Over the past few years, a new paradigm for thinking about humankind's future has begun to take shape among some leading computer scientists, neuroscientists, nanotechnologists and researchers at the forefront of technological development. The new paradigm rejects a crucial assumption that is implicit in both traditional futurology and practically all of today's political thinking. This is the assumption that the "human condition" is at root a constant. Present-day processes can be fine-tuned; wealth can be increased and redistributed; tools can be developed and refined; culture can change, sometimes drastically; but human nature itself is not up for grabs.
This assumption no longer holds true. Arguably it has never been true. Such innovations as speech, written language, printing, engines, modern medicine and computers have had a profound impact not just on how people live their lives, but on who and what they are. Compared to what might happen in the next few decades, these changes may have been slow and even relatively tame. But note that even a single additional innovation as important as any of the above would be enough to invalidate orthodox projections of the future of our world.
"Transhumanism" has gained currency as the name for a new way of thinking that challenges the premise that the human condition is and will remain essentially unalterable. Clearing away that mental block allows one to see a dazzling landscape of radical possibilities, ranging from unlimited bliss to the extinction of intelligent life. In general, the future by present lights looks very weird - but perhaps very wonderful - indeed.
Some of the possibilities that you will no doubt hear discussed in the coming years are quite extreme and sound like science-fiction. Consider the following:
These prospects might seem remote. Yet transhumanists think there is reason to believe that they might not be so far off as is commonly supposed. The Technology Postulate denotes the hypothesis that several of the items listed, or other changes that are equally profound, will become feasible within, say, seventy years (possibly much sooner). This is the antithesis of the assumption that the human condition is a constant. The Technology Postulate is often presupposed in transhumanist discussion. But it is not an article of blind faith; it's a falsifiable hypothesis that is argued for on specific scientific and technological grounds.
If we come to believe that there are good grounds for believing that the Technology Postulate is true, what consequences does that have for how we perceive the world and for how we spend our time? Once we start reflecting on the matter and become aware of its ramifications, the implications are profound.
From this awareness springs the transhumanist philosophy -- and "movement". For transhumanism is more than just an abstract belief that we are about to transcend our biological limitations by means of technology; it is also an attempt to re-evaluate the entire human predicament as traditionally conceived. And it is a bid to take a far-sighted and constructive approach to our new situation. A primary task is to provoke the widest possible discussion of these topics and to promote a better public understanding. The set of skills and competencies that are needed to drive the transhumanist agenda extend far beyond those of computer scientists, neuroscientists, software-designers and other high-tech gurus. Transhumanism is not just for brains accustomed to hard-core futurism. It should be a concern for our whole society.
It is extremely hard to anticipate the long-term consequences of our present actions. But rather than sticking our heads in the sand, transhumanists reckon we should at least try to plan for them as best we can. In doing so, it becomes necessary to confront some of the notorious "big questions" about the structure of the world and the role and prospects of sentience within it. Doing so requires delving into a number of different scientific disciplines as well as tackling hard philosophical problems.
While the wider perspective and the bigger questions are essential to transhumanism, that does not mean that transhumanists do not take an intense interest in what goes in our world today. On the contrary! Recent topical themes that have been the subject of wide and lively debate in transhumanist forums include such diverse issues as cloning; proliferation of weapons of mass-destruction; neuro/chip interfaces; psychological tools such as critical thinking skills, NLP, and memetics; processor technology and Moore's law; gender roles and sexuality; neural networks and neuromorphic engineering; life-extension techniques such as caloric restriction; PET, MRI and other brain-scanning methods; evidence (?) for life on Mars; transhumanist fiction and films; quantum cryptography and "teleportation"; the Digital Citizen; atomic force microscopy as a possible enabling technology for nanotechnology; electronic commerce.... Not all participants are equally at home in all of these fields, of course, but many like the experience of taking part in a joint exploration of unfamiliar ideas, facts and standpoints.
An important transhumanist goal is to improve the functioning of human society as an epistemic community. In addition to trying to figure out what is happening, we can try to figure out ways of making ourselves better at figuring out what is happening. We can create institutions that increase the efficiency of the academic- and other knowledge-communities. More and more people are gaining access to the Internet. Programmers, software designers, IT consultants and others are involved in projects that are constantly increasing the quality and quantity of advantages of being connected. Hypertext publishing and the collaborative information filtering paradigm have the potential to accelerate the propagation of valuable information and aid the demolition of what transpire to be misconceptions and crackpot claims. The people working in information technology are only the latest reinforcement to the body of educators, scientists, humanists, teachers and responsible journalists who have been striving throughout the ages to decrease ignorance and make humankind as a whole more rational.
One simple but brilliant idea, developed by Robin Hanson, is that we create a market of "idea futures". Basically, this means that it would be possible to place bets on all sorts of claims about controversial scientific and technological issues. One of the many benefits of such an institution is that it would provide policy-makers and others with consensus estimates of the probabilities of uncertain hypotheses about projected future events, such as when a certain technological breakthrough will occur. It would also offer a decentralized way of providing financial incentives for people to make an effort to be right in what they think. And it could promote intellectual sincerity in that persons making strong claims would be encouraged to put their money where their mouth is. At present, the idea is embodied in an experimental set-up, the Foresight Exchange, where people can stake "credibility points" on a variety of claims. But for its potential advantages to materialize, a market has to be created that deals in real money and is as integrated in the established economic structure as are current stock exchanges. (Present anti-gambling regulations are one impediment to this; in many countries betting on anything other than sport and horses is prohibited.)
The transhumanist outlook can appear cold and alien at first. Many people are frightened by the rapid changes they are witnessing and respond with denial or by calling for bans on new technologies. It's worth recalling how pain relief at childbirth through the use of anesthetics was once deplored as unnatural. More recently, the idea of "test-tube babies" has been viewed with abhorrence. Genetic engineering is widely seen as interfering with God's designs. Right now, the biggest moral panic is cloning. We have today a whole breed of well-meaning biofundamentalists, religious leaders and so-called ethical experts who see it as their duty to protect us from whatever "unnatural" possibilities that don't fit into their preconceived world-view. The transhumanist philosophy is a positive alternative to this ban-the-new approach to coping with a changing world. Instead of rejecting the unprecedented opportunities on offer, it invites us to embrace them as vigorously as we can. Transhumanists view technological progress as a joint human effort to invent new tools that we can use to reshape the human condition and overcome our biological limitations, making it possible for those who so want to become "post-humans". Whether the tools are "natural" or "unnatural" is entirely irrelevant.
Transhumanism is not a philosophy with a fixed set of dogmas. What distinguishes transhumanists, in addition to their broadly technophiliac values, is the sort of problems they explore. These include subject matter as far-reaching as the future of intelligent life, as well as much more narrow questions about present-day scientific, technological or social developments. In addressing these problems, transhumanists aim to take a fact-driven, scientific, problem-solving approach. They also make a point of challenging holy cows and questioning purported impossibilities. No principle is beyond doubt, not the necessity of death, not our confinement to the finite resources of planet Earth, not even transhumanism itself is held to be too good for constant critical reassessment. The ideology is meant to evolve and be reshaped as we move along, in response to new experiences and new challenges. Transhumanists are prepared to be shown wrong and to learn from their mistakes.
Transhumanism can also be very practical and down-to-earth. Many transhumanists find ways of applying their philosophy to their own lives, ranging from the use of diet and exercise to improve health and life-expectancy; to signing up for cryonic suspension; creating transhumanist art; using clinical drugs to adjust parameters of mood and personality; applying various psychological self-improvement techniques; and in general taking steps to live richer and more responsible lives. An empowering mind-set that is common among transhumanists is dynamic optimism: the attitude that desirable results can in general be accomplished, but only through hard effort and smart choices.
Are you a transhumanist? If so, then you can look forward to increasingly seeing your own views reflected in the media and in society. For it is clear that transhumanism is an idea whose time has come.
This article was first published in 1998. Since then things have developed, both technologically (of course) but also philosophically. I want to say just a few words about the main changes in my own thinking that have occurred over the past years.
1. When the first version was written, the main challenge was to make people aware of potential developments that the article discusses. That has been happening increasingly. Although there is still a long way to go, the focus for me has shifted to getting into the details, taking more account of the obstacles and downsides, and trying to develop a more sensitive treatment of the complex issues involved.
2. Many people are scared by transhumanism. While some of the fear is based on misconceptions, a significant part of it reflects a legitimate concern that in the process of pursuing technological improvements, we could risk losing some of the things that we regard as most valuable. The challenge, therefore, is to be sensitive to our fundamental values and to find a vision and a roadmap that will not lead to their disappearance but rather their enhancement (albeit, perhaps, in a transposed form). We must emphasize that what we should strive for is not technology instead of humanity, but technology for humanity.
3. In addition to the somewhat intangible risk that we create a utopia where we have forgotten to include the things we care about most, there are various concrete risks of technology being used destructively, either by accident or malicious intent (consider e.g. the risks from nanotechnology referred to above). Planning to minimize these risks is a central concern.
4. A fundamental fact about us humans is that we care about how we relate to each other. Love, affection, envy, and friendships are such important parts of who and what we are that they cannot be left out of the equation. And there are no easy technological fixes to these issues. For example, maybe future technology could give you the illusion and the feeling of being loved. But maybe what you really want is to actually be loved and not just by some custom-made lovebot, but by this currently existing human being that you have given your heart to. The best technology could do is to help you create the conditions under which your love could flourish and grow indefinitely, unencumbered by the erosive forces of current material and psychological conditions.
Im grateful to Anders Sandberg and David Pearce for comments on an earlier draft.
About Nick Bostrom
Dr. Nick Bostrom received his Ph.D. in philosophy from the London School of Economics in the year 2000. He is currently a Lecturer at the Department of Philosophy at Yale University. A founder of the World Transhumanist Association, he is the author of numerous publications in the foundations of probability theory, ethics, transhumanism, and philosophy of science, including the book Anthropic Bias: Observation Selection Effects in Science and Philosophy (Routledge, New York), which is due out in April 2002. For more information, see: http://www.nickbostrom.com
Here is the original post:
- Dublin Theatre Festival reviews: The Great Hunger, and To Be A Machine - Irish Examiner - October 8th, 2020
- To be a Machine review: Experimental format well-suited to plays core theme - The Irish Times - October 8th, 2020
- The Honorable Dr. Dale Layman, Founder of Robowatch, LLC, is Recognized as the 2020 Humanitarian of the Year by Top 100 Registry, Inc. - IT News... - September 4th, 2020
- Transhumanism: The cyborgs and biohackers redefining ... - August 10th, 2020
- Silicon Valley, the start-up incarnation 4/5. Palmer Luckey, the geek who needed to make sure the army supremacy of the West - Pledge Times - August 5th, 2020
- Hi John. Will artificial intelligence replace humanity by 2084? - Eternity News - July 23rd, 2020
- The benefits and risks of AI and post-human life - Independent Australia - April 26th, 2020
- Whats the best way to prepare for the apocalypse? Dont ask these guys - Telegraph.co.uk - April 23rd, 2020
- Cosmodeism: Prologue to a Theology of Transhumanism - Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies - April 3rd, 2020
- Meet Ai-Da, the worlds first AI artist, who is almost human - Dazed - April 3rd, 2020
- What is transhumanism, or, what does it mean to be human ... - March 31st, 2020
- What is transhumanism? | CARM.org - March 31st, 2020
- Transhumanism: Pros and Cons - iGyaan - March 31st, 2020
- Zoltan Istvan: The Transhumanist Candidate - Roads and Kingdoms - March 17th, 2020
- Sleeve Into Altered Carbon: The Role Playing Game - Nerdist - March 17th, 2020
- Being alive: Institut Franais presents 'The Night of Ideas' - Daily Sabah - January 30th, 2020
- The 2010s were the decade of trans - The Spectator USA - December 21st, 2019
- Seattle faith groups reckon with AI and what it means to be truly human - Seattle Times - November 12th, 2019
- Transhumanism - Britannica.com - June 3rd, 2019
- Transhumanism | Conspiracy School - June 3rd, 2019
- Transhumanism Is TemptingUntil You Remember Inspector Gadget ... - June 3rd, 2019
- Transhumanism - RationalWiki - June 3rd, 2019
- What is Transhumanism? - GenSix Productions - June 3rd, 2019
- Elevating the Human Condition - Humanity+ What does it mean ... - June 3rd, 2019
- transhumanism | Definition, Origins, Characteristics, & Facts ... - February 8th, 2019
- Transhumanism | Future | FANDOM powered by Wikia - February 8th, 2019
- Transhumanism - reddit - December 28th, 2018
- Transhumanism: The History of a Dangerous Idea: David ... - November 8th, 2018
- Transhumanism - H+Pedia - hpluspedia.org - July 16th, 2018
- Transhumanism - Mercurial Essays - July 16th, 2018
- TRANSHUMANISM Feral House - July 16th, 2018
- Transhumanism: The Anti-Human Singularity Agenda - July 16th, 2018
- Transhumanism by Dorian Mays on Prezi - July 16th, 2018
- What is Mormon Transhumanism? And is it Mormon? | Interpreter ... - July 16th, 2018
- Transhumanism Has Opened the Gates of Hell-Steve Quayle and ... - July 16th, 2018
- Transhumanism: Genetic Engineering of Man - the New ... - July 6th, 2018
- Transhumanism | social and philosophical movement ... - May 21st, 2018
- Transhumanism Is Despair Its an Ersatz Version of ... - May 21st, 2018
- Transhumanism - Catholicism.org - May 12th, 2018
- Transhumanism Foreign Policy - May 8th, 2018
- Hidden In Plain Sight - 4 Movies That Expose The Globalist ... - March 23rd, 2018
- Bloodborne, Transhumanism and Cosmic Cyberpunk - Kotaku UK (blog) - August 25th, 2017
- Transhumanism Is Not Libertarian, It's an Abomination - The American Conservative - August 22nd, 2017
- TRICOAST ENTERTAINMENT RELEASES FIRST ... - Digital Journal - Digital Journal - August 9th, 2017
- Pop music moves a step closer to eternal life - The Columbian - August 5th, 2017
- How the death of EDM brought pop music one step closer to eternal life - Washington Post - August 4th, 2017
- The MetroSpiritual: Creating super-humans through Transhumanism is becoming a reality - New York Daily News - July 29th, 2017
- Luton hate crime probe over St Thomas's church graffiti - BBC News - July 26th, 2017
- Fringe movements key to changing the world - Winnipeg Free Press - July 22nd, 2017
- Putting Infants Down Like Dogs - First Things - July 22nd, 2017
- Review: Poem 88's Correspondences series brings us back to balance - ArtsATL - July 7th, 2017
- Little Atoms at Wilderness - Little Atoms - June 29th, 2017
- Futuristic Thriller State of Mind Gets 15 Minutes of New Gameplay Footage - DualShockers - June 21st, 2017
- Peter Thiel is Funding the Comeback of the Woolly Mammoth - Inverse - June 21st, 2017
- The body electric - Arkansas Times - June 8th, 2017
- 4 life-changing emerging technologies to get excited about - Born2Invest - June 7th, 2017
- Transhumanism Is Just Fancy Sex-Shaming And Self-Loathing - The Federalist - April 8th, 2017
- Transhumanism: The World's Most Dangerous Idea? - March 11th, 2017
- The Reality Principle - Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies - March 11th, 2017
- Transhumanism Conference at Samford University - March 3rd, 2017
- Touring transhumanism 'To Be a Machine' - Maine Edge - March 2nd, 2017
- 'To Be A Machine' Digs Into The Meaning Of Humanity - WPSU - March 1st, 2017
- Buddhism and Transhumanism - Lankaweb - February 23rd, 2017
- Zoltan Istvan on transhumanism, politics and why the human body has to go - New Atlas - February 22nd, 2017
- Sociologist: 'Capitalism 2.0' about to slay liberalism's sacred cow - WND.com - February 8th, 2017
- Trexit?: Transnationalism and Transhumanism and why They ... - January 13th, 2017
- Transhumanism | Bioethics.com - January 3rd, 2017
- Transhumanism in fiction - Wikipedia - December 23rd, 2016
- Transhumanism | Foreign Policy - December 10th, 2016
- Hidden In Plain Sight 4 Movies That Expose The Globalist ... - December 8th, 2016