research

NEW YORK, N.Y. – Two scientists from different generations won the Nobel Prize in medicine Monday for the groundbreaking discovery that cells in the body can be reprogrammed into completely different kinds, work that reflects the mechanism behind cloning and offers an alternative to using embryonic stem cells.

The work of British researcher John Gurdon and Japanese scientist Shinya Yamanaka who was born the year Gurdon made his discovery holds hope for treating diseases like Parkinson’s and diabetes by growing customized tissue for transplant.

And it has spurred a new generation of laboratory studies into other illnesses, including schizophrenia, which may lead to new treatments.

Basically, Gurdon, 79, and Yamanaka, 50, showed how to make the equivalent of embryonic stem cells without the ethical questions those very versatile cells pose, a promise scientists are now scrambling to fulfil.

Once created, these “blank slate” cells can be nudged toward developing into other cell types. Skin cells can ultimately be transformed into brain cells, for example.

Just last week, scientists reported turning skin cells from mice into eggs that produced baby mice, a possible step toward new fertility treatments.

Gurdon and Yamanaka performed “courageous experiments” that challenged scientific opinion, said Doug Melton, co-director of the Harvard Stem Cell Institute.

“Their work shows … that while cells might be specialized to do one thing, they have the potential to do something else,” Melton said. It “really lays the groundwork for all the excitement about stem cell biology.”

Another Harvard stem cell researcher, Dr. George Daley said, “I don’t think anybody is surprised” by the award announcement. “The fact that these two share it together is inspired.”

In announcing the $1.2 million award, the Nobel committee at Stockholm’s Karolinska Institute said the work has “revolutionized our understanding of how cells and organisms develop.”

Read the rest here:

Britain's Gurdon, Japan's Yamanaka share Nobel medicine prize for stem cell research

NASA finally confirms yearlong ISS mission

The first-ever yearlong mission to the International Space Station will launch in 2015 and feature an American-Russian crew, NASA revealed Friday.

A crew of two one Russian cosmonaut and one American astronaut will launch together in spring 2015 on an experimental endurance mission that will last twice as long as current stays aboard the orbiting lab. The main goal is to gather data that will help lay the groundwork for manned flights to destinations in deep space, officials said.

“In order for us to eventually move beyond low-Earth orbit, we need to better understand how humans adapt to long-term spaceflight,” NASA’s Michael Suffredini, International Space Station program manager, said in a statement. “The space station serves as a vital scientific resource for teaching us those lessons, and this yearlong expedition aboard the complex will help us move closer to those journeys.”

The announcement confirms speculation that has been bubbling for several months. Earlier this week, a Russian space official claimed the marathon mission was a done deal, but until today NASA had simply said that such a flight was under consideration. [ Most Extreme Human Spaceflight Records ]

Launching two astronauts means that one seat on the mission’s three-person Soyuz spacecraft may be available for another crew member. On Oct. 10, British singer Sarah Brightman will make a “groundbreaking announcement” about space travel, and some observers speculate that she or somebody else may be taking the Soyuz’ third seat as a space tourist.

During the 12 years that people have lived continuously aboard the space station, scientists have learned a lot about how microgravity affects the human body. They’ve documented significant effects, for example, on bone density, muscle mass, strength and vision.

But that information has been based on orbital stays that lasted a maximum of six months. Studying astronauts on a yearlong mission should yield even greater insights into crew health and performance, researchers said.

“We have gained new knowledge about the effects of spaceflight on the human body from the scientific research conducted on the space station, and it is the perfect time to test a one-year expedition aboard the orbital laboratory,” said Julie Robinson, NASA’s program scientist for the International Space Station. “What we will gain from this expedition will influence the way we structure our human research plans in the future.”

Space news from NBCNews.com

The first-ever year-long mission to the International Space Station will launch in 2015 and feature an American-Russian crew, NASA revealed Friday.

Read the original:

NASA finally confirms yearlong ISS mission

NASA, Russia eye yearlong space station assignments

* Mission would help prepare for flights beyond Earth

* Cosmonaut Valery Polyakov spent 438 days in orbit

* Longest flight by U.S. astronaut is 215 days

CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla., Oct 4 (Reuters) – NASA is considering

doubling the amount of time an astronaut spends at the

International Space Station to a year, laying the groundwork for

future missions deeper into space, officials said Thursday.

If approved, a mission likely would begin in 2015, said NASA

spokesman Rob Navias.

Russian news agency RIA Novosti reported this week that the

See original here:

NASA, Russia eye yearlong space station assignments

NASA unveils 'InSight', the next mission to probe Mars' core in 2016

NASA has decided to take a much deeper look inside Mars to try to figure out why the Red Planet evolved so differently from Earth.

The space agency announced late on Monday that it will launch a new mission in 2016, named InSight, to hopefully figure out whether the core of Mars is solid or liquid like Earth’s, and why Mars’ crust is not divided into tectonic plates that drift like they do on Earth.

“The exploration of Mars is a top priority for NASA, and the selection of InSight ensures we will continue to unlock the mysteries of the Red Planet and lay the groundwork for a future human mission there,” said NASA Administrator Charles Bolden. “The recent successful landing of the Curiosity rover has galvanised public interest in space exploration and today’s announcement makes clear there are more exciting Mars missions to come.”

The announcement about the upcoming mission comes just two weeks after NASA’s Mars rover, Curiosity, landed on the Martian surface. Curiosity, NASA’s largest and best equipped Mars rover yet, is on a two-year mission to try to discover if the planet ever has been able to support life, even in microbial form.

The 2016 mission, which will be run by NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), will involve a lander that carries two cameras, a robotic arm and a thermal probe that will pierce the Martian surface to gauge the planet’s temperature. Scientists are hoping that will give them clues as to how Mars is cooling.

The lander, which is expected to land in a flat equatorial area, also will be designed with a sensor that should gauge how much Mars wobbles on its axis. It will also carry an instrument to measure seismic waves traveling through the planet’s interior.

“This is science that has been compelling for many years,” said John M. Grunsfeld, associate administrator for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate. “We’re very confident that this will produce exciting science and that we will launch in 2016. Does Mars have an active seismic structure today? I am really excited to answer that.”

InSight will be part of NASA’s Discovery-class series of missions. The Discovery program, which was launched in 1992, sponsored cost-capped, scientific missions to explore the solar system.

The cost of this geological mission is capped at $425 million, though that does not include the cost of the launch vehicle or related services. And the $425 estimate was made in 2010 and does not take inflation into account for a mission scheduled for 2016.

Read more from the original source:

NASA unveils 'InSight', the next mission to probe Mars' core in 2016

NASA, FAA working on commercial space-flight rules

by Christopher Smith Gonzalez / The Daily News

khou.com

Posted on June 19, 2012 at 8:43 AM

HOUSTON Commercial flights into space might be a few years away, but NASA and the Federal Aviation Administration are laying the groundwork for the licensing and regulation requirements for those flights.

Heads of the two government agencies signed a memorandum of agreement that aviation administration acting Administrator Michael Huerta said provides a regulating framework and avoids conflicting sets of requirements and standards.

Under the agreement, the aviation administration will license commercial space flight providers to ensure the safety of the launch and re-entry of the spacecraft.

Huerta said the aviation administration would look at things such as the safety of the launch sight, appropriate contingency plans should something abnormal happen during the launch and cleared airspace.

What were focused on is the safety of the launch and safety of the re-entry as it passes through the national airspace, Huerta said.

Click here for more on this story from The Galveston County Daily News

See the original post:

NASA, FAA working on commercial space-flight rules

Krames StayWell Announces Collaboration with MEDITECH

YARDLEY, Pa.–(BUSINESS WIRE)–

Krames StayWell, the nations leading health care communication and engagement company, has announced its library of discharge instructions is now available directly through the MEDITECH Electronic Health Record (EHR), a leader in health care IT. Known for its application of health literacy design principles, the Krames StayWell database of discharge instructions is designed to facilitate transitions between different care environments and ultimately, patients homes, to support better outcomes and avoid costly re-admissions. The discharge instructions library in MEDITECH is available in English and Spanish.

Krames content is recognized for being patient-friendly and for helping providers educate patients at the point of care, explained Robert True, manager of business development at MEDITECH. Helping to provide superior patient care is at the core of MEDITECHs mission. Creating easy access to Krames content enables us to meet that goal, and we are committed to making it happen.

John George, senior vice president of sales at Krames StayWell, added, Establishing this collaboration was important for us, because so many of our clients use the MEDITECH EHR. They want to reap its documentation and workflow benefits, without sacrificing the benefits driven by Kramesbetter communication between providers and patients for improved outcomes and satisfaction. Now, our clients can benefit from both.

As we head into Stage 2 and Stage 3 of Meaningful Use, health care organizations must offer robust, EHR-based education and engagement solutions to their communities, George continued. Together, Krames StayWell and MEDITECH are laying the groundwork for today and tomorrows needs.

The Krames StayWell-MEDITECH collaboration ensures we engage people in their health self-management, to improve outcomes and overall well-being, while improving safety and lowering costs.

MEDITECH clients interested in accessing Krames StayWell discharge instructions through their EHR can contact their Krames StayWell representative at (800) 203-7902.

About Krames StayWell

Krames StayWell is the largest provider of patient education, consumer health information, and population health management communications in the country. Combining extensive technology and content assets with vast consumer insights and a strategic approach, Krames StayWell is uniquely qualified to engage consumers across the entire spectrum of their health care experience. Our best-in-class health communication solutions integrate print, interactive, and mobile formats at multiple touch points to attract and retain consumers, improve health outcomes, and lower costs. We deliver measurable results for hospitals, health care professionals, health plans, employers, retail pharmacies, government agencies, and association clients with world-class design, commitment to health literacy principles, and a focus on custom development. For more information, please visit http://www.kramesstaywell.com.

About MEDITECH

Read more:

Krames StayWell Announces Collaboration with MEDITECH