About Us – Nootropics.com

Our Vision

We at Nootropics.com believe that nootropics are a powerful tool for the future of productivity and wellbeing. We see cognitive enhancement as part of a tentative next step in the ongoing process of human improvement. Its our goal to create a healthy culture of nootropics usage, in which cognitive healthis not taboo but recognised as an essential aspect of human capability. For the first time in history, were able to improve our intellectual abilities at the chemical level, and were proud to facilitate that change.

Peter Brietbart Operations

Marius van Voorden Development

We run Nootropics.com with three concepts front and centre: safety, reliability and quality.

Safety: Everything that leaves our warehouse has been thoroughly tested to ensure it is of the highest quality. We maintain a network of suppliers to ensure that we deliver only the best.

Reliability: We work hard to make sure our customers know theyre ordering from a reliable source, and will be getting exactly what theyre looking for time and time again. You can find our scientific sources on the product pages, under Further Information.

Quality: When you shop with us we want your whole experience to be great. We pride ourselvesin providing exceptional products and first-rate customer service.

If you have any questions, please reach out to us at hello@nootropics.com.

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About Us – Nootropics.com

Secular Web: Atheism, Agnosticism, Naturalism, Skepticism and …


The Secular Web is owned and operated by Internet Infidels Inc., a 501(c)(3) nonprofit educational organization dedicated to promoting and defending a naturalistic worldview on the Internet.

As defined by Paul Draper, naturalism is “the hypothesis that the natural world is a closed system, which means that nothing that is not a part of the natural world affects it.” Thus, “naturalism implies that there are no supernatural entities”including God.

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Secular Web: Atheism, Agnosticism, Naturalism, Skepticism and …

Victimless crime | Define Victimless crime at Dictionary.com

Collins English Dictionary – Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 HarperCollins Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012 Cite This Source victimless crime definition

A term sometimes used for various acts that are considered crimes under the law but apparently have no victim. One such crime is prostitution, which is viewed by some as a commercial exchange between two consenting adults.

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Victimless crime | Define Victimless crime at Dictionary.com

Golden calf – Wikipedia

According to the Bible, the golden calf ( ggel hazhv) was an icon (a cult image) made by the Israelites during Moses’ absence, when he went up to Mount Sinai. In Hebrew, the incident is known as haggel ( ) or “The Sin of the Calf”. It is first mentioned in Exodus 32:4.

Bull worship was common in many cultures. In Egypt, whence according to the Exodus narrative the Hebrews had recently come, the Apis Bull was a comparable object of worship, which some believe the Hebrews were reviving in the wilderness;[1] alternatively, some believe the God of Israel was associated with or pictured as a calf/bull deity through the process of religious assimilation and syncretism. Among the Egyptians’ and Hebrews’ neighbors in the ancient Near East and in the Aegean, the Aurochs, the wild bull, was widely worshipped, often as the Lunar Bull and as the creature of El.

When Moses went up into Biblical Mount Sinai to receive the Ten Commandments (Exodus 24:12-18), he left the Israelites for forty days and forty nights. The Israelites feared that he would not return and demanded that Aaron make them “gods” to go before them (Exodus 32:1). Aaron gathered up the Israelites’ golden earrings and ornaments, constructed a “molten calf” and they declared: “These [be] thy gods, O Israel, which brought thee up out of the land of Egypt.” (Exodus 32:4)

Aaron built an altar before the calf and proclaimed the next day to be a feast to the LORD. So they rose up early the next day and “offered burnt-offerings, and brought peace-offerings; and the people sat down to eat and to drink, and rose up to play.” (Exodus 32:6) God told Moses what the Israelites were up to back in camp, that they had turned aside quickly out of the way which God commanded them and he was going to destroy them and start a new people from Moses. Moses besought and pleaded that they should be spared (Exodus 32:11-14), and God “repented of the evil which He said He would do unto His people.”

Moses went down from the mountain, but upon seeing the calf, he became angry and threw down the two Tablets of Stone, breaking them. Moses burnt the golden calf in a fire, ground it to powder, scattered it on water, and forced the Israelites to drink it. When Moses asked him, Aaron admitted collecting the gold, and throwing it into the fire, and said it came out as a calf (Exodus 32:21-24).

The bible records that the tribe of Levi did not worship the golden calf. When Moses stood in the gate of the camp, and said: ‘Whosoever is on the LORD’s side, let him come unto me.’ And all the sons of Levi gathered themselves together unto him. And he said unto them: ‘Thus saith the LORD, the God of Israel: Put ye every man his sword upon his thigh, and go to and fro from gate to gate throughout the camp, and slay every man his brother, and every man his companion, and every man his neighbour.’ And the sons of Levi did according to the word of Moses; and there fell of the people that day about three thousand men. (Exodus 32:26-28)

The golden calf is mentioned in Nehemiah 9:1621.

“But they, our ancestors, became arrogant and stiff-necked, and they did not obey your commands. They refused to listen and failed to remember the miracles you performed among them. They became stiff-necked and in their rebellion appointed a leader in order to return to their slavery. But you are a forgiving God, gracious and compassionate, slow to anger and abounding in love. Therefore you did not desert them, even when they cast for themselves an image of a calf and said, ‘This is your god, who brought you up out of Egypt,’ or when they committed awful blasphemies. “Because of your great compassion you did not abandon them in the wilderness. By day the pillar of cloud did not fail to guide them on their path, nor the pillar of fire by night to shine on the way they were to take. You gave your good Spirit to instruct them. You did not withhold your manna from their mouths, and you gave them water for their thirst. For forty years you sustained them in the wilderness; they lacked nothing, their clothes did not wear out nor did their feet become swollen.”

The language suggests that there are some inconsistencies in the other accounts of the Israelites and their use of the calf. As the version in Exodus and 1 Kings are written by Deuteronomistic historians based in the southern kingdom of Judah, there is a proclivity to expose the Israelites as unfaithful. The inconsistency is primarily located in Exodus 32.4 where “gods” is plural despite the construction of a single calf. When Ezra retells the story, he uses the single, capitalized God.[2]

Conversely, a more biblically conservative view offers a tenable explanation accounting for the discrepancy between “gods” in Exodus 32 and “God” in Nehemiah 9:18. In both instances, the Hebrew ‘elohim’ is used. Since ancient Hebrew failed to distinguish ‘elohim’ God (known as the majestic plural) from ‘elohim’ gods, Biblical translations are either determined by a) context or b) the local verb(s). In the original account in Exodus 32, the local verb is in the 3rd person plural. In Nehemiah 9, the verb connected to ‘elohim’ is singular. For the JEDP (i.e. Deuteronomistic) theorist, this inconsistency is confirmatory since the theory maintains a roughly equivalent date for the composition of Exodus and Nehemiah. More conservative scholarship would argue that these two texts were composed about 1000 years apart: Exodus (by Moses) circa 1500 BCE, and Nehemiah circa 500 BCE. The biblically conservative framework would therefore account for the verbal inconsistency from Exodus to Nehemiah as a philological evolution over the approximate millennium separating the two books.

According to 1 Kings 12:2630, after Jeroboam establishes the northern Kingdom of Israel, he contemplates the sacrificial practices of the Israelites.

Jeroboam thought to himself, “The kingdom will now likely revert to the house of David. If these people go up to offer sacrifices at the temple of the LORD in Jerusalem, they will again give their allegiance to their lord, Rehoboam king of Judah. They will kill me and return to King Rehoboam.” After seeking advice, the king made two golden calves. He said to the people, “It is too much for you to go up to Jerusalem. Here are your gods, Israel, who brought you up out of Egypt.” One he set up in Bethel, and the other in Dan. And this thing became a sin; the people came to worship the one at Bethel and went as far as Dan to worship the other.

His concern was that the tendency to offer sacrifices in Jerusalem, which is in the southern Kingdom of Judah, would lead to a return to King Rehoboam. He makes two golden calves and places them in Bethel and Dan. He erects the two calves in what he figures (in some interpretations) as substitutes for the cherubim built by King Solomon in Jerusalem.[3]

Richard Elliott Friedman says “at a minimum we can say that the writer of the golden calf account in Exodus seems to have taken the words that were traditionally ascribed to Jeroboam and placed them in the mouths of the people.” Friedman believes that the story was turned into a polemic, exaggerating the throne platform decoration into idolatry, by a family of priests sidelined by Jeroboam.[4]

The declarations of Aaron and Jeroboam are almost identical:

After making the golden calf or golden calves both Aaron and Jeroboam celebrate festivals. Aaron builds an altar and Jeroboam ascends an altar (Exod 32:56; 1 Kings 12:3233).[5]

The incident of the worship of the Golden Calf is narrated in the Qur’an and other Islamic literature. The Qur’an narrates that after they refused to enter the promised land, God decreed that as punishment the Israelites would wander for forty years. Moses continued to lead the Israelites to Mount Sinai for Divine guidance. According to Islamic literature, God ordered Moses to fast for thirty days, and upon near completion of the thirty days, Moses ate a scented plant to improve the odour of his mouth. God commanded Moses to fast for ten more days, before receiving the guidance for the Israelites. When Moses completed the fasts, he approached God for guidance. During this time, Moses had instructed the Israelites that Aaron (Harun) was to lead them. The Israelites grew restless, since Moses had not returned to them, and after thirty days, a man the Qur’an names Samiri raised doubts among the Israelites. Samiri claimed that Moses had forsaken the Israelites and ordered his followers among the Israelites to light a fire and bring him all the jewelry and gold ornaments they had.[6] Samiri fashioned the gold into a golden calf along with the dust on which the angel Gabriel had trodden, which he proclaimed to be the God of Moses and the God who had guided them out of Egypt.[7] There is a sharp contrast between the Qur’anic and the biblical accounts the prophet Aaron’s actions. The Qur’an mentions that Aaron attempted to guide and warn the people from worshipping the Golden Calf. However, the Israelites refused to stop until Moses had returned.[8] The righteous separated themselves from the pagans. God informed Moses that He had tried the Israelites in his absence and that they had failed by worshipping the Golden Calf.

Returning to the Israelites in great anger, Moses asked Aaron why he had not stopped the Israelites when he had seen them worshipping the Golden Calf. The Qur’an reports that Aaron stated that he did not act due to the fear that Moses would blame him for causing divisions among the Israelites. Moses realized his helplessness in the situation, and both prayed to God for forgiveness. Moses then questioned Samiri for the creation of the Golden Calf; Samiri justified his actions by stating that he had thrown the dust of the ground upon which Gabriel had tread on into the fire because his soul had suggested it to him.[6] Moses informed him that he would be banished and that they would burn the Golden Calf and spread its dust into the sea. Moses ordered seventy delegates to repent to God and pray for forgiveness.[9] The delegates traveled alongside Moses to Mount Sinai, where they witnessed the speech between him and God but refused to believe until they had witnessed God with their sight. As punishment, God struck the delegates with lightning and killed them with a violent earthquake.[10] Moses prayed to God for their forgiveness. God forgave and resurrected them and they continued on their journey.

In the Islamic view, the Calf-worshipers’ sin had been shirk (Arabic: ), the sin of idolatry or polytheism. Shirk is the deification or worship of anyone or anything other than the singular God (Allah), or more literally the establishment of “partners” placed beside God, a most serious and unforgivable sin, with the Calf-worshipers’ being ultimately forgiven being a mark of special forbearance by Allah.

Despite a seemingly simplistic faade, the golden calf narrative is complex. According to Michael Coogan, it seems that the golden calf was not an idol for another god, and thus a false god.[11] He cites Exodus 32:4-5 as evidence: He [Aaron] took the gold from them, formed it in a mold, and cast an image of a calf; and they said, “These are your gods, O Israel, who brought you up out of the land of Egypt!” When Aaron saw this, he built an altar before it; and Aaron made proclamation and said, “Tomorrow shall be a festival to the Lord.” Importantly, there is a single calf in this narrative, though the people refer to it as representative of the “gods.” While a reference to singular god does not necessarily imply Yahweh worship, it does not rule out the possibility that it is Yahweh that the people are worshiping, as the reference to a plurality of “gods” would. Additionally, the festival “to the Lord” in verse 5 is sometimes translated as “to Yahweh”.[11] It should also be noted that “in the chronology of the narrative of the Ten Commandments” the commandment against the creation of graven images had not yet been given to the people when they pressed upon Aaron to help them make the calf, and that such behavior was not yet explicitly outlawed.[11]

Another understanding of the golden calf narrative is that the calf was meant to be the pedestal of Yahweh. In Near Eastern art, gods were often depicted standing on an animal, rather than seated on a throne.[11] This reading suggests that the golden calf was merely an alternative to the ark of the covenant or the cherubim upon which Yahweh was enthroned.[11]

The reason for this complication may be understood as 1.) a criticism of Aaron, as the founder of one priestly house that rivaled the priestly house of Moses, and/or 2.) as “an attack on the northern kingdom of Israel.”[11] The second explanation relies on the “sin of Jeroboam,” who was the first king of the northern kingdom, as the cause of the northern kingdoms fall to Assyria in 722 BCE.[11] Jeroboams “sin” was creating two calves of gold, and sending one to Bethel as a worship site in the south of the Kingdom, and the other to Dan as a worship site in the north, so that the people of the northern kingdom would not have to continue to go to Jerusalem to worship (see 1 Kings 12.2630). According to Coogan, this episode is part of the Deuteronomistic history, written in the southern kingdom of Judah, after the fall of the Northern kingdom, which was biased against the northern kingdom.[11] Coogan maintains that Jeroboam was merely presenting an alternative to the cherubim of the Temple in Jerusalem, and that calves did not indicate non-Yahwehistic worship.[11]

The documentary hypothesis can be used to further understand the layers of this narrative: it is plausible that the earliest story of the golden calf was preserved by E (Israel source) and originated in the Northern kingdom. When E and J (Judah source) were combined after the fall of northern kingdom, “the narrative was reworked to portray the northern kingdom in a negative light,” and the worship of the calf was depicted as “polytheism, with the suggestion of a sexual orgy” (see Exodus 32.6). When compiling the narratives, P (a later Priest source from Jerusalem) may have minimized Aarons guilt in the matter, but preserved the negativity associated with the calf.[11]

Alternatively it could be said that there is no golden calf story in the J source, and if it is correct that the Jeroboam story was the original as stated by Friedman, then it is unlikely that the Golden Calf events as described in Exodus occurred at all. Friedman states that the smashing of the Ten Commandments by Moses when he beheld the worship of the golden calf, is really an attempt to cast into doubt the validity of Judah’s central shrine, the Ark of the Covenant. “The author of E, in fashioning the golden calf story, attacked both the Israelite and Judean religious establishments.” [12]

As to the likelihood that these events ever took place, on the one hand there are two versions of the ten commandments story, in E (Exodus 20) and J (Exodus 34), this gives some antiquity and there may be some original events serving as a basis to the stories. The Golden Calf story is only in the E version and a later editor added in an explanation that God made a second pair of tablets to give continuity to the J story.[13] The actual Ten Commandments as given in Exodus 20 were also inserted by the redactor who combined the various sources.[14]

Archaeologists Israel Finkelstein and Neil Asher Silberman say that while archaeology has found traces left by small bands of hunter-gatherers in the Sinai, there is no evidence at all for the large body of people described in the Exodus story: “The conclusion that Exodus did not happen at the time and in the manner described in the Bible seems irrefutable… repeated excavations and surveys throughout the entire area have not provided even the slightest evidence.”[15]

A metaphoric interpretation emphasizes the “gold” part of “golden calf” to criticize the pursuit of wealth.

This usage can be found in Spanish[16] where Mammon, the Gospel personification of idolatry of wealth, is not so current.

People and things in the Quran

Groups and tribes

Note: The names are sorted alphabetically. Standard form: Islamic name / Bibilical name (title or relationship)

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Golden calf – Wikipedia


Michigan Roboticsaims to accelerate the development of new robotics capabilities by bringing together roboticists of all stripes under one roof so that they can share problems and solutions. Core robotics faculty will be housed in a $75 million facility with shared collaboration and laboratory space, to be completed in 2020. They will work closely withinterdisciplinary robotics researchers from across the University.

Michigan Robotics is currently seeking new faculty. We want the top robotics talent on the planet to apply to our program

The first director of Michigan Robotics is Jessy Grizzle, the Elmer G. Gilbert Distinguished University Professor and the Jerry W. and Carol L. Levin Professor of Engineering, best known for his bipedal robots, MABEL and MARLO.

Autonomy is about handling the unknown. Robots need to be able to navigate and map new environments, manipulate unfamiliar objects, cope with unforeseen circumstances, and carry on in spite of malfunctions. We attack the problem from all angles, an approach we call full spectrum autonomy.

The faculty at Michigan Roboticscover the heart of robotics, including mechanics, electronics, perception, control and navigation. Whether our robots walk, swim, fly or drive, we struggle with many of the same challenges. In the new robotics building, solutions may be just a few doors down.

Building new functionality into a drone during a lab course.

The robotics program at Michigan offers MS and PhD engineering degrees that integrate knowledge from across a range of technical fields for applications to robotics. This program focuses on three core disciplines essential to robotics:

Learn more about graduate programs in robotics

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Mastertapes: Bellowhead Radio4 :BBC Maida ValeStudios :Jan12th2016 For free tickets to see and hear them before final split apply here: http://bbc.in/1JdBKip Bellowheadtalkto John Wilson about their third album, Hedonism released in 2010 and still the best selling independent folk album of all time. This will be a unique opportunity to see and hear Bellowhead before they disband in the spring of 2016. Not only can you hear how they conceived and developed the songs on Hedonism for their energetic

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NSA Loosens Its Privacy Rules Ahead of Trump Taking Office

Slide: 1 / of 1. Caption: Jared Soares

As the privacy and civil liberty community braces for Donald Trumps impending control of US intelligence agencies like the NSA, critics have called onthe Obama administration to rein in those spying powers before a man with a reputation for vindictive grudges takes charge. Now, just in time for President-elect Trump to inherit the most powerful spying machine in the world, Obamas Justice Department has signed off on new rules to let the NSA share more of its unfiltered intelligence with its fellow agenciesincluding those with a domestic law enforcement agenda.

Over the last month, Director of National Intelligence James Clapper and Attorney General Loretta Lynch signed off onchanges to NSA rules that allow the agency to loosen the standards for what raw surveillance data it can hand off to the other 16 Americanintelligence agencies, which include not only the CIA and military intelligence branches, but also the FBI and the Drug Enforcement Administration. The new rules, which were first reported and released in a partially redacted form by the New York Times, are designed to keep those agencies from exploiting NSA intelligence for law enforcement investigations, permitting its use only in intelligence operations.

But privacy advocates are nonetheless concerned that the NSAs more fluid sharing of its collected data will lead to the NSAs powerful spying abilities blurring into the investigation and prosecution of Americans. While the NSA previously filtered out personal information the agency didnt deem relevant before sharing it, those filters wont exist under the new rules. The privacy intrusions have also arrived, experts say, just in time for Trumps new administration to exploit them.

The fact that theyre relaxing these privacy-protective rules just as Trump is taking the reins of the surveillance state is inexplicable to me, says Nate Cardozo, an attorney with the Electronic Frontier Foundation. The changes theyre making today are widening the aperture for abuse to happen just as abuses are becoming more likely.

Privacy advocates concerns center around loopholes in the rules that allow agencies like the FBI and DEA to search the NSAs collected data forpurposessuch as investigating an agent of a foreign power. Any evidence of illegal behavior that a searcher stumbles on can be used in a criminal prosecution. That means the rule change, according to Cardozo, introduces new possibilities for law enforcement agencies like the DEA and FBI to carry out whats known as parallel construction. That maneuver involves secretly using the NSAs intelligence to identify or track a criminal suspect, and then fabricating a plausible trail of evidence to present to a court as an after-the-fact explanation of the investigations origin. The technique was the subject of an ACLU lawsuit against the Office of the Director of National Intelligence in 2012, and resulted inthe Justice Department admitting to repeatedly using the technique to hide the NSAs involvement in criminal investigations.

It used to be that if NSA itself saw the evidence of a crime, they could give a tip to the FBI, and the FBI would engage in parallel construction, says Cardozo. Now FBI will be able to get into the raw data themselves and do what they will with it.

The intelligence communitys lawyers and legal alums counter that the 12333 rule change was actually necessary ahead of Trump taking power. The change, says former NSA lawyer Susan Hennessey, makes it far more politically complicated for the Trump administration to rewrite the rules themselves, which might have allowed for even more liberal use of the NSAs data. This change, for instance, was years in the making; now finalized, amending them rules again could take years longer. For anyone concerned about possible abuses following transition, these procedures being finalized should be welcome news, Hennessey writes to WIRED. Id imagine finalizing these rules, and thus making future changes exponentially more difficult, was a very high priority for the outgoing administration.

The Office of the Director of National Intelligences general counsel Robert Litt also defended the changes in a blog post published early last year as the news rules were being considered. These procedures are not about law enforcement, but about improving our intelligence capabilities, Litt wrote. There will be no greater access to signals intelligence information for law enforcement purposes than there is today.

But the edge cases where agencies involved in law enforcement can legally search for Americans names and stumble across evidence of prosecutable criminal behavior arent sufficiently defined, says Julian Sanchez, a privacy-focused fellow at the Cato Institute. Some of those exceptions are even redacted from the declassified version of the document, he points out. We have no idea whether theres a huge loophole hiding behind those black bars, Sanchez says. It ought to be possible to characterize to the general public what the broad conditions under which someone can go searching for your communications. The chain is only as strong as the weakest link.

Beyond legal loopholes, sharing broaderaccess to unfiltered NSA data could lead to more flat-out illegal abuse, too, says the EFFs Cardozo. He points to cases of so-called LOVEINT, or love intelligence, the informal term for agents whohave, in a few rare cases, used their spying privilegesto surveil former lovers or spouses. Giving a whole bunch more peopleoutside NSA raw, unfiltered data that includes Americans communications is just asking for it, asking for more LOVEINTto happen, says Cardozo.

Keeping American surveillance agencies from surveilling Americans, Cardozo concedes, has always been in part a matter of trust that theywont break the law or abuse legal loopholes. But the untested Trump administration makes that trust more tenuous than ever before; Trump has, after all, demonstrated in private and on Twitter that he keeps an enemies list, publicly mused about wishing he had the power to hack his political opponents, and called for the investigation into the leak of an intelligence report to NBC News before even starting his term. All of that suggests a chief executive who willtest the edgesof US surveillancerulesat every possibility.

The defendersof the NSA have always said, yes these are powerful tools that could be abused in the wrong hands, but we trust thepeople in charge, says Cardozo. Now its hard to disagree more strongly. We dont trust the people who are about to take the reins of the NSA, the intelligence community, the Justice Department, to use these tools responsibly.

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NSA Loosens Its Privacy Rules Ahead of Trump Taking Office

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Biden awarded presidential Medal of Freedom – cnn.com

“For your faith in your fellow Americans, for your love of country and for your lifetime of service that will endure through the generations, I’d like to ask the military aide to join us on stage,” Obama said in the ceremony. “For my final time as President, I am pleased to award our nation’s highest civilian honor, the Presidential Medal of Freedom.”

Biden, who appeared extremely emotional during the tribute and was seen tearing up, accepted the award but said he did not deserve it.

“This honor is not only well beyond what I deserve, but it’s a reflection of the extent and generosity of your spirit,” Biden said. “I don’t deserve this but I know it came from the President’s heart.”

Before surprising Biden with the award, Obama gave lengthy and colorful remarks praising Biden, his wife Dr. Jill Biden and his children and grandchildren.

“This is the kind of family that built this country,” Obama said. “That’s why my family is honored to call ourselves honorary Bidens.”

Obama noted that while their term is almost over the two will be “forever binded as a family,”

“If you can’t admire Joe Biden as a person you’ve got a problem,” Obama said quoting a Republican senator. “He’s as good a man as God ever created.”

Biden, who was shocked by the entire gathering, said he had no “inkling” it was going to happen. The Vice President said he thought he was coming to toast senior staff with the first lady and his wife Jill Biden.

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State of North Carolina

Scenic beauty, a moderate climate, a culture rich in history and the arts, and world-class sports and recreational opportunities make North Carolina an exceptional place to live and do business. Combine that with quality health care, top universities, a low cost of living, and it’s easy to see why most people who live here never want to leave.

Learn More About North Carolina


State of North Carolina

Beaches Turks & Caicos Review – Family Vacation Critic

Rates As a TripAdvisor company, we searched 200+ sites to find the best hotel prices.

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Caribbean Village Room Categories:

French Village Room Categories:

French Village Three Bedroom Concierge Suite (F3) Each bedroom has a king-sized bed with a trundle or double beds with a single pullout sofa, accommodating up to 14 people. All of these 1,401-square-foot rooms connect and have their own private entrance. Suites on the first floor have small patios and third-floor suites have French balconettes overlooking the pool or gardens. The suites are located in the Bordeaux and Cannes buildings.

The Italian Village also has its own 14,000-square-foot pool with a signature swim-up bar; an expanded Kids Camp facility for ages 5 to 12, with an arts and crafts center; a teen lounge with arcade games and foosball; Liquid, an aqua-themed nightclub for teens; 7,000 square feet of retail space; and five gourmet restaurants, plus a wood-fired pizza oven. There are Imperial Suites and other top-tier suite offerings in the Italian Village for the discerning family. Some of the top-tier suites also have butler service.

Italian Village Room Categories:

Italian Beachfront Two Bedroom Walkout Butler Family Suite (TWP) Featured on the first floor of the Capri Building, the oceanfront, 1,368-sqaure-foot suite can accommodate 12 and opens directly to the beach with two oversized patios. A king master has its own bar area with a refrigerator and microwave. Kids have bunk beds with a trundle and a bathroom with dual vanities. Connecting doors lead to a living room with a daybed and trundle, sleeper sofa, dining table with seating for six, refrigerator and microwave. Three flat-screen TVs are offered, with the kids’ room also featuring an Xbox 360.

Key West Room Categories:

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Beaches Turks & Caicos Review – Family Vacation Critic

Gambling Addiction and Problem Gambling – helpguide.org

Learn How to Stop Gambling and Regain Control of Your Finances and Relationships

It can happen to anyone from any walk of life: Your gambling goes from a fun, innocuous diversion to an unhealthy preoccupation with serious consequences. Whether you bet on sports, scratch cards, roulette, poker, or slotsin a casino, at the track, or onlineif your gambling becomes a problem, it can strain your relationships, interfere with work, and lead to financial disaster. You may even do things you never thought you would, like stealing money to gamble or pay debts. It may feel like you cant stop, but with the right help, you can overcome a gambling problem or addiction and regain control of your life.

What you can do

Gambling addictionalso known aspathological gambling, compulsive gamblingorgambling disorderis an impulse-control disorder. If youre a compulsive gambler, you cant control the impulse to gamble, even when it has negative consequences for you or your loved ones. Youll gamble whether youre up or down, broke or flush, happy or depressed, and youll keep gambling regardless of the consequenceseven when you know that the odds are against you or you cant afford to lose.

Of course, you can also have a gambling problem without being totally out of control. Problem gamblingis any gambling behavior that disrupts your life. If youre preoccupied with gambling, spending more and more time and money on it, chasing losses, or gambling despite serious consequences in your life, you have a gambling problem.

A gambling addiction or problem is often associated with other behavior or mood disorders. Many problem gamblers also suffer with substance abuse issues, unmanaged ADHD, stress, depression, anxiety, or bipolar disorder. To overcome your gambling problems, youll also need to address these and any other underlying causes as well. The first step is to separate the myths from the facts about gambling problems:

Myth: You have to gamble every day to be a problem gambler.

Fact: A problem gambler may gamble frequently or infrequently. Gambling is a problem if it causes problems.

Myth: Problem gambling is not really a problem if the gambler can afford it.

Fact: Problems caused by excessive gambling are not just financial. Too much time spent on gambling can also lead to relationship and legal problems, job loss, mental health problems including depression and anxiety, and even suicide.

Myth: Having a gambling problem is just a case of being weak-willed, irresponsible, or unintelligent.

Fact: Gambling problems affect people of all levels of intelligence and all backgrounds. Previously responsible and strong-willed people are just as likely to develop a gambling problem as anyone else.

Myth: Partners of problem gamblers often drive problem gamblers to gamble.

Fact: Problem gamblers often rationalize their behavior. Blaming others is one way to avoid taking responsibility for their actions, including what is needed to overcome the problem.

Myth: If a problem gambler builds up a debt, you should help them take care of it.

Fact: Quick fix solutions may appear to be the right thing to do. However, bailing the gambler out of debt may actually make matters worse by enabling gambling problems to continue.

Gambling addiction is sometimes referred to as a “hidden illness” because there are no obvious physical signs or symptoms like there are in drug or alcohol addiction. You may have a gambling problem if you:

Feel the need to be secretive about your gambling.You might gamble in secret or lie about how much you gamble, feeling others wont understand or that you will surprise them with a big win.

Have trouble controlling your gambling.Once you start gambling, can you walk away? Or are you compelled to gamble until youve spent your last dollar, upping your bets in a bid to win lost money back?

Gamble even when you dont have the money. You may gamble until youve spent your last dollar, and then move on to money you dont havemoney to pay bills, credit cards, or things for your children. You may feel pushed to borrow, sell, or even steal things for gambling money.

Have family and friends worried about you.Denial keeps problem gambling going. If friends and family are worried, listen to them carefully. Its not a sign of weakness to ask for help. Many older gamblers are reluctant to reach out to their adult children if they’ve gambled away their inheritance, but it’s never too late to make changes for the better.

Take this test to find out.

In the last 12-months, have you:

1. Needed to gamble with increasing amounts of money in order to achieve the desired excitement??

2. Felt restless or irritable when attempting to cut down or stop gambling?

3. Made repeated unsuccessful efforts to control, cut back, or stop gambling?

4. Often been preoccupied with gambling, such as reliving past gambling experiences, handicapping or planning the next venture, or thinking of ways to get money with which to gamble?

5. Gambled when feeling distressed in some way, such as anxious, stressed, lonely, guilty, or depressed?

6. After losing money gambling, returned another day to get even or chase your losses?

7. Lied to conceal your gambling?

8. Jeopardized or lost a significant relationship, job, or school or career opportunity because of gambling?

9. Relied on others to provide money to relieve a desperate financial situation caused by gambling?

Please answer all the questions

Interpreting the score:

4 to 5: Indicates a MILD gambling problem

6 to 7: Indicates a MODERATE gambling problem

8 to 9: Indicates a SEVERE gambling problem

This questionnaire is not intended to replace professional diagnosis.

Adapted from: DSM-5 Diagnostic Criteria: Gambling Disorder

The biggest step to overcoming a gambling addiction is realizing that you have a problem. It takes tremendous strength and courage to own up to this, especially if you have lost a lot of money and strained or broken relationships along the way. But many others have been in your shoes and have been able to break the habit. You can, too.

Seek help for underlying mood disorders. Depression,stress, substance abuse, oranxiety can both trigger gambling problems and be made worse by compulsive gambling. Even when gambling is no longer a part of your life, these problems will still remain, so its important to address them.

Learn to relieve unpleasant feelings in healthier ways. Do you gamble when youre lonely or bored? Or after a stressful day at work or school? Gambling may be a way to self-soothe unpleasant emotions. But there are healthier and more effective ways of managing your moods, such as practicing relaxation techniques.

Strengthen your support network.Its tough to battle any addiction without support, so reach out to friends and family. If your support network is limited, there are ways to make new friends without relying on visiting casinos or gambling online.Try reaching out to colleagues at work, joining a sports team or book club, enrolling in an education class, or volunteering for a good cause.

Join a support group. Gamblers Anonymous, for example, is a twelve-step recovery program patterned after Alcoholics Anonymous. A key part of the program is finding a sponsor, a former gambler who has experience remaining free from addiction and can provide invaluable guidance and support.

Its true: the Internet has made gambling far more accessibleand harder for recovering addicts to avoid relapse. Online casinos and bookmakers are open all day, every day for anyone with a smartphone. But staying in recoverymaking a permanent commitment to stop gamblingis still possible if you:

One way to stop gambling is to remove the elements necessary for gambling to occur in your life and replace them with healthier choices. The four elements needed for gambling to continue are:

A decision:For gambling to happen, you need to make the decision to gamble. If you have an urge:stopwhat you are doing and call someone,thinkabout the consequences to your actions,tellyourself to stop thinking about gambling, andfindsomething else to do immediately.

Money:Gambling cannot occur without money. Get rid of your credit cards, let someone else be in charge of your money, have the bank make automatic payments for you, close online betting accounts, and keep only a limited amount of cash on you.

Time:Even online gambling cannot occur if you dont have the time. Schedule enjoyable recreational time for yourself that has nothing to do with gambling. If youre gambling on your smartphone, find other ways to fill the quiet moments during your day.

A game:Without a game or activity to bet on there is no opportunity to gamble. Dont put yourself in tempting environments. Tell gambling establishments you frequent that you have a gambling problem and ask them to restrict you from entering. Remove gambling apps and block gambling sites on your smartphone and computer.

Maintaining recovery from gambling addiction or problem gambling depends a lot on finding alternative behaviors you can substitute for gambling. Some examples include:

To provide excitement, get a rush of adrenaline

Sport or a challenging hobby, such as mountain biking, rock climbing, or Go Kart racing

To be more social, overcome shyness or isolation

Counseling, enroll in a public speaking class, join a social group, connect with family and friends, volunteer, find new friends

To numb unpleasant feelings, not think about problems

Therapy, consult Helpguides Emotional Intelligence toolkit

Boredom or loneliness

Find something youre passionate about such as art, music, sports, or books and then find others with the same interests

To relax after a stressful day

As little as 15 minutes of daily exercise can relieve stress. Or deep breathing, meditation, or massage

To solve money problems

The odds are always stacked against you so its far better to seek help with debts from a credit counselor

Feeling the urge to gamble is normal, but as you build healthier choices and a strong support network, resisting cravings will become easier. When a gambling craving strikes:

Avoid isolation.Call a trusted family member, meet a friend for coffee, or go to a Gamblers Anonymous meeting.

Distract yourself with another activity, such as going to the gym, watching a movie, or practicing a relaxation exercise for gambling cravings.

Postpone gambling.Tell yourself that youll wait 5 minutes, fifteen minutes, or an hour. As you wait, the urge to gamble may pass or become weak enough to resist.

Visualize what will happen if you give in to the urge to gamble. Think about how youll feel after all your money is gone and youve disappointed yourself and your family again.

If you arent able to resist the gambling craving, dont be too hard on yourself or use it as an excuse to give up. Overcoming a gambling addiction is a tough process. You may slip from time to time; the important thing is to learn from your mistakes and continue working towards recovery.

Seeking professional help or seeing a therapist does not mean you are weak or cant handle your problems. Therapy can give you tools and support for coping with your addiction that will last a lifetime. Problem gambling can sometimes be a symptom of bipolar disorder, so your doctor or therapist may need to rule out this disorder before making a diagnosis.

Inpatient treatment programs are an option for those with severe gambling addiction who are unable to avoid gambling without round-the-clock support.

Cognitive-behavioral therapy(CBT) for gambling addiction focuses on changing unhealthy gambling behaviors and thoughts, such as rationalizations and false beliefs. It can also teach you how to fight gambling urges and solve financial, work, and relationship problems caused by problem gambling.

The Four Steps Program is a variation of CBT aimed at changing your thoughts and beliefs about gambling in four steps: re-label, reattribute, refocus, and revalue. See Resources and References below.

Marriage and credit counseling can help you work through specific issues created by problem gambling.

While compulsive gamblers need the support of their family and friends to stop gambling, its common for loved ones to have conflicting emotions. You may have tried to cover up for the gambler or spent a lot of time trying to keep him or her from gambling. At the same time, you might be furious at your loved one for gambling again and tired of trying to keep up the charade. The gambler may also have borrowed (or even stolen) money from you with no way to pay it back, sold family possessions, or run up huge debts on joint credit cards. As hard as it is seeing the effects your loved ones problem, you cannot make someone stop gambling. The decision to quit has to be theirs.

When faced with the consequences of their actions, a gambler can suffer a crushing drop in self-esteem. This is one reason why there is a high rate of suicide among problem gamblers.

When gamblers feel hopeless, the risk of suicide is high. Its very important to take any thoughts or talk of suicide seriously. Call the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 1-800-273-8255 or for a suicide helpline outside the U.S., visit Befrienders Worldwide.

Source: Dept. of Health & Addiction Services

Related HelpGuide articles

If you need powerful social and emotional skills that support recovery and eliminate stress,read FEELING LOVED.

Learn more

Take our new 2 question survey!

The National Council on Problem Gambling Helpline Offers a confidential, 24-hour helpline for problem gamblers or their family members in the U.S. Call 1-800-522-4700. (NCPG)

Gamblers Anonymous Twelve-step Gamblers Anonymous program, an internationalsupport network of meetings to assist people who have a gambling problem. (Gamblers Anonymous)

Gamcare Offers support, information, and advice for those with a gambling problem in the UK. Call the helpline 0845 6000 133. (Gamcare)

Gambling Help Online Provides 24-hour helpline in Australia for counseling, information, and referrals. Call 1800 858 858. (Gambling Help Online)

Canadian Resources for Those Affected by Problem Gambling Find help and information on problem gambling in your area of Canada. (Centre for Addiction and Mental Health)

What Is Problem Gambling? Learn about the gambling continuum and the key differences between recreational gambling and problem gambling. (British Columbia Responsible & Problem Gambling Program)

Do I Need Help? Helpful questions for self-evaluation. (Connecticut Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services)

Your First Step to Change: Gambling Self-change toolkit helps problem gamblers learn about their addiction and take steps to overcome it. (The Division on Addictions, Cambridge Health Alliance and Harvard Medical School)

The Four Steps Although the article is written for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, it outlines in more detail the four steps used in a variant of cognitive behavioral therapy, and how you can apply them to change thought processes and control impulses. (Westwood Institute of Anxiety Disorders, commercial site)

Freedom from Problem Gambling(PDF) Self-help workbook for compulsive gamblers, with tips on how to avoid relapse and fight gambling urges. (UCLA Gambling Studies Program and California Department of Public Health)

Choosing a Treatment Facility Learn what treatments are appropriate for problem gambling and what questions you should ask when look at facilities. (National Council on Problem Gambling)

Problem Gamblers and their Finances(PDF) In-depth guide for treatment professionals on how to help a problem gambler cope with financial problems and pressures. (National Endowment for Financial Education)

Help for Family, Friends, Employers, and Co-Workers Learn how gambling addiction affects family and friends and what you can do to address the problem. (Connecticut Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services)

Personal Financial Strategies for the Loved Ones of Problem Gamblers(PDF) Designed to help families deal with personal financial issues due to a loved one’s problem gambling. (National Council on Problem Gambling)

Information for Families (Centre for Addiction and Mental Health) Explore resources for family members of problem gamblers. Includes a downloadable PDF guide for families.

Gam-Anon Twelve-step program for the problem gamblers spouse, family members, or close friends. (Gam-Anon International Service Office, Inc)

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Gambling Addiction and Problem Gambling – helpguide.org

Minerva Reefs – Surfer’s Path

Lat: 23 deg 38S

Long: 178 deg 39W

We are sitting in the middle of the largest contrast any of us have ever experienced. There is no land in sight from horizon to horizon. In fact we had our last sight of land 3 days ago as we sailed away from Tongpatapu, the southernmost port in the kingdom on Tonga. The cabin of Khulula is filled with the sound of wavelets gently lapping against her side, juxtaposed against the muted roar of the Pacific Swell crashing on the reef around us. 3 miles in diameter, Minerva Reef is one of the most remarkable and stunningly beautiful places I have ever seen.

We are 25% of the way to New Zealand, partway through a passage that does not act kindly towards those who dawdle. We had no intention to stop at this place, but are compelled to as gales rage below us (further south). We have 780 miles to go, a mere hop skip and a jump compared to our distance traveled so far (over 6000miles), but this passage demands attention to detail weather and timing details. A daily analysis of the weather systems moving around us, and the careful positioning of our boat in relation to these systems will be the difference between a windy, stormy passage and a cruisy sunny one. Well take the latter, please!

Yesterday morning saw all four of us in the cockpit, watching the distance to Minerva field on the GPS slowly clock down. With nine miles to go, all we could see was deep blue Pacific Ocean. At seven miles to go, we could make out the mast of a boat seemingly sitting among the waves, but with no sail to be seen. At three miles to go we could make out the breakers around the reef and could see a slightly smaller mast next to the original one, also seemingly bobbing up and down on the waves with no sail up. At one mile to go we could see the turquoise center of Minerva Reef, as its associated flat water and perfect sandbank anchorage. The colour of the water was so vivid it looked like it had been Photoshopped.

Approaching a navigational hazard such as Minerva, we are reminded of a realization that we have had on multiple occasions during this voyage. We are WIMPS compared to the seafarers of old. Historically, during the days of wooden ships iron men there were no charts, no weather outlooks, and the sailor were in a boat that does not sail upwind. On many occasions we have adjusted our course in the middle of the night to avoid a reef or shoal, who to us only exists on a paper and electronic chart. We know exactly where we are, and know EXACLTY where the shoal is, as well as how large the shoal is and the best course of action to avoid it. The iron men on those wooden ships would have no idea! Spare a thought for the watch boy, sitting high up in the Crows Nest of a wooden galleon, trying to stay awake on night shift as strains his eyes searching and searching for breakers in the night. If he spots them (assuming no rain, no mist), the captain would have no idea whether it was a small reef, a 50-mile long reef (like Fakarava), or the lee shore of another continent for that matter! Had he come across Minerva Reef, and seen it in time, Captain Cook would not have known whether it was one of hundreds of atolls (like the Tuamotus) or the reality that is is just one of a pair of tiny reefs in the middle of millions of square miles of featureless Pacific Ocean. It is incredible.

We have decided that the seafarers of old were completely and utterly nuts! Here we were, glancing over the bow with trepidation, searching for a reef that we know is directly ahead, and less than 5 miles away! Our GPS gives us our position to within 3 feet, and there is no confusion as to what it what. The historical captain would maybe know his position to within 150 miles, and that is if the sun had been shining recently.

At two miles to go, everything happened at once: We were furling in our headsail (the forwardmost sail on the boat) to slow down and prepare for the transit of the reef pass. In the middle of this job there are sheets and lines (ropes) everywhere, a NZ airforce plane buzzes the atoll and starts demanding that everyone check in over the radio: This is the New Zealand Air Force, please state the name of your vessel, your intended destination, your ETA (if NZ), name of your skipper, number and names of crew, and declare any firearms or pets aboard. Just as other boats started answering, our fishing line got hit by a 30lb yellow fin Tuna WHAM! So here we are, trying to reduce sail, shoot a reef pass in the middle of nowhere, steer the boat, reel in a fantastic Tuna, and answer the call from a large aircraft doing passes just above our head demanding our attention on the VHF radio! Um, sorry for the delay, but we are a LITTLE busy here!! Needless to say, they did not hear a response back from s/v Khulula. All the other boats did check in though, I emailed NZ customs in the evening to file our report!

So, Minerva! Wow, anyone that gets a chance to visit this place should NOT miss out on it. Granted, it is a little out of the way, being 400 miles away from anything with an airport, having no dry land and all that, but IF you find yourself in a sailboat in this area, STOP, it is incredible. With no continents and associated alluvial runoff around, the water is completely absent of fines translation, CRYSTAL CLEAR! Looking over the bow of Khulula, we can see a giant sandbank all around us, 12m down. Sitting in the lagoon in flat water, watching waves explode on the reef around us, with not a scrap of land in sight is an experience none of us will ever forget. Also, as you can imagine, the reef is teeming with life such is the nature of a reef inaccessible to significant amounts of human population.

In the evening we went for a snorkel and scored a wonderful Minerva lobster. Last night we watched an amazing sunset while feasting on Yellow Fin sashimi and garlic steamed lobster tail. We are planning on leaving Minerva tomorrow morning (14th November 2007), and beeline it for NZ. It is time to take the jump. As wonderful as this place is, there are harrowing reminders in the lagoon (in the form of a couple of wrecked sailboats) of the perils of being anchored inside a submerged atoll during a storm. This ocean us unpredictable, and it is prudent to briefly enjoy the wonders of this remote place, and then move on. So, after a weather check in the early am, we begin out 780 mile passage to New Zealand and the end of the 1st year of the OceanGybe expedition. We have a HUGE amount of data to compile, and presentations to prepare, in line with our quest to continue to bring awareness to oceanic garbage.

Follow this link:

Minerva Reefs – Surfer’s Path

All-Inclusive Hotels & Resorts, Nassau Paradise Island

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Situated on a 1,000-foot-stretch of spectacular beachfront, Meli Nassau Beach All Inclusive is the perfect Bahamas hotel to unwind and relax in the warm, tropical paradise of Nassau. Our myriad of activities, great dining, friendly staff and seven acres of stunning waterscapeincluding three freshwater poolsprovides endless opportunities for family fun, a weekend getaway or a romantic retreat.

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All-Inclusive Hotels & Resorts, Nassau Paradise Island

Trance – TuneIn Radio

Planet Perfecto

A fresh one-hour mix in every weekly episode. The Grammy-nominated artist, DJ, producer, composer, and remixer tours the world constantly and acquires exclusive music from all corners of the globe from trance, minimal, house to progressive.

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Trance – TuneIn Radio

About Us | Free Speech TV

Free Speech TV is a national, independent news network committed to advancing progressive social change. As the alternative to television networks owned by billionaires, governments and corporations, our network amplifies underrepresented voices and those working on the front lines of social, economic and environmental justice.

Reaching over 40 million US television households, we bring our viewers an array of daily news programs, independent documentaries and special events coverage.

Daily News Programs:Our daily programs, including Democracy Now!, The Thom Hartmann Program and The Stephanie Miller Show, tackle the critical issues facing our communities and our democracy, giving you the news as it happens.

Independent Documentaries:Free Speech TV airs numerous award-winning documentaries covering issues ranging from economic injustice and marriage equality to climate change and the real cost of war.

Weekly Programs and Special Events:Free Speech TV viewers gain exclusive access to programs like Gay USAand Act Out.

Free Speech TV is one of the last standing national independent news channels. As a nonprofit with freedom from corporate control and government pressure, we are uniquely positioned to elevate perspectives that often dont break through the corporate media filter. We believe a more just and democratic world is possible when media empowers people with the information they need to fight for what matters.

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Free Speech TV is owned and operated by Public Communicators, Inc., a 501(c)3 non-profit, tax-exempt organization, founded in 1974. FSTV is supported primarily by its viewers and philanthropic foundations. FSTV television broadcasts are commercial-free. Free Speech TV is based in Denver, CO.


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The Transhumanist Wager – amazon.com

Man vs. machine, cryonics, mind uploading…a science fiction book that’s Amazon’s #1 book under the category Philosophy is The Transhumanist Wager. Istvan says religious people are challenged by transhumanists.”-Fox News Channel

“An Ayn Rand-esque manifesto.” -The New Yorker

“The biggest novel on the transhumanist scene is Istvan’s. ‘The Transhumanist Wager’ reads like Dan Brown’s undergradudate thesis — a rollicking plot setting out futurist thought, manifesto style.” -The Spectator

“This book is an edgy riveting masterpiece that will long linger with anyone who reads it.”-Serious Wonder

“Protagonist Jethro Knights may become one of the grand characters of modern fiction.” -Psychology Today

“The Transhumanist Wager tells the story of Jethro Knights, a philosopher who rails against democratic politics and becomes a revolutionary that seizes control of the world in order to enforce a global authoritarian transhuman regime.”-BBC

“Istvan, a prominent transhumanist writer…enlightens me. In The Transhumanist Wager, transhumanists manage to launch the third world war.”-The Telegraph

“Many sayThe Transhumanist Wageris the newAtlas Shrugged.”-Marin Magazine

“It’s a page turner. Istvan knows how to tell a compelling story.” -io9 / Gizmodo

“IenjoyedThe Transhumanist Wager…an adventurous suspense-filled semi-sci-fi about sailing, love, and life extension.” -The Huffington Post

“About a man’s quest to live forever using science, medicine, and technology.”Popular Science

Thrilling…an important literary work that everyone should read.”-Guardian Liberty Voice

“Bestselling The Transhumanist Wager& famous transhumanist Zoltan Istvan…a new philosophy, a new psychology, a new metaphysics…the concept of people taking a Transhumanist Wager is making a strong impact.” -RT Television

“Transhumanism is snowballing into an international movement. The current wave of debate surrounding the concept began withThe Transhumanist Wager.”-Breitbart

“It’s set in a dystopian near-future America in which transhumanists are on the verge of huge technological breakthroughs but are under attack from conservative politicians and radical Christian fundamentalist terrorists.”-Vox

“A gripping story…it’s my new favorite novel.”-Brighter Brains

“Istvan demonstrates great adeptness at crafting complex characters.”-San Francisco Book Review

“The story is brilliant. It will challenge your thinking.” -33voices

“Fascinating. It’smaking waves.”-Good Day Sacramento, CBS TV

“A controversial thriller. As a leading transhumanist, Zoltan presents his reasons for being in favor of humanity merging with machine.”-Red Ice Creations

“Istvan’s novel has the potential to become a cult book. I hope it will be widely read and discussed.” -Kurzweil AI

“A philosophical manifesto…the world becomes ruled by scientists.” -Vice (Italy)

“Strongly libertarian…a radical version of transhumanism.”-Patheos

“The action sequences in the book are top notch.”-New York Journal of Books

“Controversial…a philosopher brings transhumanism to the world.”-Wired (Germany)

“The Transhumanist Wagerpromises to become a cult classic among futurists.”-SASM Institute

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The Transhumanist Wager – amazon.com


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Gray Fox | Metal Gear Wiki | Fandom powered by Wikia

Gray Fox Also known as

Blond-white, later gray

Gray Fox, real name Frank Jaeger, was a mercenary and former agent of U.S. Special Forces Unit FOXHOUND. Originally a child soldier, Jaeger was the only operative in FOXHOUND to achieve the codename “Fox,” the unit’s highest commendation, and was decorated five times.[5]

Fox was Solid Snake’s comrade-in-arms and friend during the Outer Heaven Uprising, but his loyalty to renegade commander Big Boss forced him into combat with Snake during the Zanzibar Land Disturbance. Fox survived his injuries following an intense battle, after which he was forcibly outfitted with a powered exoskeleton and subjected to intensive gene therapy. He later confronted Snake as a neutral force during the Shadow Moses Incident, in the guise of the Cyborg Ninja, before dying at the hands of Liquid Snake and Metal Gear REX.

Frank Jaeger as a child soldier.

Frank Jaeger spent his early years fighting as a child soldier for FRELIMO guerrilla fighters in the Mozambican War of Independence. Known for his cruel war tactics, he would trick enemies into letting their guard down by acting with “the frankness of a young boy,” before killing them with “the ruthlessness of a hunter.”[6] This earned him the title “Frank Hunter” from his enemies, which evolved into “Frank Jaeger,” as a nod to thelittle German that he spoke.[6] Throughout the war, Jaeger killed dozens of government soldiers from the Portuguese regime.[6] In 1966, renowned mercenary Big Boss became acquainted with Jaeger in Mozambique after stopping him in battle, and placed the young boy into a rehabilitation facility, believing that he would be safe.

While at the rehab center, Jaeger was taken by the CIA and used as a test subject in the “Perfect Soldier Project.” The project turned the boy into a more efficient soldier, capable of killing his targets without remorse, however, it was at a cost. When he was not fighting, he was kept in a fluid-filled sensory deprivation tank which would reset his memories, and suppress his emotions. This intense treatment also enhanced his senses and reflexes allowing him to deflect bullets and become incredibly agile. Because Jaeger was the only surviving test subject of the project, he was deemed a lost number and was given the codename of “Null.”[7]

Frank Jaeger as Null, circa 1970.

As a teenager, Null, a.k.a. the Perfect Soldier, operated as a member of the FOX unit during the San Hieronymo Incident, under the leadership of Gene. His unique Sneaking Suit color during this time was red. He helped the unit to capture Big Boss, and confronted him in battle during the operation, but was unable to defeat him, their fight ending in a stalemate. However, his fight with Big Boss nonetheless lasted long enough for Cunningham and a squad of FOX agents to arrive and capture Big Boss. Null was forced to let Big Boss live due to Cunningham’s insistence that he stand down, though he did so with extreme reluctance.

Despite being laid back into his culture tank, Null’s memories of the battle with Big Boss couldn’t be erased. He first escaped from the tank shortly after Gene’s telephone conversation with Ocelot, killing several FOX agents before finally being subdued by Gene, via throwing knives to the hands and knees, and telekinesis. Driven by a need to kill Big Boss, Null broke free of his chamber a second time and after slaughtering many Soviet soldiers, he confronted Big Boss again at the subpower station. Revealing that his mind was “littered with corpses,” and having an almost fatalistic and nihilistic view on life, he asked Big Boss, “Why won’t you die? What do you hope to accomplish by living?,” before attacking. It was only after this second battle that Big Boss realized who Null really was. Big Boss defeated Null again and convinced him to seek help somewhere outside of the FOX unit.

Afterwards, Jaeger was sent to a hospital, and while he did ultimately survive the events of the San Hieronymo Incident, he was severely wounded both physically and mentally. The doctors and Roy Campbell were also unsure if, after his eventual release from the hospital, he would ever live a normal life after that. Jaeger’s battle data as Null was later recovered by Zero, who then revealed this to Ocelot and requested his assistance in a project.

Frank Jaeger

In 1979, during the Rhodesian Civil War,[8] Jaeger was responsible for killing the parents of a young girl, who would later take the name Naomi Hunter.[9] Feeling immense guilt upon discovering the near-starved child by the Zambezi River, he gave Naomi his rations and chose to adopt her, caring for her as a younger sister.[10] Military analyst Nastasha Romanenko would later speculate that these actions were the result of post-traumatic stress resulting from Fox’s childhood experiences in war.[11] His killing of her parents, and his guilt for the action, would continue to haunt Jaeger for the rest of his life, although he kept the true reason for the loss of her parents a secret from Naomi.[9]

At some point, Jaeger returned to Mozambique to participate in the civil war, this time as a soldier for the RENAMO, but would later endure severe torture, during which his nose and ears were cut off.[12] However, he would ultimately be rescued once more by Big Boss.

It was while in Mozambique during the 1980s that Jaeger’s “sister” Naomi met Big Boss, who would later take them both to the United States. Jaeger and Big Boss eventually returned to Africa to continue the war, leaving Naomi behind in America.[13]

While living under the alias of “Frank Hunter,” during the 1988 Winter Olympic Games in Calgary, Jaeger became romantically involved with Czech figure skating champion Gustava Heffner. The two tried to elope together, but American authorities rejected her bid for asylum and she was sent back to her country, where she was stripped of her competition rights. Following this incident, Jaeger developed a great deal of resentment for his superiors.[5]

Circa the early 1990s, Jaeger served in the U.S. Special Forces Unit FOXHOUND, with Big Boss himself being reinstated as its commander. Jaeger was the only member to receive the unit’s highest commendation, being awarded with the codename “Fox.” Having been decorated five times, Fox was considered an unofficial leader in FOXHOUND due to his extraordinary soldiering skills and his keen intellect,[14] and was held in high regard among the members of FOXHOUND.[5] During this time, Fox’s real name was classified under National Security.[3]

Gray Fox in 1995.

In 1995, Gray Fox was the FOXHOUND agent assigned to Operation Intrude N312. Fox’s objective was to gather data on a top-secret nuclear weapon that the fortified state of Outer Heaven was secretly developing. After successfully infiltrating Outer Heaven, Gray Fox scouted the first building of the fortress, noting the locations of the inner courtyard, cameras and elevators, along with various weapons and equipment, such as card keys and Beretta handguns. Sometime afterwards, he stumbled upon information relating to the new weapon being developed.[14] However, the mission ended in failure when Fox was captured, though not before relaying the details of his reconnaissance back to FOXHOUND. His final words before his transmission was cut were simply: “Metal Gear…”[14]

Gray Fox being rescued by Solid Snake.

After deserting FOXHOUND, Fox accompanied Big Boss to ZanzibarLand in Central Asia. He assisted in the formation of Zanzibar Land through his participation in the Mercenary War and became Big Boss’ most trusted lieutenant. After their success in the war, Fox was given his own command among Zanzibar Land’s military.

In 1999,the newly-developed Metal Gear Dwas usedto cross Zanzibar Land’s borders and conduct raids against several nuclear disposal sites. This act, along with Zanzibar Land’s kidnapping of Czech biologist Dr. Kio Marv, led to retaliation from FOXHOUND, then under the command of Colonel Roy Campbell. Solid Snake was pulled from retirement and sent to rescue Dr. Marv, with assistance from the CIA. Fox, conflicted over Big Boss’s plans to bring about a new age of global conflict, became a secret informant to his old comrade Snake, justifying it as payback for his selfish desire for battle.[17] During the course of Snake’s mission, Fox began transmitting anonymous messages to him, claiming to be his “number one fan,” in order to help him overcome certain obstacles and traps.

Fox finally met Snake in person at the Bridge of Sorrow, which he destroyed with Metal Gear, before warning Snake to turn back and leave Zanzibar Land. This action caused the death of his former lover, Gustava, who had been serving the STB and assisting Snake in the search for Dr. Marv.[18] Fox later contacted Snake when the latter’s elevator in the Tower Building was immobilized. Because Snake ignored his earlier threat, Fox informed him that the two’s friendship was now over. Fox taunted Snake about an impending assault by an assassination squad, the Four Horsemen, but remarking that he would “put up a good fight.” Fox’s words proved true when the squad failed to eliminate Snake, and though his progress was delayed, Snake reached the detention facility where Dr. Marv was held. Assuming his “fan” alias again, Fox then alerted Snake to Night Fright’s presence on the 3rd floor basement, later contacting him again to provide the location of a card key, which Snake required to progress further.

Gray Fox shortly after his battle with Solid Snake.

Gray Fox challenges Solid Snake on a minefield.

Gray Fox as the Cyborg Ninja.

After the defeat of Big Boss and the downfall of Zanzibar Land, Gray Fox’s body, blown apart by a land mine,[20] was secretly recovered by the Patriots.[21][22] Restored through cybernetic surgery, Fox became a guinea pig for FOXHOUND’s chief medic Dr. Clark and her gene therapy experiments.[21]A powered exoskeleton was grafted directly onto his body by inserting a cybernetic module at the skeletal level, granting Fox enhanced strength and agility.[23] Gene therapy was used to help overcome stress concentration and rejection responses.[23]

Subjected to drugs for four years as Dr. Clark and her team continued their research, Fox’s responses to gene therapy would ultimately provide research data for the creation of the Genome Soldiers,[21] while nanomachine technology used to suppress his emotions would later be incorporated into the Sons of the Patriots system.[24]Although the experiments Fox was subjected to were classified, rumors nonetheless circulated about cyborg development occurring.[25]

In 2000,[8] Fox’s adopted sister Naomi Hunter joined FOXHOUND as Dr. Clark’s assistant. She helped Fox to escape his containment in 2003,[8] and summarily covered up his actions when he later killed Dr. Clark, reporting it as a laboratory accident.[26] Fox had actually been used to kill Clark by Big Mama, who had previously recruited Naomi into her organization, as part of a power struggle between opposing factions of the Patriots.[22] Naomi then falsely reported Fox’s death during the supposed accident, and helped him hide out. However, the entire ordeal had left Fox’s mind unstable, causing a rapid deterioration of identity.

With the desire to face Solid Snake once more in combat persisting within his tattered consciousness, Fox set out to confront him during the Shadow Moses Incident in 2005. Equipped with full-body optic camouflage, the Ninja infiltrated Shadow Moses Island in search of Snake, who was on a mission to neutralize a then-renegade FOXHOUND Unit, led by Liquid Snake. The self-titled Sons of Big Boss became aware of the Ninja’s presence on the island after he killed three of their number, resulting in heightened security on the occupied base.[27]

The Ninja first encountered Snake in the base’s armory, after releasing ArmsTech President Kenneth Baker from captivity and attacking FOXHOUND member Revolver Ocelot, severing the latter’s right hand with his high frequency blade. However, he was forced to retreat after the onset of extremely painful spasms, accompanied by electrical discharges from his body.

This was a side effect of imperfect nerve connections resulting from Dr. Clark’s experiments.[28]

The Ninja would later help Snake in his mission by transmitting anonymous messages regarding dangers to Snake, much like he did during Operation Intrude F014, under the alias Deepthroat. This included warning him of hidden Claymore mines north of the tank hangar, and electrified flooring in the nuclear warhead storage building. After taking out a squad of NBC warfare troops ahead of Snake, one of who believed Fox to be a ghost,[29] the Ninja accessed the laboratory of Dr. Hal Emmerich and proceeded to menace the terrified engineer, demanding to know where Snake was. He was confronted by his target shortly thereafter, and told Snake that he was “neither enemy nor friend.” The Ninja’s bizarre appearance and conduct caused Emmerich to comment that the entire scene was akin to an anime, before hiding in a locker. The Ninja challenged Snake to a battle, feeling that his soul could only find respite in a fight to the death, indifferent as to the outcome. His superhuman reflexes and swordsmanship rendered Snake’s gunfire ineffective, only sheathing his sword after Snake engaged him in hand-to-hand combat. At first, Snake did not recognize his opponent, but as the duel progressed Snake began to realize that the Ninja was Gray Fox, and was shocked that he could still be alive. After a time, Snake began to prevail in the battle but before its ultimate conclusion was reached, Fox suffered another painful outburst, and fled the lab. Fox’s overall presence, as well as his killing twelve soldiers by the time Snake was captured, caused Liquid and Ocelot to speculate that Fox’s presence was due to a spy in their midst.[30]

Gray Fox shows his face.

Gray Fox later joined forces with Snake against Metal Gear REX, and managed to damage the mech by attacking it’s radome with his laser gun arm,[31][32] interfering with the sealed cockpit’s sensory input. While its pilot, Liquid Snake, attempted to locate the two, Fox took the momentary break in fighting to reveal to Snake his role in the deaths of Naomi Hunter’s parents, and begged him to tell her the truth. Following this exchange, Fox leapt from their hiding spot and again attacked REX. During this second assault, Fox was injured when his left arm was sliced off by the tank’s own laser cannon. He was then pinned against a wall by REX’s cockpit beak, but was able to destroy the radome while immobilized, declaring that “a cornered fox is more dangerous than a jackal!” in response to Liquid’s taunts. Fox was released as REX moved back a short distance, the now-blinded Liquid being forced to open the cockpit, exposing its interior to Snake’s Stinger missiles. Fox ordered Snake to fire on the cockpit, but its close proximity to him made Snake reluctant to do so, unwilling to kill his friend in the process. As Snake hesitated, Fox told him that after being taken from Zanzibar Land, he had neither been truly alive nor truly dead, and that he could finally meet his end with Snake to witness it. As Fox fell to the floor, Liquid tried to kill the Ninja once and for all by crushing him under one of Metal Gear’s massive feet, but Fox’s exoskeleton meant that this first attempt failed. With REX’s second stomp, however, the only man considered worthy of the codename “Fox” was no more. His last words were directed towards Snake:

After escaping the Shadow Moses facility, Snake contacted Naomi, informing her that Fox’s last message was to forget about him and move on with her own life, and that he would always love her. Snake decided not to tell her that Fox had killed her parents because he was the only family Naomi had ever known.

A photo of Frank Jaeger in Naomi’s locket.

During the Big Shell Incident in 2009, Solid Snake referenced Gray Fox’s last words to Raiden when explaining why he was motivated to carry out anti-Metal Gear activities. In addition, the Patriots’ recreation of Shadow Moses for the S3 Plan had Olga Gurlukovich assume the role of the Cyborg Ninja, causing Raiden to think that Fox may have survived, although Snake and several others knew otherwise.

By 2014, the gene therapy and nanomachine research conducted on Frank Jaeger was utilized in the creation of the SOP system.[33] During this time, Naomi carried a picture of her brother within her locket.

During his time as the Perfect Soldier Null, his frequent readjustments following each mission deprived him of both his memories and emotions, his only dreams being of waking up to the corpses of his victims lying in front of him, and waiting in vain for his comrades to rescue him. He harbored fatalistic, borderline nihilistic views on life, feeling that it wouldn’t truly matter if he spared someone or not as they would die eventually anyway. This belief, as well as his conditioning as the Perfect Soldier, resulted in him developing an intense animosity towards Big Boss after being unable to kill him in battle, and questioning his reasons for living.[34] This aspect eventually resulted in Jaeger renouncing his Null identity altogether when he was defeated by Big Boss.

Gray Fox as the Cyborg Ninja.

Gustava Heffner described Jaeger as handsome, well-mannered and intelligent, but always possessed by a level of fear.[35] His cold-blooded nature and extreme tenacity earned him the respect of Solid Snake and others in FOXHOUND, with Snake once considering him better than any other soldier he’d fought with.[5]

Jaeger was fearful around his adopted sister, Naomi, due to the immense guilt that he felt after killing her birth parents. He was reminded of their deaths every time he looked into Naomi eyes.[9]

Fox would become devoted to Big Boss’s cause, serving him at the expense of becoming militarily opposed to his friends such as Solid Snake.

Because of his past as a child soldier, Fox’s need for the battlefield resonated with Big Boss’s vision, despite his own hatred for war itself.[17] Unable to live a peaceful life, it was this helplessness that ultimately led him to side with Big Boss, both feeling that soldiers such as themselves could only find purpose outside of normal society, due to their innate fighting instincts.

After his defeat in Zanzibar Land, Fox developed a yearning for death following his transformation into the Cyborg Ninja, wanting to have one last fight with Solid Snake so he die by the latter’s hand. He believed he had been fated to die in Zanzibar Land and so his spirit was broken after his resuscitation by Dr. Clark. After re-encountering Fox the second time, Snake also speculated that the former couldn’t remember anything about his past besides their fight in Zanzibar Land.[36] Ultimately, he died aiding Snake in his mission to stop Liquid, achieving the peace he had long sought.

Gray Fox (, Gurei Fokkusu?) first appears in the original Metal Gear (spelled “Grey Fox” in the MSX2 version). The player’s initial objective is to rescue him and obtain intel on Metal Gear from him. Fox’s sprite in the MSX2 version was a recolor of the regular prisoner of war sprite (wearing a blue jumpsuit instead of a brown one), or in the case of the Nintendo Entertainment System version, the same as the prisoner of war sprite (as the game’s characters were monochrome). In addition, Fox’s role is very minor, as he only gives Snake the details of the TX-55 Metal Gear and suggests that he find Dr. Madnar before disappearing altogether. Future installments added some more detail to the meeting, revealing that Fox also showed a green Snake “the ropes.”

In the Previous Operations section of Metal Gear Solid, Fox’s mission is erroneously referred to as “Operation Intrude N313” instead of “Operation Intrude N312.”[37]

Fox returns in Metal Gear 2, where he confronts Snake as an enemy on several occasions, while secretly assisting him as an anonymous informant. Fox’s past is fleshed out in this game and his civilian identity is revealed to be Frank Jaeger (, Furanku Ig?) (“Frank Yeager” in the MSX2 version).

Fox is the most recurring boss character in the series, being fought in a total of five boss fights throughout the games (Vamp, Liquid Snake and Revolver Ocelot are fought four times, respectively throughout the series).

Fox’s portrait was modeled after actor Tom Berenger. In the re-released versions, he was redesigned to resemble his later depiction in Metal Gear Solid. Portions of Fox’s character, namely his first name of Frank, as well as his attempting to elope with a Czech figure skater, were influenced by the novel Crossfire.

It is stated in Metal Gear 2, and again in Metal Gear Solid, that the hand-to-hand battle between Snake and Fox takes place on a minefield. However, Fox is able to move around freely during the fight and can only be defeated by the player. Also, while Fox does “explode” after his defeatand “final conversation” with Snake, this is the case for nearly all the bosses in the game, except Dr. Madnar.

In Metal Gear 2, Fox claims that he was a half-white living in Vietnam, sent to a forced labor camp after the war (19551975), where he was rescued by Big Boss.[38] In addition, the Metal Gear Solid: Official Mission Handbook states that he was born in the 1970s to unknown parents, and was of Vietnamese and German-American descent.[39] However, Metal Gear Solid: Portable Ops later contradicts the Handbook’s account with his appearance in 1970, though he retains a German-speaking background. The issue is further confused by Metal Gear Solid V: Ground Zeroes, which reveals that Big Boss was in a coma before the Vietnam War ended, and did not recover until 1984.

Fox’s activities in Mozambique, as stated in Metal Gear 2 and referenced in Metal Gear Solid,[40] share many similarities to those later mentioned in Portable Ops, but are actually two different conflicts, namely the Civil War (19641974) and the War of Independence (19771992), respectively. While only the Portable Ops account is mentioned in the Metal Gear Solid 4 Database,[20] Fox’s participation in both wars is entirely plausible.

With these various additions and subtractions to the character’s backstory across various games, Fox’s recollections in Metal Gear 2, regarding the exact number of prior interactions with Big Boss, is somewhat unreliable.[38] Nevertheless, the narrative themes concerned with his victimization as a child soldier and his relationship with Big Boss remains intact.

In the English versions, Gray Fox was voiced by Greg Eagles (credited as George Byrd) in Metal Gear Solid, Rob Paulsen in The Twin Snakes, Super Smash Bros. Brawl, and Metal Gear Solid 4 and Larc Spies in Portable Ops. In Japanese versions, he was voiced by Kaneto Shiozawa in Metal Gear Solid and Metal Gear Solid 4, Takumi Yamazaki (the same man who voiced Ocelot in Metal Gear Solid 3) in Metal Gear Solid: Bande Dessine and Jun Fukuyama in Metal Gear Solid: Portable Ops. In the Japanese versions of Super Smash Bros. Brawl and Metal Gear Solid 4, Fox utilized the vocal archives of Shiozawa due to his death in 2000.

Gray Fox, in the E3 1997 trailer for Metal Gear Solid.

Fox’s Cyborg Ninja design was created by series artist Yoji Shinkawa. The design did not exist in the original concept for Metal Gear Solid, but director Hideo Kojima liked it so much, he decided to incorporate it into the storyline,[41] based on a sketch by “Shin-chan” that he found.[42] When Fox’s face is unmasked in the latter stages of the game, the pupil of one of his eyes is shown to be white.

The codename “Deepthroat,” which Fox used when contacting Snake by Codec to offer him advice, was also the name of the FBI agent who exposed U.S. President Richard Nixon’s involvement in the Watergate scandal. FBI agent William Mark Felt was the real Deepthroat, and he revealed himself to the public in May 2005.

In IDW’s Metal Gear Solid: Official Comic Book, it is hinted that Fox was sent by the Patriots to find and kill Solid Snake, in order to facilitate the job of assassinating him themselves.

The Ninja’s role in The Twin Snakes remake was similar to the original game, but was slightly extended due to directorial decisions. Specifically, a new action-packed cutscene shows his slaughter of the Genome Soldiers guarding Dr. Emmerich’s lab, with Snake briefly witnessing this (in the original game, the attack is heard off-screen, with Snake deducing the Ninja’s involvement upon discovering the body-strewn hallway).

Portable Ops, a prequel set two decades before the events of the first Metal Gear, features a teenage Fox as a masked machete-wielding soldier named Null (, Nuru?). The revelation of his identity in Portable Ops is similar to that in Metal Gear Solid; in both cases, his identity is unknown until he is engaged in battle and defeated by the player.

In the novelization of Metal Gear Solid, Fox’s death was portrayed in a slightly different manner than in both the original game and the remake. Namely, Fox managed to destroy Metal Gear REX’s radome at exactly the same time that the mech stepped on him, thus failing to crush him to death in that instant. However, he was still gravely wounded from the attack, and as a result, he died shortly afterwards. The remake, The Twin Snakes, was also slightly different in doing Fox’s death, as it only utilized one stomp attack to kill him, with it gradually delivering an increasing amount of pressure on Fox until his exoskeleton caved. REX then wiped its foot on the floor.

In the novelization, the gun that Fox used against REX was specified to be a portable Vulcan cannon,[43] while in Shinkawa’s character design sheets and product details for the Cyborg Ninja Play Arts Kai action figure, it is simply referred to as a “Laser Gun Arm.”[31][32]

Although Gray Fox himself does not appear in Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty, due to it taking place after his death, he is mentioned a few times in the game. Likewise, in Substance, Raiden can wear a Cyborg Ninja outfit bearing multiple similarities to Gray Fox’s exoskeleton in the VR missions.

Gray Fox is referenced several times in Metal Gear Solid 4: Guns of the Patriots.

Fox, as an Assist Trophy in Super Smash Bros. Brawl.

In Super Smash Bros. Brawl, Gray Fox appears as an Assist Trophy who leaps around the arena and attacks opponents with rapid sword-slashes. He also deflects any projectiles fired at him. He also has the ability to reappear from the top of the screen if he falls off the stage. If one of the players is in control of Solid Snake and the Gray Fox assist trophy is activated, the two characters will exchange in dialogue from Metal Gear Solid. An unlockable trophy of Gray Fox exists within the game, with the following text:

Besides his appearance as both a regular and an assist trophy, Gray Fox also appeared as a sticker in the same game. Characters who wore the sticker will increase flinch resistance by 98.

He was also indirectly mentioned twice, both by Solid Snake during Codec calls: When calling Roy Campbell about Fox McCloud, Snake will comment that he’s “getting sick of Foxes”, alluding to both FOXHOUND’s going renegade as well as Gray Fox becoming his enemy in Metal Gear 2. Snake also mentions he empathizes with Marth about getting betrayed by close ones in a Codec conversation with Mei Ling on Marth, alluding to Gray Fox betraying Snake in the same game alongside other characters in other games and betrayal being a repeated theme of the franchise.

ScrewAttack ranked Gray Fox #2 in their Top Ten Ninjas list.

Play Arts Kai has released action figures of Gray Fox in his Cyborg Ninja form, which had three models: One was the regular variant used in the game, one was based on the bonus-colored variant, and the last one was primarily gray. The bonus-colored variant was recently released at the San Diego Comic Con as an exclusive item, alongside four Metal Gear Solid-themed iPhone cases and a 25th Anniversary T-shirt.[44]

He also appeared in Vs. Battle, where he challenged Raiden. Earlier, his skin from Metal Gear Rising had challenged Solidus Snake. In addition, his “Fight to the Death” dialogue with Snake also competed with Sniper Wolf’s Love Letter dialogue in the same contest.

The Gray Fox DLC skin featured in Metal Gear Rising.

Gray Fox is a downloadable costume for Raiden in Metal Gear Rising: Revengeance. The first HD screenshot of the costume was published on January 10, 2013 at 2:50 pm by the Metal Gear Rising Facebook page as a reward for getting 200,000 likes to Metal Gear Rising.[45] The overall design for the Gray Fox skin is based on the Play Arts Kai figure for Gray Fox’s normal appearance. A pre-order also came with the Gray Fox skin, as well as a special weapon called the Fox Blade, based on the weapon Gray Fox used in Shadow Moses. The English Gray Fox trailer also revealed that the Fox Blade was upgradable, and that its limits were “epic.” With it, the player is only required to cut once while in blade mode to get cyborg organs to recharge. In the Japanese DLC skin trailer, when showcasing the Gray Fox skin trailer, it showed Raiden’s Gray Fox skin slaughtering several cyborg ninja soldiers, a reference to a scene in Metal Gear Solid where he first appeared as a Cyborg Ninja. The descriptions for both equipment indicate that the Gray Fox skin was actually a copy of the exoskeleton Gray Fox wore in Shadow Moses, and that the FOX Blade was not only the same weapon, it was also infused with Gray Fox’s soul. Despite the latter description, it does not share any of Gray Fox’s voice actors, unlike the Snake’s Soul Wooden Blade.

Besides the DLC, Gray Fox was indirectly alluded to in an optional Codec conversation with Maverick member Courtney Collins, regarding the advancements in cyborg technology, establishing the cause of his painful spasms in Metal Gear Solid as being from faulty nerve connections to his exoskeleton.[28]

On January 17, 2013, Kojima told IGN that it was the development staff’s decision to use Raiden as the main character of Metal Gear Rising. He admitted that if it were up to him, he would have used Gray Fox instead. He also admitted that had Fox been used, he would have ended up writing and directing the game.[46]

A Gray Fox skin is unlockable in Ground Zeroes, using graphics from the PlayStation version of Metal Gear Solid, although it is noticeable that he has Solid Snake’s polygonal face and bandana. The specific methods of unlocking the skin involves not only beating the Dj Vu mission on Hard, but also answering the questionaire with 100% accuracy on the same difficulty.[47] Miller when conducting the quiz during either first time playthroughs of the hard difficulty or otherwise redoing the quiz due to failing earlier will also allude to this skin by stating that he has a special bonus thrown in if the player answers all questions correctly,[48] as well as stating upon doing so that he’ll give the bonus later.[49] If the player does a dash, he will move at a superhuman speed and have lightning emit from his legs, similar to Raiden in Jamais Vu, and was also potent enough to kill Ravens and mice via contact.

Aside from the game itself, Gray Fox (identified as Cyborg Ninja) is also an unlockable officer character in the Mother Base Developer on the Metal Gear Solid V: Ground Zeroes Companion App. He is unlockable by achieving 85k points in Deja Vu’s hard mode.

A leaked scan for an Italian game guide for Metal Gear Solid V: The Phantom Pain revealed that Gray Fox will act as a skin for Venom Snake, alongside Raiden. The scan also revealed that running into enemies will knock them down, stunning them long enough for the player to CQC them by the time they get up. The skin could be unlocked for development by getting the Master Certificate (Standard), which is accomplished by completing all regular missions.

During the development of The Phantom Pain, a theory circulated online that the Venom Snake featured in the game was actually Fox, citing that in gameplay and cutscene trailers, several of the camera angles resembled Fox’s scenes in Metal Gear Solid. While the theory became popular with some fans, it was later disproven.

In Metal Gear Solid and The Twin Snakes, if the player neither manages, nor attempts, to escape the torture room’s holding cell after Ocelot’sfive torture sessions, Gray Fox will appear and open the door for Snake before disappearing. If player doesn’t get rid of the timer bomb, he calls Snake when timer has 60 seconds left. Also, upon completing the game twice, Gray Fox’s Cyborg Ninja outfit will be changed from blue and brown to red and blue, resembling Spider-Man and Deadpool from Marvel Comics.

If the player uses chaff grenades to attack Gray Fox during the fist fight, he will be stunned, but then tells off Solid Snake for his cheap method of attacking, citing that this was not how Snake usually fights, and resorts to attacking Snake with his sword as a result.

When fighting Null at the power substation, several of his quotes sound a lot more agitated compared to when he said them during the fight at the silo entrance. To unlock Null, simply defeat him both times and begin a second playthrough after beating the game.

In battle, Null uses a Machete for fighting at close quarters and deflecting bullets and uses M10 otherwise. Upon recruitment Null comes with a Machete as a unique weapon with an attack pattern similar to that of the unequipped punch punch kick attack pattern, and the third swipe is always lethal towards non-boss or regular opponents.

Null uses his machete in the left hand while battling him or while playing as him, but in cutscences Null use his machete in the right hand.

During both his boss fights, he says his taunts in a slightly differing tone for each battle. In the Silo Entrance, he says them in a robotic monotone. In the Power Substation, however, he has a noticeable increase of agitation in his tone.

During Act 4, when the player arrives at the Supply Port where REX’s remains are, taking a picture of REX’s left leg will unveil a ghost of Gray Fox while he was a Cyborg Ninja. His calling Snake to warn him about the claymore mines and tank in the canyon area was also an unlockable audio flashback.

In addition, one of his lines during the fight in Metal Gear Solid, “Hurt me more!”, was also the name of a trophy in the game’s trophy patch, unlocked when the player uses the Metal Gear Mk. II/Mk. III to electrocute an enemy soldier.

An imprisoned Gray Fox being rescued by Snake in Metal Gear.

Gray Fox vs. Solid Snake in Metal Gear 2.

The Yoji Shinkawa sketch that inspired Hideo Kojima to include the Cyborg Ninja in Metal Gear Solid.

Concept art for Gray Fox, including his arm cannon.

Yoji Shinkawa’s sketches of Gray Fox

Gray Fox’s artwork in The Art of Metal Gear Solid.

Concept artwork for Metal Gear Solid.

Alternate red Ninja costume featured in a third playthrough of Metal Gear Solid.

Gray Fox in The Twin Snakes.

Gray Fox in The Twin Snakes.

Gray Fox shows his face, in The Twin Snakes.

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