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Best Nootropics 2019 (Updated from 2018) Nootropics Expert

Ask a group of neurohackers which are the best nootropics and youll get a symphony of opinions. But when you drill down to what people are taking every day you start to see a pattern.

Experienced biohackers working on cognitive enhancement find its easier to focus their brain hacking goals into a few well-defined categories. Then look for the best nootropic to address each one.

One thing we learn quickly in the biohacking community is that there is no one-pill solution to cognitive optimization. We soon find that it takes a stack of several supplements to get to where we want to go.

And our list looks something like this

Best Nootropics for

Recommended nootropics

Cognition, Decision-Making, Focus, Flow, & Thinking

Acetyl-L-Carnitine, Aniracetam, CDP-Choline, Lions Mane, NALT, Noopept, B-Complex

Learning & Memory

Aniracetam, Bacopa Monnieri, CDP-Choline, DHA, L-Theanine, Noopept, Phosphatidylserine, Pine Bark Extract

Anxiety & Depression

Aniracetam, CDP-Choline, Bacopa Monnieri, Rhodiola Rosea, Sulbutiamine, B-Complex, Lithium Orotate

Energy & Motivation

Acetyl-L-Carnitine, Alpha Lipoic Acid, CDP-Choline, Rhodiola, CoQ10, PQQ

Brain Repair & Maintenance

Acetyl-L-Carnitine, Aniracetam, CDP-Choline, DHA, Phosphatidylserine, Noopept, Vinpocetine, Rhodiola Rosea, Pine Bark Extract, Lithium Orotate

I have my favorite nootropics after 12-years of trial and error. And chances are that what works for me may work well for you too. The nootropics Im talking about here are part of the stack I use every day.

Youll notice in the categories above that some nootropics work in multiple areas of cognitive enhancement. The obvious benefit is fewer nootropics in a well-rounded stack.

And once you dive into the neuroscience behind each nootropic, youll find synergy on how many of these compounds work together. This extends to smaller doses of each for a bigger benefit.

Brain optimization comes with a lot of experimenting to find what works best. Trying different compounds, keeping a log of what works and how well, and a considerable investment.

Naturally, Im on the lookout for how to save money without cutting corners. So once Ive narrowed my stack choices, the search begins for a quality pre-made nootropic stack that will save me buying individual packs, tubs of powder or capsules.

Fortunately, I found the best pre-made nootropic stack in late 2015 which covered the bulk of the nootropics Id selected for my stack. Its called Mind Lab Pro.

Ill talk more about Mind Lab Pro in a few minutes and how it ties into my brain hacking goals.

The company that makes MLP just recently introduced a new line of supplements called Performance Lab. Offering even more options for brain optimization. More on that later as well.

Before I get into detail on how my stack works, here are what many neurohackers consider the best nootropics available today.

For a more detailed dive into how to build the best nootropic stack, check my other posts:

Beginners Guide to Nootropic Stacks

How to Create the Best Nootropic Stack

Here well do a quick review on building a great nootropic stack.

The more we learn about some of nootropics that have been used for thousands of years for cognitive enhancement. The more we realize these natural compounds are often as good as or better than modern prescription medications.

As you gain experience, youll also come to realize that some pre-made nootropic stacks simply dont make sense. Amounts are well below therapeutic doses to expect any reasonable kind of benefit.

And understand that no one is a master of the science and art of nootropics. Dont believe anything I have to say. Find out for yourself if something is true. And change course when you need to if you want to achieve your neurohacking goals.

Next, well take a closer look at each of the nootropics I recommend and use every day.

Each of the nootropics covered below contain links through to a complete and thorough report. When you click through to each individual nootropic supplement review youll find more detail on what it is, why we use it as a nootropic, how it feels, mechanism of action in the brain, side effects, forms available and recommended doses.

Youll also notice in the table above and each nootropic listed below some are marked with an asterisk (*). This means it is part of the Mind Lab Pro formula of two capsules per day.

Each of these nootropics are generally regarded as safe and non-toxic at recommended doses. Your mileage may vary. How you respond to each of these compounds depends on a host of variables including:

So please click through to each nootropic and read the side effects, prescription drug interactions and any other notes or warnings. But in general, these are among the safest cognitive enhancers we know of.

Read more about Nootropics Safety and Side Effects

ALCAR helps transport of fatty acids into mitochondria where theyre needed for energy metabolism.[i] Fueling your cells power plants can boost physical and mental energy.

ALCAR is a necessary ingredient for acetylcholine formation.[ii] Which boosts memory, mental alertness, and fluid thought.

The antioxidant properties of Acetyl-L-Carnitine provide neuroprotective qualities, boosts Brain-Derived Nerve Growth Factor (BDNF) and promotes cerebral blood circulation.

Aniracetam is one of the best nootropics available today. Its well-known among experienced nootropics users for reducing anxiety, depression, fear and improving sociability.[iii] But it does so much more.

Aniracetam enhances your brains ability to repair damaged cell membranes. It desensitizes glutamate (AMPA) receptors in your brain.[iv] Which boosts neural signaling by increasing the effectiveness of glutamate. Resulting in better focus and concentration.

Aniracetam also improves memory and recall by releasing 200 300% more acetylcholine in the brain.[v] Which increases focus, and clarity of thought.

Bacopa Monnieri is one of the best nootropics for studying. Researchers at Banaras Hindu University in India showed Bacopa as effective for anxiety as the benzodiazepine drug lorazepam. Unlike benzodiazepines, Bacopa did not cause memory loss. But in fact, it boosted cognition.[vi]

Another study done in Portland Oregon demonstrated that 300 mg of Bacopa per day for 12 weeks:

A valuable addition to any great nootropic stack, CDP-Choline is a multitasker which improves cognition and brain function, improves focus and motivation, and reduces fatigue.

CDP-Choline aids in the synthesis of acetylcholine, and the release of dopamine.[viii] Both neurotransmitters involved in learning and memory.

CDP-Choline also helps in the repair of brain cell membranes. The cytidine in CDP-Choline converts to uridine in your body. And works as a bridge between choline and neuron membrane synthesis. Uridine is needed to synthesize phosphatidylcholine (PC) which is needed to repair damaged neuron membranes.[ix]

Choline is so vital to cognition and nerve function that without it, we couldnt move, think, sleep or remember anything. And one the best ways to provide your brain and body with the choline it needs is supplementing with CDP-Choline.

DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) is an omega-3 fatty acid. DHA is crucial for the healthy structure and function of your brain. Your brain is made up of 60% fat. And much of that fat is DHA.

DHA can turn on brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF). Improving neuroplasticity leading to better learning and memory. And DHA acts as an anti-inflammatory by reducing the enzyme COX-2.

If you suffer from chronic depression, within a few weeks of adding DHA to your nootropic stack, you should feel the depression lift. Your cognition will be better. Youll think clearer and quicker. Your memory and ability to learn will improve. And youll likely have more energy and motivation.

But it is very likely you wont think to attribute these improvements to adding DHA to your stack. Something else will get the credit.

Lions Mane Mushroom is an ancient Chinese remedy for improving cognitive performance, and overall health.

In our modern world, Lions Mane makes it into some of the best nootropic stacks. Why?

Because Lions Mane stimulates enzyme production that releases Nerve Growth Factor (NGF).[x] It stimulates the repair and creation of neurons (neurogenesis). Boosting neurotransmitters and signaling that effects memory, learning, recall, and mood. And Lions Mane helps eliminate brain fog. Restoring memory and mental alertness. And lowers anxiety and depression symptoms.[xi]

Lions Mane is a great compliment to any nootropic stack including Aniracetam, CDP-Choline and DHA (Omega-3s) for an immediate cognitive boost.

Lithium is an alkali mineral considered essential for human reproductive health, and general health and wellness. Microdosing lithium using Lithium Orotate has become one of the best additions Ive made to my nootropic stack in years.

Lithium calms you by decreasing sensitivity of post-synaptic norepinephrine receptors.[xii] Preventing the release of this neurotransmitter for fast stabilization of mood and reducing aggression.

Lithium upregulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), neurotrophin-3 (NT3) and their receptors. And lithium stimulates the proliferation of stem cells in the brain. All boosting neurogenesis and assisting in repair from all types of brain injury.[xiii]

Lithium increases brain gray matter, increases DNA replication for neurogenesis, prevents apoptosis, increases N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), inhibits beta-amyloid secretion and protects against damage once its formed, chelates aluminum, and protects against glutamate toxicity.

Lithium provides a calming effect in healthy people as well as those dealing with depression, bipolar disorder and mania.

Adequate levels of lithium have been shown to reduce suicide risk in multiple studies worldwide.

Some say Lithium Orotate works better than any prescription that theyve ever tried to treat severe depression.

Lithium Orotate could be one of the most effective and least expensive additions to your nootropic stack this year. Highly recommended.

N-Acetyl L-Tyrosine produces the catecholamine-triad of neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine. As your dopamine levels increase, youre better able to concentrate, organize your thoughts, and stay productive.

NALT can be an effective treatment for ADHD symptoms. NALT works in synergy with pharmaceutical drugs like Ritalin and Adderall by boosting extracellular levels of dopamine. Helping these drugs be more effective. And mitigating side effects like crashes when the stimulant wears off.

N-Acetyl L-Tyrosine also improves memory and cognition under acute stress.[xiv] It helps improve decision making, flow state and creativity, cognitive flexibility, and working memory.

NALT is a great addition to any nootropic stack, especially if youre dealing with ADHD or ADD.

For more tips on how to deal with ADHD and ADD symptoms, see my post:Best Nootropics for ADHD/ADD

Noopept is a peptide-derived nootropic related to the racetam-family of nootropics. Much more potent than piracetam (up to 1,000X), its mechanism of action in your brain is similar to other racetams.

Noopept seems to stimulate dopamine, nicotinic, and serotonin receptors. It boosts cognition, memory, retention, logical thinking, improves reflexes, and improves mood.

Noopept has also been shown to increase Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and Nerve Growth Factor (NGF). Both critically important for memory formation and brain repair.[xv]

And we have clinical evidence that Noopept boosts Alpha and Beta brain wave activity.[xvi] You become calmer and more creative. Its easier to go into flow. And you are more prone to making innovative and resourceful decisions.

For more tips on supporting flow, see my post:

How to Hack Your Flow State with Nootropics

Phosphatidylserine is one of the best nootropics because:

Phosphatidylserine (PS) is arguably one of the most effective and important nootropics we have available today. It has a reputation for improving alertness, attention, cognition, memory, recall and mood.[xvii]

Pine Bark Extract is one of the best nootropics around but relatively unknown to the nootropic community. Its a naturally derived standardized extract of French maritime pine bark.

Pine Bark Extract helps prevent decreases in dopamine, norepinephrine, and the glutathione (GSH) and GSH-disulphide reductase (GSSG-R) ratio. Neurotransmitter problems which contribute to hyperactivity in ADHD.[xviii]

Pine Bark Extract helps boost blood flow to and within your brain.[xix] By increasing nitric oxide (NO) which helps dilate blood vessels. And helping repair and maintain the health of the lining of blood vessels. Crucial to overall brain health, maintaining signaling pathways and leading to improved learning and memory.

And Pine Bark Extract prevents accumulation of oxidatively damaged proteins. And may reduce the risk of diseases like Parkinsons, Alzheimers, and Huntingtons.

In Russia, Rhodiola Rosea is widely used as a remedy for fatigue, poor concentration, and decreased memory. Its also believed to make workers more productive.

As one of the best nootropics around, this adaptogen helps reduce stress and fatigue, increase energy, alertness and stamina, while boosting mental performance under periods of chronic stress.

Research shows Rhodiola Rosea can increase attention to detail-oriented tasks by improving concentration over a prolonged period. Making it one of the best nootropics for studying.

Rhodiola Rosea boosts mood by influencing serotonin and norepinephrine levels in your brain, and the feel-good opioids like beta-endorphins. It also helps in neurogenesis by repairing and growing new neurons. As well as activating the synthesis and re-synthesis of ATP, your body and brain cells main energy source.

One more reason to add Rhodiola Rosea to your nootropic stack it helps reduce the inflammatory C-reactive protein. And salidroside, one of many components of this incredible herb, protects neurons from oxidative stress-induced cell death.

Sulbutiamine is one of the best nootropics in my stack. Its a synthetic derivative of Vitamin B1 (thiamine). Two Vitamin B1 molecules joined together helps thiamine more easily cross the blood-brain barrier.

Sulbutiamine is directly involved in the citric acid cycle that provides adenosine triphosphate (ATP) energy for your mitochondria. It has been shown to improve glutamatergic, cholinergic, and dopaminergic neurological transmissions. It may also increase the density of D1 dopamine receptors.[xx]

Sulbutiamine also contributes to the production of the enzyme PDH which is essential in making the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.

I love this nootropic because it boosts cognition, memory, decision-making, improves athletic performance, reduces chronic fatigue[xxi] and erectile dysfunction,[xxii] and is one of the best antidepressants Ive ever used.[xxiii]

L-Theanine is an amino acid which naturally occurs in green and oolong tea. Many consider it the best nootropic when combined with caffeine for the synergistic effect of lowering blood pressure, rejuvenate and relax, boost thinking ability, improve focus and change your mood.

This amazing amino acid:

Most neurohackers report a calming effect within 30 45 minutes of taking L-Theanine. Cognition gets a boost, and energy levels rise without the jitteriness caused by stimulants like caffeine.

Some report L-Theanine has stopped their anxiety and panic attacks. (Just dont combine it with anti-anxiety meds like Xanax).

Read the original post:

Best Nootropics 2019 (Updated from 2018) Nootropics Expert

What are "Nootropics"? – Smart Drug Smarts

Nootropics is an umbrella term for a class of chemicals some naturally-occurring, some manmade that give cognitive benefits to the human brain.

To get really technical, in order to be a nootropic, a substance must meet five criteria set by Dr. Corneliu E. Giurgea, the man who coined the term nootropic. The substance must

This is a pretty hefty list of requirements for any chemical. In fact, anything that meets this full definition, could equally well be called a miracle drug, not just a nootropic.

However, normally when you hear the term nootropickicked around, people really mean a cognitive enhancer something thatdoesbenefit thinking in some way (improved memory, faster speed-of-processing, increased concentration, or a combination of these, etc.), but might not meet the more rigorous definition above. Smart drugs is another largely-interchangeable term.

With this looser definition, discussions about nootropics can range from innocuous everyday substances like caffeine and Omega-3 fatty acids to regulated (and deservedly so) substances like Adderall.

For a more visual definition of nootropics, check out our infographic What Are Nootropics?

Category: General

Read the rest here:

What are "Nootropics"? - Smart Drug Smarts

Nootropics r/Nootropics – reddit

See bottom for TL/DR

I have struggled with stress, anxiety, and various bouts of depression for many years now, starting mainly around the time I entered high school (I am now 21, and graduated three years ago). Over the years I have taken many things, all of which have had varying degrees of success.

When I was 16, and a Sophomore in High School, I went entered a severe depressive state. My doctor at the time started me on Citalopram, a common SSRI (brand name Celexa), which I took for about a year. This stabilized my depression for the most part, and short of 1 instance roughly two years ago (after what I'd call a series of extremely unfortunate events), I have never returned to that level of depression.

My daily life has consisted of chronic fatigue, and a notable amount of brain fog, with some difficulty sleeping for some time now. I'm not sure when this started, but I know I didn't always have these problems. My best attempts at pinpointing an origin have lead me to conclude these started at some point in high school, with the brain fog specifically getting worse over time.

I went to a vocational high school, where I took computer programming, and I was quite good at it. I worked on some really interesting projects that were more in the scope of undergraduate research than high school yearly projects. The programming and math I was working with required me to hold many things at once in my head. I have found that as time has gone on, I find this type of work more and more difficult. I have struggled to hold the pieces, and have increasingly felt like my head was hazy. On some days, this is not the case, and I can think clearly, but on most it is fairly pronounced. I initially chalked this up to poor diet, poor exercise, and inconsistent sleep schedules, which to be clear I am still certain contributed and still contribute to these problems.

Around my senior year was when I first ventured into /r/Nootropics and since that time I have experimented with various supplements in attempt to remedy these problems. Noopept was my first attempt at reducing brain fog, but I didn't have much success with this. I have since tried Pramiracetam, CDP-Choline, L-Theanine, Ashwaghanda, and Creatine with varying levels of success. Most of these I find useful in brief instances, such as L-Theanine with Caffeine, but none provided long-term relief of my problems.

This brings me to the present day, or rather, about a month and a half ago. I was talking to a friend who also suffers from constant high levels of stress, and my mother who has a similar problem due to life circumstances, and it got me thinking. I began to think about how stress has a physiological response, not the least of which is cortisol. I wanted to know what the effects of chronically high-levels of cortisol were, and I stumbled across this amazing post by /u/ReadWhat123.

Could my problems really be just end-result of chronically high cortisol and ultimately HPA axis dysfunction? So I ordered some Enerphos, with Phosphorylated Serine / Ethanolamine, also known as Seriphos.

Continued here:

Nootropics r/Nootropics - reddit

The Complete Introduction To Nootropics, From Beginner To Expert

Everything you need to know about nootropics: what they are, what they do, all the jargon explained, and how to find the best nootropics for you.

Nootropics are synthetic compounds that improve the cognitive abilities of healthy individuals. In their basic state theyre powders, but we sell them in capsule form. Nootropics are not medicines: medicines bring you back to health when youre sick, whilst nootropics help you improve when youre healthy.

Given the unique effect profile of each nootropic compound, and given the variation in peoples brain chemistry, individuals can use different nootropics for different purposes and outcomes. The most commonly sought-after effects are enhanced cognition, motivation and concentration.

The term nootropics is relatively recent, the name having been coined in 1972 by Romanian chemist Corneliu Giurgea to describe compounds that could turn the mind (from Greek, nous trepein). There is no universally accepted set of formal criteria for what qualifies as a nootropic, but Dr. Giurgeas original definition still holds sway. He considered that for any substance to be called a nootropic, it must:

In common online usage, the term nootropic is applied to any substance that can provide safe cognitive benefits to users, where benefits has a very broad range of meaning.

For example, Phenibut is often used as a socialising and extroversion booster, whilst Tianeptine is often used for its mood-brightening and anti-stress effects.

In general, a substance can be called a nootropic if it grants the user more control over their neurochemistry and the resulting behavioural and experiential outcomes.

In general, a substance can be called a nootropic if it grants the user more control over their neurochemistry and the resulting behavioural and experiential outcomes. On this view Melatonin also qualifies, given its ability to allow a user to intelligently regulate theirsleep cycle.

Ideologically, nootropics are celebrated for their ability to allow individuals to gain some mastery over their brain chemistry and the resulting mental states. For the history of the human species, brain chemistry has been largely inaccessible to targeted improvement, leaving us the prisoners of our biology. Nootropics are humanitys first tentative forays into taking control of our mood and intellect at the chemical level.

Nootropics allow users greater control over their states, moods, and cognitive abilities. In the same way as the caffeine in a morning coffee can wake you up and ready you for the day, nootropics can be used for a range of functional benefits.

Useful for their productivity and motivational effects, nootropics provide a boost for getting essential tasks done. Ideal for high-pressure cognitive work such as studying, essays and exams.

Additionally, some users take nootropics for a boost in social ability, including benefits to confidence, extroversion and verbal fluidity. Ideal for public speaking, presentations and parties.

More recently, nootropics have begun to be included in pre-workout mixes to ensure that exercise can be carried out with an iron will. When your motivation needs an extra edge, nootropics can help.

Some nootropics also provide neuroprotective effects, supporting brain health and stimulating the generation of new neurons. Maintain and support the engine of your productivity and creativity.

Nootropics can allow improvements to mental wellbeing, acting as anxiety aids, anti-depressants and mood brighteners. When you need a healthy lift to your mood, nootropics can help.

More on each of these, including specific useful nootropics, below.

Motivation and concentration can often be fleeting and fickle, and whilst nootropics can never replace a disciplined workflow, they can give you a substantial boost towards getting your critical tasks done, and getting them done well.

For long periods of concentrated cognitive effort, such as study, revision, essays, writing introductions to nootropics, and other time-consuming and mentally demanding tasks, longer lasting nootropics such as Adrafinil, Piracetam and Phenylpiracetam are ideal.

the potency of these nootropics is such that one journalist pondered whether they are a form of cheating that should be banned

These show evidence of improving learning ability, recall, problem solving, concentration, motivation and general cognition. And these are effects that you can really notice: distractions seem to fade away, intrusive thoughts seem quietened, the work seems more rewarding and less of a chore. In fact, the potency of these nootropics is such that one journalist pondered whether they are a form of cheating that should be banned.

For short periods of intensive cognitive load under high pressure, such as exams or public speaking, nootropics can also provide a controlled peak of sustained mental performance.

Short-duration, high power nootropics such as Aniracetam and Noopept can provide exactly the edge you need. These zone out distractions and fuel your cognitive processes, enhancing and ensuring mental performance for the most critical of tasks.

For some people socialising can feel like an energy-depleting activity, even when its enjoyable. And thats okay: some are naturally less extroverted. But the paradox of wanting to do an exhausting activity can be frustrating.

For others, the problem isnt exhaustion, but rather they are plagued by anxiety. For them, self-doubt and low confidence can make meeting new people, and even old friends, feel like a mammoth task. For others, communicating effectively and precisely can be a struggle, especially when articulating thoughts feels like a chore.

For each of these cases, the good news is that nootropics can help. When used correctly, they are a powerful tool for assisting and enhancing your social abilities, best treated as part of a rounded strategy of self-improvement.

[Nootropics] are a powerful tool for assisting and enhancing your social abilities, best treated as part of a rounded strategy of self-improvement.

For extroversion, and greater energy for socially draining situations, Phenibut is often celebrated for its social-enhancement properties, which create a calm and collected affect. The effects are subtle: theres none of the buzz of alcohol or other traditional aids to socialising. Instead, social interactions simply feel less taxing, and it can often be that only at the end of an evening do you realise you enjoyed yourself more than usual.

For helping with anxiety and anxiousness, in the broadest sense taking care of your mental health will always be the best strategy see Wellbeing below. When used in conjunction with good mental health practices, nootropics can be a useful aid in overcoming low self-confidence and anxiety. Naturally occurring in tea, L-Theanine is well supported as a potent supplement for anti-stress, anti-anxiety, and comfortable relaxation. In its concentrated form and separated from caffeine, it provides a mellow calm that smooths away the rough edges of anxiety.

For clearer and more precise speaking, Aniracetam and Phenylpiracetam show evidence of improving verbal fluidity as part of their thought-enhancing effects. Communication becomes easier and more exact, with the words flowing more smoothly and capturing more of what needs to be conveyed. These can give you the linguistic boost you need for all forms of public communication, whether at parties, at the podium or slaving over papers.

Whilst nootropics are not medicines, they can can provide a range of benefits for the health-conscious. Boosts to motivation are not only advantageous for cognitive tasks, as physical exertion and exercise are also fuelled by your willpower. When you need to run that extra mile, or complete that last set, nootropics can grant you a vital boost to your endurance.

Boosts to motivation are not only advantageous for cognitive tasks, as physical exertion and exercise are also fuelled by your willpower.

Additionally, nootropics show evidence of supporting brain health: many nootropics were originally synthesized for treating Alzheimers, dementia, and other cognitive-degenerative disorders. As a whole, they offer neuroprotective and neurogenerative effects, protecting your brain and keeping your neurons healthy.

For exercise, and the focus needed to maintain peak performance, Phenylpiracetam is an ideal pre-workout addition. This potent racetam shows evidence of enhancing stamina and physical endurance so much so that professional athletes are prohibited from taking these substances when competing in official events.

Recently, Noopept has also gained popularity as a pre-workout booster for maximised willpower and resilience, allowing you that extra burst of motivation for breaking down those mental barriers.

For brain health, whilst all nootropic compounds show some neuroprotective effects, a range of celebrated benefits have been attributed to Citicoline (Choline CDP). This refined form of Choline shows solid evidence of benefits to brain resilience, neuroplasticity, and neurogenesis. Additionally, it works as a supreme accompaniment to cognitive enhancing nootropics for more information see Combinations/Stacks.

Whilst taking care of yourself and your mental health is paramount, sometimes greater control over your brain chemistry is exactly whats needed. Nootropics are not anti-depressants, and are no replacement for thoughtful mental care, but when used well they can provide a range of tools for boosting your happiness and improving your life.

Regular sleep patterns are crucial for maintaining a healthy work balance, and here nootropics can help. Whilst greater concentration and focus are helpful, boosts to your day-to-day mood can be exactly what you need. And for others, stress and anxiety get in the way of productivity, and direct interventions can be hard to find. For each of these, nootropic compounds can allow you to take control of your brain (and consequently your life!).

Nootropics are no replacement for thoughtful mental care, but when used well they can provide a range of tools for boosting your happiness and improving your life.

For sleep, Melatonin is perfect, especially given that getting enough sleep is one of the most reliable predictors of wellbeing. A synthetic version of a naturally occurring neurotransmitter, Melatonin creates familiar feelings of drowsiness that result in a relaxing and revitalising sleep. Though not usually considered a nootropic, its ability to allow a user to decide precisely when they wish to sleep earns it its place in this guide. Ideal for resetting and regulating sleep cycles, whether from jet lag or broken routines.

For affecting mood more directly, Tianeptine has been shown to be surprisingly effective. It creates a subtle short-duration mood brightening effect that serves as a very mild lift, useful for motivation and mental fuel. Additionally, when taken at standard dosages over a long period, it has shown long-term wellbeing improving effects with comparable effectiveness to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), though with a different method of action. For times when low mood has you feeling paralysed, it can be exactly what you need to break out and get things done.

For stress and anxiety, L-Theanines renowned calming effects can put you back in control. When your head feels cluttered by intrusive thoughts or rogue worries, it can clear your mind to create a medium-duration relaxed mental space. In conjunction with good mental practices, it can help you to banish the stresses of overwork and competing demands on your attention.

The goal of taking nootropics is simply to obtain specific desirable cognitive effects. Its important to know that how (and how often) you take nootropics will affect your outcomes.

One of the biggest mistakes new nootropics users make is thinking that taking more of a substance is always better The key is to find an optimal dose that works for you.

Your brain chemistry and certain chemical compounds interact in complex ways, and so the same substance taken at different doses or at different times can lead to different effects.

To get a good overview of some of the important considerations, familiarize yourself with these commonly used terms:

One of the biggest mistakes new nootropics users make is thinking that taking more of a substance is always better. The reality is that at high doses the costs of side effects often outweigh the benefits. However, everyone is affected differently, and at too low a dose, the main effect might not be noticeable. The key is to find an optimal dose that works for you.

Nootropics are only active for a limited amount of time in your body, so you might want to take a nootropic multiple times per day in order to maintain an effect. Caution is essential for how often a nootropic is taken, as overdosing can lead to two specific and undesirable side effects:

Tolerance, in which our bodies build resistance towards a nootropic compound, limiting its efficacy. Just as alcohol or caffeine has more effect on a first-time drinker than a veteran of many years, the same is true of nootropics. So nootropic users try to thoughtfully regulate their intake so that tolerance doesnt develop (also, see Cycling below).

It is also worth knowing about what is commonly called the honeymoon period: the experience of when a nootropic works especially well the first few times you take it, then drops in efficacy as your body becomes used to it. After the honeymoon period is over, some will increase their dose until they experience the full effect again, though this carries risks. It is important to be careful if this happens to you, as you may be tempted to exceed recommended doses. If tolerance builds faster than expected, we always recommend that you take time off nootropics to allow your brain time to regulate.

Dependency, where similar to caffeine and alcohol, some nootropics have habit-forming properties. If a nootropic has been taken continually at above-recommended doses, suddenly quitting it may cause nasty withdrawal-like symptoms. If ever you feel that dependency is forming, we strongly recommend slowly reducing your intake over a period of many days. Special care should be taken particularly with Phenibut, which is open to abuse potential at high doses.

As a response to the development of tolerance and dependency, nootropics users sometimes use the technique of cycling. This refers to alternating, or cycling through a number of nootropics periodically. This allows for a nootropics user to benefit from the effect of each compound while not taking any one of them frequently enough to develop tolerance or dependency. For example, you might take X for two weeks, then switch to Y for two weeks, and repeat. This way your neurochemistry never becomes too accustomed to either substance.

Stacking refers to taking two or more nootropics at the same time to enhance their effects. It has become popular to combine nootropics for two reasons:

Some nootropics are compounding, which means their effects are stronger combined than when taken separately. Examples include:

Other nootropics are combined in order to reduce the side effects of another. For example:

The internet is full of differing voices on how best to approach and use nootropics. Online advice by its nature can only be very broad, and nootropic usage for you in particular may vary from the norm. Preamble aside, some nootropics best practices remain useful no matter what:

Do your own research. No overview including this one can contain all of the information you may be interested in. Google is your friend.

Pay attention to your behaviour. Many nootropic effects are subtle, and may be inaccessible to experience and introspection.

Never exceed recommended or standard doses. If you wish to be experimental, always consult a qualified and knowledgeable medical professional.

Take nootropics separately before combining any. This will help you understand how each nootropic affects you, and which nootropics to take less of (or to avoid if they produce unwanted side effects!).

Be wary of interactions with any drugs, medicines or compounds you may be taking. If in doubt, ask your doctor.

Be aware of tolerance. If nootropics lose their effect, dont increase your dosage, but instead take time off and allow your brain to regulate.

Be aware of dependency. Though nootropics have no chemically addictive properties, habit forming is real, and can carry risks. If you think you are becoming dependent, carefully and slowly reduce your dosage.

Remember: nootropics are no replacement for a healthy and balanced lifestyle. Exercise, regular sleep and healthy eating habits are still the most reliable and effective methods for optimising cognition and wellbeing.

While nootropics are certainly effective cognitive enhancers, they will (unfortunately) not make you superhuman. Healthy expectations should be set otherwise you might be unnecessarily disappointed and might miss out on their real benefits.

Even though the effects of nootropics are significant and reliable, they can be quite subtle. For some substances, you might not feel anything at all at least not in the way you feel alcohol or caffeine. Rather you might just notice significant behavioural changes: You will be able to work longer hours, be in a consistently good mood, or get tired less quickly. This is why its good advice to put yourself and your nootropics to the test. Make to-do lists, time your work hours, monitor your sleep, track your mood, and see the difference yourself.

Its also important to understand that nootropics will not change who you are. You wouldnt say that a cup of coffee changes your personality, just because it gives you a mental boost. The same goes for nootropics. Think of it this way: imagine yourself on your best days, where youre in a good mood, feeling productive and really getting things done. Nootropics might not revolutionise your life, but they can certainly help you have those days a lot more often.

So now that you understand the basics, how does one get into nootropics? We recommend three options:

A. Use our Effects Filter: Rather than wading through endless online resources and trying to figure out what each nootropic does, we have built a simple search filter that does the hard work for you. All you need to do is click on the effects that interest you, and the engine will automatically show you which products provide those benefits. Add multiple effects to find the ideal nootropics for you.

B. Use this Introduction: Review Section 2: Why People Use Nootropics, and try figure out how you would like to enhance your brain. Are you looking to improve your productivity and study? How about socialising skills, wellbeing, exercise or health? For each of these we have recommended the safest and most reliable nootropics.

C. Try the Basics: Still not sure? Why not go for the tried and tested?:

L-Theanine the perfect starter nootropic.

L-Theanine is the natural amino-acid responsible for that feeling of calm you get from green tea. Interestingly, it works exceptionally well when combined with coffee. Due to its anxiolytic and stress-reducing properties it takes away some of the jitteriness caused by caffeine, and provides you with a clean, lucid energy boost. It has even been shown to amplify caffeines cognitive effects.

Piracetam The original nootropic.

Piracetam was first created in 1964 and has over 40 years of peer reviewed studies attesting to its effectiveness. It is predominantly recognized for its ability to improve focus, memory, and verbal fluidity. It does, however, draw on your choline reserves, which may lead to headaches in some users, so supplementing Piracetam with Citicoline ensures that your brain has the fuel to keep you going.

Adrafinil The Modafinil metabolite.

This nootropic is celebrated for good reason. When Adrafinil becomes Modafinil in your liver, it produces a state of heightened cognitive ability, characterised by concentration, wakefulness, and focus. In case you were wondering why we dont advise taking Modafinil directly, its because (unlike Adrafinil) Modafinil is not legal in most countries and/or requires a prescription.

If you have any more questions, or think we missed some crucial information in this guide, please check our FAQ or feel free to email us at hello@nootropics.com.

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The Complete Introduction To Nootropics, From Beginner To Expert

The Big List of Nootropics | Braintropic

The list of nootropics below is grouped into various benefits that they can offer. Please note that this list is updated periodically.

Most people are initially drawn to nootropics for their memory boosting effects. Nootropics have been studied extensively over the years with some of them demonstrating cognitive enhancing properties in cognitively impaired individuals and often in healthy adults as well.

Recommended Nootropics for Memory Enhancement:

Recommended Stacks:

Nootropics can also be great at increasing ones level of attention and focus. Generally, someone with a low attention span can be incredibly smart, however, if their level of attention and focus is low, they will not be able to reach their maximum potential.

Recommended Nootropics for Attention and Focus:

Stack Recommendations:

Being in a poor mood or depressed state can have an extremely adverse effect on ones cognition. Maintaining a good mood is important, and often is not simply a matter of mindset or willpower. While those with clinical depression must turn to medical attention, if you have a lack of happy moods or somewhat slight depression, these nootropics may help.

Recommended Nootropics for Mood and Depression:

Recommended Stacks:

These are nootropics that may increase your general level of health and well-being. They promote maximum levels of efficiency in your body. These nootropics are even thought by some to extend ones lifespan and delay age-related cognitive decline.

Recommended Nootropics for Longevity and Anti-Aging:

Anxiety can be an extremely disruptive part of ones cognition. Despite how intelligent an individual might be, anxiety can interfere with mental performance.

Recommended Nootropics for Anxiety:

Stack Recommendation: I designed the Best Nootropic Stack around the above ideas of how to push myself to the limit of my cognition and enabled myself to be the most productive I could be academically, and business-wise. Indeed, this is one of my favorite stacks.

Sleep is another crucial part of enhancing your cognition. Many nootropic supplements can be taken at night to improve your sleep quality. Sleep is vital for your brain to perform at its best.

Recommended Nootropics forSleep:

Recommended Stack:

Planning to start a new supplementation regimen? See our medical disclaimer.

Link:

The Big List of Nootropics | Braintropic

Best Nootropics 2018 (Updated) Nootropics Expert

Ask a group of neurohackers which are the best nootropics and youll get a symphony of opinions. But when you drill down to what people are taking every day you start to see a pattern.

Experienced biohackers working on cognitive enhancement find its easier to focus their brain hacking goals into a few well-defined categories. Then look for the best nootropic to address each one. It looks something like this

I have my favorite nootropics after 10-years of trial and error. And chances are that what works for me may work well for you too. The nootropics Im talking about here are part of the stack I use every day.

Youll notice in the categories above that some nootropics work in multiple areas of cognitive enhancement. The obvious benefit is fewer nootropics in a well-rounded stack.

And once you dive into the neuroscience behind each nootropic, youll find synergy on how many of these compounds work together. This extends to smaller doses of each for a bigger benefit.

Brain optimization comes with a lot of experimenting to find what works best. Trying different compounds, keeping a log of what works and how well, and a considerable investment.

Naturally, Im on the lookout for how to save money without cutting corners. So once Ive narrowed my stack choices, the search begins for a quality pre-made nootropic stack that will save me buying individual packs, tubs of powder or capsules.

Fortunately, I found the best pre-made nootropic stack in late 2015 which covered the bulk of the nootropics Id selected for my stack. Its called Mind Lab Pro.

Ill talk more about Mind Lab Pro in a few minutes and how it ties into my brain hacking goals.The company that makes MLP just recently introduced a new line of supplements called Performance Lab. Offering even more options for brain optimization. More on that later as well.

Before I get into detail on how my stack works, here are what many neurohackers consider the best nootropics available today.

For a more detailed dive into how to build the best nootropic stack, check my other posts:

Beginners Guide to Nootropic Stacks

How to Create the Best Nootropic Stack

Here well do a quick review on building a great nootropic stack.

The more we learn about some of nootropics that have been used for thousands of years for cognitive enhancement. The more we realize these natural compounds are often as good as or better than modern prescription medications.

As you gain experience, youll also come to realize that some pre-made nootropic stacks simply dont make sense. Amounts are well below therapeutic doses to expect any reasonable kind of benefit.

And understand that no one is a master at the science and art of nootropics. Dont believe anything I have to say. Find out for yourself if something is true. And change course when you need to if you want to achieve your neurohacking goals.

Next, well take a closer look at each of the nootropics I recommend and use every day.

Each of the nootropics covered below contain links through to a complete and thorough report. When you click through to each individual nootropic supplement review youll find more detail on what it is, why we use it as a nootropic, how it feels, mechanism of action in the brain, side effects, forms available and recommended doses.

Youll also notice in the table above and each nootropic listed below some are marked with an asterisk (*). This means its part of the Mind Lab Pro formula of two capsules per day.

Each of these nootropics are generally regarded as safe and non-toxic at recommended doses. Your mileage may vary. How you respond to each of these compounds depends on a host of variables including:

So please click through to each nootropic and read the side effects, drug interactions and any other notes or warnings. But in general, these are among the safest cognitive enhancers we know of.

Read more about Nootropics Safety and Side Effects

ALCAR helps transport of fatty acids into mitochondria where theyre needed for energy metabolism.[i] Fueling your cells power plants can boost physical and mental energy.

ALCAR is a necessary ingredient for acetylcholine formation.[ii] Which boosts memory, mental alertness, and fluid thought.

The antioxidant properties of Acetyl-L-Carnitine provide neuroprotective qualities, boosts Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF), and promotes cerebral blood circulation.

Aniracetam is one of the best nootropics available today. Its well-known among experienced nootropics users for reducing anxiety, depression, fear and improving sociability.[iii] But it does so much more.

Aniracetam enhances your brains ability to repair damaged cell membranes. It desensitizes glutamate (AMPA) receptors in your brain.[iv] Which boosts neural signaling by increasing the effectiveness of glutamate. Resulting in better focus and concentration.

Aniracetam also improves memory and recall by releasing 200 300% more acetylcholine in the brain.[v] Which increases focus, and clarity of thought.

Bacopa Monnieri is one of the best nootropics for studying. Researchers at Banaras Hindu University in India showed Bacopa as effective for anxiety as the benzodiazepine drug lorazepam. Unlike benzodiazepines, Bacopa did not cause memory loss. But in fact, it boosted cognition.[vi]

Another study done in Portland Oregon demonstrated that 300 mg of Bacopa per day for 12 weeks:

A valuable addition to any great nootropic stack, CDP-Choline is a multitasker which improves cognition and brain function, improves focus and motivation, and reduces fatigue.

CDP-Choline aids in the synthesis of acetylcholine, and the release of dopamine.[viii] Both neurotransmitters involved in learning and memory.

CDP-Choline also helps in the repair of brain cell membranes. The cytidine in CDP-Choline converts to uridine in your body. And works as a bridge between choline and neuron membrane synthesis. Uridine is needed to synthesize phosphatidylcholine (PC) which is needed to repair damaged neuron membranes.[ix]

Choline is so vital to cognition and nerve function that, without it, we couldnt move, think, sleep or remember anything. And one the best ways to provide your brain and body with the choline it needs is with CDP-Choline.

DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) is an omega-3 fatty acid. DHA is crucial for the healthy structure and function of your brain. Your brain is made up of 60% fat. And much of that fat is DHA.

DHA has the ability to turn on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Improving neuroplasticity leading to better learning and memory. And DHA acts as an anti-inflammatory by reducing the enzyme COX-2.

If you suffer from chronic depression, within a few weeks of adding DHA to your nootropic stack, you should feel the depression lift. Your cognition will be better. Youll think clearer and quicker. Your memory and ability to learn will improve. And youll likely have more energy and motivation.

But it is very likely you wont think to attribute these improvements to adding DHA to your stack. Something else will get the credit.

Lions Mane Mushroom is an ancient Chinese remedy for improving cognitive performance, and overall health.

In our modern world, Lions Mane makes it into some of the top nootropic stacks. Why?

Because Lions Mane stimulates enzyme production that releases Nerve Growth Factor (NGF).[x] It stimulates the repair and creation of neurons (neurogenesis). Boosting neurotransmitters and signaling that effects memory, learning, recall, and mood. And Lions Mane helps eliminate brain fog. Restoring memory and mental alertness. And lowers anxiety and depression symptoms.[xi]

Lions Mane is a great compliment to any nootropic stack including Aniracetam, CDP-Choline and DHA (Omega-3s) for an immediate cognitive boost.

N-Acetyl L-Tyrosine produces the catecholamine-triad of neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine. As your dopamine levels increase, youre better able to concentrate, organize your thoughts, and stay productive.

NALT can be an effective treatment for ADHD symptoms. NALT works in synergy with pharmaceutical drugs like Ritalin and Adderall by boosting extracellular levels of dopamine. Helping these drugs be more effective. And mitigating side effects like crashes when the drug wears off.

N-Acetyl L-Tyrosine also improves memory and cognition under acute stress.[xii] It helps improve decision making, flow state and creativity, cognitive flexibility, and working memory.

NALT is a great addition to any nootropic stack, especially if youre dealing with ADHD.

For more tips on how to deal with ADHD and ADD symptoms, see my post:Best Nootropics for ADHD/ADD

Phosphatidylserine is a favoritenootropicbecause:

Phosphatidylserine (PS) is arguably one of the most effective and important nootropics we have available today. It has a reputation for improving alertness, attention, cognition, memory, recall and mood.[xiii]

Pine Bark Extract is one of the best nootropics around but relatively unknown to the nootropic community. Its a naturally derived standardized extract of French maritime pine bark.

Pine Bark Extract helps prevent decreases in dopamine, norepinephrine, and the glutathione (GSH) and GSH-disulphide reductase (GSSG-R) ratio. Neurotransmitter problems which contribute to hyperactivity in ADHD.[xiv]

Pine Bark Extract helps boost blood flow to and within your brain.[xv] By increasing nitric oxide which helps dilate blood vessels. And helping repair and maintain the health of the lining of blood vessels. Crucial to overall brain health, maintaining signaling pathways and leading to improved learning and memory.

And Pine Bark Extract prevents accumulation of oxidatively damaged proteins. And may reduce the risk of diseases like Parkinsons, Alzheimers, and Huntingtons.

Recommended dosage of Pine Bark Extract containing 95% proanthocyanidins is up to 100 mg 3-times per day.

In Russia, Rhodiola Rosea is widely used as a remedy for fatigue, poor concentration, and decreased memory. Its also believed to make workers more productive.

This adaptogen helps reduce stress and fatigue, increase energy, alertness and stamina, while boosting mental performance under periods of chronic stress. Research shows Rhodiola Rosea can increase attention to detail-oriented tasks by improving concentration over a prolonged period. Making it one of the topnootropics for studying.

Rhodiola Rosea boosts mood by influencing serotonin and norepinephrine levels in your brain, and the feel-good opioids like beta-endorphins. It also helps in neurogenesis by repairing and growing new neurons. As well as activating the synthesis and re-synthesis of ATP, your body and brain cells main energy source.

One more reason to add Rhodiola to your nootropic stack it helps reduce the inflammatory C-reactive protein. And salidroside, one of many components of this incredible herb, protects neurons from oxidative stress-induced cell death.

Sulbutiamine is one favoritenootropics in my stack. Its a synthetic derivative of Vitamin B1 (thiamine). Two Vitamin B1 molecules joined together help thiamine more easily cross the blood-brain barrier.

Sulbutiamine is directly involved in the citric acid cycle that provides adenosine triphosphate (ATP) energy for your mitochondria. It has been shown to improve glutamatergic, cholinergic, and dopaminergic neurological transmissions. It may also increase the density of D1 dopamine receptors.[xvii]

Sulbutiamine also contributes to the production of the enzyme PDH which is essential in making the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.

I love this nootropic because it boosts cognition, memory, decision-making, improves athletic performance, reduces chronic fatigue[xviii] and erectile dysfunction,[xix] and is one of the best antidepressants Ive ever used.[xx]

L-Theanine is an amino acid which naturally occurs in green and oolong tea. Many consider it their favorite nootropic stack when combined with caffeine for the synergistic effect of lowering blood pressure, rejuvenate and relax, boost thinking ability, improve focus and change your mood.

This amazing amino acid:

Most neurohackers report a calming effect within 30 45 minutes of taking L-Theanine. Cognition gets a boost, and energy levels rise without the jitteriness caused by stimulants like caffeine. Some report L-Theanine has stopped their anxiety and panic attacks. (Just dont combine it with anti-anxiety meds like Xanax).

Vinpocetine is often found in some of the premiumnootropic stacks. This semi-synthetic derivative of the lesser periwinkle plant is known for increasing cerebral circulation, taming inflammation and oxidative stress, and boosting alertness, cognition, concentration, memory and mood.

Vinpocetine inhibits the enzyme PDE1 which boosts cerebral blood flow. It blocks the accumulation of sodium in neurons, reduces the toxic effects of oxidative stress, scavenges free radicals, and protects neurons from glutamate and NMDA toxicity.

And by inhibiting PDE1, Vinpocetine increases cAMP and cGMP.[xxiii] Boosting neuroplasticity which enhances cognition and memory.

The B-Vitamins that should be part of every nootropic stack include:

You may not realize the full benefit of a nootropic stack containing CDP-Choline, Acetyl-L-Carnitine, any of the racetams, or any nootropic for that matter without adding a good quality B-Vitamin Complex. Possibly the most important and least expensive addition to your stack.

Some nootropic supplement labels recommend taking it with a meal. The implication behind this recommendation is that the nootropic is fat-soluble. And requires some fat for proper absorption and to increase bioavailability.

Each of the nootropics listed above have links through to a full review which includes information about solubility fat or water soluble.

To be on the safe side, I take one tablespoon of organicunrefined coconut oil with my nootropic stack. This healthy oil provides the fat I need for better bioavailability. And I dont have to worry about taking it with a meal.

Using coconut oil with my stack does not interfere with the water-soluble supplements either. Its a win-win.

Ive tried a lot of different nootropic stacks in the last 10 years. But in late 2015, I finally found one high quality pre-made stack that covered all the bases. That stack is Mind Lab Pro.

I used MLP as the base for my personal nootropic stack throughout 2016 and 2017. And continue to use the same stack in 2018. Its that good.

In fact, in 2017 Opti Nutra, the company that makes Mind Lab Pro upgraded their formula. Their B-Vitamins are now their own proprietary BioGenesis vitamins. Nature-identical nutrients that your body recognize as food.

Then in 2018, Opti Nutra introduced an entire new supplement brand called Performance Lab. The company recognized the demand for more choices when it comes to brain optimization. And the need to support the rest of your body.

Performance Lab offers the pre-formulated nootropic stacks Performance Lab Mind and Performance Lab Energy.

Their nootropic stacks are supported by the Performance Lab Whole-Food Multi containing nature-identical BioGenesis vitamins and minerals for whole-body performance. This multivitamin supplement works very well with Mind Lab Pro as well.

Performance Lab also offers supplement stacks for Vision, Sleep, a Prebiotic, Sports formulas, and a T-Booster for men.

So if youre feeling frustrated in finding the ideal stack, my hope is this page provides the pointers you need to create your optimalnootropic stack.

My attitude on brain optimization is that good enough isnt nearly good enough until Im performing my best. In all areas of life.

The right combination of nootropics in the right amounts have helped me get to the point where I feel Im performing better than ever.

Near the beginning of this page we identified the main points that lead to cognitive improvement; cognition, decision-making, focus, thinking, memory, anxiety, depression, energy, motivation, brain repair and maintenance.

What I love about the nootropicsoutlined on this page is that it covers each of those categories.

But to help you fine-tune your nootropic stack further. You may want to take a look at each of the following posts I wrote on individual areas of brain optimization.

Best Nootropics for Learning & Memory

Best Nootropics for Social Anxiety

Best Nootropic for ADHD

Best Nootropics for Depression

Best Nootropics for Motivation

Best Nootropics for Hacking a Flow State

13 Nootropics to Boost BDNF

Psychobiotics: The Gut-Brain Connection

[i] Berg J.M., Tymoczko J.L., Stryer L.Biochemistry. 5th edition. New York: W H Freeman; 2002. (source)

[ii] White H.L., Scates P.W. Acetyl-L-carnitine as a precursor of acetylcholine.Neurochemical Research1990 Jun;15(6):597-601. (source)

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Best Nootropics 2018 (Updated) Nootropics Expert

The Complete Introduction To Nootropics, From Beginner To …

Everything you need to know about nootropics: what they are, what they do, all the jargon explained, and how to find the best nootropics for you.

Nootropics are synthetic compounds that improve the cognitive abilities of healthy individuals. In their basic state theyre powders, but we sell them in capsule form. Nootropics are not medicines: medicines bring you back to health when youre sick, whilst nootropics help you improve when youre healthy.

Given the unique effect profile of each nootropic compound, and given the variation in peoples brain chemistry, individuals can use different nootropics for different purposes and outcomes. The most commonly sought-after effects are enhanced cognition, motivation and concentration.

The term nootropics is relatively recent, the name having been coined in 1972 by Romanian chemist Corneliu Giurgea to describe compounds that could turn the mind (from Greek, nous trepein). There is no universally accepted set of formal criteria for what qualifies as a nootropic, but Dr. Giurgeas original definition still holds sway. He considered that for any substance to be called a nootropic, it must:

In common online usage, the term nootropic is applied to any substance that can provide safe cognitive benefits to users, where benefits has a very broad range of meaning.

For example, Phenibut is often used as a socialising and extroversion booster, whilst Tianeptine is often used for its mood-brightening and anti-stress effects.

In general, a substance can be called a nootropic if it grants the user more control over their neurochemistry and the resulting behavioural and experiential outcomes.

In general, a substance can be called a nootropic if it grants the user more control over their neurochemistry and the resulting behavioural and experiential outcomes. On this view Melatonin also qualifies, given its ability to allow a user to intelligently regulate theirsleep cycle.

Ideologically, nootropics are celebrated for their ability to allow individuals to gain some mastery over their brain chemistry and the resulting mental states. For the history of the human species, brain chemistry has been largely inaccessible to targeted improvement, leaving us the prisoners of our biology. Nootropics are humanitys first tentative forays into taking control of our mood and intellect at the chemical level.

Nootropics allow users greater control over their states, moods, and cognitive abilities. In the same way as the caffeine in a morning coffee can wake you up and ready you for the day, nootropics can be used for a range of functional benefits.

Useful for their productivity and motivational effects, nootropics provide a boost for getting essential tasks done. Ideal for high-pressure cognitive work such as studying, essays and exams.

Additionally, some users take nootropics for a boost in social ability, including benefits to confidence, extroversion and verbal fluidity. Ideal for public speaking, presentations and parties.

More recently, nootropics have begun to be included in pre-workout mixes to ensure that exercise can be carried out with an iron will. When your motivation needs an extra edge, nootropics can help.

Some nootropics also provide neuroprotective effects, supporting brain health and stimulating the generation of new neurons. Maintain and support the engine of your productivity and creativity.

Nootropics can allow improvements to mental wellbeing, acting as anxiety aids, anti-depressants and mood brighteners. When you need a healthy lift to your mood, nootropics can help.

More on each of these, including specific useful nootropics, below.

Motivation and concentration can often be fleeting and fickle, and whilst nootropics can never replace a disciplined workflow, they can give you a substantial boost towards getting your critical tasks done, and getting them done well.

For long periods of concentrated cognitive effort, such as study, revision, essays, writing introductions to nootropics, and other time-consuming and mentally demanding tasks, longer lasting nootropics such as Adrafinil, Piracetam and Phenylpiracetam are ideal.

the potency of these nootropics is such that one journalist pondered whether they are a form of cheating that should be banned

These show evidence of improving learning ability, recall, problem solving, concentration, motivation and general cognition. And these are effects that you can really notice: distractions seem to fade away, intrusive thoughts seem quietened, the work seems more rewarding and less of a chore. In fact, the potency of these nootropics is such that one journalist pondered whether they are a form of cheating that should be banned.

For short periods of intensive cognitive load under high pressure, such as exams or public speaking, nootropics can also provide a controlled peak of sustained mental performance.

Short-duration, high power nootropics such as Aniracetam and Noopept can provide exactly the edge you need. These zone out distractions and fuel your cognitive processes, enhancing and ensuring mental performance for the most critical of tasks.

For some people socialising can feel like an energy-depleting activity, even when its enjoyable. And thats okay: some are naturally less extroverted. But the paradox of wanting to do an exhausting activity can be frustrating.

For others, the problem isnt exhaustion, but rather they are plagued by anxiety. For them, self-doubt and low confidence can make meeting new people, and even old friends, feel like a mammoth task. For others, communicating effectively and precisely can be a struggle, especially when articulating thoughts feels like a chore.

For each of these cases, the good news is that nootropics can help. When used correctly, they are a powerful tool for assisting and enhancing your social abilities, best treated as part of a rounded strategy of self-improvement.

[Nootropics] are a powerful tool for assisting and enhancing your social abilities, best treated as part of a rounded strategy of self-improvement.

For extroversion, and greater energy for socially draining situations, Phenibut is often celebrated for its social-enhancement properties, which create a calm and collected affect. The effects are subtle: theres none of the buzz of alcohol or other traditional aids to socialising. Instead, social interactions simply feel less taxing, and it can often be that only at the end of an evening do you realise you enjoyed yourself more than usual.

For helping with anxiety and anxiousness, in the broadest sense taking care of your mental health will always be the best strategy see Wellbeing below. When used in conjunction with good mental health practices, nootropics can be a useful aid in overcoming low self-confidence and anxiety. Naturally occurring in tea, L-Theanine is well supported as a potent supplement for anti-stress, anti-anxiety, and comfortable relaxation. In its concentrated form and separated from caffeine, it provides a mellow calm that smooths away the rough edges of anxiety.

For clearer and more precise speaking, Aniracetam and Phenylpiracetam show evidence of improving verbal fluidity as part of their thought-enhancing effects. Communication becomes easier and more exact, with the words flowing more smoothly and capturing more of what needs to be conveyed. These can give you the linguistic boost you need for all forms of public communication, whether at parties, at the podium or slaving over papers.

Whilst nootropics are not medicines, they can can provide a range of benefits for the health-conscious. Boosts to motivation are not only advantageous for cognitive tasks, as physical exertion and exercise are also fuelled by your willpower. When you need to run that extra mile, or complete that last set, nootropics can grant you a vital boost to your endurance.

Boosts to motivation are not only advantageous for cognitive tasks, as physical exertion and exercise are also fuelled by your willpower.

Additionally, nootropics show evidence of supporting brain health: many nootropics were originally synthesized for treating Alzheimers, dementia, and other cognitive-degenerative disorders. As a whole, they offer neuroprotective and neurogenerative effects, protecting your brain and keeping your neurons healthy.

For exercise, and the focus needed to maintain peak performance, Phenylpiracetam is an ideal pre-workout addition. This potent racetam shows evidence of enhancing stamina and physical endurance so much so that professional athletes are prohibited from taking these substances when competing in official events.

Recently, Noopept has also gained popularity as a pre-workout booster for maximised willpower and resilience, allowing you that extra burst of motivation for breaking down those mental barriers.

For brain health, whilst all nootropic compounds show some neuroprotective effects, a range of celebrated benefits have been attributed to Citicoline (Choline CDP). This refined form of Choline shows solid evidence of benefits to brain resilience, neuroplasticity, and neurogenesis. Additionally, it works as a supreme accompaniment to cognitive enhancing nootropics for more information see Combinations/Stacks.

Whilst taking care of yourself and your mental health is paramount, sometimes greater control over your brain chemistry is exactly whats needed. Nootropics are not anti-depressants, and are no replacement for thoughtful mental care, but when used well they can provide a range of tools for boosting your happiness and improving your life.

Regular sleep patterns are crucial for maintaining a healthy work balance, and here nootropics can help. Whilst greater concentration and focus are helpful, boosts to your day-to-day mood can be exactly what you need. And for others, stress and anxiety get in the way of productivity, and direct interventions can be hard to find. For each of these, nootropic compounds can allow you to take control of your brain (and consequently your life!).

Nootropics are no replacement for thoughtful mental care, but when used well they can provide a range of tools for boosting your happiness and improving your life.

For sleep, Melatonin is perfect, especially given that getting enough sleep is one of the most reliable predictors of wellbeing. A synthetic version of a naturally occurring neurotransmitter, Melatonin creates familiar feelings of drowsiness that result in a relaxing and revitalising sleep. Though not usually considered a nootropic, its ability to allow a user to decide precisely when they wish to sleep earns it its place in this guide. Ideal for resetting and regulating sleep cycles, whether from jet lag or broken routines.

For affecting mood more directly, Tianeptine has been shown to be surprisingly effective. It creates a subtle short-duration mood brightening effect that serves as a very mild lift, useful for motivation and mental fuel. Additionally, when taken at standard dosages over a long period, it has shown long-term wellbeing improving effects with comparable effectiveness to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), though with a different method of action. For times when low mood has you feeling paralysed, it can be exactly what you need to break out and get things done.

For stress and anxiety, L-Theanines renowned calming effects can put you back in control. When your head feels cluttered by intrusive thoughts or rogue worries, it can clear your mind to create a medium-duration relaxed mental space. In conjunction with good mental practices, it can help you to banish the stresses of overwork and competing demands on your attention.

The goal of taking nootropics is simply to obtain specific desirable cognitive effects. Its important to know that how (and how often) you take nootropics will affect your outcomes.

One of the biggest mistakes new nootropics users make is thinking that taking more of a substance is always better The key is to find an optimal dose that works for you.

Your brain chemistry and certain chemical compounds interact in complex ways, and so the same substance taken at different doses or at different times can lead to different effects.

To get a good overview of some of the important considerations, familiarize yourself with these commonly used terms:

One of the biggest mistakes new nootropics users make is thinking that taking more of a substance is always better. The reality is that at high doses the costs of side effects often outweigh the benefits. However, everyone is affected differently, and at too low a dose, the main effect might not be noticeable. The key is to find an optimal dose that works for you.

Nootropics are only active for a limited amount of time in your body, so you might want to take a nootropic multiple times per day in order to maintain an effect. Caution is essential for how often a nootropic is taken, as overdosing can lead to two specific and undesirable side effects:

Tolerance, in which our bodies build resistance towards a nootropic compound, limiting its efficacy. Just as alcohol or caffeine has more effect on a first-time drinker than a veteran of many years, the same is true of nootropics. So nootropic users try to thoughtfully regulate their intake so that tolerance doesnt develop (also, see Cycling below).

It is also worth knowing about what is commonly called the honeymoon period: the experience of when a nootropic works especially well the first few times you take it, then drops in efficacy as your body becomes used to it. After the honeymoon period is over, some will increase their dose until they experience the full effect again, though this carries risks. It is important to be careful if this happens to you, as you may be tempted to exceed recommended doses. If tolerance builds faster than expected, we always recommend that you take time off nootropics to allow your brain time to regulate.

Dependency, where similar to caffeine and alcohol, some nootropics have habit-forming properties. If a nootropic has been taken continually at above-recommended doses, suddenly quitting it may cause nasty withdrawal-like symptoms. If ever you feel that dependency is forming, we strongly recommend slowly reducing your intake over a period of many days. Special care should be taken particularly with Phenibut, which is open to abuse potential at high doses.

As a response to the development of tolerance and dependency, nootropics users sometimes use the technique of cycling. This refers to alternating, or cycling through a number of nootropics periodically. This allows for a nootropics user to benefit from the effect of each compound while not taking any one of them frequently enough to develop tolerance or dependency. For example, you might take X for two weeks, then switch to Y for two weeks, and repeat. This way your neurochemistry never becomes too accustomed to either substance.

Stacking refers to taking two or more nootropics at the same time to enhance their effects. It has become popular to combine nootropics for two reasons:

Some nootropics are compounding, which means their effects are stronger combined than when taken separately. Examples include:

Other nootropics are combined in order to reduce the side effects of another. For example:

The internet is full of differing voices on how best to approach and use nootropics. Online advice by its nature can only be very broad, and nootropic usage for you in particular may vary from the norm. Preamble aside, some nootropics best practices remain useful no matter what:

Do your own research. No overview including this one can contain all of the information you may be interested in. Google is your friend.

Pay attention to your behaviour. Many nootropic effects are subtle, and may be inaccessible to experience and introspection.

Never exceed recommended or standard doses. If you wish to be experimental, always consult a qualified and knowledgeable medical professional.

Take nootropics separately before combining any. This will help you understand how each nootropic affects you, and which nootropics to take less of (or to avoid if they produce unwanted side effects!).

Be wary of interactions with any drugs, medicines or compounds you may be taking. If in doubt, ask your doctor.

Be aware of tolerance. If nootropics lose their effect, dont increase your dosage, but instead take time off and allow your brain to regulate.

Be aware of dependency. Though nootropics have no chemically addictive properties, habit forming is real, and can carry risks. If you think you are becoming dependent, carefully and slowly reduce your dosage.

Remember: nootropics are no replacement for a healthy and balanced lifestyle. Exercise, regular sleep and healthy eating habits are still the most reliable and effective methods for optimising cognition and wellbeing.

While nootropics are certainly effective cognitive enhancers, they will (unfortunately) not make you superhuman. Healthy expectations should be set otherwise you might be unnecessarily disappointed and might miss out on their real benefits.

Even though the effects of nootropics are significant and reliable, they can be quite subtle. For some substances, you might not feel anything at all at least not in the way you feel alcohol or caffeine. Rather you might just notice significant behavioural changes: You will be able to work longer hours, be in a consistently good mood, or get tired less quickly. This is why its good advice to put yourself and your nootropics to the test. Make to-do lists, time your work hours, monitor your sleep, track your mood, and see the difference yourself.

Its also important to understand that nootropics will not change who you are. You wouldnt say that a cup of coffee changes your personality, just because it gives you a mental boost. The same goes for nootropics. Think of it this way: imagine yourself on your best days, where youre in a good mood, feeling productive and really getting things done. Nootropics might not revolutionise your life, but they can certainly help you have those days a lot more often.

So now that you understand the basics, how does one get into nootropics? We recommend three options:

A. Use our Effects Filter: Rather than wading through endless online resources and trying to figure out what each nootropic does, we have built a simple search filter that does the hard work for you. All you need to do is click on the effects that interest you, and the engine will automatically show you which products provide those benefits. Add multiple effects to find the ideal nootropics for you.

B. Use this Introduction: Review Section 2: Why People Use Nootropics, and try figure out how you would like to enhance your brain. Are you looking to improve your productivity and study? How about socialising skills, wellbeing, exercise or health? For each of these we have recommended the safest and most reliable nootropics.

C. Try the Basics: Still not sure? Why not go for the tried and tested?:

L-Theanine the perfect starter nootropic.

L-Theanine is the natural amino-acid responsible for that feeling of calm you get from green tea. Interestingly, it works exceptionally well when combined with coffee. Due to its anxiolytic and stress-reducing properties it takes away some of the jitteriness caused by caffeine, and provides you with a clean, lucid energy boost. It has even been shown to amplify caffeines cognitive effects.

Piracetam The original nootropic.

Piracetam was first created in 1964 and has over 40 years of peer reviewed studies attesting to its effectiveness. It is predominantly recognized for its ability to improve focus, memory, and verbal fluidity. It does, however, draw on your choline reserves, which may lead to headaches in some users, so supplementing Piracetam with Citicoline ensures that your brain has the fuel to keep you going.

Adrafinil The Modafinil metabolite.

This nootropic is celebrated for good reason. When Adrafinil becomes Modafinil in your liver, it produces a state of heightened cognitive ability, characterised by concentration, wakefulness, and focus. In case you were wondering why we dont advise taking Modafinil directly, its because (unlike Adrafinil) Modafinil is not legal in most countries and/or requires a prescription.

If you have any more questions, or think we missed some crucial information in this guide, please check our FAQ or feel free to email us at hello@nootropics.com.

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The Complete Introduction To Nootropics, From Beginner To ...

Nootroo – The Gold Standard In Nootropics

Synergistic Effects

Researchers studying deficient brains in older populations are constantly working to activate the cholinergic system, as the neurotransmitter acetylcholine is directly implicated in memory. Normally, administering choline alone can increase cholinergic transmission and raise the levels of acetylcholine in the brain.

However, in some older patients, their cholinergic systems are so deteriorated, that they are unable to turn the choline into acetylcholine. The scientists theorized that if they could administer choline, while simultaneously administering a compound that could correct for the critical age-related neuronal deficiencies, it might enable the choline to be properly metabolized.

When they learned that piracetam enables the central nervous system to function more effectively, the researchers decided to run an experiment on aged rats. They administered choline, piracetam, alone as well as the combination of the two.

Both choline and piracetam alone seemed to have a somewhat positive, albeit limited effect. However, when they combined piracetam and choline, the results were considered "profound." See the dramatic difference the combination makes in the gold bar labeled "C+P" in the accompanying graph.

Our Gold & Silver stacks are based on the principles behind this synergistic combination of ingredients.

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Nootroo - The Gold Standard In Nootropics

Nootropics: Cognitive Brain Enhancers to get Focused

The term Nootropic was introduced in the early 1970s. Often referred to as cognitive enhancers or smart drugs, nootropics are compounds that are used to improve cognitive functions, such as attention, learning, concentration, memory, motivation, and problem solving. While all substances classified as nootropics demonstrate some form of mental enhancement, they all do so in unique ways, through different pathways and mechanisms in the body.[1,2]

The following list briefly covers the most common ingredients that appear in nootropic supplements. If you are interested in learning more, each ingredient has its own page providing further details.

Racetams are cognitive enhancers commonly used to treat a wide variety of neurological and neurodegenerative disorders.

This specific family of drugs branched off from the original "godfather" of nootropics, piracetam, which was discovered in the 1960's. Since then, the racetam family has expanded exponentially.

Nootropics were officially identified as a new class of drugs in 1972 when they were described as compounds that share the same essential characteristics as piracetam. Later, the definition of what constitutes a nootropic was changed. No longer was the compound necessarily required to resemble piracetam.[1,73]

Some of the popular members of the racetam family include:[74]

It has been documented that phenylpiracetam has a broader range of application, and is more powerful overall, than piracetam.[75,76]

Racetam uses:

They have also been shown to exhibit positive effects in regards to memory and learning [77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84]

Noopept is an amino acid analogue that is very similar to piracetam, but is taken in far lower doses, and has shown to yield less side effects.

It increases the ability learn and remember information, and works by bettering your AMPA and NMDA Glutamatergic receptors, nerve growth factor (NGF), Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF), and acetylcholine levels.

You can read more about it on our Noopept "mega-post" on the blog.

Bacopa monnieri is a perennial plant that has a rich history in Ayurvedic medicine, where it is categorized as an herb that "assists the mind, and enhances awareness," according to several sources.

In Ayurveda, the traditional Hindu medicinal system based on the idea of balance in bodily systems using herbs, diet, and yogic breathing, it is commonly known as Brahmi, is used to treat depression, insomnia, epilepsy, and schizophrenia.[8] Various studies support the cognitive enhancing effects demonstrated by Bacopa, especially memory and attention.[9,10,11]

Choline is an essential nutrient required for healthy brain function. It can be synthesized by the body in small amounts, and up until recently, scientists believed that the body could compensate for choline deficits through other nutrients.

It is now accepted that choline is essential and needs to be consumed through diet or supplementation.[12,13] A number of studies have also verified choline's cognitive benefits. [14,15]

DMAE, which is sometimes referred to as deanol, is a precursor to choline. It allows the brain to optimize the production of acetylcholine, a primary neurotransmitter involved in cognitive functions, such as learning and memory.[16,17,18] One study found DMAE useful in helping learning disabled children.[19] A handful of other studies on rodents have shown that it has beneficial effects on memory.[20,21]

Any nootropic effects derived from ginkgo biloba comes from the plant's leaves.

Much of the research surrounding the ginkgo biloba herb is based on a standardized extract derived from the ginkgo leaf.

Ginkgo biloba is one of the best selling herbal supplements is in Europe and the United States. Traditionally, it has been used to improve memory and treat blood disorders. These benefits have been confirmed, to some degree, in modern studies.[22]

Some scientific literature claims that ginkgo biloba may have the potential to enhance mental function in younger people.[23] There is even more evidence that it can provide some amount of relief to individuals suffering from Alzheimer's.[24,25,26]

Ginseng is a highly sought after and extremely expensive medicinal herb. The root is the part most commonly used. Ginseng must be cultivated for at least five years before being harvested. Because of this, top quality roots can sell for upwards of $10,000.

There are three different plants referred to as ginseng:

*Siberian ginseng is not actually related to ginseng at all, it is commonly known as eleuthero.

When panax ginseng is heat dried, it is considered red ginseng. When it is dried naturally, it is called white ginseng. In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) both versions of panax have unique benefits.[27,28,29,30] American and panax ginseng are rich in a saponin called ginsenoside, which has been used effectively to protect against neuronal damage that impairs learning and memory.[31,32] A double blind, placebo-controlled study found that red panax ginseng was effective at improving cognitive function.[33]

Huperzine A is a potent compound that belongs to the same class of chemicals as caffeine and cocaine, known as alkaloids. It is sold over the counter as a brain booster because of its potential for enhancing mental function. Studies have suggested that it may improve memory, and it is commonly used to treat Alzheimer's disease and other similar conditions.[34,35,36]

Idebenone, a synthetic analogue of CoQ10, is a powerful antioxidant that may protect against nerve damage in the central nervous system (CNS). This compound has been studied for its neuroprotective properties and has been considered effective against age-related cognitive disorders.[37-41]

Inositol, unofficially known as vitamin B8, is a naturally occuring isomer of glucose. High concentrations of inositol are found in heart and brain tissue. It plays important roles in a number of regulatory mechanisms in the body, especially in relation to muscle and nerve tissue. It's also key to proper functioning of cell membranes.

Inositol is present in food in three forms:

Inositol is sometimes recommended for Alzheimer's disease, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), attention deficit disorder (ADD), depression, and bipolar disorder.[42-45] Additionally, some studies on animals demonstrate possible memory related cognitive benefits.[46,47]

NADH is considered to be a vitamin B3 co-enzyme.[48] Research suggests that it might be effective at preserving, and even enhancing, cognitive function.[49] It also appears to play major roles in longevity and several age-associated diseases, including neurodegenerative disease.[50] Additionally, there is some evidence supporting its potentially protective effects against a broad range of cognitive disorders, including stroke and Alzheimer's disease.[51,52,53] Deficiency in NADH has been linked directly to the disease pellagra.[54] There is also some proof that it may be helpful in treating chronic fatigue syndrome.[55]

SNS Nutrition's Phenibut-XT promotes relaxation and is known for its nootropic effects.

Phenibut is classified as a neuropsychotropic drug that offers nootropic effects. In Russia, it is widely used to relieve tension, anxiety, depression, post traumatic stress, stuttering, and fear. It has also been used to improve sleep in some patients.[57]

The nootropic effects of phenibut have further been backed by animal studies, especially in regards to memory and learning.[57,58]

Phosphatidylserine belongs to the class of chemical compounds known as phospholipids. It's an essential component in all cells, specifically, the cell membrane (the "skin" of the cell). Research suggests that phosphatidylserine may be helpful in treating declining mental function and depression in the elderly.[59-63]

Also known as nicotinoyl-GABA, or pikamilon, picamilon has been shown to restore GABA receptors in rat brains.[65]

Picamilon appears to have a high bioavailability, and it is able to cross the blood-brain barrier.[66] One study on rats demonstrated potential benefits on short-term memory and learning.[67] It is speculated that some of the benefits attributed to picamilon might be linked with its ability to increase blood supply to the brain.[68]

PQQ, also known as methoxatin, was first recognized as an enzyme co-factor in methylotropic bacteria. There are some reported benefits from PQQ supplementation related to immune, antioxidant, and cognitive functions.[69] PQQ has also been shown to increase nerve growth factor and protect against neurodegeneration.[70-72]

Schisandra is a fruiting vine native to eastern Asia. The small red berries produced by this infamous medicinal herb contain a lignan called schizandrin.[85,86] which has been fairly well studied for its possible mental health benefits. It's speculated that schizandrin's cognitive-enhancing potential could be due to its powerful antioxidant and neuroprotective properties.[87-92]

Vinpocetine is an alkaloid that provides very promising neuroprotective effects. It has been regarded as a full-fledged nootropic because of its ability to improve both short and long-term memory, and increases alertness. It is suspected that vinpocetine acts as a cognitive enhancer through a number of mechanisms. One of the most prominent is its ability to enhance blood flow to the brain.[94-98] One study even described it as "Viagra for the brain."[95]

Adequate amounts of key vitamins and minerals are critical for supporting proper brain function, specifically cognition. Additionally, nutritional deficits may greatly impair mental performance.[99] Vitamin K, in particular, has been gaining attention for it's potential role in brain health and cognition.[100,101]

Fish oil is rich in essential fatty acids (EFAs). Scientific literature acknowledges the fact that EFAs play an important role in brain health. The body cannot produce essential fatty acids on its own, they must be consumed through diet and/or supplementation.[102,103]

Pro athletes are not permitted to use adrafinil.

Adrafinil is considered a "pro-drug" to modafinil, which is only available by prescription. In other words, adrafinil is metabolized (converted by the body) into modafinil.

Both of these compounds are metabolized into modafinilic acid. Adrafinil is relatively understudied, but because both convert into the same active component, studies done on modafinil are commonly cited for adrafinil.[3,4]

These studies provide evidence supporting the pro-cognitive effects of modafinil and describe it as a psychostimulant.[5] One study was able to demonstrate that modafinil, combined with cognitive training, greatly enhanced learning capability in healthy volunteers.[6] Another study established that modafinil has definite cognitive-enhancing properties in young, healthy individuals.[7] Despite being classified as a legal substance, in 2004, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) banned athletes from using adrafinil.[4]

There is a wealth of evidence demonstrating ALCAR's positive effects on brain function and cognition. Many of these benefits have been associated with its neuroprotective, antioxidant qualities and its ability to enhance the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).[104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110]

Some nootropics, when taken at doses higher than the tolerable upper intake level (UL), can cause minor side effects, such as diarrhea, headache, nausea, and digestive discomfort. Even when there is no UL, there's still a chance that you may experience adverse effects.

You should know that not all nootropics have been studied adequately in regards to their long term safety. In order to minimize the chances of experiencing side effects, you should always use supplements responsibly, making sure you read the label and use the product as instructed. Also, talk to your health care provider before starting any new type of supplementation or fitness regimen.

Many of the studies done regarding the efficacy of nootropics were done with specific clinical applications in mind. While some studies were conducted using healthy volunteers, a bulk of them were on subjects that were suffering with cognitive disorders of various types and degrees. This makes it unclear as to how nootropics might affect the general population.

Building your supplement regimen around a sound diet is of the utmost importance. Studies validate the impact that diet has on cognitive function.[124] Whole food sources should always be your go-to choice when available and substituting supplements for whole food is not advisable.

Make PricePlow your number-one source for all things health and fitness. We make it easy and convenient to compare prices on your favorite supplements. Also, you will find honest, third-party reviews and free product guides that are packed with thoroughly researched and up-to-date information.

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Nootropics: Cognitive Brain Enhancers to get Focused

Top Nootropics 2018 (200% Increased Productivity)

We all know that evaluating nootropics is a very subjective task. But everyone desires and asks for objective answers. So, it was on me to find a solution thatll satisfymy high standardsandyour requirementsand wishes.

Here is how my usual review works:

Now, I tried several different approaches and most of them failed at the beginning. It was always the placebo effect that I was afraid it would harm my review process.

One day, I was playing a so-called dual-n-back game (its an advanced memory game) and I achieved great results. It was during a test period of one of my favorite nootropics. So I thought to myself what if I include playing the brain games in the review period? And so it started

From then on, I have increased the length of my review process to at least 2-4 weeks (with some exceptions). Based on my experience, this is long enough for me to evaluate the results of a certain nootropic stack and external factors that influence my everyday feeling.

What I look for during my test period?

In addition, I use the test period to play the dual-n-back game a couple of times and compare results (please understand that this game is so challenging that if you dont play it every couple of days, youll suck the next time).

When it comes to the dual-n-back game, I specifically observe:

Based on all results and answers I collected, I write a short summary and then compare it to other nootropics.

Luckily, I wrote a short handbook on the most popular nootropics (you candownload it here) so Im quite fast with analyzing the formulas of nootropic stacks.

And thats about it.Now you understand my process. Its nothing spectacular, its not a super-scientific,but it works and it delivers results.

Please keep in mind Im not a doctor, so there is no professional bias in my reviews. Im just a random guy who finds nootropics super exciting and loves testing them.

The only thing that matters at the end is that we all find a nootropic stack that delivers an outstanding performance AND it safe to take.

Luckily, all of those nootropics on my top nootropics of 2018 list deliver great results. Now its on you to decide which one you prefer the most!

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Top Nootropics 2018 (200% Increased Productivity)

Nootropics & Smart Drug Reviews

What are nootropics?

If you are looking for nootropic drugs and supplements, there are many suppliers around with a good reputation. You can find a great dealof information about nootropics and famous smart drugs, as well as enjoy nootropics reviews on our website. So what exactly are nootropics?

According to PubMed.gov, nootropics aresubstanceswhich improve the functional capabilities of the central nervous system including the brain. They also possess a host of other names such as cognitive enhancers, smart drugs, neuro enhancers, and intelligence enhancers among many more. Nootropics are drugs, supplements, nutraceuticals and functional foods that improve one or more aspects of mental functions such as motivation, attention and working memory. These drugs (nootropics) are legal and can be bought over the counter without necessarily requiring a doctors prescription.

Scientific data has come out strongly to prove that these drugs can be used to safely treat certain neuro conditions. We are talking about diseases such as Parkinsonism, Alzheimers, ADHD and Huntingtons disease.

There are so many nootropic substances in the market and otherwise. However, almost all of them contain the following major characteristics.

Yes of course nootropics supplements are different from smart drugs. These compounds basically affect the part of the brain which enjoins the left and the right hemispheres. This part of the brain is known as the corpus collosum in the scientific lexicon. Exclusively working on this area is what differentiates nootropics from other classes of smart drugs owing to the fact that they possess little to no effect on the central nervous system. This phenomenon causes the nootropics to be known to harmlessly work with and enhance brain activity while improving memory because they present essentially no side-effects and/or contraindications. Moreover, this is as a result of their low degree of toxicity in the body if administered within the typical range of dose.

Despite the fact that nootropics enhance the cognitive function of the brain, they are also known to improve attention span, memory, concentration and motivation. The different compounds that fall under the nootropics surname possess their own distinctive chemical and biological processes. If we may for instance take piracetam. This nootropic supplement has its powers in its ability to increase two types of glutamate receptors: AMPA and NDMA. It also works on cholinergic acetylcholine receptors. Piracetam is also known to cause vasodilation (widening) of the blood vessels which ultimately stimulates blood circulation in the central nervous system.

The cognitive enhancers, nootropics, exist in two states. There are those that are found naturally and some that are synthesized from the laboratory.

Natural brain enhancers include merchandises like Brain stack and Alpha Brain. They are naturally made from vitamins, natural herbs and minerals which include ingredients like Vitamin B6, Alpha GPC, Bacopa, Vinocetine, Huperzia Serrata, Amino acids ( L-Theanine and L-Tyrosine), AC11, among many others. If you are not exactly sure what these are do not be worried, you will get a lot of relevant information pertaining them in this site going forward.

Chemically based nootropical compounds refer to products like Racetams, Piracetam and Noopept. These are products produced by combination substances that have been scientifically synthesized in the laboratory. It must be noted that despite possessing a higher potency, chemically synthesized, as opposed to naturally occurring drugs, are always laden with contraindications. Therefore, you have to be extremely careful before taking any nootropic that belongs to this category. But take it easy, this is where this site comes in.

The most important point to note here is that irrespective of whether a nootropic is naturally or chemically synthesized, they do work in a similar way. All of them are meant to improve your brains neurotransmitters. The end result of this is increased focus, memory and enhanced learning ability.

More here:

Nootropics & Smart Drug Reviews

Pure Nootropics Review – Are They Reliable?

Pure Nootropics is considerable a reliable and safe supplier because they used third party verification and testing from the outset of their founding in 2013. At that time, Pure Nootropics offered racetam capsules online, but they have since expanded into many other products including unique blends of their own.

As with any other vendor or supplier, we will apply rigor to determining whether you should feel safe buying from Pure Nootropics. Our conclusion is that this is one of the more reputable and trustworthy vendors and we outline many features below.

From the outset, Pure Nootropics has reliably provided information about their racetam products. Primarily, they sold piracetam, aniracetam, and oxiracetam at the start and these products are notorious for their dubious quality and manufacturing from China.

The company earned a positive reputation in Reddit, Longecity, and other communities because of their insistence on third party testing for these products.

Today, they have expanded their product line considerably and do not have third party testing on all products. Their racetams now have third party assay and heavy metals, but their Bacognize Bacopa monnieri and KSM-66 Ashwagandha do not.

One reason for this is that these proprietary blends of herbal extracts have their own built-in safety testing and rigorous analysis as governed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

NOTE: Just because a brand does not have third party testing does not mean they are not reliable. Some products require less scrutiny than others, but that is up to the discretion of the companies and the buyers.

If you decide to buy smart drugs from Pure Nootropics, there are plenty of anecdotal reports online. According to some, one glaring error on Pure Nootropics packaging had the incorrect dosage recommendations for piracetam. However, one moderator mentioned that despite the printing error, the website had updated information and third party testing on the subject.

In another instance, one batch of noopept sublingual solutions was incorrectly formulated, which resulted in a recall and refund for everyone affected. People who got the product recall noted This is exactly the type of response I like to see in this type of situation. I appreciate your honesty and will continue to do business with both companies.

One can safely recommend Pure Nootropics and their products to a wider audience. Mistakes will happen and a reliable supplier will rectify those mistakes quickly and safely.

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Pure Nootropics Review - Are They Reliable?

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Thrive Naturals Super Brain Renew Review | Brain Supplement …

This companys Super Brain Renew was awarded our 2018 Editors Choice Award of distinction for several key reasons. Lets take a closer look as to why it topped our list.

Key Features & Benefits:

INGREDIENTS & EFFECTIVENESSThrive Naturals Super Brain Renew is comprised of 39 different essential vitamins and nutrients. However, the 5 superhero ingredients are DHA Omega 3, Huperzine A, Phosphatidylserine, Bacopin and N-Acetyl L-Tyrosine. These ingredients have been highly studied and shown to help improve cognitive memory recall, improved mental clarity and focus.

Thrive Naturals uses a special high quality,maximum strengthformula, which none of the others we reviewed had. They also use L-Glutamine and DMAE to aid in overall brain function. Of the dozens of brands we reviewed, very few came close to offering a complete formula with the essential supporting ingredients.

Many of the products we reviewed use synthetic ingredients that can cause unwanted side effects. We really liked that Thrive Naturals utilize third-party testing to guarantee quality and results. Every batch of Super Brain Renew is tested by the manufacturer for consistency and quality control to ensure that you receive exactly what you are paying for.

Thrive Naturals ranked at the top of all the categories that matter: ingredients, customer satisfaction, and customer service.

PRODUCT SAFETYWe want our readers to be aware that some brain and memory products we encountered had unnecessary ingredients, like silica, titanium dioxide, and silicon dioxide that act as fillers. While not necessarily dangerous for you, they can have side effects that are unnecessary and that can be avoided by selecting a better formula.

Thrive Naturals keeps their formula clean and pure, which is the foundation of their natural brand. They use the highest quality ingredients in the proportions that have been shown in studies to be effective. The ingredients in Thrive Naturals Super Brain Renew have no known side effects or harmful interactions with other medicines.

As our trusted reader, your safety is out top concern, and that is why we highly recommend Thrive Naturals Super Brain Renew as a reputable nutritional supplements source with verified satisfied customers. Their products are made in cGMP certified and FDA registered labs, which give us a high comfort level.

COSTThis was the factor that sealed the deal for us in selecting Thrive Naturals Super Brain Renew as our #1 pick. We felt that they have a very reasonable price considering they have the essential brain and memory ingredients, outstanding quality ingredients and effectiveness of their product.

We reviewed a lot of products with varying prices and formulations. Thrive Naturals has found a way to bring to their customers a rock solid, pure and potent product at one of the most competitive prices out there. There is just no better value available on the market today. They could easily charge significantly more for such high HCA potency but have decided to pass the savings on to their customers. Kudos to them for keeping their prices reasonable.

It is the cherry on top of our sundae to find that they deliver a high-quality product at a great price and also offer great customer service. They dont push you into a monthly on-going billing scheme, and they give you a no questions asked 1-Year (365 days) to return the product if you are not completely satisfied. A solid company you can trust.

SUMMARYFrom the group of products we tested, there simply is no comparison to Thrive Naturals Super Brain Renew. The product reigned supreme in all categories we evaluated: Effectiveness, Quality, Safety, Price and Customer Satisfaction. If you are serious about improving your memory, focus and clarity and want a product you can count on to get the results, then Thrive Naturals Super Brain Renew is the right one for you.

Feeling sharper and more focusedIve been using Thrive Naturals Super Brain Renew for almost three weeks now and I can already feel the difference. Im feeling sharper and more focused throughout the day. Will update as I progress, so far so good. Janet A.

*Results may vary.*

Got a promotion at workAmazing! I cant believe this is working for me. I have been taking Thrive Naturals Super Brain Renew for 4 months and it has turned my life around. I even got a promotion at work last week. My boss said he felt I have been laser focused lately. I need more Super Brain Renew!!! Victor M.

*Results may vary.*

Able to focus more and feel calmer and relaxedI am a blogger who works from home and a mother of 3. As a writer it is hard to stay focused with the constant todo list running through my mind. I have been taking Thrive Naturals Super Brain Renew for about 6 weeks now and what I have noticed is that I am able to focus more and feel calmer and relaxed. I have also found that I am sleeping better at night and when I wake, I feel more energy. I have had amazing results and would highly recommend this to anyone. Patricia K.

*Results may vary.*

Right at the top of my mindIll admit it, the first time I bought a memory pill online, I was scammed. The brand I had originally bought from had all these weird synthetic ingredients I couldnt even pronounce, and it just didnt work for me. When I saw my cousin at a reunion she was telling me about how much better her memory has been getting. I asked for her secret. When she said she started taking a memory pill, I started laughing. When she told me about the Thrive Naturals brand she was using, I was skeptical. This time I did my research and when I found out they were legit, I ordered a three-month supply. In the past I would forget where I left the keys, what time I had to pick up my kids from sports and just about everything. Now I feel like I am more on top of things. Things I need to remember are right at the top of my mind, unbelievable. Meredith G.

*Results may vary.*

A lot more mental clarityI think Ive read every review there is to read about brain and memory supplements. Every blog, every anti-aging article, every magazine. Ive learned everything there is to learn about the top ingredients for brain and memory. After finally deciding on Thrive Naturals Super Brain Renew, I can tell you they have the best product out there. It actually works! Ive gained a lot more mental clarity, focus and can even energy in the past 5 weeks then I have had in the past 5 years. I just called in and ordered more this morning. Thank you, Thrive Naturals. Chris M.

*Results may vary.*

Dad now remembers the little thingsI have been searching for the right memory pill for my father for a while now. Though he will not admit it, he does not seem to remember things as well as he used to. I wanted to make sure I got him a good product as I care about his health. I did a lot of research and finally settled on Thrive Naturals Super Brain Renew. First off, the product got to me quickly which was great! My Dad was a bit resistant at first to take it. But, it has not been 2 weeks since he has been on Super Brain Renew and he is already reminding me to order him some more! We can all see the difference. My Dad now remembers the little things more and is more focused when we have conversations. This is everything I could have hoped for and more! I am so excited to have found Super Brain Renew. Alicia R.

*Results may vary.*

1. How does it work?As we age we begin to experience memory loss, trouble focusing and sometimes a feeling of brain fog. Thrive Naturals Super Brain Renew contains natural nutrients, also known as nootropics, which help reverse these conditions in a non-addictive and non-stimulating way. The natural ingredients work to improve both the membrane structure of the brain and fight cell-damaging free radicals. The anti-oxidants and anti-inflammatory effects help improve blood flow and oxygen to the brain, improving mental performance, concentration, and alertness.

2. Are memory pills safe to use?

Thrive Naturals Super Brain Renew is a safe all natural supplement. We always recommend that you consult your physician if you feel it may interfere with an existing medical condition. Pregnant and nursing women should not take Super Brain Renew.

3. How much should do I take?Thrive Naturals Super Brain Renew should be taken twice per day, 1 capsule in the morning and 1 at night with a full glass of water.

4. When can I expect to see results?While results will vary depending on the individual, many see results within the first week, and most will find they have more focus and an improved memory by the end of the first month. One of the reasons that Thrive Naturals Super Brain Renew is so popular is that they offer a 1-Year (365 Day) risk-free trial. This way, customers can feel safe and secure in knowing that they can return the product if it is not working for them. The fact that this brand is willing to offer a risk-free trial speaks to both their confidence in how well the product works but also their commitment to superb customer service.

5. Are there any side effects?There are no known side effects of Super Brain Renew. We recommend not taking more than the recommended dosage. People with known medical conditions or who are nursing or pregnant should consult a physician before taking a brain health pill.

6. If I take a few medications, can I still take a brain and memory pill?It is always recommended that you consult your physician if you have any concerns about adding a new supplement to your daily regimen.

7. Is ordering online safe?Yes, at least with our top recommended brands it is. In our review of different brain pill products on the market, we encountered several companies that automatically enroll you in a monthly continuity shipment plan. We thoroughly vetted our top three recommended brands to ensure they do not do this. Our top recommended Thrive Naturals has a rock solid 90-day return policy that will offer customers a no questions asked refund, which we feel very comfortable with.

8. Why should I choose Thrive Naturals Super Brain Renew?Consumer Advisor Online has awarded them our 2018 Editors Choice Top Pick for several reasons. Thrive Naturals has earned its customers loyalty and trust by focusing strictly on quality and research. They closely inspect each of their batches to ensure they are delivering the purest and most potent ingredients. Here are some of the key points as to why we named them our #1 Pick:

In short, Thrive Naturals spares no expense to bring you the finest ingredients, in the right proportions, manufactured using strict guidelines and is also supported by great customer service. That is why we awarded them our Editors Top Pick Award above all the others. It is not every day that we come across a company that has all the right stuff. Thrive Naturals is the one that shines amongst the rest.

We loved Thrive Naturals Super Brain Renew so much that we reached out to them and asked if we could get a special introductory price for our Consumer Advisor Online readers to help them start feeling the benefits of improved memory and focus.

For a very limited time only, Thrive Naturals is giving you up to 49% off PLUS Free Shipping, depending on what option you choose.

Take advantage of this limited time offer to maximize your brain health and stay healthy with the very best memory and focus supplement on the market!

(Limit 1 Package per customer please only order one of the 1, 3, or 6 pack from this page.)

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Thrive Naturals has one of best reputations and guarantees in the industry, and they stand behind it. If you dont experience the results described, Thrive Naturals wants you to return the product for a full refund.

We put Thrive Naturals guarantee to the test during our research and had no problems getting a full refund once the product was returned.

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Thrive Naturals Super Brain Renew Review | Brain Supplement ...

Lithium Orotate Nootropics Expert

Lithium helps prevent mood swings, is anti-anxiety and antidepressant, promotes neurogenesis, protects from neurodegenerative disease, and is anti-aging

Lithiumis a soft, silvery-white alkali metal so reactive (it sparks when it touches water) that its not found in nature. Instead, its found in mineral compounds and in mineral water.

Cosmologists believe that lithium was one of the 3 elements synthesized in the Big Bang.[i] So its been around for a long time.

Most of us associate lithium with treating mental illnesses like bipolar disorder and mania. Or the lithium-ion battery in our phone. Which has a tendency to blow up occasionally.

Turns out that the anti-psychotic medication lithium isnt even a drug. Its actually a mineral. And part of the same family of minerals that include potassium and sodium.

As a nootropic, micro-dosing lithium provides some amazing anti-aging benefits. Recent research shows that low-dose lithium may also help slow the progression of neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimers, dementia and Parkinsons disease.

Low-dose lithium also helps neurogenesis and memory. And is a mood stabilizer.

Here well investigate daily or frequent use of Lithium Orotateas a nootropic, and how it benefits cognitive health.

Lithium helps:

Lithiumis an alkali mineral and one the trace elements considered essential for both animal and human reproductive health, and general health and wellness.

Discovered as a chemical element in 1817, lithiums first recorded modern medical use was in 1871 for the treatment of mania.

But the use of lithium for therapeutic use goes back to ancient Greek and Roman times. People enjoyed soaking in alkali springs to help with physical and mental illness.

People have been using mineral springs for therapeutic use ever since. Lithia Springs in Douglas County, Georgia was so popular that people came for miles just to drink the water.

The Sweet Water hotel, a luxury 500-room resort was opened in 1887. And attracted famous authors, business people and prominent politicians who came for the springs health benefits. The name Lithia stems from water rich in lithium.

Studies from around the world have shown the critical health benefits of lithium. One study using data from 27 Texas counties from 1978 1987 found that rates of suicide, homicide and rape were significantly higher in counties whose drinking water contained little or no lithium.[v]

Another study of lithium levels in tap water in 18 municipalities in Japan showed standard mortality ratios lower in places with higher lithium levels.[vi]

Yet another study conducted in Texas in 2013 confirmed the original findings in that state. Drinking water samples from 226 counties found a correlation between lithium levels and suicide rates.[vii]

Researchers who conducted meta-analyses of lithium levels and public drinking water suggested increasing lithium levels of drinking water could potentially reduce the risk of suicide, and justify administering lithium to tap water.[viii]

An article in the Lancet in 1949 by John Cade is credited for the modern medical use of lithium as an effective treatment for manic psychosis.[ix]

The United States FDA approved high dose lithium carbonate and lithium citrate in 1970 for the treatment of bipolar disorder. Carbonic acid and citric acid are mineral carriers used to transport lithium throughout your body.

Doctors also prescribe lithium off-label for treating migraines, seizure disorders and psychosis usually after other treatments have failed.

But as we dig deeper into the most recently published research on lithium, we realize this trace element is essential for optimal health and brain function.

The lithium we get from our diet prevents many neurological and psychiatric problems. Micro-dosing lithium as a nootropicwith a supplement like Lithium Orotate can help make up for the what we dont get from our food and water.

Lithium is naturally available from fish, processed meat, milk, dairy products, eggs, potatoes and vegetables. Your typical dietary intake of lithium can range from 2 600 mcg. Amounts vary depending on where the food is grown.

Lithium helps brain health and function in several ways. But two in particular stand out.

Lithium inhibits the enzyme glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3). This inhibition upregulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) which stimulates neural stem cells to produce new neurons in the hippocampus.[x]

When neural stem cells produce new neurons in the hippocampus, mood and memory work as designed. But a breakdown in neurogenesis results in mood disorders.

Lithium has long been known to control mania and stabilize mood in bipolar patients. But it was not generally thought of as an antidepressant. Researchers in Tel Aviv provided the first evidence that inhibiting GSK-3 exerted a rapid antidepressant effect in mice.[xi]

Another team at Howard Hughes Medical Institute in Pennsylvania showed that feeding mice chow laced with low-dose lithium for 15 days produced a dose-dependent antidepressant effect.[xii]

Lithium induced gene transcription in the hippocampus, amygdala and hypothalamus. All areas implicated in depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, autism and schizophrenia.

Glutamate plays a major role in the synaptic plasticity needed for learning and memory.[xiii] But over-activity of glutamate on its NMDA receptors causes neuron death and is implicated in Alzheimers, Huntingtons and Parkinsons disease. Lithium inhibits this overactivity.[xiv]

Lithium also increases the production of a neuroprotective protein called bcl-2.[xv] Researchers maintain that lithium is the only medication that has been demonstrated to significantly increase bcl-2 in several brain areas.

Lithium has also recently been evaluated in preventing and treating traumatic brain injury. In a study conducted in 2014, Dr. Peter Leeds stated that lithium had demonstrated robust beneficial effects in experimental models of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). These include decreases in TBI-induced brain lesion, suppression of neuroinflammation, protection against blood-brain barrier disruption, normalization of behavioral deficits, and improvement of learning and memory, among others.[xvi]

In 1985, the United States EPA estimated that dietary intake of lithium from food in the USA varied from 0.6 to 3.1 mg per day.[xvii] For comparison, people who live in the Andes in Northern Argentina consume 2 to 30 mg per day, with 2 3 mg just from drinking water.[xviii]

As your dietary sodium and caffeine increases, so does lithium excretion in urine which increases your requirement for this essential trace mineral.

Your exposure to stress and toxins from things like mercury, aspartame, MSG, Bisphenol A (BPA) and other excitotoxins also raise cortisol and other stress hormones. Increasing your need for more water-soluble nutrients like B-vitamins, magnesium, zinc and lithium.

Low lithium levels are associated with

Depression and anxiety increase

Memory and learning ability decline

Insomnia increases

Sensitivity to stress and chronic pain increase

Natural healing processes decline

Adequate daily intake of lithium could help prevent many mental and neurological diseases due to this trace minerals effects on nervous system metabolism. And its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects.

The clinical research and studies on the neuroprotective benefits of lithium are so overwhelming, some scientists are beginning to ask why isnt everyone using lithium?

Heres a summary of how micro-dosing lithium using Lithium Orotate can benefit your brain.

The benefits of supplementing with lithium go far beyond just optimizing cognitive health. Lithium also helps decrease insulin resistance, helps in treatment of alcoholism and other addictions, supports bone health, balances your circadian rhythm and more.

My personal experience with Lithium Orotate has made me a believer in micro-dosing lithium. Im Adult ADD and deal with mood swings from time to time.

If Im going around the bend because something upset me, I take 5 mg of Lithium Orotate. Within 15 minutes my mood stabilizes and I feel normal again. Consistent use puts me in a happy mood.

Many others report youll feel the results taking a low dose of lithium quickly. But for some, the full effect can take anywhere from 1 to 3 weeks. Micro-dosing 5 10 mg of lithium daily results in consistent results within a month or two for some. Ive experienced great results within a couple of days.

So if you lash out at people in anger, and dont fully understand why you get so angry it could be your lithium levels are low.

Many neurohackers with depression and anger issues notice results quickly. Within the first couple of days you should feel more calm, relaxed, and experience less stress.

Keep in mind that lithium at any dose is not for everyone. But if you get adequate lithium from your diet and water, and still experience some of the mood swings talked about in this review, you could be dealing with other issues. You should know within a couple of hours of supplementing with low-dose lithium if this supplement is for you.

For some, Lithium Orotate means feeling excited about life for the first time in a long time. Anxiety and social anxiety are no longer a problem. Life is more fun and enjoyable.

Some say Lithium Orotate works better than any prescription that theyve ever tried to treat severe depression. It provides a nice, smooth mood balance without all the toxicity associated with mega-doses of lithium carbonate.

If youre dealing with PTSD or mild insomnia, you may want to try Lithium Orotate. Focus could improve, racing thoughts diminish and motivation levels could increase. Youll have more coping ability.

A study at McMaster University in Canada set out to determine the effects on hippocampus volume in 14 bipolar patients who received lithium therapy.

The researchers examined the effects of lithium on hippocampal volumes and memory performance and recall over 2 4 years. The patients had not received any type of medication prior to using lithium.

The study found increases in hippocampus volume over time. And evidence of improvement of verbal memory performance over the 4-year measurement period.

The researchers concluded that the results of the study were consistent with the literature stating the neuroprotective effects of lithium. And that long-term treatment of lithium is associated with preservation of memory and recall due to increased hippocampus size.[xxi]

24 adults recovering from heroin or methamphetamine addiction participated in a study in San Diego. Group A received 400 mcg per day of lithium taken orally for 4 weeks. The placebo Group B naturally took a non-active placebo.

Subjects completed a mood test questionnaire containing questions about their ability to think, work, mood and emotions. For the lithium group, mood test scores increased steadily and significantly during the 4 week period.

The lithium group also reported significantly increased levels of happiness, friendliness and energy. Group B showed no improvement during the same period.

The researchers concluded that low-dose lithium provided a mood-improving and stabilizing effect.[xxii]

In this study, 42 alcoholic patients were treated with Lithium Orotate during alcohol rehabilitation in a private clinical setting for six months. The data was collected from clinical practice records for the 10 years following the initial study.

The patients received 150 mg of Lithium Orotate daily for six months along with calcium orotate, magnesium orotate, bromelain and essential phospholipids.

Ten of the patients had no relapse from 3 10 years. 13 patients stayed sober from 1 3 years. The remaining patients relapsed between 6 12 months.

The researchers concluded that Lithium Orotate therapy was safe in treating addiction with minor adverse side effects.[xxiii]

Lithium retains a grim and undeserved reputation. Likely because it was originally associated with serious mental illness. And like most medications, lithium can produce serious side effects if not monitored properly.

Lithium carbonate or lithium chloride salts are typically prescribed for long-term control of bipolar disorder at 900 1200 mg per day. The major problem with such high doses of lithium are some very serious and debilitating side effects.

For nootropic use, we suggest Lithium Orotate which typically contains only 5 mg of elemental lithium. Lithium Orotate is orotic acid combined with lithium.

Orotic acid reportedly makes the lithium more bioavailable than lithium carbonate. The lithium is released once it crosses the blood-brain barrier. So youll get the benefits of lithium supplementation while avoiding the toxic side effects of high doses.[xxiv]

Lithium Orotate recommended dose is 5 mg two or three times per day. See Available Forms for more on lithium amounts in nootropic supplements.

Many neurohackers use Lithium Orotate only as needed. For example, when feeling anxious or in the middle of a mood swing.

For someone with bipolar disorder or manic disorders, increasing to two 5 mg tablets up to 3-times per day may be more effective.

Naturopathic doctors suggest stacking 1,000 mg of Omega-3 and 400 UI of Vitamin E (as mixed tocopherols) each day youre using Lithium Orotate.

Do not confuse Lithium Orotate with lithium carbonate. The carbonate version of lithium is only available by prescription and comes with a host of side effects.

Lithium Orotate at low doses is non-toxic and lab tests are not required to monitor your lithium levels because it does not show up in blood samples.

Lithium Orotate should not be used if you are dealing with significant renal or cardiovascular disease, severe dehydration or sodium depletion, or if youre taking diuretics or ACE inhibitors.

Do not use Lithium Orotate if you are pregnant or breast-feeding.

You should check with your doctor if you are on any medication before using Lithium Orotate.

Mother Nature has already put the antipsychotic drug lithium in drinking water. And you get some lithium from food depending on where its grown.

Supplemental Lithium Orotate typically comes in 120 or 130 mg capsules or tablets containing 5 mg of elemental lithium.

Lithium Orotate 5 mg 2 or 3 times per day.

We recommend using Lithium Orotate as anootropic supplement if youre feeling anxious or depressed. Or experiencing mood swings.

Your bodydoes notmake lithium on its own. So you must get this essential trace mineral from your diet, or a supplement like Lithium Orotate.

Lithium combined with orotic acid makes Lithium Orotate which readily crosses theblood-brain barrier, and you should feel its effects within 15 20 minutes of taking it.

Lithium Orotate is especially effective if youre feeling stressed, or mentally over-worked. Your brain uses lithium faster and it needs to be replaced. Which you can do by using Lithium Orotate.

Lithium Orotate is great if you are ADHD because lithium calms the hyperactivity in your brain.

Supplementing with lithium does not change your state of consciousness. It simply helps bring you back to feeling normal and happy.

We suggest trying Lithium Orotate as a nootropic supplement with your first dose at 5 mg and see how you react. If you experience no negative reaction, try another 5 mg in a few hours. Up to 3 5 mg doses per day.

Youll likely experience the full benefits of Lithium Orotate within a week of consistent use.

REFERENCES

[i] Boesgaard A.M., Steigman G. (1985). "Big bang nucleosynthesis Theories and observations". Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics. Palo Alto, CA. 23: 319378. (source)

[ii] Swann A.C. Norepinephrine and (Na+, K+)-ATPase: evidence for stabilization by lithium or imipramine. Neuropharmacology. 1988 Mar;27(3):261-7. (source)

[iii] Herbert V., Colman N. Release of vitamin binding proteins from granulocytes by lithium: vitamin B12 and folate binding proteins. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. 1980;127:61-78. (source)

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Lithium Orotate Nootropics Expert

What are Nootropics? – Smart Drug Smarts | Fuel Your …

Nootropics is an umbrella term for a class of chemicals some naturally-occurring, some manmade that give cognitive benefits to the human brain.

To get really technical, in order to be a nootropic, a substance must meet five criteria set by Dr. Corneliu E. Giurgea, the man who coined the term nootropic. The substance must

This is a pretty hefty list of requirements for any chemical. In fact, anything that meets this full definition, could equally well be called a miracle drug, not just a nootropic.

However, normally when you hear the term nootropickicked around, people really mean a cognitive enhancer something thatdoesbenefit thinking in some way (improved memory, faster speed-of-processing, increased concentration, or a combination of these, etc.), but might not meet the more rigorous definition above. Smart drugs is another largely-interchangeable term.

With this looser definition, discussions about nootropics can range from innocuous everyday substances like caffeine and Omega-3 fatty acids to regulated (and deservedly so) substances like Adderall.

For a more visual definition of nootropics, check out our infographic What Are Nootropics?

Category: General

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What are Nootropics? - Smart Drug Smarts | Fuel Your ...

Ranking the best nootropics of 2018 – BodyNutrition

Many deep thinkers, CEOs and people of mastery are taking nootropics, commonly known as smart drugs, for increased brain function.

(This is your ability to learn, focus, remember things and solve complex problems)

From Joe Rogan to Tim Ferriss, smart drugs were being talked about years ago before recently hitting mainstream.

Nootropics work, but you got to be careful.

Since nootropics are such a hot topic right now, it can be hard to separate whats legit and whats whack.

Our research team looked at the scientific research in-depth to find the best nootropics on the market right now.

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OptiMind provides the best balance among proven nootropic ingredients. It balances a moderate dose of vitamin D with a heavy dose of vitamin B12, and several key nootropic supplements, including L-tyrosine, bacopa extract, caffeine, ALA, and vinpocetine, to name just a few. The dosages are on-point and there arent any extraneous ingredients, making OptiMind come out number one.

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The widely-known nootropic supplement from Onnit, made famous in part thanks to Joe Rogans ringing endorsement, fares well thanks to the strong results from a clinical trial conducted at the Boston Center for Memory and published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal in 2016 (1).

Alpha Brains blend of supplements seems particularly effective at boosting verbal skills, so its great if you need to read or write a lot.

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NeuroIgnite contains high doses of several powerful nootropic supplements, and moreover, the label actually tells you how much of each extract is in the supplement, unlike other companies who hide the specifics of their blend under the veil of a proprietary blend.

The heavy hitters in this blend are bacopa monnieri, DMAE, and ginkgo biloba, all heavily-researched supplements with evidence for nootropic effects.

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Zhou Nutritions Neuro-Peak is an immensely popular nootropic supplement that includes a massive dose of vitamin B12 and a slew of herbal extracts. Rhodiola rosea extract is one of the distinguishing factors in Neuro-Peak; this herbal extract appears to be effective at staving off mental fatigue.

Because of this, Neuro-Peak is a good choice if youre faced with a long stretch of continuous, mentally challenging work to do.

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We Are Fits Neuro Spark goes heavy on the St. Johns wort and ginkgo biloba, but includes some of the newer nootropic supplements like vinpocetine, bacopa monnieri, and huperzine-A as well.

Its a well-balanced, stimulant-free nootropic thats well-suited for boosting your performance at any cognitively challenging task.

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Ciltep by Natural Stacks is a little unusualit doesnt follow the lead of the more popular nootropic supplements. It chooses to include unconventional nootropic compounds like artichoke extract and forskolin extract (better known for its use as a weight loss supplement).

As you might guess, theres far less research on the cognitive enhancement properties of these supplements, but if normal nootropics arent doing it for you, Ciltep might be worth a shot.

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TruBrain focuses on delivering amino acids, plus the tried and true caffeine (only 100 mg per shot) and magnesium to achieve its nootropic effects. This approach is more about providing your brain with the natural building blocks it needs to function properly, versus trying to boost its function above its natural level. If you want more of a tune up than an upgrade, TruBrain is a good choice.

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Neovictas Clarity supplement is firmly in the kitchen sink camp, which is to say that it includes just about everything that might affect cognitive function. Its got vitamins, minerals, supplements, extracts, and synthetic compounds.

This betrays a lack of an overarching strategy when it comes to boosting cognitive function, but if you just want to cover your bases, its not a bad choice.

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Brain Boost is essentially a multivitamin along with several herbal extracts that affect biological processes related to cognitive function. Its purpose to to make sure your body is fueled up with the right micronutrients and biological precursors to function at its best.

Unfortunately, because its nootropic ingredients are part of a proprietary blend, its impossible to see how much of each ingredient is present in the supplement.

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NeuroFit is another nootropic that goes heavy on the vitamins and minerals, but is secretive about the amounts of the actual nootropic ingredients in its formulation. With so many ingredients, it seems unlikely that the active ingredients are present in high concentrations.

Nootropics are supplements that are designed to boost cognitive functionthat is, enhance your brains ability to learn, remember, and solve problems.

Though they are extremely popular among students, nootropics have a much broader appeal. Just about anybody in a complex job wants the ability to work faster and more effectively, and people who are getting older like the appeal of staving off brain fog and some of the cognitive decline that comes along with aging.

When a supplement claims to impact cognitive function, its a fairly easy claim to test.

Unlike other supplements that claim to boost well-being or promote a healthy immune system, testing cognitive function is straightforward: you get a group of subjects, give them the supplement in question or a placebo, then subject them to a battery of psychometric tests to assess their cognitive function.

There are a variety of types of these kinds of tests, and different supplements seem to affect different aspects of cognitive function. Some seem to boost memory, while others influence verbal abilities or help reduce mental fatigue (the diminishing of cognitive performance after long, challenging efforts).

A good case study in how testing nootropics work can be observed in the 2016 study that validated the effects of Alpha Brain (2).

Researchers split a group of volunteers into two groups, one of which was given Alpha Brain, and the other of which was given a placebo supplement. Both groups were tested for their cognitive abilities at the outset of the study, then took their assigned supplement for six weeks before being tested again.

The psychometric battery of tests used in the study included visual, spatial, logical, and verbal reasoning and memory. The results showed no improvement in most metrics, but a statistically significant increase in verbal memory.

Other supplements have been studied on an individual level to identify potential nootropic benefits. As you might guess, the most popular ingredients among the top-ranked nootropic supplements are also among the best-studied and most effective.

Bacopa monnieri, for example, is an herbal extract thats been demonstrated to have specific cognitive enhancing effects. A 2001 study in the scientific journal Psychopharmacology conducted a similar protocol to the Alpha Brain studya group of healthy adult subjects were given a 300 mg dose of bacopa monnieri extract or a placebo for twelve weeks, and were subjected to a battery of cognitive tests before and after the supplementation period (3).

In this case, the researchers found that the bacopa supplement increased the speed of visual information processing, learning rate, and memory consolidation.

Ginkgo biloba and vinpocetine looks to be an effective supplement when it comes to speeding up your short-term working memory.

A study published in the journal Human Psychopharmacology used a similar placebo-controlled experiment to study the effects of a combination of ginkgo biloba and vinpocetine on cognitive function, and found that the supplement combination increased the speed at which your working memory functions after being taken for two weeks (4).

When looking at nootropic supplements, youll have to think specifically about what kind of cognitive enhancement you are looking for.

When working on a major writing project, or attempting to work through a lot of reading material, taking something like Alpha Brain that increases verbal memory is could be very helpful.

On the other hand, something that improves visual information processing and learning rate, like bacopa monnieri extract, would likely speed your ability to learn math flash cards or process on-screen visual information.

If you were doing data entry, you might want something to improve short-term working memory, like ginkgo biloba and vinpocetine.

Its clear that taking the time to analyze the specific cognitive demands of the task in question will help immensely when you are deciding what the ideal nootropic supplement is for you.

Other nootropic supplements were studied initially to help with cognitive decline and dementia in the elderly, but have been hypothesized to be effective as well in healthy people.

One example of this is the herbal supplement huperzine-A. Early research found that it had a strong anti-dementia effect. A 1999 experiment described using a huperzine-A supplement to reverse natural dementia in elderly monkeys, as well as reversing chemically-induced cognitive decline in young monkeys (5).

Research into whether it can be used to actually boost cognitive performance in healthy humans is still lacking, but this hasnt stopped people from betting that it will.

An entirely different strategy in nootropics is simply providing your brain with extra building blocks to use in the process of synthesizing neurotransmitters, which are chemicals your brain uses to think. Many nootropics simply provide high doses of the amino acids that are associated with cognitive function.

These are less well-studied, perhaps because simply keeping your brains amino acid reserved topped off isnt as exciting as artificially enhancing its performance, but its nevertheless a strategically sound approach.

Since nootropic supplements are so new, their side effect profile is not well-studied. So far, there have been no major adverse side effects reported that are associated with the ingredients used in the best and most popular nootropic supplements.

In this regard they appear to have a safer safety profile than other categories of multi-ingredient supplements, like weight loss supplements.

The one caveat to this applies to nootropic supplements that contain caffeine. While caffeine is one of the best-studied and most effective cognitive enhancement supplements (as every coffee addict knows), it can cause side effects like jitters and nausea in people who are sensitive to it.

Further, taking it at night is a bad idea, thanks to caffeines ability to act as a stimulantunless, of course, you are trying to stay up all night. Theres nothing wrong with caffeine in a nootropic supplement, but make sure you know how many milligrams each serving contains.

Only a small number of nootropics have established effective doses, and these are mostly derived from the dosages chosen in scientific studies that examined the supplement in question.

Bacopa monnieri, for example, appears to be effective at doses of 300 mg, and ginkgo biloba extract can be effective at doses as low as 40 mg.

Vinpocetine seems to require doses of 30 to 60 mg, but this comes from scientific literature using it to study cognitive decline and dementia in the elderly, so its not clear if boosting brain function in healthy people can be accomplished with a lower dose.

DMAEs studied dosage range is typically about 100 mg, but this seems to come from studies looking at its use to induce lucid dreaming!

Clearly, more work is needed to establish optimal doses for nootropic supplements, but looking for dosages close to these guidelines is at least a good place to start.

Nootropics are a new field of supplementation, but there is fairly strong evidence emerging that a number of different supplements can positively affect your cognitive functioning.

Each seems to serve a slightly different purpose, so think about the cognitive demands in your life before you choose a nootropic supplement. Once you know the kinds of problems you want to solve, make sure your supplement of choice has dosages of the major nootropic compounds you want that are at least close to the range studied in the scientific literature.

When done with care, nootropics appear to be a safe and effective way to increase your brain power and help you work faster, smarter, and more effectively.

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Ranking the best nootropics of 2018 - BodyNutrition

Nootropics Supply | Smart Drugs & Racetams

Welcome to our store. We carry some of the most popularnootropics on the market. You can trust us as your number one and only nootropics supplier. All of our smart drugs are synthesized and double checked for purity at our independent testing facility. Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) is also followed during the manufacturing of our products.

Most of ournootropics are not approved by the United States FDA for use on humans and therefore we strictly adhere to these guidelines. We do however offer top quality and lab tested purity that would standardize for pharmaceutical grade (>99% purity). Please see below for all the types of nootropics we carry.

Most racetams work primarily by increasing the effectiveness of acetylcholine by acting as positive allosteric modulators at the receptors. This increase in cholinergic effectiveness is believed to be the primary nootropic action behind many racetams. Some racetams also work as ampakines and have glutamatergic activity which may also influence processes of cognitive functioning.

Racetams have been not been evaluated for human use in the United States but have some in-depth medical research and trial in other countries. This area of nootropic chemicals has a lot of study however its advancement in the area of brain based degenerative diseases looks very limited. Nevertheless, some research suggests that these chemicals may still have valid merit in helping these conditions.

Regardless, racetam nootropics and their combination with other racetams or nootropics is an area of interest to scientific and medical communities within the United States and other countries. Your company or organization may be interested in obtaining these nootropic chemicals for further advancement in this area.

We have an extensive inventory of ampakines. Unlike common racetam nootropics, ampakines have less area of study. Regardless of this fact, they still have just as much if not more interest in many research communities. Ampakine nootropics are not approved as drugs within the United States. It is a large possibility that new and already existing ampakine nootropics may become available as research and studies become more developed in the future.

Unlike racetam nootropics, ampakines affect the glutamate receptors in human and animal models. This is believed to be the main source of their nootropic effects on the brain. More studying and research needs to be invested in this area as these chemicals may have great use one day.

Since ampakines are not well studied or evaluated, they still do not FDA approval in the Unitied States. Most health regulatory authorities in other countries have still not approved ampakine nootropics for use as drugs. For this reason, ampakine nootropics are very sought after for research. Safety and long term use have not been evaluated and in no way should they be used on humans.

There are a wide variety of chemicals that we carry that are used both as chemicals or OTC drugs. The prime reason we carry these types of nootropics is because they are often used in research applications with racetam and ampakine nootropics. Even if the specific chemical you desire to buy is available over the counter as a drug in the United States, we still do not sell as a drug only a chemical. Please practice due diligence, any suggestion that you will use these products for human ingestion will be ignored by our staff.

Acetylcholine chemicals are a group of chemicals and drugs that influence levels of acetylcholine in the brain in both humans and animals. How the specific chemical influences acetylcholine will differ from substance the substance. Some of these nootropics work by synthesizing acetylcholine while others assist in the production process of acetylcholine.

Our company carries a wide range of nootropics that do not relate to racetam, acetylcholine or ampakine families. We are always trying to expand our inventory and add non-toxic chemicals for purposes other than ingesting. Please see our shop for a whole list of nootropic products. Also feel free to contact our professional and well trained team for your questions and comments.

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Nootropics Supply | Smart Drugs & Racetams

About – Pure Nootropics

Pure Nootropics was started in 2013 by health and fitness enthusiasts with an interest in improving their own cognition and brain function. Lacking good information and transparent providers, we decided to source the nootropics ourselves.

The philosophy of Pure Nootropics is to provide only the highest quality nootropic products. To do this, we rigorously test the purity and vet suppliers thoroughly. We achieve transparency by working within the nootropic community, existing customers, and using third party labs to verify our findings.

We also believe in providing the most honest information about nootropics. Not everybody needs to take nootropics in order to improve their cognition and we will guide you in the right direction even if it is away from our products. Guides and tutorials on our blog and email newsletter will help you to track results and take nootropics safely.

You will notice that we do not have a wide variety of products to offer. If we cannot find a better supplier that is safer than what exists, we will not sell it. Simple as that.

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About - Pure Nootropics

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