June 5th marks the third annual United Nations International Day for the Fight Against Illegal, Unreported, and Unregulated (IUU) Fishing. Peter Horn, who directs efforts by The Pew Charitable Trusts to end illegal fishingas part of the organizations international fisheriesprogram, spoke to three of his Pew colleagues: Gina Fiore, who focuses on maritime security and fisheries crime; Tahiana Fajardo, who works with governments, enforcement authorities, and the seafood industry to adopt regulations and policies to prevent IUU; and Alyson Kauffman, who focuses on reforming transshipment and improving fisheries enforcement through technology.
This interview has been edited for clarity and length.
Kauffman: Ever since I was young, I knew I wanted to focus on the ocean when I grew up. In college, I decided to pursue a career in oceanography. After graduating, I worked as a satellite oceanographer for eight years, analyzing remote sensing data for fishing vessels, to help improve their fishing efforts. When I got to Pew, I knew that I could leverage that skill set to help enforcement officials target areas where protected species are located, or where known overfishing activity has occurred, in an effort to reduce instances of illegal fishing.
Fiore: I grew up fishing recreationally with my family on the east end of Long Island, where the Atlantic Ocean has always been a vital part of the local economy. I saw first-hand with the Long Island lobster industry how disruptions in the ecosystem lead to devastation for communities that rely on the ocean to make a livingnot just on Long Island, but in coastal areas all over the world where people build their economies from fishing. So its important for me to try to stop people and companies that threaten fisheries, especially small-scale and the artisanal fisheries.
Courtesy of Gina Fiore
Fajardo: Illegal fishing is a complex problem, and the public needs to understand that theres no one-layer solution to ending it. The solution is multilayered, and involves all States, the fishing industry, tech companies, NGOs, and end consumers; its not the responsibility of one stakeholder, one country, or one group. Awareness, communication, and coordination are key, and progress can be made faster if every party takes responsibility for their part and holds themselves accountable.
Fiore: Being able to see whos fishing in your waters is an important facet of maritime governance, and a major part of maritime domain awareness. When a country knows what fishing vessels are doing in their countrys waters, it builds better awareness locally and allows for that information to be shared regionally. And as information is shared between countries, it starts to close off ports to bad actorsand eventually disincentivizes illegal fishing in exclusive economic zones. That means improved sustainability, more fish for local and smaller-scale fishermen, and more money coming back into the economy.
Fajardo: A critical problem posed by IUU fishing is that it weakens efforts to sustainably manage fish stocks. Thats because fisheries management measures are based on data that may not be accurate if IUU catches and efforts are not accounted for, putting stocks that are already vulnerable in even more danger.
Fajardo: Unfortunately, how fishers are affected by IUU is an even less discussed problem, but its just as criticalbecause it ultimately affects their safety and lives. What evidence has shown is that because illegal operators cut as many corners as possible when it comes to increasing their profit, they often do so at the expense of anything and anyone. This usually translates into not maintaining minimum safety standards on their vessels, and terrible living and working conditions for their fishers, which adds unnecessary threats and danger to an occupation already considered to be one of the most dangerous in the world.
Courtesy of Tahiana Fajardo
Fajardo: Its the country to which a vessel is registered, and from which the vessel takes its nationality. A flag State ensures proper registration of its fishing vessels and is responsible for having a robust monitoring, control, and surveillance system of its fleets.
Fajardo: Theyre in the unique position to control their fishing fleets, which is a critical responsibility. This oversight carries even more relevance for vessels operating on the high seas, where States other than the flag State have limited jurisdiction. So flag States are fundamental in preventing IUU fishing from taking place in the first placeand for enforcing, on their vessels, international and domestic laws designed to end IUU fishing and related illegal activities.
Kauffman: Transshipment is the transfer of fish from a fishing vessel to a carrier vessel that takes the catch back to port, and it often takes place far out on the high seas, where its difficult to monitor. It plays a really important role in the fishing industry, but it adds one more step in the supply chain, increasing the risk of IUU fish being landed at port.
Courtesy of Alyson Kauffman
Kauffman: Overall, the benefits of technology have provided us the ability to have eyes on whats happening at sea and validate whats being reported, while also detecting increased risk of IUU activity. For instance, data from automatic identification systems (AIS), which are required on vessels over 300 gross tons, can be used to show where fishing vessels are going. Enforcement officials can review this data to see if the vessels are fishing where theyre not supposed to. However, bad actors can look for loopholes to avoid complying with international fisheries policiessuch as turning off or obstructing the AIS to avoid being monitored. Ultimately, technology helps us determine levels of risk and allows us to ask the right questions about whats happening on the high seas.
- High Seas Trading Co.- Hawaiian shirts | Aloha Shirts | USA Made Clothing| - July 8th, 2022
- Romance on the High Seas (1948) - IMDb - July 8th, 2022
- High Seas and High Stakes Communications: Securing the Maritime ... - July 8th, 2022
- Review: 'The Sea Beast' is a high-seas animated adventure with surprising depth - WTOP - July 8th, 2022
- Canada hopes to lure more nations into fighting illicit fishing on the high seas - Canada's National Observer - July 8th, 2022
- Man Accused Of Killing Mother At Sea To Inherit Her Millions Seeks Pre-Trial Release - Oxygen - July 8th, 2022
- 7 new movies and shows to watch this weekend on Netflix, Hulu, Apple TV Plus and more (July 8) - Tom's Guide - July 8th, 2022
- Ubisoft finally shows us Skull and Bones, and it just makes me want to play Sea of Thieves - PC Gamer - July 8th, 2022
- Battling Mountainous Seas Powerless Bulker is Moved to Shelter - The Maritime Executive - July 8th, 2022
- The Metals Company and Allseas - GuruFocus.com - July 8th, 2022
- Taika Waititi Explains His Vision For Representation In Thor: Love And Thunder - Looper - July 8th, 2022
- PierPressure party boat hits Milford's high seas in June - CTPost - May 12th, 2022
- Cruise the Sea in These Luxury Five-Star Pods - The Market Herald - May 12th, 2022
- On the high seas with Engineers Australia's Young Engineering Associate of the Year - Create - create digital - May 12th, 2022
- Are the Great Lakes Really Inland Seas? - Atlas Obscura - April 28th, 2022
- How to Charter a Superyacht: Everything You Need to Know About Booking a High-Seas Vacation - Robb Report - April 28th, 2022
- India and the US Navigate Their Differences - Heritage.org - April 28th, 2022
- Nexxiot equips a significant share of the 3 mio TEU fleet from Hapag-Lloyd with IoT Technology - CSCMP's Supply Chain Quarterly - April 28th, 2022
- New Wrtsil large bore engine will debut in Utopia of the Seas - Marine Log - April 28th, 2022
- Cruising for beginners: Life on Royal Caribbean's Wonder of the Seas - bars, restaurants and activities - RSVP Live - April 28th, 2022
- New Zealand unveils plan to tackle climate crisis by adapting cities to survive rising seas - The Guardian - April 28th, 2022
- Disney On Ice presents INTO THE MAGIC | News - AussieTheatre.com - April 28th, 2022
- HOW I BECAME A PIRATE to Be Performed at The Perry Pavilion - Broadway World - April 28th, 2022
- The present and future of the Philippines-India partnership - The Manila Times - April 28th, 2022
- Joliet native serves aboard USS Hershel "Woody" Williams - 1340 WJOL - 1340 WJOL - April 28th, 2022
- Does the Sinking of the Moskva Matter and Why? - Russia Matters - April 28th, 2022
- Rescued sailor joins RNLI Mayday call as figures reveal busy year for Manx crews - rnli.org - April 28th, 2022
- International waters - Wikipedia - April 14th, 2022
- - High Seas Alliance - April 14th, 2022
- Weather forecast: Showers and rough seas - Dominican Today - April 14th, 2022
- Naval Service on the offensive to enlist more personnel - Irish Examiner - April 14th, 2022
- Meet the Iron Duke-Class: The Most Powerful Battleship of World War I? - 19FortyFive - April 14th, 2022
- Groove Cruise, The World's Largest Floating Dance Music Festival, Announces Its Upcoming Excursion Aboard Newly Remodeled and Award-Winning Ship - PR... - April 14th, 2022
- Costa Rica Directs its Efforts Towards Protecting the Ocean : - The Tico Times - April 14th, 2022
- MAIB: Crew's Comfort With Rough Weather May Have Caused Container Loss - The Maritime Executive - April 14th, 2022
- Sanctioned and Sailing Through Chinese Waters: The Case of the UN-Blacklisted Hoe Ryong - The Diplomat - April 14th, 2022
- World Sailing Speed Record Looks To Be Obliterated By The SP80 Sailboat - Boss Hunting - April 14th, 2022
- Sea Girl Carbon Theatre - The Reviews Hub - April 14th, 2022
- Hawke's Bay rain starts but less forecast than in original warnings - New Zealand Herald - April 14th, 2022
- Sailing the High Seas with Dejeros Cloud-Based Production Tools - TV Technology - October 9th, 2021
- Input wanted on changes to high seas fishing rules - The Bay's News First - SunLive - October 9th, 2021
- 9 crew of Indian vessel stranded on high seas rescued - The Statesman - October 9th, 2021
- Coast Guard rescues 9 crew members of mechanised vessal stranded in high seas - News Today - October 9th, 2021
- In Mumbai rave party bust, NCB carries out first-ever drugs search on cruise liner in high seas - Deccan Herald - October 9th, 2021
- Easy Halloween costume ideas for the continued collapse of society - Tampa Bay Times - October 9th, 2021
- What We Do In The Shadows Recap: The Siren - The Workprint - October 9th, 2021
- Trinidad and Tobago chaos over who actually owns the House of Football - Inside World Football - October 9th, 2021
- Deep seabed mining is risky. If something goes wrong, who will pay for it? - Mongabay.com - October 9th, 2021
- Students win new UH awards to protect oceans | University of Hawaii System News - UH System Current News - October 9th, 2021
- Seabed Mining: The Coast Guard's Deep Future - CIMSEC - October 9th, 2021
- SBI launches NAV-eCash Card. Check features and benefits here - Mint - October 9th, 2021
- Navigating Miocene Ocean Temperatures for Insights into the Future - Eos - October 9th, 2021
- Planning a Cruise? Here's What You Need to Know - NBC San Diego - October 9th, 2021
- National Grid in talks over plan for energy island in North Sea - The Guardian - October 9th, 2021
- A drone survives a sail into a major hurricane and "lives" to show the video - KTVZ - October 9th, 2021
- Listen closely: How sound could help improve the way we manage fisheries and conservation - Dal News - October 9th, 2021
- To solve space traffic woes, look to the high seas - MIT Technology Review - August 24th, 2021
- Who Is Going to Map the High Seas? - Hydro International - August 24th, 2021
- War on the High Seas - The Maritime Executive - August 24th, 2021
- Almost there: One more month until calmer seas, better weather - spacecityweather.com - August 24th, 2021
- Meet Rex, a Regal 417-Foot Expedition Yacht Concept With an Underwater Lounge and Helicopter Parking - Yahoo Lifestyle - August 24th, 2021
- Our first vacation fish, and other standout moments of summer 2021 | Pamelas Food Service Diary - SILive.com - August 24th, 2021
- HAWAII Hawaii County Weather Forecast for August 22, 2021 BIG ISLAND NOW - Big Island Now - August 24th, 2021
- NOAA Just Named 31 Nations That Engage in Illegal or Unregulated Fishing. Here's Why That's a Step in the Right Direction. - Earthjustice - August 24th, 2021
- Henri likely to bring rough seas to the south, possibly heavy rainfall in northern Delaware - delawarebusinessnow.com - August 24th, 2021
- Gather Round Mateys, These Arrrrre The Best Pirate Movies To Watch Right Now - Yahoo Lifestyle - August 24th, 2021
- You have what you voted for - Santa Barbara News-Press - August 24th, 2021
- Annette and a truly weird summer at the movies - Vox.com - August 24th, 2021
- As Henri Nears US Coast, Threat to Long Island Increases - East Hampton Star - August 24th, 2021
- Indias Highway Construction Is in the Fast Lane - Fair Observer - August 24th, 2021
- The Fiji Times Skipper's legacy A lover of the sea - Fiji Times - August 24th, 2021
- Chubut imposes strict measures on shrimp landings to protect the fishery - MercoPress - August 24th, 2021
- Jellyfish Found in Greece are the Least Dangerous of All - Greek Reporter - August 24th, 2021
- Indian Ocean: The maritime links of India-Malaysia - Hindustan Times - August 24th, 2021
- Shark Experts Agree, These Are The 5 Best Dive Sites In The World - Forbes - August 24th, 2021
- North Vancouver RCMP remind boaters of rules on the water during education blitz - North Shore News - August 24th, 2021
- Salinity Measurements of the Adriatic Sea Record an Unprecedented Increase - Total Croatia News - August 24th, 2021
- China and the Agreement to Prevent Unregulated High Seas Fisheries in the Central Arctic Ocean - The Diplomat - June 10th, 2021
- Africa must protect the high seas before its too late - Mail and Guardian - June 10th, 2021
- Bringing the High Seas Biodiversity Treaty Into Port - Council on Foreign Relations - June 10th, 2021