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The best and worst choices for a cloth face mask – Times Union

Any face mask is better than no face mask during the pandemic. But all masks are not created equal.

Anti-maskers argue that forcing someone to wear a face covering is an infringement on rights, such as the right to decide what represents an acceptable risk to oneself. Thats the same argument that bareheaded motorcycle riders made before helmet rules went into effect.

When it comes to masks, however, the infringement justification does not hold water. The primary duty of a face covering is not to protect the wearer like a helmet does, but to protect others. If you are COVID-19 asymptomatic and you refuse to wear a mask in public, your body effectively becomes a bioweapon.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says the general public should wear cloth face coverings, not medical-grade N95 masks and surgical masks. Those should be reserved for health-care workers and first responders.

So what are the best and worst cloth masks for everyday use?

Bandanas are the least-effective. In a Florida Atlantic University study, scientists found that droplets from a bandana-covered cough traveled 3 feet, 7 inches, compared to 8 to 12 feet with no mask at all. Holding a double-folded handkerchief over ones mouth was much more efficient it stopped droplets from going more than 1.25 feet.

Get one made of cotton. Tightly woven, 100-percent cotton works well. Christopher Zangmeister, a researcher at the National Institute of Standards and Technology and co-author of a new study published in ACS Nano, told NPR that microscopic cotton fibers have a more three-dimensional structure than synthetic materials, which makes them more efficient at snagging incoming particles.

The more layers, the better. Two layers of tight-weave cotton are good, three or more are better. The CDCrecommends at least three fabric layers, which can include a middle layer of filtering material.

Masks with a filter pocket between two layers provide more protection. A two-layer, tight-weave cotton mask alone can filter out about 35% of small particles, Stanford University Professor of Materials Science and Engineering Yi Cui told NPR. But if a filter made out of two layers of charged polypropylene is placed in the pocket, the masks filtration efficiency could double to up to 70%. Polypropylene, also known by the brand name Oly-fun (Walmart) and spunbond, holds an electrostatic charge that traps incoming and outgoing particles.

Fit matters. Its important that a cloth mask seals snuggly to your face. If gaps open up where the mask touches the skin, its effectiveness is compromised. Folded, pleated and duckbill masks allow more air flowing through the fabric and less leaking out the sides compared to a flat-front mask.

Neck gaiters, tubes or buffs, which cover the nose down to the neck, solve the air-leakage problem. Many people find them more comfortable than masks because they dont have ear loops or ties. However, they are generally made of polyester and/or spandex, which are less effective at filtering particles than cotton. Some come with filters. Sample complaints from product reviews include: too hot during the summer, easy to slip off nose, filter does not stay over the mouth.

Dont buy a mask with a vent or exhalation valve. While they make breathing easier, vents defeat the masks purpose because they release unfiltered air that can contain droplets. Industrial-grade N95 masks designed for smoky or smoggy environments often have these valves.

Reports of stores and other businesses barring entry to customers wearing vented masks are increasing. If you already own one, either put a second mask over top of it or completely cover the vent with tape or a sewn-on patch.

Make sure your mask is washable. Unlike medical masks, which are normally designed for single-use, cloth masks should be washed after every use and worn until the fabric or structure breaks down.

Mike Moffitt is an SFGATE Reporter. Email: moffitt@sfgate.com. Twitter: @Mike_at_SFGate

There are few studies on face mask fabrics, but the current consensus is that tight-weave cotton is the best material for a cloth mask.

This mask has two layers of cotton.

Pleated face masks allow more air circulation inside the mask, making it less likely air will escape through the sides.

A cone-shaped mask is more effective than a flat-front design in stopping incoming and outgoing droplets.

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The best and worst choices for a cloth face mask - Times Union

Synthetic Biology Market (2019-2025) with COVID-19 After Effects Analysis by Emerging Trends, Industry Demand, Growth, Key Players – Jewish Life News

The synthetic biology market is segmented on the lines of its product, technology and application. The synthetic biology is segmented on the lines of its product are enabled products, core product and enabling products. The enabled product is further segmented into pharmaceuticals, chemicals, biofuels and agriculture. Under core product segmentation it covered synthetic DNA, synthetic genes, synthetic cells, XNA and chassis organisms. The enabling product is segmented into DNA synthesis and oligonucleotide synthesis. The synthetic biology is segmented on the lines of its technology like enabling technology and enabled technology. Under enabling technology it covers genome engineering, microfluidics technologies, DNA synthesis & sequencing technologies, bioinformatics technologies, biological components and integrated systems technologies. The enabled technology the market is segmented into pharmaceuticals, chemicals, biofuels and agriculture. Under application segmentation the market covered into research & development, chemicals, agriculture, pharmaceuticals & diagnostics, biofuels, environment, biotechnology and biomaterials. The synthetic biology market is geographic segmentation covers various regions such as North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, Middle East and Africa. Each geography market is further segmented to provide market revenue for select countries such as the U.S., Canada, U.K. Germany, China, Japan, India, Brazil, and GCC countries.

FYI, You will get latest updated report as per the COVID-19 Impact on this industry. Our updated reports will now feature detailed analysis that will help you make critical decisions.

The global synthetic biology market is expected to exceed more than US$ 12.50 billion by 2024, at a CAGR of 20% in given forecast period.

You Can Browse Full Report @: https://www.marketresearchengine.com/reportdetails/synthetic-biology-market

The report covers detailed competitive outlook including the market share and company profiles of the key participants operating in the global market. Key players profiled in the report include BASF, GEN9 Inc. , Algenol Biofuels , Codexis Inc. , GenScript Corporation , DuPont , Butamax Advanced Biofuels , BioAmber , Biosearch Technologies, Inc. , OriGene Technologies, Inc. , Synthetic Genomics, Inc. , GeneArt (Life Technologies) , GENEWIZ, Inc. , Eurofins Scientific, Inc. , Integrated DNA Technologies, Inc. , DNA2.0, Inc. , Pareto Biotechnologies , Synthorx, Inc. , TeselaGen Biotechnology , Editas Medicine, Inc. , Twist Bioscience , GeneWorks Pty Ltd. , Proterro, Inc. and Blue heron (OriGene technologies Inc.) . Company profile includes assign such as company summary, financial summary, business strategy and planning, SWOT analysis and current developments.

Synthetic biology market also called as constructive biology or system biology in which creating and designing new biological device, part which is not exist in environment. It also reconstructs the existing system to perform better job. It is branch of biology as well as engineering. The main aim of synthetic biology is to develop biological system same like engineers produce mechanical and electronic system. System based on molecular are helpful in detection and changes in health of body. It also helpful in developing synthetic vaccines. Synthetic biology plays vital role in HIV and cancer treatment. Synthetic biology accepts different technology such as nano-technology, bio-technology and more.

The scope of the report includes a detailed study of global and regional markets for various types of synthetic biology market with the reasons given for variations in the growth of the industry in certain regions.

The Synthetic biology Market has been segmented as below:

The Global Synthetic biology Market is segmented on the basis of Product Analysis, Technology Analysis, Application Analysis and Regional Analysis .

By Product Analysis this market is segmented on the basis of Enabling Products, DNA Synthesis, Oligonucleotide Synthesis, Enabled Products, Pharmaceuticals, Chemicals, Biofuels, Agriculture, Core Products, Synthetic DNA, Synthetic Genes, Synthetic Cells, XNA and Chassis Organisms. By Technology Analysis this market is segmented on the basis of Enabling Technology, Genome Engineering, Microfluidics technologies, DNA synthesis & sequencing technologies, Bioinformatics technologies, Biological components and integrated systems technologies, Enabled Technology, Pathway engineering, Synthetic microbial consortia and Biofuels technologies. By Application Analysis this market is segmented on the basis of Research & Development, Chemicals, Agriculture, Pharmaceuticals & Diagnostics, Biofuels and Others (Environment, Biotechnology & Biomaterials, etc.). By Regional Analysis this market is segmented on the basis of North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of the World.

This report provides:

1) An overview of the global market for synthetic biology and related technologies.

2) Analyses of global market trends, with data from 2015, estimates for 2016 and 2017, and projections of compound annual growth rates (CAGRs) through 2024.

3) Identifications of new market opportunities and targeted promotional plans for synthetic biology

4) Discussion of research and development, and the demand for new products and new applications.

5) Comprehensive company profiles of major players in the industry.

The major driving factors of synthetic biology market are as follows:

The restraints factors of synthetic biology market are as follows:

Request Sample Report: https://www.marketresearchengine.com/reportdetails/synthetic-biology-market

Table of Contents

1 INTRODUCTION

2 Research Methodology

3 Executive Summary

4 Premium Insights

5 Industry Speaks

6 Market Overview

6.1 Introduction6.2 Market Dynamics6.2.1 Drivers6.2.1.1 Rising R&D Expenditure of Pharmaceutical and Biotechnology Companies6.2.1.2 Increasing Demand for Synthetic Genes6.2.1.3 Rise in the Global Production of Genetically Modified Crops6.2.1.4 Increase in Funding6.2.2 Restraint6.2.2.1 Ethical and Societal Issues6.2.3 Challenge6.2.3.1 Standardization of Biological Parts6.2.4 Opportunities6.2.4.1 Rising Concerns on Fuel Consumption6.2.4.2 Increasing Demand for Protein therapeutics

7 Industry Insights

8 Synthetic Biology Market, By Tool

9 Market, By Technology

10 Market, By Application

11 Synthetic Biology Market, By Geography

12 Competitive Landscape

13 Company Profiles

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Amyris, Inc.

13.3 Dupont

13.4 Genscript USA, Inc.

13.5 Intrexon Corporation

13.6 Integrated Dna Technologies (IDT), Inc.

13.7 New England Biolabs, Inc.

13.8 Novozymes

13.9 Royal DSM N.V.

13.10 Synthetic Genomics, Inc.

13.11 Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc.

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Synthetic Biology Market (2019-2025) with COVID-19 After Effects Analysis by Emerging Trends, Industry Demand, Growth, Key Players - Jewish Life News

Research Assistant or Research Fellow in Electromagnetic Actuation job with CRANFIELD UNIVERSITY | 213886 – Times Higher Education (THE)

OrganisationCranfield UniversitySchool/DepartmentSchool of Water, Energy and EnvironmentBased atCranfield Campus, Cranfield, BedfordshireHours of work37 hours per week, normally worked Monday to Friday. Flexible working will be considered.Contract typeFixed term contractFixed Term Period21 monthsSalary30,600 per annum (Research Assistant) or 33,309 per annum (Research Fellow)Posted Date14/07/2020Apply by14/08/2020

Role Description

An exciting opportunity has arisen for an innovative individual, with expertise in electromagnetic modelling and electric circuit design, within the Centre for Thermal Energy and Materials (CTEM). The CTEM has a strong record in applied research in the academic and industrial sectors. Our research areas include renewable and low carbon energy systems, advanced power generation systems for efficiency benefits, heating and cooling and next generation technologies for reduction in energy demand.

As the UKs only exclusively postgraduate university, Cranfields world-class expertise, large-scale facilities and unrivalled industry partnerships is creating leaders in technology and management globally. Our distinctive expertise is in our deep understanding of technology and management and how these work together to benefit the world.

Our people are our most valuable resource and everyone has a role to play in shaping the future of our university, developing our learners, and transforming the businesses we work with. Learn more about Cranfield and our unique impacthere. Our shared, stated values help to define who we are and underpin everything we do: Ambition; Impact; Respect; and Community. Find out morehere.

This post resides within the CTEM and is related to many research activities across the University. The key mission is to extend our knowledge in micro-scale (possibly nano-scale) electromagnetic devices for a range of novel applications, including battery thermal management, aero-engine cooling and precision delivery of drug to human organs. The project will involve partners from City and Oxford Universities. It is expected significant new knowledge that runs across multiple disciplines will be created by exploiting the distinctive expertise residing in each partner. The key objectives for these projects are explained within the candidate brief.

You will have a PhD in Electrical / Electronic / Mechatronic Engineering / Industrial Engineering. You must have proven experience in electromagnetic modelling and electronic circuit design, and competence in advanced software design tools. You will have demonstrated skills in building and testing electric and electronic devices including those at micro-scale levels.

Whilst you will work within a multi-disciplinary research environment, you will also be self-resourceful and work independently with own initiatives. You will play an active role in fostering a vibrant research culture among your peers.

To be successful in your role you will have a high degree of ingenuity and the ability to think out of the box. You should have excellent written and presentation skills in the dissemination of scientific results, and aspiration in generating high-quality high-volume publications. Your ability to communicate complex information clearly to partners and stakeholders to maximise research impact is highly desirable.

At Cranfield we value Diversity and Inclusion, and aim to create and maintain a culture in which everyone can work and study together harmoniously with dignity and respect and realise their full potential.

We actively consider flexible working options such as part-time, compressed or flexible hours and/or an element of homeworking, and commit to exploring the possibilities for each role. Find out morehere.

For an informal discussion please contact Prof. Patrick Luk, Professor of Electrical Engineering, on E:p.c.k.luk@cranfield.ac.ukor T: +44 (0)1234 754716

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Research Assistant or Research Fellow in Electromagnetic Actuation job with CRANFIELD UNIVERSITY | 213886 - Times Higher Education (THE)

Targeting brain metastases with ultrasmall theranostic nanoparticles, a first-in-human trial from an MRI perspective – Science Advances

Abstract

The use of radiosensitizing nanoparticles with both imaging and therapeutic properties on the same nano-object is regarded as a major and promising approach to improve the effectiveness of radiotherapy. Here, we report the MRI findings of a phase 1 clinical trial with a single intravenous administration of Gd-based AGuIX nanoparticles, conducted in 15 patients with four types of brain metastases (melanoma, lung, colon, and breast). The nanoparticles were found to accumulate and to increase image contrast in all types of brain metastases with MRI enhancements equivalent to that of a clinically used contrast agent. The presence of nanoparticles in metastases was monitored and quantified with MRI and was noticed up to 1 week after their administration. To take advantage of the radiosensitizing property of the nanoparticles, patients underwent radiotherapy sessions following their administration. This protocol has been extended to a multicentric phase 2 clinical trial including 100 patients.

Combined with surgery and/or chemotherapy, external radiotherapy (RT) is one of the most frequently used therapeutic solutions for patients with solid tumors. In Western countries, approximately 40% of cancer cures include the use of RT either as a single modality or combined with other treatments (1). However, despite its indisputable curative efficacy, RT is associated with deleterious side effects for the patient, the main undesirable one being the destruction of normal cells and healthy tissues in the vicinity of tumor areas or on the passage of high-dose radiation. Several strategies have been developed over the years to limit this issue of nonspecific dose deposition. In addition to major technological improvements such as intensity-modulated RT, image-guide RT, hypofractionated therapy, and ablative therapy, the use of radiosensitizers has been extensively studied, developed, and applied as an effective approach to limit undesirable side effects of RT (2). By definition, a radiosensitizer is an agent (molecule, drug, or nanoparticle) that sensitizes tumor cells preferentially to RT and, thus, increases the therapeutic window, in which the radiation dose allows the tumor to be eradicated while maintaining normal tissue tolerance. Standard chemotherapeutic agents, often combined with RT, are the most common agents used for increasing the efficacy of RT. Among the nanoscale-size particles recognized as nanoenhancers, those whose composition includes high-Z metals (gadolinium, hafnium, gold, silver, etc.) may interact with x-rays through various mechanisms of action, including the creation of photoelectric Compton and Auger electrons, themselves at the origin of secondary electrons. The high and local deposition of energy induced by these secondary electrons in the vicinity of the high-Z atoms results in synergistic effects that potentiate the deleterious effects of x-rays on the cells (36).

Considering the local radiosensitizing effect induced by these nanoenhancers, it seems all the more important to have access to their static and dynamic biodistribution and, possibly, to their in vivo concentration to make the most of the widening of the therapeutic window allowed by their presence. The use of theranostic nanoparticles, combining both diagnostic and radiosensitizing properties on the same nano-object, is an elegant solution to achieve this objective (7). This approach has recently been evaluated in a phase 2-3 clinical trial in patients with soft-tissue sarcoma using intratumoral administration of hafnium oxide nanoparticles visualized using computed tomography before preoperative external beam RT (8).

Similarly, the engineering of a new type of theranostic platform, consisting of a polysiloxane core matrix covalently bound to gadolinium chelates (Gd-DOTA), was first reported less than 10 years ago (9). Since then, the diagnostic and radiosensitizing properties of this Gd-based nanoparticle (AGuIX, NH TherAguix, Meylan, France) have been validated in numerous in vitro (1013) and in vivo studies (1420) using intravenous administration of nanoparticle suspension to tumor-bearing (glioma, pancreas, lung, brain metastases, etc.) animals followed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sessions and RT treatment.

On the basis of the positive results obtained in these preclinical studies, a first-in-human phase 1 clinical trial with intravenous administration of AGuIX nanoparticles, filed in 2016 and inclusion completed in 2018, was conducted in 15 patients with multiple brain metastases from four types of primary tumors (melanoma, lung, colon, and breast). In this paper, we compile the main MRI findings obtained on the patients during this clinical trial. In particular, we report, through comparison with a commercial clinical MRI contrast agent, the diagnostic value of AGuIX nanoparticles for the detection and the characterization of brain metastases. Last but not least, we present quantitative measurements of theranostic nanoparticle concentration in all four types of brain metastases obtained 2 hours after administration to patientand incidentally 2 hours before the first session of whole-brain RTand up to 1 week after nanoparticle administration.

No acute grade 3 (severe) or grade 4 (life threatening) adverse effects attributed to the AGuIX nanoparticles were observed at each escalation step of administered dose (N = 3 patients for 15, 30, 50, 75, and 100 mg/kg body weight), with the highest dose corresponding to the dose retained for the multicentric phase 2 clinical trial.

The patient recruitment resulted into the inclusion of four types of brain metastases, namely, NSCLC (nonsmall cell lung carcinoma), N = 6; breast, N = 2; melanoma, N = 6; and colon cancer, N = 1.

Two hours after AGuIX injection, MRI signal enhancements (SEs) were observed for all measurable metastases (longest diameter greater than 1 cm), regardless of the type of brain metastases, the patient, and the dose administered. Tumor enhancements are exemplified in Fig. 1 for each type of brain metastasis. Within the region of interest drawn around each metastasis, MRI SEs were found to increase with the administered dose of AGuIX nanoparticles (Fig. 2A). SEs, averaged over all measurable metastases, were equal to 26.3 15.2%, 24.8 16.3%, 56.7 23.8%, 64.4 26.7%, and 120.5 68% for AGuIX doses of 15, 30, 50, 75, and 100 mg/kg body weight, respectively. The mean MRI SE was found to linearly correlate with the injected dose (slope 1.08, R2 = 0.90) as shown in Fig. 2A.

First and second row images are obtained pre/postadministration of Gd-based nanoparticles using three-dimensional (3D) T1-weighted imaging sequence. The green arrows are pointing highlighted metastases. Third row images are corresponding SE maps with conspicuous local increase of intensity (light blue to orange color) in all different types of brain metastases. The fourth row shows a 3D visualization of all metastases with SE.

(A) MRI SE as a function of the injected dose of AGuIX nanoparticle. Each point corresponds to an MRI SE value measured in a metastasis for all patients. Mean value and SD (error bar) are displayed. The solid line and the equation correspond to the linear regression on the mean values. BW, body weight. (B) MRI SE by primary tumor type. Each point corresponds to an SE value, normalized to the administered AGuIX dose, measured in a metastasis for all patients. Mean value and SD (error bar) are displayed. NSCLC, nonsmall-cell lung carcinoma. (C) MRI SE as a function of the longest diameter of metastases for each type of primary tumor. Each point corresponds to an SE value, normalized to the administered AGuIX dose, measured in a metastasis for all patients.

The dependence of the MRI SE on the primary tumor type is illustrated in Fig. 2B. To take into account the difference in SE due to the injected dose, the SE values were multiplied by a normalization coefficient corresponding to the ratio of the highest injected dose, 100 mg/kg, to the actual injected dose in mg/kg. The mean MRI SEs were equal to 115 81%, 107 62%, 124 52%, and 87 58% for melanoma, NSCLC, breast, and colon primary cancer, respectively. No statistical differences in SE values were observed between the different types of primary tumor.

Similarly, the dependence of SE as a function of the metastasis size for each primary tumor type is presented in Fig. 2C. The same corrective coefficient was applied to take into account the effect of the injected dose on the SE. No SE variation with size was found. For example, the mean SE values were 114 70% and 117 70% for metastases with the longest diameter between 10 and 20 mm and between 20 and 50 mm, respectively.

For each patient, the MRI SE was also measured at day 0, 15 min after injection of a clinically approved Gd-based contrast agent (Dotarem, Guerbet, Villepinte, France). Averaged over all measurable metastases with longest diameter larger than 1 cm, the MRI SE was equal to 182.9 116.2%.

The detection sensitivity of AGuIX nanoparticles, defined as their ability to enhance MRI signal in measurable brain metastases, was assessed for all administered doses and compared with the sensitivity of the clinically used contrast agent Dotarem. Expressed as a percentage of Dotarem sensitivity, the AGuIX nanoparticle sensitivity was equal to 12.1, 19.5, 34.2, 31.8, and 61.6% for injected doses of 15, 30, 50, 75, and 100 mg/kg body weight, respectively.

A tumor-by-tumor comparison of the MRI SE 15 min after Dotarem injection and 2 hours after nanoparticle injection is shown in Fig. 3A for patients treated at 100 mg/kg body weight. This largest injected dose of AGuIX nanoparticle represents the same quantity of injected Gd3+ ions as for the Dotarem administration, i.e., 100 mol/kg body weight of Gd3+. The MRI SEs were found to linearly correlate by primary tumor type (NSCLC, R2 = 0.96; breast cancer, R2 = 0.93).

(A) Each point corresponds to an MRI SE value measured in a metastasis for patients receiving 100 mg/kg body weight AGuIX dose. The solid lines and the equations correspond to the linear regressions for each primary tumor type (e.g., NSCLC and breast cancer). (B) Correlation between MRI SE and AGuIX concentration following AGuIX administration. Each point corresponds to an MRI SE and AGuIX concentration value measured in a metastasis of patients #13, #14, and #15 injected with a 100 mg/kg body weight AGuIX dose. The solid lines correspond to the linear regression applied to the series of points.

The multi-flip-angle three-dimensional (3D) FLASH acquisitions were successfully used to compute pixelwise maps of T1 values (fig. S1) and to enable quantification of the longitudinal relaxation time over regions of interest. The decrease in T1 relaxation times in brain metastases, induced by the uptake of AGuIX nanoparticles, is clearly shown in these T1 maps. As expected, the decreases in T1 values are colocalized with the contrast-enhanced brain metastases.

The concentrations of AGuIX nanoparticles in contrast-enhanced metastases were computed on the basis of the changes in T1 values following their administration. The measurements of AGuIX concentration were performed in metastases with longest diameter larger than 1 cm for the patients administered with a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight. The mean AGuIX concentration in the brain metastases was measured to be 57.5 14.3, 20.3 6.8, and 29.5 12.5 mg/liter in patient #13 (NSCLC metastases), #14 (NSCLC metastases), and #15 (breast cancer metastases), respectively.

The correlation between MRI SE and nanoparticle concentration was assessed for the three patients with the highest (100 mg/kg) administered dose. The relationship between the two MRI measurements is illustrated in Fig. 3B for the three patients. The slopes and R2 values of the linear regression were 3.31 (R2 = 0.80), 1.69 (R2 = 0.39), and 3.95 (R2 = 0.64) for patient #13, #14, and #15, respectively.

For each patient, the MRI SE and T1 values were assessed in brain regions of interest free of visible metastases (three representative regions of interest per patient, with a similar size for all patients). No substantial MRI SE and no T1 variations were observed in any of these healthy brain regions.

For patients administered with the largest dose (100 mg/kg body weight), persistence of MRI SE was noticed in measurable metastases (longest diameter greater than 1 cm) at day 8, 1 week after administration of AGuIX nanoparticles as shown in Fig. 4. The mean MRI SEs in metastases were measured equal to 32.4 10.8%, 14 5.8%, and 26.3 9.7% for patient #13, #14, and #15, respectively. As a point of comparison, the mean MRI SEs at day 1 were equal to 175.8 45.2%, 58.3 18.4%, and 154.1 61.9% for patients #13, #14, and #15, respectively. Because of small T1 variations, the concentration of AGuIX nanoparticles could not be computed. On the basis of the observed correlation between MRI SE and nanoparticle concentration, an upper limit of 10 M can be estimated for the AGuIX concentration at day 8 in brain metastases. No noticeable MRI SE was observed in any patient at day 28, 4 weeks after the administration of AGuIX nanoparticles.

3D visualization of patients brain superimposed with color-encoded SE in NSCLC metastases 2 hours p.i. (postinjection) on the left and 7 days p.i. on the right. The patient was administered with the largest dose of nanoparticles (100 mg/kg body weight).

The clinical evaluation of the diagnostic value of the AGuIX nanoparticles for brain metastases was one of the secondary objectives of the clinical trial NanoRad, and the first and main purpose of this paper is to present the MRI results obtained with these Gd-based, MRI-visible, ultrasmall nanoparticles. In this clinical trial, the MRI protocol included a large panel of MRI sequences giving access to many imaging readouts and biomarkers (relaxation time, diffusion, edema, hemorrhage, etc.). Despite its 40-min duration, the protocol was found to be compatible with the patients health status. However, if necessary, this protocol could easily be shortened in clinical routine and restricted to the sole MRI sequences needed to assess the volume and number of metastases and the concentration of nanoparticles.

The target dose for the theranostic application of the AGuIX nanoparticles in patients corresponds to the largest administered dose to the patients, and for this reason, the conclusions and perspectives of this study focus essentially on this dose. This largest dose (100 mg/kg body weight or 100 mol/kg body weight Gd3+) corresponds as well to the amount of chelated Gd3+ ions injected in one dose of clinically used MRI contrast agent such as Dotarem (100 mol/kg body weight Gd3+). It is therefore appropriate to compare the MRI SEs observed in metastases with the largest AGuIX dose to a dose of Gd-based contrast agent used in clinical routine.

A dose escalation was included in the design of this first-in-human clinical trial, and five increasing doses of AGuIX nanoparticles were investigated. From the linear correlation observed between the SE in metastases and the administered nanoparticle concentration, it can be concluded that the dose of nanoparticlesin the range of investigated dosesis not a limiting factor for the passive targeting of metastases. Despite the limited number of patients participating in this first clinical study, the initial results show that uptake of nanoparticles and SE is present at similar levels in the four types of investigated metastases (NSCLC, melanoma, breast, and colon) regardless of the injected dose of nanoparticles. In addition, the uptake of nanoparticles appears to be independent of the diameter of the metastases in the 1- to 5-cm range.

In this study, there was a 2-hour delay between the nanoparticle administration and the MRI acquisitions. As part of the safety protocol of this first-in-human trial, the patient was kept in bed under medical monitoring by a dedicated nurse for 1 hour after the start of the injection. An additional hour was necessary to transport and install the patient from the phase 1 unit, where the injection took place, in the MRI scanner. Note that this safety delay is not applicable for the phase 2 clinical trial and that the injection can be performed with the patient inside the MRI scanner.

With a mean nanoparticle plasma half-life of about 1 hour, this 2-hour delay results in an 86% decrease in the nanoparticle concentration in the plasma. In contrast, there was only a 15-min delay between the Dotarem injection (plasma half-life of about 1.5 hours) and the MRI acquisition. Despite this significant clearance of nanoparticles and the decrease in concentration in the patients bloodstream, the MRI SE at the highest nanoparticle dose is close to that observed with the clinical contrast agent. It is also of great interest to note that, from the tumor-by-tumor comparison of SE after AGuIX and after Dotarem administration, there is a notable correlation between the uptake of nanoparticle and the uptake of clinical contrast agent for two different types of primary tumors.

This remarkable diagnostic performance of AGuIX nanoparticles to enhance the MRI signal in brain metastases can be attributed to two independent factors. The first factor is related to the intrinsic magnetic properties of nanoparticles. Their larger diameter and molecular weight, as compared with clinical Gd-based contrast agent, result in a higher longitudinal relaxation coefficient r1, equal to 8.9 and 3.5 mM1 s1 per Gd3+ ion at a magnetic field of 3 T (21) for AGuIX nanoparticles and Dotarem, respectively. This higher relaxivity of nanoparticles results in a larger SE in tumors compared with that obtained with Dotarem, as observed in preclinical studies when identical delays between injection and MRI acquisitions are used for both Gd-based agents (15).

The second factor may be related to the ability of the ultrasmall AGuIX nanoparticles to passively accumulate in brain metastases. This passive targeting phenomenon takes advantage of the so-called enhanced permeability and retention effect, which postulates that the accumulation of nano-objects in tumors is due to both defective and leaky tumor vessels and to the absence of effective lymphatic drainage (22). The passive targeting of tumors by AGuIX nanoparticles has been consistently observed in previous investigations of animal models of cancer. In a mouse model of multiple brain melanoma metastases, internalization of AGuIX nanoparticles in tumor cells was reported and the presence of nanoparticles in brain metastases was still observed 24 hours after intravenous injection to the animals (18). At the highest 100 mg/kg dose, all metastases with a diameter larger than 1 cm were contrast enhanced up to 7 days after the nanoparticles were administered. The persistence of MRI SE in metastases 1 week after administration confirms this accumulation and delayed clearance of nanoparticles from the metastases. To the best of our knowledge, there is no report in the literature of such late SE in metastases after administration of clinically used Gd-based contrast agents.

Considering the radiosensitizing properties of AGuIX nanoparticles, it is key to evaluate and possibly quantify the local concentration of nanoparticles accumulated in metastases. To that end, the MRI protocol included a T1 mapping imaging sequence from which the nanoparticle concentration was derived. The concentration values obtained in this clinical study can be put in perspective with those obtained in preclinical studies in animal models of tumor. The computed concentration of AGuIX nanoparticles in the NSCLC and breast cancer metastases of the three patients injected with the highest dose varied between 8 and 63 mg/liter, corresponding to a concentration range of Gd3+ ions between 8 and 63 M in brain metastases. Although the experimental conditions differ in some respects (concentration, dose, and administration modalities of the nanoparticles), the concentration of nanoparticles obtained in animal models is very similar to the concentration values observed in patients. In a rat model of glioma, Verry et al. (19) reported a Gd3+ concentration in the order of 70 M, 4 hours after the nanoparticle administration to the animals. Similarly, in an experimental mouse model of lung cancer, Bianchi et al. (23) reported a Gd3+ concentration close to 40 M in tumor, 2 hours following the nanoparticle administration.

The percentage of injected dose per gram of tissue (% ID/g) in metastasis can be derived from the measured concentration of nanoparticle in the metastasis and from the total dose of nanoparticle injected to the patients. For instance, approximating the tissue density to 1 kg/liter, the percentage of injected dose is equal to 0.001% ID/g for a measured nanoparticle concentration of 60 mg/liter in a 60-kg patient administered with 100 mg/kg nanoparticles. As a point of comparison (and bearing in mind the differences in protocols, measurements, and administered nanoparticles), Harrington et al. (24) reported values ranging between 0.005 and 0.05% ID/g in passively targeted solid tumors of patients injected with radiolabeled pegylated liposomes. More recently, Phillips et al. (25) approximated the percentage of injected dose to 0.01% ID/g in melanoma metastasis of a patient injected with radiolabeled and pegylated nanoparticles engineered for cRGD (cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartate) targeting.

In this study, we evaluated as well the relationship between the nanoparticle concentration and the MRI SE obtained using a robust T1-weighted 3D MRI sequence. In the range of measurable nanoparticle concentration in metastases, a linear relationship between the MRI SE and the nanoparticle concentration is observed with the acquisition protocol used in this study. Hence, with the specific protocol used in this study, the SE can be used as a robust and simple index for assessing the concentration of AGuIX nanoparticles.

While metastasis targeting is beneficial for both diagnosis and radiosensitization purposes, it is desirable to maintain nanoparticles at low concentration in healthy surrounding tissues. In this respect, no SE could be observed in the metastasis-free brain tissues 2 hours after the highest dose of AGuIX nanoparticles was administered. This lack of enhancement is consistent with the rapid clearance of nanoparticles measured in patients plasma and is a positive indication of the innocuousness of the nanoparticles for the healthy brain.

The occurrence of brain metastases is a common event in the history of cancer and negatively affects the life expectancy of patients. For patients with multiple brain metastases, despite advances in stereotactic radiosurgery and new systemic treatments (immunotherapy and targeted therapy), the overall 2- and 5-year survival estimates across all primary tumor types are 8.1 and 2.4%, respectively (26). Consequently, new approaches need to be developed to improve the treatment efficacy for these patients. The use of radiosensitizing agents is thus of great interest. The in vivo theranostic properties (radiosensitization and diagnosis by multimodal imaging) of AGuIX nanoparticles were previously demonstrated in preclinical studies performed on eight tumor models in rodents (20), and particularly in brain tumors (14, 19).

The MRI results of this study show in humans, that the accumulation of Gd-based nanoparticles is also present in tumors (brain metastases) and can therefore potentially be used to increase the effectiveness of RT in patients.

Although Gd-based contrast agents used in clinical practice are also known to enhance brain metastases, it is important to note that radiosensitization requires the presence of nanoparticles and is not observed in the case of Gd-based molecular agents such as Dotarem (27). It is generally thought that it is the clustering of gadolinium atoms on the nanoparticle that leads to the formation of an Auger shower inducing a strong increase in the dose deposited in the vicinity of the nanoparticle (6).

Another key property of nanoparticles is their prolonged retention in metastases. As a result, the radiosensitizer can be used under optimal conditions with the elimination of nanoparticles in healthy tissues and remanence in tumors. In addition, prolonged persistence in metastases provides a wide therapeutic window that could benefit to fractionated RT.

The expected benefits of radiosensitizers are to increase the effectiveness of the radiation dose administered in metastases to improve the local response to RT and the overall survival of the patient, without increasing the dose in the surrounding healthy tissues. Alternatively, radiosensitizers can be used to obtain an equivalent local response with a reduced radiation dose. In the particular case of AGuIX theranostic nanoparticles, MRI visualization can be advantageously used to achieve personalized and adaptive RT based on the local uptake of the Gd-based radiosensitizers. In the future, the use of Gd-based radiosensitizers will be particularly relevant to the emerging MR-Linac technology combining an MRI scanner and a linear accelerator on the same instrument (28).

There are some limitations to this study. First, because of the dose escalation objective of this phase 1 clinical trial, the number of patients receiving the highest dose is relatively low and corresponds to only two types of brain metastases. This limitation will be addressed in a recently launched phase 2 clinical trial that includes 100 patients injected with an identical dose of 100 mg/kg body weight and that covers similar types of brain metastases. The second limitation concerns the quantification of T1 relaxation values and nanoparticle concentration. These quantifications require a sufficiently high signal-to-noise ratio and are therefore carried out on regions of interest corresponding to metastases greater than 1 cm in diameter. However, we have shown in this study that the acquisition protocol yields a quasi-linear correlation between the MRI SE and the nanoparticle concentration. Therefore, the more reliable and sensitive measurement of SE will probably be preferred in future clinical trials to more accurately assess the nanoparticle uptake in smaller metastases. Last, only metastases with a diameter greater than 1 cm were considered in this study, in accordance with the response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST) criteria. Although SEs do not show variation with tumor diameter between 1 and 5 cm, it remains important to evaluate nanoparticle uptake in smaller metastases. In the phase 2 clinical trial, metastases with diameter down to 5 mm will be included in the protocol. The analysis of these smaller metastases will be facilitated by the largest administered dose (100 mg/kg body weight) and by the shortened delay between nanoparticle injection and MRI acquisitions.

In summary, the preliminary results of the clinical trial reported in this paper demonstrate in patients that an intravenous injection of Gd-based nanoparticles is effective for enhancing different types of brain metastases in patients. These first clinical findingspharmacokinetic, passive targeting, and concentration in metastasesare in line with the observations obtained in previous preclinical studies in animal models of brain tumor and bode well for a successful translation of this theranostic agent from the preclinical to the clinical level. In addition to this, the preliminary results of the NanoRad phase 1 clinical trial indicate good tolerance of intravenous injection of AGuIX nanoparticle up to the 100 mg/kg dose selected for this study. All these results and observations make it possible to confidently start a phase 2 clinical trial on the same indication (NANORAD2, NCT03818386).

This study is part of a prospective dose escalation phase I-b clinical trial to evaluate the tolerance of the intravenous administration of radiosensitizing AGuIX nanoparticles in combination with whole-brain RT for the treatment of brain metastases. This investigator-driven trial was sponsored by the Department of Clinical Research and Innovation of Grenoble Alpes University Hospital and performed in the Department of Radiotherapy of Grenoble Alpes University Hospital. Its Data and Safety Monitoring Board is composed of physicians who specialized in RT, oncology, and pharmacology. Approval was obtained from the Agence nationale de scurit du mdicament et des produits de sant (ANSM) (French National Agency for the Safety of Medicines and Health Products; EudraCT number 2015-004259-30) in May 2016. The NanoRad trial (Radiosensitization of Multiple Brain Metastases Using AGuIX Gadolinium Based Nanoparticles) was registered as NCT02820454. The study began in June 2016 and was completed in February 2019. Here, we report the findings of the MRI protocol applied to the 15 recruited patients. The objectives assigned to this MRI ancillary study were (i) to assess the distribution of AGuIX nanoparticles in brain metastases and surrounding healthy tissues and (ii) to measure the T1-weighted contrast enhancement and nanoparticle concentration in brain metastases and surrounding healthy tissues after intravenous administration of AGuIX nanoparticles. Detailed information on the NanoRad trial is available in the paper from Verry et al. (29).

Patients with multiple brain metastases ineligible for local treatment by surgery or stereotactic radiation were recruited. Inclusion criteria included (i) minimum age of 18 years, (ii) secondary brain metastases from a histologically confirmed solid tumor, (iii) no prior brain irradiation, (iv) no renal insufficiency (glomerular filtration rate, >60 ml/min per 1.73 m2), and (v) normal liver function (bilirubin, <30 M; alkaline phosphatase, <400 UI/liter; aspartate aminotransferase, < 75 UI/liter; alanine aminotransferase, < 175 UI/liter). All patients provided written informed consent in accordance with institutional guidelines.

AGuIX product was provided by NH TherAguix. It is a sterile powder for solution containing gadolinium-chelated polysiloxane-based nanoparticles. AGuIX product was manufactured, controlled, and released according to Current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) standards. This theranostic agent is composed of a polysiloxane network surrounded by gadolinium cyclic ligands, derivatives of DOTA (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane acid-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid), covalently grafted to the polysiloxane matrix (Fig. 5). Its hydrodynamic diameter is 4 2 nm, its mass is about 10 kDa, and it is described by the average chemical formula (GdSi47C2430N58O1525H4060, 5 to 10 H2O)x. On average, each nanoparticle presents on its surface 10 DOTA ligands that chelate core gadolinium ions. The longitudinal relaxivity r1 at 3 T is equal to 8.9 mM1 s1 per Gd3+ ion, resulting in a total r1 of 89 mM1 s1 per AGuIX nanoparticle.

(A) Schematic representation of AGuIX nanoparticles. DOTA(Gd) species are grafted to the polysiloxane core (Si, pearl gray; O, red; C, gray; N, blue; Gd, metallic blue; and H, white). (B) Main properties of AGuIX nanoparticle. (C) Hydrodynamic diameter distribution of AGuIX nanoparticles as obtained by dynamic light scattering. (D) Zeta potential of AGuIX nanoparticle as a function of the pH.

The timeline of the trial is summarized in Fig. 6. The main steps of the trial protocol were as follows. At day 0, patients underwent a first imaging session (see MRI protocol in next paragraph) 15 min after the intravenous bolus injection of Dotarem (gadoterate meglumine) at a dose of 0.2 ml/kg (0.1 mmol/kg) body weight. One to 21 days after the first imaging session (depending on patient availability and radiation therapy planning), the patients received a single intravenous administration of AGuIX nanoparticle suspension at doses of 15, 30, 50, 75, or 100 mg/kg body weight. The date of AGuIX nanoparticle administration is referred as day 1. The same MRI session, without injection of gadoterate meglumine, was performed 2 hours after administration of the nanoparticles. All the patients underwent a whole-brain radiation therapy (30 Gy delivered in 10 sessions of 3 Gy) starting 4 hours after administration of the nanoparticles. Seven days (day 8, no Dotarem injection), 4 weeks (day 28, Dotarem injection), and then every 3 months during 1 year after the AGuIX nanoparticles were administered, a similar MRI session was performed for each patient.

At day 0 (D0), the patients underwent an MRI session with injection of Dotarem. At D1, the patients received a single intravenous (IV) injection of AGuIX nanoparticles. Two hours later, the patients underwent an MRI session. After 2 more hours, the patients received their first session of whole-body radiation therapy (WBRT; 30 Gy split in 10 fractions). Further MRI sessions were performed at D8 (no Dotarem injection), D28 (Dotarem injection), month 3 (M3), and then every 3 months for 12 months (Dotarem injection).

The MRI acquisitions were performed on a 3 T Philips scanner. The 32-channel Philips head coil was used. Patients underwent identical imaging protocol including the following MRI sequences: (i) 3D T1-weighted gradient echo sequence, (ii) 3D FLASH sequence with multiple flip angles, (iii) susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) sequence, (iv) fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequence, and (v) diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) sequence. Some of these imaging sequences are recommended when following the RECIST and RANO (response assessment in neuro-oncology) criteria for assessing brain metastases response after RT (30, 31). The 3D T1-weighted imaging sequence provides high-resolution contrast-enhanced images of healthy tissue and brain metastases following MRI contrast agent administration. The 3D FLASH sequence is repeated several times with a different flip angle for computing T1 relaxation times and contrast agent concentration. The SWI sequence is used for detecting the presence of hemorrhages. The FLAIR sequence is applied for monitoring the presence of inflammation or edema. Last, the DWI sequence can be applied for detecting abnormal water diffusion in tissue or brain metastases. The total acquisition time ranged between 30 and 40 min depending on patient-adjusted imaging parameters. The key features and the main acquisition parameters of these imaging sequences are detailed in the Supplementary Materials.

MRI analyses were performed using an in-house computer program called MP3 (https://github.com/nifm-gin/MP3) developed by the GIN Laboratory (Grenoble, France) and running under MATLAB software. Image analyses include counting and measurements of metastases, quantification of contrast enhancement, relaxation times, and concentration of nanoparticles. Following RECIST and RANO criteria, solely metastases with longest diameter above 1 cm were considered as measureable and were retained in subsequent analyses. The MRI SE, expressed in percentage, was defined as the ratio of the difference between the amplitude of the MRI signal after the administration of the contrast agent and before the administration of the contrast agent over the amplitude of the MRI signal before the administration of the contrast agent, the MRI signal amplitude being measured in the 3D T1-weighted image dataset. The T1 relaxation times were derived from the 3D FLASH images obtained at four different flip angles. The concentration of nanoparticles in brain metastases was derived from the variations of T1 relaxation times before and after contrast agent administration and from the known relaxivity of the nanoparticles. The details about the acquisition and the procedure for computing the T1 values and the concentration are given in the Supplementary Materials.

A 3D image rendering was performed using the BrainVISA/Anatomist software (http://brainvisa.info) developed at NeuroSpin (CEA, Saclay, France). To better visualize the location of the different metastases, the Morphologist pipeline of BrainVISA was used to generate the meshes of both the brain and the head of each patient.

All analyses were performed using GraphPad Prism (GraphPad Software Inc.). Significance was fixed at a 5% probability level. All of the data are presented as means SD.

Acknowledgments: This work was performed on the IRMaGe platform member of France Life Imaging network (grant ANR-11-INBS-0006). Funding: The clinical trial was funded by the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) of Grenoble and the company NH TherAguix (Meylan, France). Author contributions: C.V. is the trial coordinator and the main investigator of the clinical trial. C.V., J.B., S.D., G.L.D., and O.T. defined the study design. C.V., S.G., S.D., G.L.D., and O.T. designed the MRI protocol. J.P. and I.T. performed the MRI acquisitions. S.D., B.L., S.G., Y.C., S.M., B.L., E.L.B., and O.T. contributed to data quantification and MRI analysis. S.D. and Y.C. performed statistical analysis. Y.C. wrote the paper, and all authors revised it critically, contributed to it, and approved the final version of the manuscript. Competing interests: F.L. and O.T. are authors on a patent filed by NANOH, Universit Lyon 1, Institut National des Sciences Appliques de Lyon (no. WO2011135101 A3, published 31 May, 2012). G.L.D. and O.T. are authors on a patent filed by Universit Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, NANOH, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (no. WO2009053644 A8, published 17 December 2012). These patents protect the AGuIX nanoparticles described in this publication. S.D., Y.C., O.T., F.L., and G.L.D. are employees from NH TherAguix that is developing the AGuIX nanoparticles. The authors declare that they have no other competing interests. Data and materials availability: All data needed to evaluate the conclusions in the paper are present in the paper and/or the Supplementary Materials. Additional data related to this paper may be requested from the authors.

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Targeting brain metastases with ultrasmall theranostic nanoparticles, a first-in-human trial from an MRI perspective - Science Advances

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Tyvak Nano-Satellite Systems Announce Agreement to Develop Innovative Telescopes for Nanosatellites -…

IRVINE, Calif., July 16, 2020 /PRNewswire/ --Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Tyvak Nano-Satellite Systems, Inc. have reached a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) to develop innovative compact and robust telescopes for nanosatellites.

The four-year, $2 million CRADA will combine LLNL's Monolithic Telescope (MonoTele) technology with Tyvak's expertise producing high-reliability spacecraft. In the future, the advanced optical imaging payloads may be employed to collect information for remote sensing data users.

The MonoTele consists of a space telescope fabricated from a single, monolithic fused silica slab, allowing the optic lens to operate within tight tolerances. This approach does not require on-orbit alignment, greatly simplifying spacecraft design and favorably affecting spacecraft size, weight and power needs.

"I'm excited about this technology transitioning from LLNL to space demonstration and eventual commercial use," said Alex Pertica, the deputy program leader for LLNL's Space Science and Security Program (SSSP).

Tyvak will provide the spacecraft and payload, consisting of the MonoTele, sensor, and electronics, ensuring survivability in a demanding vibration environment during launch and wide-ranging temperatures on-orbit.

LLNL will then apply its knowledge of novel optical payloads to develop, test, and process data gathered from the sensors.

"We are delighted to have formalized this collaborative effort with LLNL to demonstrate and commercialize advanced optical imaging technology," said Anthony Previte, Tyvak's CEO. "Together we will enable end users to achieve their mission goals in many space-based markets."

Developed by LLNL over the past eight years, the MonoTele space telescopes range in size from one inch (called the mini-monolith) to 14 inches.

The MonoTele technology provides imaging for nanosatellites, about the size of a large shoebox and weighing less than 22 pounds, and microsatellites, about the size of a dorm refrigerator and weighing up to several hundred pounds.

LLNL researchers undertook the development of the tiny one-inch, mini-monolith for use in star trackers, a component that every satellite has one or more of, and is used to find the satellite's "attitude" or orientation. Attached to the satellite's body, the star trackers compare the satellite's position relative to the position of the stars to determine their orientation.

"Several telescopes with the MonoTele technology have flown in space. They've performed very well," Pertica said, adding that the one-inch, mini-monolith version is now flying aboard Tyvak-0129. The technology's first space mission was the GEOstare satellite, which launched in January 2018.

Typically, space telescopes have two optical mirrors a larger primary mirror and a smaller secondary mirror that face each other. If the mirrors go out of alignment, the image becomes fuzzy.

To keep the mirrors in alignment, a metering structure is typically employed to maintain the mirrors in place. But metering structures can be expensive and can go out of alignment.

To solve this problem, LLNL optical scientist Brian Bauman came up with the idea of the MonoTele replacing the two mirrors and metering structure with one solid piece of glass, with optical shapes and reflective coatings at both ends of the glass.

The MonoTele concept was inspired by the design of the mirrors used for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope that is under construction in Chile, due to come online in 2023 and expected to image some 20 billion galaxies.

Under this CRADA, LLNL and Tyvak expect to develop additional MonoTele-type telescopes capable of operating in other wavelength bands, such as ultraviolet and short-wave infrared, and as a spectrometer instrument.

The telescopes, which would be demonstrated in space, also would feature compact and low-power focus mechanisms for missions requiring agile optics technology.

The MonoTele nanosatellite imaging payloads can be used across multiple applications and will serve Earth observation, space situational awareness, and satellite navigation initiatives.

"Partnering under a CRADA with outside industry was the natural next step for commercializing the technology," said David Dawes. "We look forward to working with Tyvak."

"The CRADA gives Tyvak the option to license LLNL intellectual property (IP) or joint IP developed under this collaboration, in addition to any of the Lab's existing background IP required to practice the subject inventions," Dawes added.

About Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)

Founded in 1952, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (www.llnl.gov) provides solutions to our nation's most important national security challenges through innovative science, engineering and technology. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is managed by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration.

About Tyvak Nano-Satellite Systems, Inc.

Founded in 2013 and headquartered in Irvine, California, Tyvak Nano-Satellite Systems, Inc. is an industry leader, delivering optimized, end-to-end satellite solutions. For more information, please visit http://www.Tyvak.com or follow the Company @TyvakNanoSat

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Viewed through revamped slide, cancer cells show their hidden side : The Asahi Shimbun – Asahi Shimbun

SAPPORO--Cancer cells play dead to dodge attacks by immune cells, a scientist here discovered, and tumor tissue moves like a slug to fuse with other tumors, revelations that could trigger a breakthrough in the development of carcinoma treatment.

The phenomena were uncovered using a special glass slide that promotes the growth of cancer cells for in-depth observation developed by Yukiko Miyatake, 47, an assistant professor of experimental pathology at the Faculty of Medicine of Hokkaido University.

Miyatake designed the slide with tiny bumps on its surface in order to stimulate cells so they turn into tumor tissue.

To closely observe cancerous cells, Miyatake utilized a technique developed by Kaori Shigetomi, a specially appointed associate professor of micro- and nano-engineering at the universitys Institute for the Advancement of Higher Education.

The method created by Shigetomi, 45, allows one to two cells to be cultured on the slide, by taking advantage of semiconductor substrate development technology.

Miyatake said she expects the technique to become commercially available within a year.

In 2018, Miyatake succeeded in imaging through a microscope how cells gather, grow and convert into cancer tissue on a rough-surfaced glass slide measuring 2 centimeters by 2 cm and repeated the experiment to confirm her results.

Initially, she couldnt figure out why cells grew so smoothly on the special material. A one-year analysis revealed that the bumps on the surface offer the foundation for cells to develop into cancer tissue.

During a more detailed examination, Miyatake found a mature tumor merged with another to grow even bigger, moving around like a slug. She said she was surprised that the minor difference on the glass surface could physically stimulate cells into forming tissue.

ZOMBIE TISSUE

When carcinoma cells killed by exposure to strong ultraviolet rays were put on the slide, tumors took in deceased cells around them, to in effect play dead, rendering it impossible for immune cells that attack cancer cells to target them.

By donning the veil of dead cells like a zombie, tumors may be trying to evade being attacked by immune cells, Miyatake said.

Working with a major manufacturer, Miyatake is now creating a prototype for mass production. If the cell growth observation technology is commercialized, a new anti-cancer agent might be developed, she said.

Miyatake, who majored in virus research in university, said she is inspired to work harder by longtime friends and scientists she first met then who are now devoting themselves to research related to the novel coronavirus.

As someone involved in academic research, my goal is to save the lives of patients and contribute to society, Miyatake said.

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Viewed through revamped slide, cancer cells show their hidden side : The Asahi Shimbun - Asahi Shimbun

With Fedora 33, Nano Will Be The Default Terminal Text Editor – Fossbytes

Which is your favorite Linux terminal text editor? I guess it must be one from the never-ending list of candidates, including Vim and Nano. Even if youre free to install and use any editor, sometimes you chose the one installed by default. Thats why the default text editor matters.

Speaking of the Fedora system, Vi is the current default terminal text editor in most cases, such as git commit and command-line text editing. Now if you want Nano in Fedora, you have to run a single command dnf install nano. But with the upcoming Fedora 33, you no longer need to run any command to get Nano.

Yes, this is because the Fedora developer team has decided to ship the terminal text editor, GNU Nano, by default. This means Nano will replace Vi as the default editor in Fedora 33 Linux distribution.

If youre confused between Vi and Vim, let me tell you that Vim is an improved version of Vi with additional features.

The change comes amid the ongoing development for the upcoming Fedora 33. Along with othersystem-wide changes, a proposal was sent to make Nano the default text editor.

Later, during the Fedora Engineering and Steering Committee (FESCo) meeting last week, several features for Fedora 33 were approved, including Nano text editor by default in the Fedora system.

As the proposal cites, users need to learn the mode concept of Vi even for basic editing tasks. It makes it hard for new users to understand and use Vi.

Unlike Vi, Nano doesnt have any modes, which gives the user a shallow learning curve and lets them interact directly with text using user-friendly graphical text editing.

Hence, this proposal will make Nano the default editor across all of Fedoras editions. However, you still have vi pre-installed owing to the vim-minimal package.

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With Fedora 33, Nano Will Be The Default Terminal Text Editor - Fossbytes

Clean Seed to deploy their patented SMART technologies to modernize the agricultural sector – Proactive Investors USA & Canada

Clean Seed Capital (CVE: CSX- OTC: CLGPF) Chief Operating Officer Colin Rush joined Steve Darling from Proactive Vancouver to discuss the company that is continuing to pioneer the modernization of the crop/food production industry with cutting edge SMART technologies that include their upcoming SMART Seeder MAX and MAX-S seeding and planting systems.

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Five Indian Americans Receive US DoE Early Career Award – The Indian Panorama

BOSTON (TIP): The U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) recently announced the names of 76 scientists who have been selected for their2020 Early Career Research Program. The list includes five Indian Americans.

They are: Arun Devaraj, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (WA), Ranganathan Gopalakrishnan, University of Memphis, Siddharth Karkare, Arizona Board of Regents for Arizona State University, Vedika Khemani, Stanford Junior University, and Karthish Manthiram, MIT.

Under the program, university-based researchers will receive grants for at least $150,000 per year and researchers based at DOE national laboratories will receive grants for at least $500,000 per year. The research grants are planned for five years and will cover salary and research expenses.

Arun Devaraj, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (WA)

Dr. Arun Devaraj is a Material scientist in the Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate. His research focus is in microstructure-property relationship of metallic alloys, oxides and composite materials. Dr. Devaraj has extensive experience specifically in applying atom probe tomography (APT) for material characterization, in addition to scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), focused ion beam (FIB), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES), scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) and in-situ high energy x-ray diffraction (HEXRD) at beamlines of various DOE synchrotron facilities.

Ranganathan Gopalakrishnan is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Memphis. His research focuses on applying aerosol science and technology to Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes as well as fundamental aspects of aerosol science.

Siddharth Karkare is an assistant professor in the Department of Physics at Arizona State University. He comes to ASU following a 3-year post-doctoral research position at the Lawrence Berkeley Lab. His research is at the interface of accelerator physics and nano-science and focuses on the generation and manipulation of bright electron beams for various applications ranging from meter-scale electron microscopes to large km-scale particle colliders and free-electron lasers.

Vedika Khemani Assistant Professor of Physics at Stanford completed her undergraduate studies at Harvey Mudd College, and her PhD at Princeton University. She was a Junior Fellow at Harvard University before starting as assistant professor at Stanford University. She works on theoretical investigations of quantum many-body systems and how they evolve dynamically.

Karthish Manthiram, the Theodore T. Miller Career Development Chair and Assistant Professor in Chemical Engineering in MIT, is working to synthesize chemicals and materials that we encounter every day in a sustainable manner that eliminates the carbon footprint. With the support of the DoE Early Career Award, the Manthiram lab is specifically looking at how water can be used as a source of oxygen atoms to convert alkenes, which are two carbon atoms attached by a double bond, into an epoxide, a triangular configuration of two carbon atoms and an oxygen atom.

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Five Indian Americans Receive US DoE Early Career Award - The Indian Panorama

A wizard of ultrasharp imaging – MIT News

Though Frances Ross and her sister Caroline Ross both ended up on the faculty of MITs Department of Materials Science and Engineering, they got there by quite different pathways. While Caroline followed a more traditional academic route and has spent most of her career at MIT, Frances Ross spent most of her professional life working in the industrial sector, as a microscopy specialist at IBM. It wasnt until 2018 that she arrived at MIT to oversee the new state-of-the-art electron microscope systems being installed in the new MIT.nano facility.

Frances, who bears a strong family resemblance to her sister, says its confused a few people, if they dont know there are two of us.

The sisters grew up in London in a strongly science- and materials-oriented family. Her father, who worked first as a scientist and then as a lawyer, is currently working on his third PhD degree, in classics. Her mother, a gemologist, specializes in precisely matching diamonds, and oversees certification testing for the profession.

After earning her doctorate at Cambridge University in materials science, specializing in electron microscopy, Frances Ross went on to do a postdoc at Bell Labs in New Jersey, and then to the National Center for Electron Microscopy at the University of California at Berkeley. From there she continued her work in electron microscopy at IBM in Yorktown Heights, New York, where she spent 20 years working on development and application of electron microscope technology to studying crystal growth.

When MIT built its new cutting-edge nanotechnology fabrication and analysis facility, MIT.nano, it was clear that state-of-the-art microscope technology would need to be a key feature of the new center. Thats when Ross was hired as a professor, along with Professor Jim LeBeau and Research Scientist Rami Dana, who had an academic and industrial research background, to oversee the creation, development, and application of those microscopes for the Department of Materials Science and Engineering (DMSE) and the wider MIT community.

Currently, our students have to go to other places to do high-performance microscopy, so they might go to Harvard, or one of the national labs, says Ross, who is the Ellen Swallow Richards Professor in Materials Science and Engineering. Very many advances in the instrumentation have come together over the last few years, so that if your equipment is a little older, its actually a big disadvantage in electron microcopy. This is an area where MIT had not invested for a little while, and therefore, once they made that decision, the jump is going to be very significant. Were going to have a state-of-the-art imaging capability.

There will be two major electron microscope systems for materials science, which are gradually taking shape inside the vibration-isolated basement level of MIT.nano, alongside two others already installed that are specialized for biomedical imaging.

One of these will be an advanced version of a standard electron microscope, she says, that will have a unique combination of features. There is nothing that exists with the capabilities that we are aiming for here.

The most important of these, she says, is the quality of the vacuum inside the microscope: In most of our experiments, we want to start with a surface thats atomically clean. For example, we could start with atomically clean silicon, and then add some germanium. How do the germanium atoms add onto the silicon surface? Thats a very important question for microelectronics. But if the sample is in an environment thats not well-controlled, then the results you get will depend on how dirty the vacuum is. Contamination may affect the process, and you cant be sure that what youre seeing is what happens in real life. Ross is working with the manufacturers to reach exceptional levels of cleanliness in the vacuum of the electron microscope system being developed now.

But ultra-high-quality vacuum is just one of its attributes. We combine the good vacuum with capabilities to heat the sample, and flow gases, and record images at high speed, Ross says. Perhaps most importantly for a lot of our experiments, we use lower-energy electrons to do the imaging, because for many interesting materials like 2D materials, such as graphene, boron nitride, and related structures, the high-energy electrons that are normally used will damage the sample.

Putting that all together, she says, is a unique instrument that will give us real insights into surface reactions, crystal growth processes, materials transformations, catalysis, all kinds of reactions involving nanostructure formation and chemistry on the surfaces of 2D materials.

Other instruments and capabilities are also being added to MITs microscopy portfolio. A new scanning transmission electron microscope is already installed in MIT.nano and is providing high-resolution structural and chemical analysis of samples for several projects at MIT. Another new capability is a special sample holder that allows researchers to make movies of unfolding processes in water or other liquids in the microscope. This allows detailed monitoring, at up to 100 frames per second, of a variety of phenomena, such as solution-phase growth, unfolding chemical reactions, or electrochemical processes such as battery charging and discharging. Making movies of processes taking place in water, she says, is something of a new field for electron microscopy.

Ross already has set up an ultra-high vacuum electron microscope in DMSE but without the resolution and low-voltage operation of the new instrument. And finally, an ultra-high vacuum scanning tunneling microscope has just started to produce images and will measure current flow through nanoscale materials.

In their free time, Ross and her husband Brian enjoy sailing, mostly off the coast of Maine, with their two children, Kathryn and Eric. As a hobby she collects samples of beach sand. I have a thousand different kinds of sand from various places, and a lot of them from Massachusetts, she says. Everywhere I go, thats my souvenir.

But with her intense focus on developing this new world-class microscopy facility, theres little time for anything else these days. Her aim is to ensure that its the best facility possible.

Im hoping that MIT becomes a center for electron microscopy, she says. You know, with all the interesting materials science and physics that goes on here, it matches up very well with this unique instrumentation, this high-quality combination of imaging and analysis. These unique characterization capabilities really complement the rest of the science that happens here.

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A wizard of ultrasharp imaging - MIT News

– Lithium battery life tripled by lasers and sticky tape – Design Products & Applications

16 July 2020

For the Advanced Materials study, the researchers used an infrared laser cutter to convert the silicone-based adhesive of commercial tape into the porous silicon oxide coating, mixed with a small amount of laser-induced graphene from the tapes polyimide backing. The protective silicon oxide layer forms directly on the current collector of the battery.

The idea of using tape came from previous attempts to produce free-standing films of laser-induced graphene, says James Tour, Chair in Chemistry and a Professor of computer science and materials science and nanoengineering at Rice University.Unlike pure polyimide films, the tape produced not only laser-induced graphene from the polyimide backing but also a translucent film where the adhesive had been. That caught the curiosity of the researchers and led to further experimentation.

The layer formed when they stuck the tape to a copper current collector and lased it multiple times to quickly raise its temperature to 2,300 Kelvin (3,680 degrees Fahrenheit). That generated a porous coating composed primarily of silicon and oxygen, combined with a small amount of carbon in the form of graphene.

In experiments, the foamy film appeared to soak up and release lithium metal without allowing the formation of dendrites spiky protrusions that can short-circuit a battery and potentially cause fires. The researchers note lithium metal tends to degrade fast during the batterys charge and discharge cycles with the bare current collector, but they did not observe any of those problems in anodes coated with laser-induced silicon oxide (LI-SiO).

In traditional lithium-ion batteries, lithium ions are intercalated into a graphite structure upon charging and de-intercalate as the battery discharges, says lead author Weiyin Chen, a graduate student. Six carbon atoms are used to store one lithium atom when the full capacity of graphite is used.

But in a lithium metal anode, no graphite is used, he says. The lithium ions directly shuttle from the surface of the metal anode as the battery discharges. Lithium metal anodes are considered a key technology for future battery development once their safety and performance issues are solved.

Lithium metal anodes can have a capacity 10 times higher than traditional graphite-lithium ion batteries but lithium metal batteries that are devoid of graphite usually use excess lithium metal to compensate for losses caused by oxidation of the anode surface, Tour says.

When there is zero excess lithium metal in the anodes, they generally suffer fast degradation, producing cells with very limited cycle life, says co-author Rodrigo Salvatierra, an academic visitor in the Tour lab. On the bright side, these anode-free cells become lighter and deliver better performance, but with the cost of a short life.

The researchers note LI-SiO tripled the battery lifetimes over other zero-excess lithium metal batteries. The LI-SiO coated batteries delivered 60 charge-discharge cycles while retaining 70% of their capacity.

Tour says that could make lithium metal batteries suitable as high-performance batteries for outdoor expeditions or high-capacity storage for short-term outages in rural areas.

Using standard industrial lasers should allow industry to scale up for large-area production. Tour says the method is fast, requires no solvents, and can be done in-room atmosphere and temperature. He says the technique may also produce films to support metal nanoparticles, protective coatings, and filters.

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- Lithium battery life tripled by lasers and sticky tape - Design Products & Applications

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Tyvak Nano-Satellite Systems Announce Agreement to Develop Innovative Telescopes for Nanosatellites – Yahoo…

IRVINE, Calif., July 16, 2020 /PRNewswire/ --Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Tyvak Nano-Satellite Systems, Inc. have reached a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) to develop innovative compact and robust telescopes for nanosatellites.

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Logo

The four-year, $2 million CRADA will combine LLNL's Monolithic Telescope (MonoTele) technology with Tyvak's expertise producing high-reliability spacecraft. In the future, the advanced optical imaging payloads may be employed to collect information for remote sensing data users.

The MonoTele consists of a space telescope fabricated from a single, monolithic fused silica slab, allowing the optic lens to operate within tight tolerances. This approach does not require on-orbit alignment, greatly simplifying spacecraft design and favorably affecting spacecraft size, weight and power needs.

"I'm excited about this technology transitioning from LLNL to space demonstration and eventual commercial use," said Alex Pertica, the deputy program leader for LLNL's Space Science and Security Program (SSSP).

Tyvak will provide the spacecraft and payload, consisting of the MonoTele, sensor, and electronics, ensuring survivability in a demanding vibration environment during launch and wide-ranging temperatures on-orbit.

LLNL will then apply its knowledge of novel optical payloads to develop, test, and process data gathered from the sensors.

"We are delighted to have formalized this collaborative effort with LLNL to demonstrate and commercialize advanced optical imaging technology," said Anthony Previte, Tyvak's CEO. "Together we will enable end users to achieve their mission goals in many space-based markets."

Developed by LLNL over the past eight years, the MonoTele space telescopes range in size from one inch (called the mini-monolith) to 14 inches.

The MonoTele technology provides imaging for nanosatellites, about the size of a large shoebox and weighing less than 22 pounds, and microsatellites, about the size of a dorm refrigerator and weighing up to several hundred pounds.

LLNL researchers undertook the development of the tiny one-inch, mini-monolith for use in star trackers, a component that every satellite has one or more of, and is used to find the satellite's "attitude" or orientation. Attached to the satellite's body, the star trackers compare the satellite's position relative to the position of the stars to determine their orientation.

"Several telescopes with the MonoTele technology have flown in space. They've performed very well," Pertica said, adding that the one-inch, mini-monolith version is now flying aboard Tyvak-0129. The technology's first space mission was the GEOstare satellite, which launched in January 2018.

Typically, space telescopes have two optical mirrors a larger primary mirror and a smaller secondary mirror that face each other. If the mirrors go out of alignment, the image becomes fuzzy.

To keep the mirrors in alignment, a metering structure is typically employed to maintain the mirrors in place. But metering structures can be expensive and can go out of alignment.

To solve this problem, LLNL optical scientist Brian Bauman came up with the idea of the MonoTele replacing the two mirrors and metering structure with one solid piece of glass, with optical shapes and reflective coatings at both ends of the glass.

Story continues

The MonoTele concept was inspired by the design of the mirrors used for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope that is under construction in Chile, due to come online in 2023 and expected to image some 20 billion galaxies.

Under this CRADA, LLNL and Tyvak expect to develop additional MonoTele-type telescopes capable of operating in other wavelength bands, such as ultraviolet and short-wave infrared, and as a spectrometer instrument.

The telescopes, which would be demonstrated in space, also would feature compact and low-power focus mechanisms for missions requiring agile optics technology.

The MonoTele nanosatellite imaging payloads can be used across multiple applications and will serve Earth observation, space situational awareness, and satellite navigation initiatives.

"Partnering under a CRADA with outside industry was the natural next step for commercializing the technology," said David Dawes. "We look forward to working with Tyvak."

"The CRADA gives Tyvak the option to license LLNL intellectual property (IP) or joint IP developed under this collaboration, in addition to any of the Lab's existing background IP required to practice the subject inventions," Dawes added.

About Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)

Founded in 1952, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (www.llnl.gov) provides solutions to our nation's most important national security challenges through innovative science, engineering and technology. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is managed by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration.

About Tyvak Nano-Satellite Systems, Inc.

Founded in 2013 and headquartered in Irvine, California, Tyvak Nano-Satellite Systems, Inc. is an industry leader, delivering optimized, end-to-end satellite solutions. For more information, please visit http://www.Tyvak.com or follow the Company @TyvakNanoSat

Media Contacts:

LLNL

Stephen Wamplerwampler1@llnl.gov +1 (925) 423-3107

Tyvak

Taylor Cantwelltaylor.cantwell@tyvak.com +1 (949) 439-6153

A space telescope, dubbed the V4 and an identical twin to this one, flew on LLNLs GEOstare1 mission, where it was employed to demonstrate the utility of nanosatellites for space situational awareness. Photo by Julie Russell/Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

(PRNewsfoto/Tyvak Nano-Satellite Systems, I)

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Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Tyvak Nano-Satellite Systems Announce Agreement to Develop Innovative Telescopes for Nanosatellites - Yahoo...

Scientists open new window into the nanoworld | CU Boulder Today – CU Boulder Today

A "waveguide" that converts traditional laser lightinto laser-like beams at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths. (Credit: Kapteyn-Murnane Group)

CU Boulder researchers have used ultra-fast extreme ultraviolet lasers to measure the properties of materials more than 100 times thinner than a human red blood cell.

The team, led by scientists at JILA, reported its new feat of wafer-thinness this week in the journal Physical Review Materials. The groups target, a film just 5 nanometers thick, is the thinnest material that researchers have ever been able to fully probe, said study coauthor Joshua Knobloch.

This is a record-setting study to see how small we could go and how accurate we could be, said Knobloch, a graduate student at JILA, a partnership between CU Boulder and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

He added that when things get small, the normal rules of engineering dont always apply. The group discovered, for example, that some materials seem to get a lot softer the thinner they become.

The researchers hope that their findings may one day help scientists to better navigate the often-unpredictable nanoworld, designing tinier and more efficient computer circuits, semiconductors and other technologies.

If youre doing nanoengineering, you cant just treat your material like its a normal big material, said Travis Frazer, lead author of the new paper and a former graduate student at JILA. Because of the simple fact that its small, it behaves like a different material.

A graphic demonstrating how a material can go from stiff to soft when it is made as a thicker versus a thinnerfilm. The effect occurs when the atomic bonds within a material are disrupted. (Credit: Joshua Knobloch/JILA)

This surprising discoverythat very thin materials can be 10 times more flimsy than expectedis yet another example of how new tools can helps us to understand the nanoworld better, said Margaret Murnane, a coauthor of the new research, professor of physics at CU Boulder and JILA fellow.

The research comes at a time when many technology firms are trying to do just that: go small. Some companies are experimenting with ways to build efficient computer chips that layer thin films of material one on top of the otherlike a filo pastry, but inside your laptop.

The problem with that approach, said Frazer, who has since joined theArgonne National Laboratory,that scientists have trouble predicting how those flakey layers will behave. Theyre just too delicate to measure in any meaningful way with the usual tools.

To help in that goal, he and his colleagues deployed extreme ultraviolet lasers, or beams of radiation that deliver shorter wavelengths than traditional laserswavelengths that are well matched to the nanoworld. The researchers developed a set-up that allows them to bounce those beams off of layers of material just a few strands of DNA thick, tracking the different ways those films can vibrate.

If you can measure how fast your material is wiggling, then you can figure out how stiff it is, Frazer said.

The method has also revealed just how much the properties of materials can change when you make them very, very small.

In the most recent study, for example, the researchers probed the relative strength of two films made out of silicon carbide: one about 46 nanometers thick, and the other just 5 nanometers thick. The teams ultraviolet laser delivered surprising results. The thinner film was about 10 times softer, or less rigid, than its thicker counterpart, something the researchers werent expecting.

Frazer explained that, if you make a film too thin, you can cut into the atomic bonds that hold a material togethera bit like unraveling a frayed rope.

The atoms at the top of the film have other atoms underneath them that they can hold onto, Frazer said. But above them, the atoms dont have anything they can grab onto.

But not all materials will behave the same way, he added. The team reran the same experiment on a second material that was nearly identical to the first with one big differencethis one had a lot more hydrogen atoms added in. Such a doping process can naturally disrupt the atomic bonds within a material, causing it to lose strength.

When the group tested that second, flimsier material using their lasers, they found something new: this material was just as strong when it was 44 nanometers thick as it was at a meager 11 nanometers thick.

Put differently, the additional hydrogen atoms had already weakened the material. Abit of extra shrinking couldnt do anymore damage.

In the end, the team says that its new ultraviolet laser tool gives scientists a window into a realm that was previously beyond the grasp of science.

Now that people are building very, very small devices, theyre asking how properties like thickness or shape can change how their materials behave, Knobloch said. This gives us a new way of accessing information about nanoscale technology.

This research was supported by the STROBE National Science Foundation Science and Technology Center on Real-Time Functional Imaging.

Coauthors on the new study included JILA researchers Henry Kapteyn, professor of physics, Jorge Hernndez-Charpak; Kathy Hoogeboom-Pot; Damiano Nardi and Begoa Abad. Other coauthors included Sadegh Yazdi at the Renewable and Sustainable Energy Institute at CU Boulder; Weilun Chao and Erik Anderson at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; and Marie Tripp and Sean King at Intel Corp.

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Scientists open new window into the nanoworld | CU Boulder Today - CU Boulder Today

PyroGenesis Announces Q1 2020 Results: Revenues of $736K, Gross Margin of 37%, Current Backlog $30MM, Provides Q2 2020 and Year End Guidance |…

MONTREAL, July 14, 2020 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- PyroGenesis Canada Inc. (http://pyrogenesis.com) (TSX-V: PYR) (OTCQB: PYRNF) (FRA: 8PY), a high-tech company, (the "Company", the Corporation” or "PyroGenesis") that designs, develops, manufactures and commercializes plasma atomized metal powder, plasma waste-to-energy systems and plasma torch systems, is pleased to announce today its financial and operational results for the first quarter ended March 31st, 2020.

Percent complete revenue recognition in our major projects, which is the revenue recognition method we are mandated to follow by GAAP, is such that it is not linear, but exponential, and as such Q1 2020 may not have reflected the results one might have expected given recent announcements. However, using this same revenue recognition method we can safely provide the following guidance for Q2 2020, and for the year ending December 31st, 2020 as follows: We expect that Q2 2020 and the six months ending June 30, 2020 will be profitable as will year end results. As such, management has modified several notes in the financials, for the first time since inception, to reflect this outlook,” said P. Peter Pascali, CEO and President of PyroGenesis. To date, in 2020 we have not only received significant payments under existing contracts, but have retired the $3MM convertible debenture in full, bought back approximately 1.2 million shares, increased our investment in HPQ, and further benefited from early conversions of warrants maturing in 2021 of over $3MM. Of note, as of December 31st, 2019 we have approximately $10MM of in-the-money warrants and options expiring in 2020 and 2021 alone. The Company also has over $50MM in tax loss carryforwards (roughly evenly distributed between federal and provincial tax regimes) which is not reflected as an asset on the balance sheet. Given recent events, and the structuring that took place in 2019, the Company is undeniably well positioned to execute on, and build upon, the backlog of signed contracts which currently stands in excess of $30MM. With the eagerly anticipated US Navy contract in hand backlog of signed contracts will be in excess of $40MM. All in all, 2020 can now be described as the year that we have been expecting for some time.”

Q1 2020 results reflect the following highlights:

Management Guidance for Q2 2020

Management Guidance for the remainder of 2020:

OUTLOOK

Percent complete revenue recognition in our major projects, which is the revenue recognition method we are mandated to follow by GAAP, is such that it is not linear, but exponential, and as such Q1 may not have reflected the results one might have expected given recent announcements. However, using this same revenue recognition method we can safely provide guidance for Q2 2020, and for the year ending December 31st, 2020: We expect that Q2 and the six months ending June 30, 2020 will be profitable as will year end results. As such, management has modified several notes in the financials, for the first time since inception, to reflect this outlook.

Any discussion regarding the OUTLOOK of the company would be remiss if it did not address the continued increase in the Company’s market capitalization and the implications that has for the future.

Without a doubt the Company’s market capitalization suffered, as did many other companies, in the general Covid-19 market meltdown at the end of March 2020. However, PyroGenesis soon broke from the pack with the issuance of a material press release on March 24th, 2020.

Management believes that its breaking from the ranks caught the attention of investors, fund managers, and money managers who all now had the time during the Covid-19 lockdown to fully analyze the complicated story that is PyroGenesis. Management does not see any reason why this interest would abate anytime soon. To the contrary, Management has reason to believe that interest in the Company will only increase over the foreseeable future. As such, Management has decided that several strategies that have been articulated in the past (up listings, spinoffs) can now be accelerated as many of the impediments to moving quickly have been removed and have taken steps to do so.

Having a larger market capitalization has also helped in discussions with potential customers who take comfort from the possibility that a higher market capitalization may translate into easier access to capital. For the record, there is no intention at this time to raise capital for working capital purposes.

If 2018 was the year in which PyroGenesis successfully positioned each of its commercial business lines by strategically partnering with multi-billion-dollar entities, and 2019 was the year that saw the appropriate personnel and infrastructure being put in place while building upon the success of 2018, then 2020 is without a doubt the year that the long awaited breakout, which began in the second half of 2019, takes place; it is in fact already upon us:

To date during 2020 PyroGenesis has:

The Company has booked a significant backlog of signed contracts (in excess of $30MM; 2019 Revenues approx. $5MM) which, when taking the eagerly awaited US Navy contract into account, will increase to over $40MM. This provides a solid cornerstone upon which PyroGenesis can:

Specifically, with Aubert & Duval the goal will be to complete the integration of the cutting-edge advances PyroGenesis has made to the powder production process.

With respect to HPQ, the goal would be to accelerate the game changing PUREVAP family of processes which we are developing for HPQ, namely:

As at April 1st, 2020, the Company has approximately $10MM of in-the-money warrants and options expiring in 2020 and 2021. The Company also has over $50MM in tax loss carryforwards (roughly evenly distributed between federal and provincial obligations) which is not reflected as an asset on the balance sheet.

All in all, 2020 can now be described as the year that we have been expecting for some time.

Financial Summary

Revenues

PyroGenesis recorded revenue of $718,908 in the first quarter of 2020 (Q1, 2020”), representing a decrease of 2% compared with $736,443 recorded in the first quarter of 2019 (Q1, 2019”).

Revenues recorded in the first quarter of 2020 were generated primarily from:

Cost of Sales and Services and Gross Margins

Cost of sales and services before amortization of intangible assets was $444,681 in Q1 2020, representing a decrease of 30% compared with $639,506 in Q1 2019, primarily due to lower employee compensation and direct materials in Q1 2020.

In Q1 2020, employee compensation, subcontracting, direct materials and manufacturing overhead decreased to $391,305 (Q1 2019 - $662,379). The gross margin for Q1 2020 was $267,414 or 37.2% of revenue compared to a gross margin of $92,158 or 12.5% of revenue for Q1 2019. As a result of the type of contracts being executed, the nature of the project activity, as well as the composition of the cost of sales and services, as the mix between labor, materials and subcontracts may be significantly different. Of note, the Company received an amount of $127,842 from Revenue Canada under the CWES program. From this amount, $26,388 was applied to employee compensation under cost of sales and services.

Investment tax credits recorded against cost of sales are related to projects that qualify for tax credits from the provincial government of Quebec. Qualifying tax credits decreased to $20,630 in Q1 2020, compared with $36,071 in Q1 2019. This represents a decrease of 43% year-over-year. In total, the Company earned refundable investment tax credits of $70,313 in Q1 2020. The Company continues to make investments in research and development projects involving strategic partners and government bodies.

The amortization of intangible assets of $6,813 in Q1 2020 and $4,779 for Q1 2019 relates to patents and deferred development costs. Of note, these expenses are non-cash items and will be amortized over the duration of the patent lives.

Selling, General and Administrative Expenses

Included within Selling, General and Administrative expenses (SG&A”) are costs associated with corporate administration, business development, project proposals, operations administration, investor relations and employee training.

SG&A expenses for Q1 2020 excluding the costs associated with share-based compensation (a non-cash item in which options vest principally over a four-year period), were $1,205,726 representing a decrease of 7% compared with $1,295,521 reported for Q1 2019.

The increase in SG&A expenses in Q1 2020 over the same period in 2019 is mainly attributable to the net effect of:

Separately, share based payments increased by 106% in Q1 2020 over the same period in 2019 as a result of the vesting structure of the stock option plan including the stock options granted on January 2nd, 2020.

Research and Development (R&D”) Costs

The Company incurred $23,088 of R&D costs, net of government grants, on internal projects in Q1 2020, a decrease of 76% as compared with $95,774 in Q1 2019. The decrease in Q1 2020 is primarily related to an increase in government grants recognized.

In addition to internally funded R&D projects, the Company also incurred R&D expenditures during the execution of client funded projects. These expenses are eligible for Scientific Research and Experimental Development (SR&ED”) tax credits. SR&ED tax credits on client funded projects are applied against cost of sales and services (see Cost of Sales” above).

Net Finance Costs

Finance costs for Q1 2020 totaled $232,736 as compared with $251,498 for Q1 2019, representing a decrease of 7% year-over-year. The decrease in finance costs in Q1 2020, is primarily attributable to interest on lower amounts of debt.

Strategic Investments

The adjustment to the fair market value of strategic investments for Q1 2020 resulted in a loss of $492,024 compared to a gain in the amount of $706,196 in Q1 2019.

Net Comprehensive Loss

The net comprehensive loss for Q1 2020 of $1,757,027 compared to a loss of $878,923, in Q1 2019, represents an increase of 100% year-over-year. The increased loss of $878,104 in the comprehensive loss in Q1 2020 is primarily attributable to the factors described above, which have been summarized as follows:

EBITDA

The EBITDA loss in Q1 2020 was $1,418,057 compared with an EBITDA loss of $464,825 for Q1 2019, representing an increase of 205% year-over-year. The $953,232 increase in the EBITDA loss in Q1 2020 compared with Q1 2019 is due to the increase in comprehensive loss of $878,104, offset by a decrease in depreciation on property and equipment of $38,093, a decrease in depreciation of right of use assets of $20,307, an increase in amortization of intangible assets of $2,034 and a decrease in finance charges of $18,762.

Adjusted EBITDA loss in Q1 2020 was $1,347,190 compared with an Adjusted EBITDA loss of $430,341 for Q1 2019. The increase of $916,849 in the Adjusted EBITDA loss in Q1 2020 is attributable to an increase in EBITDA loss of $953,232, offset by an increase of $36,383 in share-based payments.

The Modified EBITDA loss in Q1 2020 was $855,166 compared with a Modified EBITDA loss of $1,136,537 for Q1 2019, representing a decrease of 25%. The decrease in the Modified EBITDA loss in Q1 2020 is attributable to the increase as mentioned above in the Adjusted EBITDA of $916,849 and a decrease in the change of fair value of strategic investments of $1,198,222.

Liquidity

The Company has incurred, in the last several years, operating losses and negative cash flows from operations, resulting in an accumulated deficit of $61,994,683 and a negative working capital of $11,157,110 as at Q1 2020, (December 31, 2019 - $60,237,656 and $10,492,102 respectively). Furthermore, as at Q1 2020, the Company’s current liabilities and expected level of expenses for the next twelve months exceed cash on hand of $1,139,416 (December 31, 2019 - $34,431). The Company has relied upon external financings to fund its operations in the past, primarily through the issuance of equity, debt, and convertible debentures, as well as from investment tax credits.

Separately, PyroGenesis is pleased to announce today that Me Sara-Catherine Tolszczuk has joined the Company as Legal Counsel and Corporate Secretary of the Board of Directors effective July 2nd, 2020. Before joining PyroGenesis, Me Tolszczuk was part of the corporate law group of the leading independent law firm in the province of Qubec. Her work was focused on developing strategies for the protection, commercialization and enforcement of intellectual property assets. She also acquired experience in litigation files and participated in the due diligence phase of mergers and acquisitions. She holds a Bachelor’s Degree in Law and a Master’s Degree in Biology. The Company also announces the departure, effective July 2nd, 2020, of Me Ilario Gualtieri. We thank Me Gualtieri for his contributions and wish his well in his future endeavors.

About PyroGenesis Canada Inc.

PyroGenesis Canada Inc., a high-tech company, is the world leader in the design, development, manufacture and commercialization of advanced plasma processes and products. We provide engineering and manufacturing expertise, cutting-edge contract research, as well as turnkey process equipment packages to the defense, metallurgical, mining, advanced materials (including 3D printing), oil & gas, and environmental industries. With a team of experienced engineers, scientists and technicians working out of our Montreal office and our 3,800 m2 manufacturing facility, PyroGenesis maintains its competitive advantage by remaining at the forefront of technology development and commercialization. Our core competencies allow PyroGenesis to lead the way in providing innovative plasma torches, plasma waste processes, high-temperature metallurgical processes, and engineering services to the global marketplace. Our operations are ISO 9001:2015 and AS9100D certified, and have been since 1997. PyroGenesis is a publicly-traded Canadian Corporation on the TSX Venture Exchange (Ticker Symbol: PYR) and on the OTCQB Marketplace. For more information, please visit http://www.pyrogenesis.com.

This press release contains certain forward-looking statements, including, without limitation, statements containing the words "may", "plan", "will", "estimate", "continue", "anticipate", "intend", "expect", "in the process" and other similar expressions which constitute "forward- looking information" within the meaning of applicable securities laws. Forward-looking statements reflect the Corporation's current expectation and assumptions and are subject to a number of risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those anticipated. These forward-looking statements involve risks and uncertainties including, but not limited to, our expectations regarding the acceptance of our products by the market, our strategy to develop new products and enhance the capabilities of existing products, our strategy with respect to research and development, the impact of competitive products and pricing, new product development, and uncertainties related to the regulatory approval process. Such statements reflect the current views of the Corporation with respect to future events and are subject to certain risks and uncertainties and other risks detailed from time-to-time in the Corporation's ongoing filings with the securities regulatory authorities, which filings can be found at http://www.sedar.com, or at http://www.otcmarkets.com. Actual results, events, and performance may differ materially. Readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. The Corporation undertakes no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward- looking statements either as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by applicable securities laws.

Neither the TSX Venture Exchange, its Regulation Services Provider (as that term is defined in the policies of the TSX Venture Exchange) nor the OTCQB accepts responsibility for the adequacy or accuracy of this press release.

SOURCE PyroGenesis Canada Inc.

For further information please contact: Rodayna Kafal, Vice President Investors Relations and Strategic Business Development Phone: (514) 937-0002, E-mail: ir@pyrogenesis.com RELATED LINK: http://www.pyrogenesis.com/

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PyroGenesis Announces Q1 2020 Results: Revenues of $736K, Gross Margin of 37%, Current Backlog $30MM, Provides Q2 2020 and Year End Guidance |...

Cell-like decoys could mop up viruses in humans including the one that causes COVID-19 – The Conversation US

The Research Brief is a short take about interesting academic work.

Researchers around the world are working frantically to develop COVID-19 vaccines meant to target and attack the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Researchers in my nanoengineering lab are taking a different approach toward stopping SARS-CoV-2. Instead of playing offense and stimulating the immune system to attack the SARS-CoV-2 virus, were playing defense. Were working to shield the healthy human cells the virus invades.

Conceptually, the strategy is simple. We create decoys that look like the human cells the SARS-CoV-2 virus invades. So far, weve made lung-cell decoys and immune-cell decoys. These cell decoys attract and neutralize the SARS-CoV-2 virus, leaving the real lung or immune cells healthy.

To make the decoys, we collect the outer membranes of the lung or immune cells and wrap them around a core made of biodegradable nanoparticles. From the outside the decoys look the same as the human cells they are impersonating. Our decoys are hundreds of times smaller in diameter than an actual lung or immune cell, but they have all the same cellular hardware sticking out of them.

We call them nanosponges because they soak up harmful pathogens and toxins that attack the cells they impersonate. My team and I first developed the concept 10 years ago, and since then weve shown the nanosponges offer a new approach to fighting viral infections like HIV; bacterial infections like methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, or MRSA, E. coli and sepsis; and inflammatory diseases like rheumatoid arthritis.

We recently published results showing that the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus binds to these decoy nanosponges, which were more than 90% effective in causing the virus to lose its ability to infect cells in petri dishes. Once the virus is locked into the decoy, it cant invade any real cells, and is cleared by the bodys immune system.

Vaccines are critical for protecting against viral infections, but as viruses mutate they can render vaccines and treatments ineffective. This is why new flu vaccines are developed each year. Fortunately, SARS-CoV-2 doesnt appear to mutate as quickly as influenza viruses, but this highlights the need for alternatives that are unaffected by mutations.

Im hopeful that other teams of researchers come up with safe and effective treatments for COVID-19 as soon as possible. But for now, my team is working and planning as if the world is counting on us.

The different types of nanosponges weve developed are in various stages of pre-clinical development. So far, the results look promising, but there is more work to do to ensure theyre safe and effective.

Cellular nanosponges are a new kind of drug. We made the first nanosponges using human red blood cell membranes, and these are the furthest along in the regulatory process, having undergone all stages of pre-clinical testing.

Cellics Therapeutics, a startup company I co-founded, is in the process of submitting an investigational new drug application to the FDA for the red blood cell nanosponges to treat bacterial pneumonia. If these red blood cell nanosponges get FDA approval and if the pre-clinical data for the COVID-19 nanosponges keep looking good, the COVID-19 nanosponges could have a clearer path to clinical trials in the years ahead.

We are currently testing the nanosponges for SARS-CoV-2 in animals. If the nanosponges do reach the clinical trial stage, there are several ways of delivering the therapy, including direct delivery into the lung for intubated patients via an inhaler like those used by asthmatic patients or through an intravenous injection.

There is also the possibility that our immune-cell nanosponges could soak up the inflammatory cytokine proteins that are triggering the dangerous immune system overreactions in some people suffering from COVID-19.

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Cell-like decoys could mop up viruses in humans including the one that causes COVID-19 - The Conversation US

Zowie Broach on the RCA’s Graduate Show and Gazing Beyond the Runway – WWD

LONDON Zowie Broach is cofounder of the avant-garde label Boudicca and head of the fashion MA program at Londons Royal College of Art, the only pure postgraduate art and design university in the world, and alma mater of designers including Ossie Clark, Erdem Moralioglu, Christopher Bailey and Sophia Webster.

Like most of her peers, Broach and other principals at the Royal College had to think quickly and creatively about how to showcase graduates final projects and get their work under the noses of headhunters, brand managers and other industry professionals in the age of lockdown and social distancing.

Instead of filming the final shows or focusing on the runway, the college came up with the idea of a macro site, where fashion students could strut their creative stuff and showcase their ideas alongside other postgraduate candidates in subjects such as architecture, industrial, graphic and product design, textiles, curation and the fine arts. It is the first time in the RCAs history that the graduates shows will take place entirely online.

Broach also took the opportunity to invite creative movers such as Olafur Eliasson, Andreas Gursky, Edward Enninful, Viktoria Modesta, Gareth Pugh and Carson McColl to curate the students work in fashion and across disciplines. The student projects and curated elements will appear on the RCA 2020 site, a digital discovery platform that opens to the public on Thursday.

Here, Broach, who oversees 51 fashion students in the two-year program, talks about the creative opportunities that lockdown has generated, the constant cross-fertilization of ideas at the Royal College and the power of collaboration and community in fashion and design.

WWD: Talk to me about the site, and how the Royal College came up with the idea.

Zowie Broach: The college had to move very fast. There was no time to gather thoughts and reflect. The college is responsible for 800 young designers, so it was done at speed but not without debate around the removal of the physical, and all the uncertainties that would bring. The site is quite clean, efficient and powerful. Visitors can tag and search by words like femininity, sustainability, or gender, so you may come across three fine artists and one fashion student in the journey. It is absolutely what the school should always have offered, and shows what technology can do, in a nanosecond. I think its going to have lots of ripples: If someone from a fashion label comes to me, I can just take them to the site, where theyll have a snapshot of the young designers, their Instagram or their web site. The students will be able to build networks of people and solid connections at a time when we are unsure of what the next five years holds for all of us.

WWD: Youve invited curators in, and given them freedom to look at fashion as well as the RCAs other graduate work, too. Why?

Z.B.: This is an opportunity for me to show fashion in a design school, surrounded by all these other disciplines, practices and processes. I love that someone who might look at fashion could also see a common thread, or an answer to a bigger question in innovation, design or engineering.

WWD: What sort of guidance did you give your 51 fashion students, whod normally be preparing their final year runway shows, about what to create for the web site?

Z.B.: You need to edit and curate, and I think these students have an instinct about what is right for them. Whats really important is never wanting to tell everything to the person you meet the first time. You want to hold back. But [your audience] also has to love you, and you have to find that thing that draws them in. Then you can tell more stories. But youve got to know what defines you, what your identity is. Its the hardest thing to do, to be focused, edited, curated and to show your strengths rather than your weaknesses. I tell them that people need to be drawn into their narrative, their story and that they need to make [their message] very clear.

Equally, so many of these students are not trying to join the industry, theyre trying to change the industry and so I think they have to make sure that their question, demand or potential innovation is very identifiable but also accessible. It cant feel intimidating, or be hard to understand.

WWD: Did the unconventional format, and having to produce new work quickly, rattle your students at all?

Z.B.: Fashion has always had these deadlines. Traditionally, there was a twice-a-year deadline and it forces you to have output. Its not like they can say, Oh, Ill do another album in five years. I think that restriction is positive more than negative. Weve had this kind of restriction and now, out of necessity, has come something that I feel is incredibly positive.

WWD: What sort of work have the students come up with?

Z.B.: Some of them made films, some made animations. Obviously, they had a body of work that was created in lockdown, and a lot of them taught themselves digital skills in the meantime. As theyve slowly come out of lockdown in the last few weeks, theyve begun to shoot pictures, too. Some of them are much more about process, without a final proposition. And its important [for brands and the industry] to see the process of a young designer, and what that can potentially weave into a company, how they drape and how their brains work.

WWD: You have long encouraged your students to think of fashion outside of fashion, and to look beyond the runway and the showroom when they design. Whats been the result of that?

Z.B.: To me, fashion is about much more than just a product, it is this very important social barometer. It can be political and it can be functional. You have to look at Nike based on the fact that, ultimately, the products are designed for sports people, yet theyve become a part of our identity and design.

Right now, as we emerge from these last four months, we must not assume we are OK. We have to use every muscle in our body to understand we are still getting things deeply wrong on all sorts of levels. Going forward, I want to ask: Who are you designing for? Do you really, truly understand that person? So much also comes from students, and they can help you learn, too.

I also think we need to be more nonhierarchical in our creative worlds and understand that potential propositions are a rhythm, that we work in communities, and remember that fashion has always been about collaboration. Within the world of jazz, the musicians have a great trust of each other, bring great people together and they know what theyre doing, but its not like [one person is] controlling it. One person might play a bigger role and they might move back, and you come forward. This is not just within fashion, its also within the RCA as a whole. I think team is an important word going forward. It has to be.

WWD: How are your students thinking beyond the runway?

Z.B.: People look to fashion for beauty, emotionality and function, but I dont think were necessarily using all of our skills the way we should. So some students have been working with their body, with their situation. One has made jumpers [sweaters] for builders, based on where their bodies overheat during the day. The idea is that clothes can protect, but can also look cool. There is the potential of using, in 2020, our knowledge around materiality, its science and what it can do. Right now, its not being used. What are we going to do when we move forward? I think fashion has a great energy, a great tenacity and its time for us to realize how we can step up and be part of, not just the fantasy, but the expression although there is still a need for the magical.

WWD: What is the advantage to studying alongside students in other creative programs?

Z.B.: If I look at the tree in the field, what do I see? As a scientist? A biologist? A fashion designer? We all look at it differently. We look at the form, or the texture, the nano level or the quantum level. And I think this is so intriguing about our times, these new ways of working together and colliding our thinking. And I also think good fashion designers dont look at fashion. They absorb the world around them.

We ran a project for around four weeks, with 400 students across design, textiles, fashion, innovation design, engineering, intelligent mobility and global innovation design. The students looked at the same project, but in a different way. They use different creative languages, but theyre all using Rhino [software for 3-D modeling] and very similar pieces of software. They listened and learned from each other.

WWD: What are your plans for the students going forward? Will there be any physical element to their presentations?

Z.B.: The college has put some money aside, and what that has allowed me to do is make a sumo magazine, about 70 or 80 centimeters by 60 centimeters, so it becomes a big time capsule of these guys work. Im going to make maybe 50 of them and was thinking of sending them out internationally, to Shanghai, Sweden and Spain. Ill look at where all my students live. Next February, where we would normally do a work-in-progress

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Zowie Broach on the RCA's Graduate Show and Gazing Beyond the Runway - WWD

Flame Resistant and Retardant Fabric to Discern Steadfast Expansion During 2017 to 2026 – Cole of Duty

A recent study published on the Global Flame Resistant and Retardant Fabric market offers an in-depth understanding of the general prospects of this market. Further, the overview of the major findings of this study together with the megatrends affecting the increase of the Flame Resistant and Retardant Fabric market is emphasized in the study. The market introduction and definition is included to help our readers understand the fundamental concepts of the analysis on the Flame Resistant and Retardant Fabric industry.

According to the report, the Flame Resistant and Retardant Fabric marketplace is set to increase In a CAGR of ~XX% over the forecast period (20XX-20XX) and reach a value of ~US$XX towards the end of 2029. The regional commerce analysis along with the leading importers and exporters is included in the study. Additionally, the supply-demand analysis and the key developments in the Flame Resistant and Retardant Fabric market are highlighted in the report.

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Important Findings of this Report

Segmentation Of this Flame Resistant and Retardant Fabric Market

prominent players have been profiled and studied in the report.

Robust demand for these fabric for application in the production of protective clothing for fire fighters, naval & armed forces, and miners, is a key growth determinant for the market. For example anti-flash gloves and hoods derived from Kevlar are currently being used by Royal New Zealand Navy (RNZN), and a flame retardant jute-based fabric has been developed by the IJIRA Indian Jute Industries Research Association, for use as brattice clothing by coal miners.

Development of Nanotechnology-based Flame Retardant Fibers for Military and Space Exploration Applications

There is a growing requirement of flame retardant materials that have textured surfaces in engineering and industrial applications. Recognizing the need, a group of researchers at Defense Institute of Advanced Technology (DIAT) have developed a nano-engineered polymer-based fabric particularly for applications in the space industry and armed forces personnel.

This fabric developed by DIAT is highly flame resistant and retardant to hyper-saline solutions, and is also capable of withstanding ultraviolet radiation and low temperatures. This nano-engineered polymer fabric exhibits excellent integrity when exposed to chemical attacks as well as low and high temperature. Apart from space exploration and military applications, this fabric can also be effectively used in other security forces including air force and the navy.

Growing Offshore Oil & Gas Investments to Boost Demand for Flame Resistant & Retardant Fabrics

Post-high uncertainty in oil & gas industry over the past few years, which was influenced by a plethora of factors including the advent of shale oil production, oil cost-cutting measures, and falling oil prices, offshore production has experience a downward trend. However, with stabilizing oil prices the offshore oil & gas exploration industrys outlook for the future seems promising, with several large projects impending to be deployed such as Bonga Southwest, ACG and Mad Dog Phase 2.

Alarming number of fatalities and injuries have been associated with workers in the oil & gas industries, according to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Recognizing the concern of these workers, OSHA rolled out an official memo, which compels oilfield companies to provide workers with flame retardant clothing, to the entire oil & gas industry.

This resulted into a dramatic decline in the number of fatalities in the industry with respect to fire to and explosion, according to a comparative analysis carried by Bureau of Labor Statistics in 2016. Increasing oil & gas exploration activities coupled with innate requirement for flame retardant and resistant clothing in the industry will drive the market growth in the near future.

Note: The insights mentioned here are of the respective analysts, and do not reflect the position of Fact.MR

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Important Queries pertaining to the keyword market catered to in the report:

Reasons To Buy From Flame Resistant and Retardant Fabric Market Report

Ask analyst about this report at https://www.factmr.co/connectus/sample?flag=AE&rep_id=682

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Flame Resistant and Retardant Fabric to Discern Steadfast Expansion During 2017 to 2026 - Cole of Duty

PyroGenesis Announces Q1 2020 Results: Revenues of $736K, Gross Margin of 37%, Current Backlog $30MM, Provides Q2 2020 and Year End Guidance -…

MONTREAL, July 14, 2020 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- PyroGenesis Canada Inc. (http://pyrogenesis.com) (TSX-V: PYR) (OTCQB: PYRNF) (FRA: 8PY), a high-tech company, (the "Company", the Corporation or "PyroGenesis") that designs, develops, manufactures and commercializes plasma atomized metal powder, plasma waste-to-energy systems and plasma torch systems, is pleased to announce today its financial and operational results for the first quarter ended March 31st, 2020.

Percent complete revenue recognition in our major projects, which is the revenue recognition method we are mandated to follow by GAAP, is such that it is not linear, but exponential, and as such Q1 2020 may not have reflected the results one might have expected given recent announcements. However, using this same revenue recognition method we can safely provide the following guidance for Q2 2020, and for the year ending December 31st, 2020 as follows: We expect that Q2 2020 and the six months ending June 30, 2020 will be profitable as will year end results. As such, management has modified several notes in the financials, for the first time since inception, to reflect this outlook, said P. Peter Pascali, CEO and President of PyroGenesis. To date, in 2020 we have not only received significant payments under existing contracts, but have retired the $3MM convertible debenture in full, bought back approximately 1.2 million shares, increased our investment in HPQ, and further benefited from early conversions of warrants maturing in 2021 of over $3MM. Of note, as of December 31st, 2019 we have approximately $10MM of in-the-money warrants and options expiring in 2020 and 2021 alone. The Company also has over $50MM in tax loss carryforwards (roughly evenly distributed between federal and provincial tax regimes) which is not reflected as an asset on the balance sheet. Given recent events, and the structuring that took place in 2019, the Company is undeniably well positioned to execute on, and build upon, the backlog of signed contracts which currently stands in excess of $30MM. With the eagerly anticipated US Navy contract in hand backlog of signed contracts will be in excess of $40MM. All in all, 2020 can now be described as the year that we have been expecting for some time.

Q1 2020 results reflect the following highlights:

Management Guidance for Q2 2020

Management Guidance for the remainder of 2020:

OUTLOOK

Percent complete revenue recognition in our major projects, which is the revenue recognition method we are mandated to follow by GAAP, is such that it is not linear, but exponential, and as such Q1 may not have reflected the results one might have expected given recent announcements. However, using this same revenue recognition method we can safely provide guidance for Q2 2020, and for the year ending December 31st, 2020: We expect that Q2 and the six months ending June 30, 2020 will be profitable as will year end results. As such, management has modified several notes in the financials, for the first time since inception, to reflect this outlook.

Any discussion regarding the OUTLOOK of the company would be remiss if it did not address the continued increase in the Companys market capitalization and the implications that has for the future.

Without a doubt the Companys market capitalization suffered, as did many other companies, in the general Covid-19 market meltdown at the end of March 2020. However, PyroGenesis soon broke from the pack with the issuance of a material press release on March 24th, 2020.

Management believes that its breaking from the ranks caught the attention of investors, fund managers, and money managers who all now had the time during the Covid-19 lockdown to fully analyze the complicated story that is PyroGenesis. Management does not see any reason why this interest would abate anytime soon. To the contrary, Management has reason to believe that interest in the Company will only increase over the foreseeable future. As such, Management has decided that several strategies that have been articulated in the past (up listings, spinoffs) can now be accelerated as many of the impediments to moving quickly have been removed and have taken steps to do so.

Having a larger market capitalization has also helped in discussions with potential customers who take comfort from the possibility that a higher market capitalization may translate into easier access to capital. For the record, there is no intention at this time to raise capital for working capital purposes.

If 2018 was the year in which PyroGenesis successfully positioned each of its commercial business lines by strategically partnering with multi-billion-dollar entities, and 2019 was the year that saw the appropriate personnel and infrastructure being put in place while building upon the success of 2018, then 2020 is without a doubt the year that the long awaited breakout, which began in the second half of 2019, takes place; it is in fact already upon us:

To date during 2020 PyroGenesis has:

The Company has booked a significant backlog of signed contracts (in excess of $30MM; 2019 Revenues approx. $5MM) which, when taking the eagerly awaited US Navy contract into account, will increase to over $40MM. This provides a solid cornerstone upon which PyroGenesis can:

Specifically, with Aubert & Duval the goal will be to complete the integration of the cutting-edge advances PyroGenesis has made to the powder production process.

With respect to HPQ, the goal would be to accelerate the game changing PUREVAP family of processes which we are developing for HPQ, namely:

As at April 1st, 2020, the Company has approximately $10MM of in-the-money warrants and options expiring in 2020 and 2021. The Company also has over $50MM in tax loss carryforwards (roughly evenly distributed between federal and provincial obligations) which is not reflected as an asset on the balance sheet.

All in all, 2020 can now be described as the year that we have been expecting for some time.

Financial Summary

Revenues

PyroGenesis recorded revenue of $718,908 in the first quarter of 2020 (Q1, 2020), representing a decrease of 2% compared with $736,443 recorded in the first quarter of 2019 (Q1, 2019).

Revenues recorded in the first quarter of 2020 were generated primarily from:

Cost of Sales and Services and Gross Margins

Cost of sales and services before amortization of intangible assets was $444,681 in Q1 2020, representing a decrease of 30% compared with $639,506 in Q1 2019, primarily due to lower employee compensation and direct materials in Q1 2020.

In Q1 2020, employee compensation, subcontracting, direct materials and manufacturing overhead decreased to $391,305 (Q1 2019 - $662,379). The gross margin for Q1 2020 was $267,414 or 37.2% of revenue compared to a gross margin of $92,158 or 12.5% of revenue for Q1 2019. As a result of the type of contracts being executed, the nature of the project activity, as well as the composition of the cost of sales and services, as the mix between labor, materials and subcontracts may be significantly different. Of note, the Company received an amount of $127,842 from Revenue Canada under the CWES program. From this amount, $26,388 was applied to employee compensation under cost of sales and services.

Investment tax credits recorded against cost of sales are related to projects that qualify for tax credits from the provincial government of Quebec. Qualifying tax credits decreased to $20,630 in Q1 2020, compared with $36,071 in Q1 2019. This represents a decrease of 43% year-over-year. In total, the Company earned refundable investment tax credits of $70,313 in Q1 2020. The Company continues to make investments in research and development projects involving strategic partners and government bodies.

The amortization of intangible assets of $6,813 in Q1 2020 and $4,779 for Q1 2019 relates to patents and deferred development costs. Of note, these expenses are non-cash items and will be amortized over the duration of the patent lives.

Selling, General and Administrative Expenses

Included within Selling, General and Administrative expenses (SG&A) are costs associated with corporate administration, business development, project proposals, operations administration, investor relations and employee training.

SG&A expenses for Q1 2020 excluding the costs associated with share-based compensation (a non-cash item in which options vest principally over a four-year period), were $1,205,726 representing a decrease of 7% compared with $1,295,521 reported for Q1 2019.

The increase in SG&A expenses in Q1 2020 over the same period in 2019 is mainly attributable to the net effect of:

Separately, share based payments increased by 106% in Q1 2020 over the same period in 2019 as a result of the vesting structure of the stock option plan including the stock options granted on January 2nd, 2020.

Research and Development (R&D) Costs

The Company incurred $23,088 of R&D costs, net of government grants, on internal projects in Q1 2020, a decrease of 76% as compared with $95,774 in Q1 2019. The decrease in Q1 2020 is primarily related to an increase in government grants recognized.

In addition to internally funded R&D projects, the Company also incurred R&D expenditures during the execution of client funded projects. These expenses are eligible for Scientific Research and Experimental Development (SR&ED) tax credits. SR&ED tax credits on client funded projects are applied against cost of sales and services (see Cost of Sales above).

Net Finance Costs

Finance costs for Q1 2020 totaled $232,736 as compared with $251,498 for Q1 2019, representing a decrease of 7% year-over-year. The decrease in finance costs in Q1 2020, is primarily attributable to interest on lower amounts of debt.

Strategic Investments

The adjustment to the fair market value of strategic investments for Q1 2020 resulted in a loss of $492,024 compared to a gain in the amount of $706,196 in Q1 2019.

Net Comprehensive Loss

The net comprehensive loss for Q1 2020 of $1,757,027 compared to a loss of $878,923, in Q1 2019, represents an increase of 100% year-over-year. The increased loss of $878,104 in the comprehensive loss in Q1 2020 is primarily attributable to the factors described above, which have been summarized as follows:

EBITDA

The EBITDA loss in Q1 2020 was $1,418,057 compared with an EBITDA loss of $464,825 for Q1 2019, representing an increase of 205% year-over-year. The $953,232 increase in the EBITDA loss in Q1 2020 compared with Q1 2019 is due to the increase in comprehensive loss of $878,104, offset by a decrease in depreciation on property and equipment of $38,093, a decrease in depreciation of right of use assets of $20,307, an increase in amortization of intangible assets of $2,034 and a decrease in finance charges of $18,762.

Adjusted EBITDA loss in Q1 2020 was $1,347,190 compared with an Adjusted EBITDA loss of $430,341 for Q1 2019. The increase of $916,849 in the Adjusted EBITDA loss in Q1 2020 is attributable to an increase in EBITDA loss of $953,232, offset by an increase of $36,383 in share-based payments.

The Modified EBITDA loss in Q1 2020 was $855,166 compared with a Modified EBITDA loss of $1,136,537 for Q1 2019, representing a decrease of 25%. The decrease in the Modified EBITDA loss in Q1 2020 is attributable to the increase as mentioned above in the Adjusted EBITDA of $916,849 and a decrease in the change of fair value of strategic investments of $1,198,222.

Liquidity

The Company has incurred, in the last several years, operating losses and negative cash flows from operations, resulting in an accumulated deficit of $61,994,683 and a negative working capital of $11,157,110 as at Q1 2020, (December 31, 2019 - $60,237,656 and $10,492,102 respectively). Furthermore, as at Q1 2020, the Companys current liabilities and expected level of expenses for the next twelve months exceed cash on hand of $1,139,416 (December 31, 2019 - $34,431). The Company has relied upon external financings to fund its operations in the past, primarily through the issuance of equity, debt, and convertible debentures, as well as from investment tax credits.

Separately, PyroGenesis is pleased to announce today that Me Sara-Catherine Tolszczuk has joined the Company as Legal Counsel and Corporate Secretary of the Board of Directors effective July 2nd, 2020. Before joining PyroGenesis, Me Tolszczukwas part of the corporate law group of the leading independent law firm in the province of Qubec. Her work was focused on developing strategies for the protection, commercialization and enforcement of intellectual property assets. She also acquired experience in litigation files and participated in the due diligence phase of mergers and acquisitions. She holds a Bachelors Degree in Law and a Masters Degree in Biology. The Company also announces the departure, effective July 2nd, 2020, of Me Ilario Gualtieri. We thank Me Gualtieri for his contributions and wish his well in his future endeavors.

About PyroGenesis Canada Inc.

PyroGenesis Canada Inc., a high-tech company, is the world leader in the design, development, manufacture and commercialization of advanced plasma processes and products. We provide engineering and manufacturing expertise, cutting-edge contract research, as well as turnkey process equipment packages to the defense, metallurgical, mining, advanced materials (including 3D printing), oil & gas, and environmental industries. With a team of experienced engineers, scientists and technicians working out of our Montreal office and our 3,800 m2 manufacturing facility, PyroGenesis maintains its competitive advantage by remaining at the forefront of technology development and commercialization. Our core competencies allow PyroGenesis to lead the way in providing innovative plasma torches, plasma waste processes, high-temperature metallurgical processes, and engineering services to the global marketplace. Our operations are ISO 9001:2015 and AS9100D certified, and have been since 1997. PyroGenesis is a publicly-traded Canadian Corporation on the TSX Venture Exchange (Ticker Symbol: PYR) and on the OTCQB Marketplace. For more information, please visit http://www.pyrogenesis.com.

This press release contains certain forward-looking statements, including, without limitation, statements containing the words "may", "plan", "will", "estimate", "continue", "anticipate", "intend", "expect", "in the process" and other similar expressions which constitute "forward- looking information" within the meaning of applicable securities laws. Forward-looking statements reflect the Corporation's current expectation and assumptions and are subject to a number of risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those anticipated. These forward-looking statements involve risks and uncertainties including, but not limited to, our expectations regarding the acceptance of our products by the market, our strategy to develop new products and enhance the capabilities of existing products, our strategy with respect to research and development, the impact of competitive products and pricing, new product development, and uncertainties related to the regulatory approval process. Such statements reflect the current views of the Corporation with respect to future events and are subject to certain risks and uncertainties and other risks detailed from time-to-time in the Corporation's ongoing filings with the securities regulatory authorities, which filings can be found at http://www.sedar.com, or at http://www.otcmarkets.com. Actual results, events, and performance may differ materially. Readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. The Corporation undertakes no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward- looking statements either as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by applicable securities laws.

Neither the TSX Venture Exchange, its Regulation Services Provider (as that term is defined in the policies of the TSX Venture Exchange) nor the OTCQB accepts responsibility for the adequacy or accuracy of this press release.

SOURCE PyroGenesis Canada Inc.

For further information please contact: Rodayna Kafal, Vice President Investors Relations and Strategic Business DevelopmentPhone: (514) 937-0002, E-mail: ir@pyrogenesis.com RELATED LINK: http://www.pyrogenesis.com/

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PyroGenesis Announces Q1 2020 Results: Revenues of $736K, Gross Margin of 37%, Current Backlog $30MM, Provides Q2 2020 and Year End Guidance -...

People this Week: New hires, promotions, awards New Orleans CityBusiness – New Orleans CityBusiness

Accounting

Christian Moises APR, practice growth specialist at Ericksen Krentel CPAs and Consultants, has been elected to the national board of directors for the Association for Accounting Marketing.

Advertising/Public Relations

Gambel Communications has named Amy Boyle Collins as CEO of the agency. Founder Betsie Gambel will remain actively involved in long-range planning and business development.

The Ehrhardt Group ranked number 137 in PR Weeks annual review of the top agencies in the country, which was announced in the publications June issue.

Architecture

Samantha Johnson has been promoted as a studio design manager at Nano LLC. Kristine Kobila has been promoted as the QA/QC director at NANO LLC.

Shelby Shankle has joined Campo Architects as a Historian. Her role includes navigating the challenges of the historic tax credit process specific to each state for historic preservation and adaptive reuse projects.

Awards

Ryan Gootee General Contractors has been awarded the 2020 Construction Risk Partners Build America Award in the Building Renovations ($10 million $75 million) category for the Sazerac House.

Justin Landry, Stirling Properties vice president of finance and capital markets, has been awarded the CRE (Counselor of Real Estate) credential by The Counselors of Real Estate.

General Business

CSRS has announced that Domoine Rutledge has become a shareholder of the firm.

Ed Reynolds, vice president of DA Exterminatings Covington branch, has been appointed to the Louisiana Structural Pest Control Commission.

Kingsley House has announced its board officers and three new members: Richard Roth, president; Chimene Grant Saloy, president-elect; Claudia Powell, treasurer; Christine Mitchell, vice president; Ralph Mahana, secretary; and Miles Thomas, immediate past president. New board members include Steve Corbett, Alan Philipson and Sue Williamson.

SMPA SeLA has announced its board of directors for the 2020-21 term: Fannie Marcotte-Bennett, president; Rebecca Moses, president-elect; Alexis Vigier Miranne, past president; Brock Piglia, director at large programming; Kelly Primeaux, director at large, member services; Lorraine Lorio, director at large, communications; Gia Pieri, treasurer; and Glen Duncan, secretary.

Paul Aucoin, executive director of the Port of South Louisiana, has been elected vice president of the Ports Association of Louisiana.

Shayna Beevers Morvant will serve as 2020-21 president of the Louisiana Center for Law and Civic Education.

Digital Engineering has hired Alan Krouse as senior project manager and Fannie Marcotte-Bennett as director of client services.

Health Care

Kirsten Riney has been promoted to chief nursing officer of North Oaks Health System.

Mac Barrient has been promoted to administrator of North Oaks Rehabilitation Hospital.

Meredith Sugarman, associate director of the Louisiana Community Health Worker Institute in the Center for Healthcare Value and Equity at LSU Health New Orleans, has been selected as a Fellow in Families USAs Health Equity Academy in System Transformation.

Law

Daigle Fisse & Kessenich PLC has announced that Katelin Varnado has joined the North Shore office as an associate.

Real Estate

Alex Shows has been hired to be Latter & Blum Property Managements new human resources director.

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Nano Gas Sensors MARKET ESTIMATED COVID-19 OUTBREAK IMPACT ON GLOBAL GROWTH IN 2020-2024 |by Top Key Players-Raytheon Company, Ball Aerospace and…

Global Nano Gas Sensors Market Overview forecast to 2020 :

The Global Nano Gas Sensors Market research report presented by garner insightspresents a detailed analysis of the ongoing market scenario. This report also covers the impact of COVID-19 on the global market. The pandemic caused by Coronavirus (COVID-19) has affected every aspect of life globally, including the business sector. This has brought along several changes in market conditions. Moreover, the study offers an analysis of the latest events such as the technological advancements and the product launches and their consequences on the global Nano Gas Sensors market. With a view to provide an in-depth analysis of key regions, the authors of the report have provided a comprehensive analysis on market attractiveness therein. The report includes key strategies and the effect of key market players on the Nano Gas Sensors Market. Additionally, the report provides market summary, SWOT analysis and the total market share.

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Top Key Players of the Market: , Raytheon Company, Ball Aerospace and Technologies, Thales Group, Lockheed Martin Corporation, Environmental Sensors, Emerson, Siemens, Agilent Technologies, Shimadzu, Futek, Dytran, Nemoto, Endress Hauser, Falcon Analytical, .

The report evaluates the CAGR value as well the market value based on the key market dynamics and growth inducing factors. This study is based on the latest industry news, growth potentials, and trends. It likewise contains a profound analysis of the market and the competitive scenario, along with the complete analysis of the leading pioneers.

Types covered in this report are: , Semiconductor Nano Gas Sensor, Electrochemistry Nano Gas Sensor, Photochemistry (IR Etc) Nano Gas Sensor, Others,

Applications covered in this report are: , Electricity Generation, Automobiles, Petrochemical, Aerospace & Defense, Medical, Biochemical Engineering, Others,

In terms of geography, the Nano Gas Sensors market includes regions such as the Middle East and Africa, Latin America, North America, Europe, and Asia Pacific. Europe will show high growth in the following couple of years. India and China will likewise show notable growth, thereby increasing the count of employments. North America, on the other hand, is expected to have a leading share in the Nano Gas Sensors Market over the coming years. Countries in the Latin America will have significant share in the overall market.

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Key Offerings of the Report:

Major Highlights from the Market:

Browse Full Report With [emailprotected] https://garnerinsights.com/Global-Nano-Gas-Sensors-Market-Status-2015-2019-and-Forecast-2020-2024-by-Region-Product-TypeEnd-UseIn the end, the report covers segment data, including industry segment, type segment, channel segment etc., as well as the segments market size, both in terms of volume and value. In addition, the report mentions client data of different industries, which is proves significant to the manufacturers. The report has been collated with the in-depth secondary research, comprehending the market access aspects across various geographies.

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Nano Gas Sensors MARKET ESTIMATED COVID-19 OUTBREAK IMPACT ON GLOBAL GROWTH IN 2020-2024 |by Top Key Players-Raytheon Company, Ball Aerospace and...



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