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Inis Mr (Inishmore) – Aran Islands – Galway – Doolin

The Aran (or Arran) jumper/sweatertakes its name from the Aran Islands, was popular in the fishing villages on and islands off the West Coast of Ireland, or from the Isle of Arran off the west coast of Scotland. They are distinguished by their use of complex textured stitch patterns, several of which are combined in the creation of a single garment. The word choice of ‘jumper’ or ‘sweater’ (or indeed other options such as ‘pullover’ and ‘jersey’)is largely determined by the regional version of English being spoken. In the case of Ireland and Britain ‘jumper’ is the standard word with ‘sweater’ mainly found in tourist shops. To be even more respectful/aware of the local culture the word used in Irish Gaelic is ‘geansa’ and in Scottish Gaelic ‘geansaidh’ (both pronounced “gahnzee”).

Originally the jumpers were knitted using unscoured wool that retained its natural oils or lanolin which made the garments water-resistant and meant they remained wearable even when wet. It was primarily the wives of Island fishermen who knitted the jumpers.

Some stitch patterns have a traditional interpretation often of religious significance. The honeycomb is a symbol of the hard-working bee. The cable, an integral part of the fisherman’s daily life, is said to be a wish for safety and good luck when fishing. The diamond is a wish of success wealth and treasure. The basket stitch represents the fisherman’s basket, a hope for a plentiful catch.

Traditionally an Aran jumper is made from undyed cream-coloured binn (pronounced bawneen), a yarn made from sheep’s wool, sometimes “black-sheep” wool. They were originally made with unwashed wool that still contained natural sheep lanolin, making it to an extent water-repellent. Up to the seventies the island women spun their own yarn on spinning wheels.

The jumper, locally called a geansa, usually features 46 texture patterns each of which is about 24 inches in width, that move down the sweater in columns from top to bottom. Usually the patterns are symmetrical to a centre axis extending down the centre of the front and back panel. The patterns also usually extend down the sleeves as well. The same textured knitting are also used to make socks, hats, vests and even skirts.

There is debate about when island residents first started making the jumpers. Some have suggested that the jumper is an ancient design that has been used on the island for hundreds of years. Proponents of this theory often point to a picture in the Book of Kells that appears to depict an ancient “Aran jumper”. Also many megaliths around Europe depict similar patterns as those used in the knitting, which are carved into the stone, and date back several thousand years. However it is more likely that the knitting stitches were modeled on these than that they evolved contemporaneously.

Most historians agree that far from being an ancient craft, aran knitting was invented as recently as the early 1900’s by a small group of enterprising island women, with the intention of creating garments not just for their families to wear but which could be sold as a source of income.

The first Aran knitting patterns were published in the 1940s by Patons of England after being supplied by Mille’s shop in Galway. Mille’s was also responsible for most of the costuming used the filming of The Quiet Man in 1951. Vogue magazine carried articles on the garment in the 1950s, and jumper exports from the west of Ireland to the United States began in the early 1950s.

The development of the export trade during the 1950’s and 1960’s took place after P.A. Sochin organised an instructor, with the help of an IDA Ireland grant, to go to the islands and teach the knitters how to make garments to standard international sizings. Knitting became an important part of the island’s economy and during the 1960’s, even with all available knitters recruited from the three islands he had difficulty in fulfilling orders from around the world.

Aran jumpers are sometimes sold as a “fisherman sweater”, indicating that the jumper was traditionally used by the islands’ famous fishermen. It is said that each fisherman (or their family) had a jumper with a unique design, so that if he drowned and was found maybe weeks later on the beach, his body could be identified. There is no record of any such event ever taking place.

This misconception may have originated with J.M. Synge’s 1904 play ‘Riders to the Sea’, in which the body of a dead fisherman is identified by the hand-knitted stitches on one of his garments. However, even in the play there is no reference to any decorative or Aran type pattern. The garment referred to is a plain stocking and it is identified by the number of stitches, the quote being “it’s the second one of the third pair I knitted, and I put up three score stitches, and I dropped four of them”.

There is also some doubt about whether Aran jumpers were ever widely used by fishermen and many argue that the original jumpers with their untreated yarn would not have been suitable for this use. They were quite thick and stiff, which would probably restrict the movements of a fisherman. On the other hand these garments were the only form of hardy clothing they had to weather the Atlantic Ocean storms in. Islanders can be seen wearing them in photographs taken early in the last century.

Arising from the myth above is a widely believed misconception that Aran patterns have clan associations, somewhat like Scottish tartan. Although sometimes used as a marketing device, there is no evidence for any such association even among families who lived on the Islands. Only a relatively small number of family names are or were ever found on the Aran Islands and the majority of Irish families have no history of either wearing or knitting jumpers of any particular pattern.

While in the past the majority of jumpers and other Aran garments were knit by hand, today the majority of items on sale in Ireland and elsewhere are either machine knit or produced on a hand loom. There are very few people still knitting jumpers by hand on a commercial basis.

Machine knit jumpers tend to use finer wool and have less complex patterns, since many of the traditional stitches cannot be reproduced this way. They are the least expensive option. Hand looming allows more complicated stitches to be used, will have more stitches to the inch and be thicker. The best quality hand loomed sweaters are almost indistinguishable from hand knit. Hand knit jumpers tend to be more tightly knit, to have more complex stitch patterns and to be longer lasting and they attract a significant price premium. By holding them up to light the difference between the machine knit and hand kits is self-evident.

Wikipedia contributors (2006). Aran Jumper. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved August 23, 2006 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aran_sweater

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Inis Mr (Inishmore) – Aran Islands – Galway – Doolin

Freedom of speech | Britannica.com

Freedom of speech, Right, as stated in the 1st and 14th Amendments to the Constitution of the United States, to express information, ideas, and opinions free of government restrictions based on content. A modern legal test of the legitimacy of proposed restrictions on freedom of speech was stated in the opinion by Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. in Schenk v. U.S. (1919): a restriction is legitimate only if the speech in question poses a clear and present dangeri.e., a risk or threat to safety or to other public interests that is serious and imminent. Many cases involving freedom of speech and of the press also have concerned defamation, obscenity, and prior restraint (see Pentagon Papers). See also censorship.

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Freedom of speech | Britannica.com

Liberty | Definition of Liberty by Merriam-Webster

plural liberties

1 : the quality or state of being free:

a : the power to do as one pleases

b : freedom from physical restraint

d : the positive enjoyment of various social, political, or economic rights and privileges

e : the power of choice

3 : an action going beyond normal limits: such as

4 : a short authorized absence from naval duty usually for less than 48 hours

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Liberty | Definition of Liberty by Merriam-Webster

Liberty – Wikipedia

Liberty, in politics, consists of the social, political, and economic freedoms to which all community members are entitled.[1] In philosophy, liberty involves free will as contrasted with determinism.[2] In theology, liberty is freedom from the effects of, “sin, spiritual servitude, [or] worldly ties.”[3]

Generally, liberty is distinctly differentiated from freedom in that freedom is primarily, if not exclusively, the ability to do as one wills and what one has the power to do; whereas liberty concerns the absence of arbitrary restraints and takes into account the rights of all involved. As such, the exercise of liberty is subject to capability and limited by the rights of others.[4]

Liberty entails the responsible use of freedom under the rule of law without depriving anyone else of their freedom. Freedom is more broad in that it represents a total lack of restraint or the unrestrained ability to fulfill one’s desires.

For example, a person can have the freedom to murder, but not have the liberty to murder, as the latter example deprives others of their liberty to not be harmed.

Liberty can be reduced as a form of punishment for a crime. In many countries, prisons can deprive criminals of their rights to certain actions enjoyed by non-criminals as a form of punishment.

Philosophers from earliest times have considered the question of liberty. Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius (121180 AD) wrote:

“a polity in which there is the same law for all, a polity administered with regard to equal rights and equal freedom of speech, and the idea of a kingly government which respects most of all the freedom of the governed.”[5]

According to Thomas Hobbes (15881679):

“a free man is he that in those things which by his strength and wit he is able to do is not hindered to do what he hath the will to do” (Leviathan, Part 2, Ch. XXI).

John Locke (16321704) rejected that definition of liberty. While not specifically mentioning Hobbes, he attacks Sir Robert Filmer who had the same definition. According to Locke:

John Stuart Mill (18061873), in his work, On Liberty, was the first to recognize the difference between liberty as the freedom to act and liberty as the absence of coercion.[7] In his book Two Concepts of Liberty, Isaiah Berlin formally framed the differences between these two perspectives as the distinction between two opposite concepts of liberty: positive liberty and negative liberty. The latter designates a negative condition in which an individual is protected from tyranny and the arbitrary exercise of authority, while the former refers to the liberty that comes from self-mastery, the freedom from inner compulsions such as weakness and fear.

The modern concept of political liberty has its origins in the Greek concepts of freedom and slavery.[8] To be free, to the Greeks, was not to have a master, to be independent from a master (to live as one likes).[9] That was the original Greek concept of freedom. It is closely linked with the concept of democracy, as Aristotle put it:

This applied only to free men. In Athens, for instance, women could not vote or hold office and were legally and socially dependent on a male relative.[11]

The populations of the Persian Empire enjoyed some degree of freedom. Citizens of all religions and ethnic groups were given the same rights and had the same freedom of religion, women had the same rights as men, and slavery was abolished (550 BC). All the palaces of the kings of Persia were built by paid workers in an era when slaves typically did such work.[12]

In the Buddhist Maurya Empire of ancient India, citizens of all religions and ethnic groups had some rights to freedom, tolerance, and equality. The need for tolerance on an egalitarian basis can be found in the Edicts of Ashoka the Great, which emphasize the importance of tolerance in public policy by the government. The slaughter or capture of prisoners of war also appears to have been condemned by Ashoka.[13] Slavery also appears to have been non-existent in the Maurya Empire.[14] However, according to Hermann Kulke and Dietmar Rothermund, “Ashoka’s orders seem to have been resisted right from the beginning.”[15]

Roman law also embraced certain limited forms of liberty, even under the rule of the Roman Emperors. However, these liberties were accorded only to Roman citizens. Many of the liberties enjoyed under Roman law endured through the Middle Ages, but were enjoyed solely by the nobility, rarely by the common man.[citation needed] The idea of inalienable and universal liberties had to wait until the Age of Enlightenment.

The social contract theory, most influentially formulated by Hobbes, John Locke and Rousseau (though first suggested by Plato in The Republic), was among the first to provide a political classification of rights, in particular through the notion of sovereignty and of natural rights. The thinkers of the Enlightenment reasoned that law governed both heavenly and human affairs, and that law gave the king his power, rather than the king’s power giving force to law. This conception of law would find its culmination in the ideas of Montesquieu. The conception of law as a relationship between individuals, rather than families, came to the fore, and with it the increasing focus on individual liberty as a fundamental reality, given by “Nature and Nature’s God,” which, in the ideal state, would be as universal as possible.

In On Liberty, John Stuart Mill sought to define the “…nature and limits of the power which can be legitimately exercised by society over the individual,” and as such, he describes an inherent and continuous antagonism between liberty and authority and thus, the prevailing question becomes “how to make the fitting adjustment between individual independence and social control”.[4]

England and following the Act of Union 1707 Great Britain, laid down the cornerstones to the concept of individual liberty.

In 1166 Henry II of England transformed English law by passing the Assize of Clarendon act. The act, a forerunner to trial by jury, started the abolition of trial by combat and trial by ordeal.[16]

In 1215 the Magna Carta was drawn up, it became the cornerstone of liberty in first England, Great Britain and later, the world.

In 1689 the Bill of Rights grants ‘freedom of speech in Parliament’, which lays out some of the earliest civil rights.[19]

In 1859 an essay by the philosopher John Stuart Mill, entitled On Liberty argues for toleration and individuality. If any opinion is compelled to silence, that opinion may, for aught we can certainly know, be true. To deny this is to assume our own infallibility.[20][21]

In 1958 Two Concepts of Liberty, by Isaiah Berlin, determines ‘negative liberty’ as an obstacle, as evident from ‘positive liberty’ which promotes self-mastery and the concepts of freedom.[22]

In 1948 British representatives attempt to and are prevented from adding a legal framework to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. (It was not until 1976 that the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights came into force, giving a legal status to most of the Declaration.) [23]

According to the 1776 United States Declaration of Independence, all men have a natural right to “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness”. But this declaration of liberty was troubled from the outset by the presence of slavery. Slave owners argued that their liberty was paramount, since it involved property, their slaves, and that the slaves themselves had no rights that any White man was obliged to recognize. The Supreme Court, in the Dred Scott decision, upheld this principle. It was not until 1866, following the Civil War, that the US Constitution was amended to extend these rights to persons of color, and not until 1920 that these rights were extended to women.[24]

By the later half of the 20th century, liberty was expanded further to prohibit government interference with personal choices. In the United States Supreme Court decision Griswold v. Connecticut, Justice William O. Douglas argued that liberties relating to personal relationships, such as marriage, have a unique primacy of place in the hierarchy of freedoms.[25] Jacob M. Appel has summarized this principle:

I am grateful that I have rights in the proverbial public square but, as a practical matter, my most cherished rights are those that I possess in my bedroom and hospital room and death chamber. Most people are far more concerned that they can control their own bodies than they are about petitioning Congress.[26]

In modern America, various competing ideologies have divergent views about how best to promote liberty. Liberals in the original sense of the word see equality as a necessary component of freedom. Progressives stress freedom from business monopoly as essential. Libertarians disagree, and see economic freedom as best. The Tea Party movement sees big government as the enemy of freedom.[27][28]

France supported the Americans in their revolt against English rule and, in 1789, overthrew their own monarchy, with the cry of “Libert, galit, fraternit”. The bloodbath that followed, known as the reign of terror, soured many people on the idea of liberty. Edmund Burke, considered one of the fathers of conservatism, wrote “The French had shewn themselves the ablest architects of ruin that had hitherto existed in the world.”[29]

According to the Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics, liberalism is “the belief that it is the aim of politics to preserve individual rights and to maximize freedom of choice”. But they point out that there is considerable discussion about how to achieve those goals. Every discussion of freedom depends on three key components: who is free, what they are free to do, and what forces restrict their freedom.[30] John Gray argues that the core belief of liberalism is toleration. Liberals allow others freedom to do what they want, in exchange for having the same freedom in return. This idea of freedom is personal rather than political.[31] William Safire points out that liberalism is attacked by both the Right and the Left: by the Right for defending such practices as abortion, homosexuality, and atheism, by the Left for defending free enterprise and the rights of the individual over the collective.[32]

According to the Encyclopdia Britannica, Libertarians hold liberty as their primary political value.[33] Their approach to implementing liberty involves opposing any governmental coercion, aside from that which is necessary to prevent individuals from coercing each other.[34]

According to republican theorists of freedom, like the historian Quentin Skinner[35][36] or the philosopher Philip Pettit,[37] one’s liberty should not be viewed as the absence of interference in one’s actions, but as non-domination. According to this view, which originates in the Roman Digest, to be a liber homo, a free man, means not being subject to another’s arbitrary will, that is to say, dominated by another. They also cite Machiavelli who asserted that you must be a member of a free self-governing civil association, a republic, if you are to enjoy individual liberty.[38]

The predominance of this view of liberty among parliamentarians during the English Civil War resulted in the creation of the liberal concept of freedom as non-interference in Thomas Hobbes’ Leviathan.[citation needed]

Socialists view freedom as a concrete situation as opposed to a purely abstract ideal. Freedom is a state of being where individuals have agency to pursue their creative interests unhindered by coercive social relationships, specifically those they are forced to engage in as a requisite for survival under a given social system. Freedom thus requires both the material economic conditions that make freedom possible alongside social relationships and institutions conducive to freedom.[39]

The socialist conception of freedom is closely related to the socialist view of creativity and individuality. Influenced by Karl Marx’s concept of alienated labor, socialists understand freedom to be the ability for an individual to engage in creative work in the absence of alienation, where “alienated labor” refers to work people are forced to perform and un-alienated work refers to individuals pursuing their own creative interests.[40]

For Karl Marx, meaningful freedom is only attainable in a communist society characterized by superabundance and free access. Such a social arrangement would eliminate the need for alienated labor and enable individuals to pursue their own creative interests, leaving them to develop and maximize their full potentialities. This goes alongside Marx’s emphasis on the ability of socialism and communism progressively reducing the average length of the workday to expand the “realm of freedom”, or discretionary free time, for each person.[41][42] Marx’s notion of communist society and human freedom is thus radically individualistic.[43]

Some authors have suggested that a virtuous culture must exist as a prerequisite for liberty. Benjamin Franklin stated that “only a virtuous people are capable of freedom. As nations become corrupt and vicious, they have more need of masters.”[44] Madison likewise declared: “To suppose that any form of government will secure liberty or happiness without any virtue in the people, is a chimerical idea.”[45] John Adams acknowledged: “Our constitution was made only for a moral and religious people. It is wholly inadequate to the government of any other.”[46]

“This also is remarkable in India, that all Indians are free, and no Indian at all is a slave. In this the Indians agree with the Lacedaemonians. Yet the Lacedaemonians have Helots for slaves, who perform the duties of slaves; but the Indians have no slaves at all, much less is any Indian a slave.”

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Liberty – Wikipedia

High seas | maritime law | Britannica.com

High seas, in maritime law, all parts of the mass of saltwater surrounding the globe that are not part of the territorial sea or internal waters of a state. For several centuries beginning in the European Middle Ages, a number of maritime states asserted sovereignty over large portions of the high seas. Well-known examples were the claims of Genoa in the Mediterranean and of Great Britain in the North Sea and elsewhere.

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international law: High seas and seabed

Traditionally, the high seas beyond the territorial waters of states have been regarded as open to all and incapable of appropriation. The definition of the high seas has changed somewhat since the creation of the various maritime zones, so that they

The doctrine that the high seas in time of peace are open to all nations and may not be subjected to national sovereignty (freedom of the seas) was proposed by the Dutch jurist Hugo Grotius as early as 1609. It did not become an accepted principle of international law, however, until the 19th century. Freedom of the seas was ideologically connected with other 19th-century freedoms, particularly laissez-faire economic theory, and was vigorously pressed by the great maritime and commercial powers, especially Great Britain. Freedom of the high seas is now recognized to include freedom of navigation, fishing, the laying of submarine cables and pipelines, and overflight of aircraft.

By the second half of the 20th century, demands by some coastal states for increased security and customs zones, for exclusive offshore-fishing rights, for conservation of maritime resources, and for exploitation of resources, especially oil, found in continental shelves caused serious conflicts. The first United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea, meeting at Geneva in 1958, sought to codify the law of the high seas but was unable to resolve many issues, notably the maximum permissible breadth of the territorial sea subject to national sovereignty. A second conference (Geneva, 1960) also failed to resolve this point; and a third conference began in Caracas in 1973, later convening in Geneva and New York City.

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High Seas Fleet – Wikipedia

The High Seas Fleet (Hochseeflotte) was the battle fleet of the German Imperial Navy and saw action during the First World War. The formation was created in February 1907, when the Home Fleet (Heimatflotte) was renamed as the High Seas Fleet. Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz was the architect of the fleet; he envisioned a force powerful enough to challenge the Royal Navy’s predominance. Kaiser Wilhelm II, the German Emperor, championed the fleet as the instrument by which he would seize overseas possessions and make Germany a global power. By concentrating a powerful battle fleet in the North Sea while the Royal Navy was required to disperse its forces around the British Empire, Tirpitz believed Germany could achieve a balance of force that could seriously damage British naval hegemony. This was the heart of Tirpitz’s “Risk Theory,” which held that Britain would not challenge Germany if the latter’s fleet posed such a significant threat to its own.

The primary component of the Fleet was its battleships, typically organized in eight-ship squadrons, though it also contained various other formations, including the I Scouting Group. At its creation in 1907, the High Seas Fleet consisted of two squadrons of battleships, and by 1914, a third squadron had been added. The dreadnought revolution in 1906 greatly affected the composition of the fleet; the twenty-four pre-dreadnoughts in the fleet were rendered obsolete and required replacement. Enough dreadnoughts for two full squadrons were completed by the outbreak of war in mid 1914; the eight most modern pre-dreadnoughts were used to constitute a third squadron. Two additional squadrons of older vessels were mobilized at the onset of hostilities, though by the end of the conflict, these formations were disbanded.

The fleet conducted a series of sorties into the North Sea during the war designed to lure out an isolated portion of the numerically superior British Grand Fleet. These operations frequently used the fast battlecruisers of the I Scouting Group to raid the British coast as the bait for the Royal Navy. These operations culminated in the Battle of Jutland, on 31 May1 June 1916, where the High Seas Fleet confronted the whole of the Grand Fleet. The battle was inconclusive, but the British won strategically, as it convinced Admiral Reinhard Scheer, the German fleet commander, that even a highly favorable outcome to a fleet action would not secure German victory in the war. Scheer and other leading admirals therefore advised the Kaiser to order a resumption of the unrestricted submarine warfare campaign. The primary responsibility of the High Seas Fleet in 1917 and 1918 was to secure the German naval bases in the North Sea for U-boat operations. Nevertheless, the fleet continued to conduct sorties into the North Sea and detached units for special operations in the Baltic Sea against the Russian Baltic Fleet. Following the German defeat in November 1918, the Allies interned the bulk of the High Seas Fleet in Scapa Flow, where it was ultimately scuttled by its crews in June 1919, days before the belligerents signed the Treaty of Versailles.

In 1898, Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz became the State Secretary for the Imperial Navy Office (ReichsmarineamtRMA);[1] Tirpitz was an ardent supporter of naval expansion. During a speech in support of the First Naval Law on 6 December 1897, Tirpitz stated that the navy was “a question of survival” for Germany.[2] He also viewed Great Britain, with its powerful Royal Navy, as the primary threat to Germany. In a discussion with the Kaiser during his first month in his post as State Secretary, he stated that “for Germany the most dangerous naval enemy at present is England.”[3] Tirpitz theorized that an attacking fleet would require a 33percent advantage in strength to achieve victory, and so decided that a 2:3 ratio would be required for the German navy. For a final total of 60 German battleships, Britain would be required to build 90 to meet the 2:3 ratio envisioned by Tirpitz.[3]

The Royal Navy had heretofore adhered to the so-called “two-power standard,” first formulated in the Naval Defence Act of 1889, which required a larger fleet than those of the next two largest naval powers combined.[4] The crux of Tirpitz’s “risk theory” was that by building a fleet to the 2:3 ratio, Germany would be strong enough that even in the event of a British naval victory, the Royal Navy would incur damage so serious as to allow the third-ranked naval power to rise to preeminence. Implicit in Tirpitz’s theory was the assumption that the British would adopt an offensive strategy that would allow the Germans to use mines and submarines to even the numerical odds before fighting a decisive battle between Heligoland and the Thames. Tirpitz in fact believed Germany would emerge victorious from a naval struggle with Britain, as he believed Germany to possess superior ships manned by better-trained crews, more effective tactics, and led by more capable officers.[3]

In his first program, Tirpitz envisioned a fleet of nineteen battleships, divided into two eight-ship squadrons, one ship as a flagship, and two in reserve. The squadrons were further divided into four-ship divisions. This would be supported by the eight Siegfried- and Odin classes of coastal defense ships, six large and eighteen small cruisers, and twelve divisions of torpedo boats, all assigned to the Home Fleet (Heimatflotte).[5] This fleet was secured by the First Naval Law, which passed in the Reichstag on 28 March 1898.[6] Construction of the fleet was to be completed by 1 April 1904. Rising international tensions, particularly as a result of the outbreak of the Boer War in South Africa and the Boxer Rebellion in China, allowed Tirpitz to push through an expanded fleet plan in 1900. The Second Naval Law was passed on 14 June 1900; it doubled the size of the fleet to 38 battleships and 20 large and 38 small cruisers. Tirpitz planned an even larger fleet. As early as September 1899, he had informed the Kaiser that he sought at least 45 battleships, and potentially might secure a third double-squadron, for a total strength of 48 battleships.[7]

During the initial period of German naval expansion, Britain did not feel particularly threatened.[6] The Lords of the Admiralty felt the implications of the Second Naval Law were not a significantly more dangerous threat than the fleet set by the First Naval Law; they believed it was more important to focus on the practical situation rather than speculation on future programs that might easily be reduced or cut entirely. Segments of the British public, however, quickly seized on the perceived threat posed by the German construction programs.[8] Despite their dismissive reaction, the Admiralty resolved to surpass German battleship construction. Admiral John Fisher, who became the First Sea Lord and head of the Admiralty in 1904, introduced sweeping reforms in large part to counter the growing threat posed by the expanding German fleet. Training programs were modernized, old and obsolete vessels were discarded, and the scattered squadrons of battleships were consolidated into four main fleets, three of which were based in Europe. Britain also made a series of diplomatic arrangements, including an alliance with Japan that allowed a greater concentration of British battleships in the North Sea.[9]

Fisher’s reforms caused serious problems for Tirpitz’s plans; he counted on a dispersal of British naval forces early in a conflict that would allow Germany’s smaller but more concentrated fleet to achieve a local superiority. Tirpitz could also no longer depend on the higher level of training in both the German officer corps and the enlisted ranks, nor the superiority of the more modern and homogenized German squadrons over the heterogeneous British fleet. In 1904, Britain signed the Entente cordiale with France, Britain’s primary naval rival. The destruction of two Russian fleets during the Russo-Japanese War in 1905 further strengthened Britain’s position, as it removed the second of her two traditional naval rivals.[10] These developments allowed Britain to discard the “two power standard” and focus solely on out-building Germany. In October 1906, Admiral Fisher stated “our only probable enemy is Germany. Germany keeps her whole Fleet always concentrated within a few hours of England. We must therefore keep a Fleet twice as powerful concentrated within a few hours of Germany.”[11]

The most damaging blow to Tirpitz’s plan came with the launch of HMSDreadnought in February 1906. The new battleship, armed with a main battery of ten 12-inch (30cm) guns, was considerably more powerful than any battleship afloat. Ships capable of battle with Dreadnought would need to be significantly larger than the old pre-dreadnoughts, which increased their cost and necessitated expensive dredging of canals and harbors to accommodate them. The German naval budget was already stretched thin; without new funding, Tirpitz would have to abandon his challenge to Britain.[12] As a result, Tirpitz went before the Reichstag in May 1906 with a request for additional funding. The First Amendment to the Second Naval Law was passed on 19 May and appropriated funding for the new battleships, as well as for the dredging required by their increased size.[6]

The Reichstag passed a second amendment to the Naval Law in March 1908 to provide an additional billion marks to cope with the growing cost of the latest battleships. The law also reduced the service life of all battleships from 25 to 20 years, which allowed Tirpitz to push for the replacement of older vessels earlier. A third and final amendment was passed in May 1912 represented a compromise between Tirpitz and moderates in parliament. The amendment authorized three new battleships and two light cruisers. The amendment called for the High Seas Fleet to be equipped with three squadrons of eight battleships each, one squadron of eight battlecruisers, and eighteen light cruisers. Two 8-ship squadrons would be placed in reserve, along with two armored and twelve light cruisers.[13] By the outbreak of war in August 1914, only one eight-ship squadron of dreadnoughtsthe I Battle Squadronhad been assembled with the Nassau and Helgoland-class battleships. The second squadron of dreadnoughtsthe III Battle Squadronwhich included four of the Kaiser-class battleships, was only completed when the four Knig-class battleships entered service by early 1915.[14] As a result, the third squadronthe II Battle Squadronremained composed of pre-dreadnoughts through 1916.[15]

Before the 1912 naval law was passed, Britain and Germany attempted to reach a compromise with the Haldane Mission, led by the British War Minister Richard Haldane. The arms reduction mission ended in failure, however, and the 1912 law was announced shortly thereafter. The Germans were aware at as early as 1911, the Royal Navy had abandoned the idea of a decisive battle with the German fleet, in favor of a distant blockade at the entrances to the North Sea, which the British could easily control due to their geographical position. There emerged the distinct possibility that the German fleet would be unable to force a battle on its own terms, which would render it militarily useless. When the war came in 1914, the British did in fact adopt this strategy. Coupled with the restrictive orders of the Kaiser, who preferred to keep the fleet intact to be used as a bargaining chip in the peace settlements, the ability of the High Seas Fleet to affect the military situation was markedly reduced.[16]

The German Navy’s pre-war planning held that the British would be compelled to mount either a direct attack on the German coast to defeat the High Seas Fleet, or to put in place a close blockade. Either course of action would permit the Germans to whittle away at the numerical superiority of the Grand Fleet with submarines and torpedo boats. Once a rough equality of forces could be achieved, the High Seas Fleet would be able to attack and destroy the British fleet.[17] Implicit in Tirpitz’s strategy was the assumption that German vessels were better-designed, had better-trained crews, and would be employed with superior tactics. In addition, Tirpitz assumed that Britain would not be able to concentrate its fleet in the North Sea, owing to the demands of its global empire. At the start of a conflict between the two powers, the Germans would therefore be able to attack the Royal Navy with local superiority.[18]

The British, however, did not accommodate Tirpitz’s projections; from his appointment as the First Sea Lord in 1904, Fisher began a major reorganization of the Royal Navy. He concentrated British battleship strength in home waters, launched the Dreadnought revolution, and introduced rigorous training for the fleet personnel.[19] In 1912, the British concluded a joint defense agreement with France that allowed the British to concentrate in the North Sea while the French defended the Mediterranean.[20] Worse still, the British began developing the strategy of the distant blockade of Germany starting in 1904;[21] this removed the ability of German light craft to reduce Britain’s superiority in numbers and essentially invalidated German naval planning before the start of World War I.[22]

The primary base for the High Seas Fleet in the North Sea was Wilhelmshaven on the western side of the Jade Bight; the port of Cuxhaven, located on the mouth of the Elbe, was also a major base in the North Sea. The island of Heligoland provided a fortified forward position in the German Bight.[23] Kiel was the most important base in the Baltic, which supported the forward bases at Pillau and Danzig.[24] The Kaiser Wilhelm Canal through Schleswig-Holstein connected the Baltic and North Seas and allowed the German Navy to quickly shift naval forces between the two seas.[25] In peacetime, all ships on active duty in the High Seas Fleet were stationed in Wilhelmshaven, Kiel, or Danzig.[26] Germany possessed only one major overseas base, at Kiautschou in China,[27] where the East Asia Squadron was stationed.[28]

Steam ships of the period, which burned coal to fire their boilers, were naturally tied to coaling stations in friendly ports. The German Navy lacked sufficient overseas bases for sustained operations, even for single ships operating as commerce raiders.[29] The Navy experimented with a device to transfer coal from colliers to warships while underway in 1907, though the practice was not put into general use.[30] Nevertheless, German capital ships had a cruising range of at least 4,000nmi (7,400km; 4,600mi),[31] more than enough to operate in the Atlantic Ocean.[Note 1]

In 1897, the year Tirpitz came to his position as State Secretary of the Navy Office, the Imperial Navy consisted of a total of around 26,000 officers, petty officers, and enlisted men of various ranks, branches, and positions. By the outbreak of war in 1914, this had increased significantly to about 80,000 officers, petty officers, and men.[35] Capital ships were typically commanded by a Kapitn zur See (Captain at Sea) or Korvettenkapitn (corvette captain).[26] Each of these ships typically had a total crew in excess of 1,000 officers and men;[31] the light cruisers that screened for the fleet had crew sizes between 300 and 550.[36] The fleet torpedo boats had crews of about 80 to 100 officers and men, though some later classes approached 200.[37]

In early 1907, enough battleshipsof the Braunschweig and Deutschland classeshad been constructed to allow for the creation of a second full squadron.[38] On 16 February 1907,[39] Kaiser Wilhelm renamed the Home Fleet the High Seas Fleet. Admiral Prince Heinrich of Prussia, Wilhelm II’s brother, became the first commander of the High Seas Fleet; his flagship was SMSDeutschland.[38] While in a peace-time footing, the Fleet conducted a routine pattern of training exercises, with individual ships, with squadrons, and with the combined fleet, throughout the year. The entire fleet conducted several cruises into the Atlantic Ocean and the Baltic Sea.[40] Prince Henry was replaced in late 1909 by Vice Admiral Henning von Holtzendorff, who served until April 1913. Vice Admiral Friedrich von Ingenohl, who would command the High Seas Fleet in the first months of World War I, took command following the departure of Vice Admiral von Holtzendorff.[41] SMSFriedrich der Grosse replaced Deutschland as the fleet flagship on 2 March 1913.[42]

Despite the rising international tensions following the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand on 28 June, the High Seas Fleet began its summer cruise to Norway on 13 July. During the last peacetime cruise of the Imperial Navy, the fleet conducted drills off Skagen before proceeding to the Norwegian fjords on 25 July. The following day the fleet began to steam back to Germany, as a result of Austria-Hungary’s ultimatum to Serbia. On the 27th, the entire fleet assembled off Cape Skudenes before returning to port, where the ships remained at a heightened state of readiness.[42] War between Austria-Hungary and Serbia broke out the following day, and in the span of a week all of the major European powers had joined the conflict.[43]

The High Seas Fleet conducted a number of sweeps and advances into the North Sea. The first occurred on 23 November 1914, though no British forces were encountered. Admiral von Ingenohl, the commander of the High Seas Fleet, adopted a strategy in which the battlecruisers of Rear Admiral Franz von Hipper’s I Scouting Group raided British coastal towns to lure out portions of the Grand Fleet where they could be destroyed by the High Seas Fleet.[44] The raid on Scarborough, Hartlepool and Whitby on 1516 December 1914 was the first such operation.[45] On the evening of 15 December, the German battle fleet of some twelve dreadnoughts and eight pre-dreadnoughts came to within 10nmi (19km; 12mi) of an isolated squadron of six British battleships. However, skirmishes between the rival destroyer screens in the darkness convinced von Ingenohl that he was faced with the entire Grand Fleet. Under orders from the Kaiser to avoid risking the fleet unnecessarily, von Ingenohl broke off the engagement and turned the fleet back toward Germany.[46]

Following the loss of SMSBlcher at the Battle of Dogger Bank in January 1915, the Kaiser removed Admiral von Ingenohl from his post on 2 February. Admiral Hugo von Pohl replaced him as commander of the fleet.[47] Admiral von Pohl conducted a series of fleet advances in 1915; in the first one on 2930 March, the fleet steamed out to the north of Terschelling and returned without incident. Another followed on 1718 April, where the fleet covered a mining operation by the II Scouting Group. Three days later, on 2122 April, the High Seas Fleet advanced towards the Dogger Bank, though again failed to meet any British forces.[48] Another sortie followed on 2930 May, during which the fleet advanced as far as Schiermonnikoog before being forced to turn back by inclement weather. On 10 August, the fleet steamed to the north of Heligoland to cover the return of the auxiliary cruiser Meteor. A month later, on 1112 September, the fleet covered another mine-laying operation off the Swarte Bank. The last operation of the year, conducted on 2324 October, was an advance without result in the direction of Horns Reef.[48]

Vice Admiral Reinhard Scheer became Commander in chief of the High Seas Fleet on 18 January 1916 when Admiral von Pohl became too ill to continue in that post.[49] Scheer favored a much more aggressive policy than that of his predecessor, and advocated greater usage of U-boats and zeppelins in coordinated attacks on the Grand Fleet; Scheer received approval from the Kaiser in February 1916 to carry out his intentions.[50] Scheer ordered the fleet on sweeps of the North Sea on 26 March, 23 April, and 2122 April. The battlecruisers conducted another raid on the English coast on 2425 April, during which the fleet provided distant support.[51] Scheer planned another raid for mid-May, but the battlecruiser Seydlitz had struck a mine during the previous raid and the repair work forced the operation to be pushed back until the end of the month.[52]

Admiral Scheer’s fleet, composed of 16 dreadnoughts, six pre-dreadnoughts, six light cruisers, and 31 torpedo boats departed the Jade early on the morning of 31 May. The fleet sailed in concert with Hipper’s five battlecruisers and supporting cruisers and torpedo boats.[53] The Royal Navy’s Room 40 had intercepted and decrypted German radio traffic containing plans of the operation. The Admiralty ordered the Grand Fleet, totaling some 28 dreadnoughts and 9 battlecruisers, to sortie the night before in order to cut off and destroy the High Seas Fleet.[54]

At 16:00 UTC, the two battlecruiser forces encountered each other and began a running gun fight south, back towards Scheer’s battle fleet.[55] Upon reaching the High Seas Fleet, Vice Admiral David Beatty’s battlecruisers turned back to the north to lure the Germans towards the rapidly approaching Grand Fleet, under the command of Admiral John Jellicoe.[56] During the run to the north, Scheer’s leading ships engaged the Queen Elizabeth-class battleships of the 5th Battle Squadron.[57] By 18:30, the Grand Fleet had arrived on the scene, and was deployed into a position that would cross Scheer’s “T” from the northeast. To extricate his fleet from this precarious position, Scheer ordered a 16-point turn to the south-west.[58] At 18:55, Scheer decided to conduct another 16-point turn to launch an attack on the British fleet.[59]

This maneuver again put Scheer in a dangerous position; Jellicoe had turned his fleet south and again crossed Scheer’s “T.”[60] A third 16-point turn followed; Hipper’s mauled battlecruisers charged the British line to cover the retreat.[61] Scheer then ordered the fleet to adopt the night cruising formation, which was completed by 23:40.[62] A series of ferocious engagements between Scheer’s battleships and Jellicoe’s destroyer screen ensued, though the Germans managed to punch their way through the destroyers and make for Horns Reef.[63] The High Seas Fleet reached the Jade between 13:00 and 14:45 on 1 June; Scheer ordered the undamaged battleships of the I Battle Squadron to take up defensive positions in the Jade roadstead while the Kaiser-class battleships were to maintain a state of readiness just outside Wilhelmshaven.[64] The High Seas Fleet had sunk more British vessels than the Grand Fleet had sunk German, though Scheer’s leading battleships had taken a terrible hammering. Several capital ships, including SMSKnig, which had been the first vessel in the line, and most of the battlecruisers, were in drydock for extensive repairs for at least two months. On 1 June, the British had twenty-four capital ships in fighting condition, compared to only ten German warships.[65]

By August, enough warships had been repaired to allow Scheer to undertake another fleet operation on 1819 August. Due to the serious damage incurred by Seydlitz and SMSDerfflinger and the loss of SMSLtzow at Jutland, the only battlecruisers available for the operation were SMSVon der Tann and SMSMoltke, which were joined by SMSMarkgraf, SMSGrosser Kurfrst, and the new battleship SMSBayern.[66] Scheer turned north after receiving a false report from a zeppelin about a British unit in the area.[48] As a result, the bombardment was not carried out, and by 14:35, Scheer had been warned of the Grand Fleet’s approach and so turned his forces around and retreated to German ports.[67] Another fleet sortie took place on 1819 October 1916 to attack enemy shipping east of Dogger Bank. Despite being forewarned by signal intelligence, the Grand Fleet did not attempt to intercept. The operation was however cancelled due to poor weather after the cruiser Mnchen was torpedoed by the British submarine HMSE38.[68] The fleet was reorganized on 1 December;[48] the four Knig-class battleships remained in the III Squadron, along with the newly commissioned Bayern, while the five Kaiser-class ships were transferred to the IV Squadron.[69] In March 1917 the new battleship Baden, built to serve as fleet flagship, entered service;[70] on the 17th, Scheer hauled down his flag from Friedrich der Grosse and transferred it to Baden.[48]

The war, now in its fourth year, was by 1917 taking its toll on the crews of the ships of the High Seas Fleet. Acts of passive resistance, such as the posting of anti-war slogans in the battleships SMSOldenburg and SMSPosen in January 1917, began to appear.[71] In June and July, the crews began to conduct more active forms of resistance. These activities included work refusals, hunger strikes, and taking unauthorized leave from their ships.[72] The disruptions came to a head in August, when a series of protests, anti-war speeches, and demonstrations resulted in the arrest of dozens of sailors.[73] Scheer ordered the arrest of over 200 men from the battleship Prinzregent Luitpold, the center of the anti-war activities. A series of courts-martial followed, which resulted in 77 guilty verdicts; nine men were sentenced to death for their roles, though only two men, Albin Kbis and Max Reichpietsch, were executed.[74]

In early September 1917, following the German conquest of the Russian port of Riga, the German navy decided to eliminate the Russian naval forces that still held the Gulf of Riga. The Navy High Command (Admiralstab) planned an operation, codenamed Operation Albion, to seize the Baltic island of sel, and specifically the Russian gun batteries on the Sworbe Peninsula.[75] On 18 September, the order was issued for a joint operation with the army to capture sel and Moon Islands; the primary naval component was to comprise its flagship, Moltke, and the III and IVBattle Squadrons of the High Seas Fleet.[76] The operation began on the morning of 12 October, when Moltke and the IIISquadron ships engaged Russian positions in Tagga Bay while the IVSquadron shelled Russian gun batteries on the Sworbe Peninsula on sel.[77]By 20 October, the fighting on the islands was winding down; Moon, sel, and Dag were in German possession. The previous day, the Admiralstab had ordered the cessation of naval actions and the return of the dreadnoughts to the High Seas Fleet as soon as possible.[78]

Admiral Scheer had used light surface forces to attack British convoys to Norway beginning in late 1917. As a result, the Royal Navy attached a squadron of battleships to protect the convoys, which presented Scheer with the possibility of destroying a detached squadron of the Grand Fleet. The operation called for Hipper’s battlecruisers to attack the convoy and its escorts on 23 April while the battleships of the High Seas Fleet stood by in support. On 22 April, the German fleet assembled in the Schillig Roads outside Wilhelmshaven and departed the following morning.[79] Despite the success in reaching the convoy route undetected, the operation failed due to faulty intelligence. Reports from U-boats indicated to Scheer that the convoys sailed at the start and middle of each week, but a west-bound convoy had left Bergen on Tuesday the 22nd and an east-bound group left Methil, Scotland, on the 24th, a Thursday. As a result, there was no convoy for Hipper to attack.[80] Beatty sortied with a force of 31 battleships and four battlecruisers, but was too late to intercept the retreating Germans. The Germans reached their defensive minefields early on 25 April, though approximately 40nmi (74km; 46mi) off Heligoland Moltke was torpedoed by the submarine E42; she successfully returned to port.[81]

A final fleet action was planned for the end of October 1918, days before the Armistice was to take effect. The bulk of the High Seas Fleet was to have sortied from their base in Wilhelmshaven to engage the British Grand Fleet; Scheerby now the Grand Admiral (Grossadmiral) of the fleetintended to inflict as much damage as possible on the British navy, in order to retain a better bargaining position for Germany, despite the expected casualties. However, many of the war-weary sailors felt the operation would disrupt the peace process and prolong the war.[82] On the morning of 29 October 1918, the order was given to sail from Wilhelmshaven the following day. Starting on the night of 29 October, sailors on Thringen and then on several other battleships mutinied.[83] The unrest ultimately forced Hipper and Scheer to cancel the operation.[84] When informed of the situation, the Kaiser stated “I no longer have a navy.”[85]

Following the capitulation of Germany on November 1918, most of the High Seas Fleet, under the command of Rear Admiral Ludwig von Reuter, were interned in the British naval base of Scapa Flow.[84] Prior to the departure of the German fleet, Admiral Adolf von Trotha made clear to von Reuter that he could not allow the Allies to seize the ships, under any conditions.[86] The fleet rendezvoused with the British light cruiser Cardiff, which led the ships to the Allied fleet that was to escort the Germans to Scapa Flow. The massive flotilla consisted of some 370 British, American, and French warships.[87] Once the ships were interned, their guns were disabled through the removal of their breech blocks, and their crews were reduced to 200 officers and enlisted men on each of the capital ships.[88]

The fleet remained in captivity during the negotiations that ultimately produced the Treaty of Versailles. Von Reuter believed that the British intended to seize the German ships on 21 June 1919, which was the deadline for Germany to have signed the peace treaty. Unaware that the deadline had been extended to the 23rd, Reuter ordered the ships to be sunk at the next opportunity. On the morning of 21 June, the British fleet left Scapa Flow to conduct training maneuvers, and at 11:20 Reuter transmitted the order to his ships.[86] Out of the interned fleet, only one battleship, Baden, three light cruisers, and eighteen destroyers were saved from sinking by the British harbor personnel. The Royal Navy, initially opposed to salvage operations, decided to allow private firms to attempt to raise the vessels for scrapping.[89] Cox and Danks, a company founded by Ernest Cox handled most of the salvage operations, including those of the heaviest vessels raised.[90] After Cox’s withdrawal due to financial losses in the early 1930s, Metal Industries Group, Inc. took over the salvage operation for the remaining ships. Five more capital ships were raised, though threeSMS Knig, SMSKronprinz, and SMS Markgrafwere too deep to permit raising. They remain on the bottom of Scapa Flow, along with four light cruisers.[91]

The High Seas Fleet, particularly its wartime impotence and ultimate fate, strongly influenced the later German navies, the Reichsmarine and Kriegsmarine. Former Imperial Navy officers continued to serve in the subsequent institutions, including Admiral Erich Raeder, Hipper’s former chief of staff, who became the commander in chief of the Reichsmarine. Raeder advocated long-range commerce raiding by surface ships, rather than constructing a large surface fleet to challenge the Royal Navy, which he viewed to be a futile endeavor. His initial version of Plan Z, the construction program for the Kriegsmarine in the late 1930s, called for large number of P-class cruisers, long-range light cruisers, and reconnaissance forces for attacking enemy shipping, though he was overruled by Adolf Hitler, who advocated a large fleet of battleships.[92]

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High Seas Fleet – Wikipedia

* 2019 * – High Seas Rally: Home Top – High Seas Rally …

There will not be a 2016 High Seas Rally cruise due to cruise ship repositioning and new logistics needed. Once we have everything worked out for 2017, all past High Seas Rally passengers and those on our rally e-mail newsletter list will be notified first. Then the website will be updated for 2017 and re-opened for registration we hope in the May-June time frame (2016). Thanks for understanding.

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* 2019 * – High Seas Rally: Home Top – High Seas Rally …

High Seas Yacht Service

If you live in or have visited the Greater Fort Lauderdale area, chances are pretty good that you have booked a cruise on the Jungle Queen Riverboat or at the very least seen her plying the New River. First launched in 1935, Jungle Queen Riverboat cruises have been delivering a laid-back, casual cruising experience to its customers for more than 80 years.

The old fashion sternwheeler was recently hauled at LMC and our team of running gear mechanics was called upon to overhaul her running gear from shafts to seals, props and rudders as part of routine maintenance.

After performing a full running gear inspection, we pulled the shafts, props and dropped the rudders. We also installed and aligned a new babbit bearing on her shaft. Babbit bearings are known for their resistance to galling and are often used in the marine applications for vessels of this type. As part of the overhaul, we will also remove and re-install the shaft and shaft muff couplings, supply a new Tides Marine shaft seal system and four new cutless bearings.

Our in-house machine shop, Straight Line Marine, will straighten both the port and starboard main shafts as well as the tailshafts. We will then lap the props back on the shafts as well as fit, face and lap the port and starboard couplers.

Work on the rudders required us to disconnect the tie bar and tiller arms. Once the rudders were out of the vessel, we replaced the rudder packing and stuffing box hardware. Our final step will be to do a full engine alignment to ensure smooth, vibration-free cruising.

Once the work is complete and the old gal is launched again, she will be ready to delight visitors to and residents of the Venice of America for years to come.

Optical Scope Alignment check for accuracy

When a 126 Oceanco Motor Yacht was hauled at LMC, we were hired to perform an extensive overhaul on the vessels running gear. Since it had been a while since the running gear was inspected, we first performed a laser deck target before she was pulled out of the water. This is a necessary step in order to ensure that the vessel is blocked correctly for future alignment work.

As part of the overhaul, we removed the shafts, props, stern tube and dropped the rudders. This particular yacht had an older Wartsila EL shaft seal system which was difficult and expensive to maintain. For this reason, we upgraded the shaft seal system to a Wartsila PSE model. Because of space constraints and the different dimension of the two systems, we needed to work with a local aluminum welding contractor to modify the stern tubes in order to accommodate the new shaft seal system. These seals also need to be installed on the centerline of the shafts so we performed an optical scope alignment from the main struts and transmission to the stern tube to ensure exact placement.

Because of excessive wear on the main strut Thordon bearings, we removed the bearings so our in-house machine shop, Straight Line Marine, could cleaned them up before re-installing back into the vessel. Our machine shop also straightened the shafts, lapped the propellers and fit, faced & lapped the port and starboard couplers.

Once all the prep work was completed, we re-installed the propellers and propeller shafts along with the rudders, aligned the engines and performed a final laser deck targeting procedure to ensure that the vessel would not experience any vibrations under way.

Upgrading a Wartsila shaft seal system takes an experienced team, the right tools and precise coordination with outside contractors to make sure the job is done right.

While at the Fort Lauderdale International Boat Show, we were approached by the Captain of a new 164 yacht whose vessel was on display at the show. After a brief sea trial before the show, the vessel had reason to believe that the shafts were bent and Thordon bearings were damaged. While this was an unfortunate turn of events, the problem was magnified by the fact that the yacht was scheduled for a charter in the Caribbean only a week and a half after the show ended.

As you can imagine, most of the boat yards in South Florida were booked for the days following the boat show leaving this Captain with little options of getting the work done quickly. And forgoing the work for a long trip south was not an option. Get it done or cancel charters. We worked with Lauderdale Marine Center to squeeze the yacht into the haul out schedule a couple of days after the show ended.

Once hauled, our team sprang into action. While still in the blocking process, the High Seas team started pulling the props. The next day the shafts were out of the vessel and on the way to the machine shop. Fortunately, our machine shop, Straight Line Marine, is located on site at Lauderdale Marine Center. No loss of time calling for a truck to load and transport to an outside facility. Within a short period of time, the machine shop went to work on straightening. With a little overtime, the shafts were ready to install a day later.

We also found Thordon bearings that were damaged and needed to be replaced. Since this was suspected during our first meeting at the boat show, we ordered Thordon material and it was on-hand before the vessel hauled. Thordon bearings require custom machining to fit the vessel. Our machine shop got it done while the shafts were being straightened.

We then re-installed the shafts and props, did an optical scope alignment and sea trial and sent the yacht on her way in a matter of days so she could make her charter.

This Captain found himself in a tight spot but working with Lauderdale Marine Center to fit this 164-footer into the schedule, hard work on the part of the High Seas and Straight Line Marine teams, a machine shop on-site and ready to go and the dedication to customer service that is the foundation of our company, this yacht is on her way to making a charter guests dream vacation come true.

And we will be there with Lauderdale Marine Center in Booth #640. Stop by and visit with us, November 1-5 at the Bahia Mar Yachting Center. We will have our experienced technicians and mechanics in the booth from both High Seas Hydraulics and High Seas Yacht Service to answer any questions you may have on running gear or hydraulic systems. Hope to see you at the Show!

Optical Scope Alignment check for accuracy

We recently had the opportunity to work on the worlds largest sport fishing boat, a 144 Trinity. The yacht was recently sold and her new owner had her hauled at Lauderdale Marine Center for a complete refit including new engines (repower). The vessel originally had old Paxman engines that were removed by cutting a large hole in the side of the boat and replaced with new MTU engines.

A job of this size requires precision coordination with other contractors at LMC who handle engine rigging and removal, welding, plumbing, painting and full MTU service commissioning.

For our part, we first performed a laser deck targeting procedure to block the vessel properly for hull work and future alignments. We then removed the running gear from the boat so our machine shop could straighten the shafts, lap fit face couplers and propellers and ABS crack test the shafts.

Next, we performed an optical scope alignment of the remote transmissions to the shaft line and used Chockfast to hold the transmissions in place. Working closely with the aluminum fabricators and MTU engine plans, our team made sure that the new engine beds and stringers were in the right position and the right height for the new engines and engine mounts. The next step was to install the new engine mounts on the engines and rough align the engines with the transmissions using lasers for final engine room fabrication.

Our machine shop, Straight Line Marine, then machined the new sole plates for the engine mounts. We also installed Gieslinger torsional couplings between the engines and transmissions and provided all new bearings and shaft seals.

Once the vessel was launched, we did a final laser alignment of the engines to the transmissions and used Chockfast to place all engine mounts into position.

The vessel is now ready to take her owners far and wide in search of big game fish.

As discussed in a previous post, we were commissioned to perform a strut alignment on a 120 Ferretti after she ran aground. This vessel had cardan shafts. Marine cardan shafts, while fundamentally the same as u-joint shafts in cars and trucks, are unique because of the large flanges they have for higher horse power capabilities. They are commonly used with remote transmissions where the transmission (gearbox) are separate from the main engine.

Once we removed the cardan shafts from the boat, we sent them to a company in the Mid-West where they inspected and replaced where needed the needle bearings in the universal joints (U-joint) and balanced the shafts. Balancing cardan shafts takes a highly-specialized piece of equipment.

It is very important to balance the cardan shaft to eliminate the possibility of torsional vibrations. Torsional vibrations are caused by two things: the u-joint operating angle at the drive end of the drive shaft and the orientation (phasing) of the yokes at each end of the drive shaft. A torsional vibration is a twice per revolution vibration. It will cause the drive shaft, downstream of the front U-joint, to speed up and slow down twice per revolution. That means that the engine producing a constant speed of 3,000 RPM can actually be attached to the drive shaft that is changing speed 6,000 times per minute. The amount of that change in speed, called the magnitude, or size of the change, is proportional to the size of the angle at the drive end of the drive shaft, or the amount of misalignment between the yokes at the drive and driven end of your drive shaft. Torsional vibrations are serious vibrations that can cause the shaft to bend and potentially break.

When a drive shaft is assembled, its inner components usually consist of a slip yoke on one end and a tube yoke on the other end, and they are usually assembled in relation to each other. This is called PHASING. Most drive shafts are assembled with their yokes in line, or IN PHASE. A drive shaft that is in phase and has the correct operating angles at the drive end of the shaft does not create a torsional vibration. Drive shafts that are NOT in phase will vibrate with the same twice per revolution vibration as a drive shaft with incorrect operating angles.

Understanding the intricacies of the various components found in many mega-yachts ensures that the job gets done and gets done right.

When a 120 Ferretti was hauled at Lauderdale Marine Center, the captain hired us to perform shaft straightening in our machine shop, Straight Line Marineand a strut alignment on the yacht as a result of a recent grounding. The ship had significant vibration issues that needed to be addressed.

Once the struts were removed, cleaned and straightened, the re-installation began with prepping the surface to remountthe struts. Upon completion, we used a forklift and ratchet straps to reinstall the struts in the boat. To ensure exact alignment, we used an optical scope.Optical Scope Alignmentsor Scoping for short; is the most advanced method for obtaining a perfect marine shaft alignment with struts, shaft logs, engines or v-drives. Scoping is the latest generation of alignment technology and far more advanced than the old piano wire system and even laser alignments. The Optical Scope Alignment allowed our mechanics to make exact adjustments to ensure that the struts were perfectly seated to the haul.

To finish the re-installation of the struts, we use CHOCKFAST ORANGE to fill the gaps between the strut installation and the hull of the boat. CHOCKFAST is an engineered epoxy chocking material that is used to cast-in-place permanent machinery supports for all sizes and types of main engines and marine auxiliary equipment. Because it conforms precisely to any surface profile, CHOCKFAST eliminates the machining of foundation and mounting surfaces as well as the fitting of the old-style steel chocks.

CHOCKFAST Orangeisaconveniently pourable, two-component, structural epoxy chock that replaces tediously fitted steel shims (or steel chocks) assuring exact contact with machined or un-machined equipment bed plates. This is the only method to gain an accurate alignment without complicated line boring or other machining processes.

This yacht is now ready to get back on the open seas for new adventures and smooth sailing.

A 106 Westport yacht was recently hauled at Lauderdale Marine Center for a variety routine maintenance projects including shaft work, bearing replacements and an overhaul on several hydraulic systems. To streamline the process and help the captain and crew better manage the project, they contracted with both High Seas Yacht Service for the running gear portion and High Seas Hydraulics to handle the hydraulics work.

Our running gear mechanics inspected the shafts to ensure they were straight and aligned and replaced the bearings and seals. Normal wear and tear associated with running the vessel and prolonged exposure to salt water makes this task a necessary evil for properly maintaining the boat. As seen in the adjacent photo, there was a visible gap where the cutlass bearing adjoined to the shaft.

We were also commissioned to replace the seals on the lower stabilizer fins. ABT Trac, one of the more popular brands, recommends changing the lower stabilizer fin seals every couple of years but at least every six years depending on use. The components on the stabilizer are constantly working except is absolute calm seas, so the wear and tear can be considerable. After dropping the fins, we proceeded to change out the old lower stabilizer fin seals with new ones, check the hoses and cylinders, then reassembling the units.

In addition to the routine maintenance on the stabilizer systems, we flushed the entire hydraulic system using the simple drain, filter, fill approach commonly referred to in our shop as a DFF. This type of flush is more of an oil change and is part of routine maintenance. It is not appropriate where a more serious condition such as water, metal particles or other contaminants are found in the oil. The process calls for draining the hydraulic tank, changing out the filters and refilling the tank with hydraulic fluid.

To round out the work on this Westport, we did an overhaul on the bow thruster, single Maxwell windlass, the boats heat exchangers and the hydraulic steering system which was slow to respond.

From running gear to hydraulics, our teams at High Seas Yacht Service and High Seas Hydraulics, make easy work of maintaining the systems that make your vessel safe and operating smoothly.

We recently worked on a 96-foot Ferretti yacht that had run aground and was experiencing considerable engine vibrations. Our field technicians with High Seas Yacht Service inspected the boat and found that the shafts were bent and one of the struts was bent and out of alignment. After pulling the props and shafts, we sent the shafts off to our machine shop, Straight Line Marine for straightening. Once the shafts were back in true, we sent them back to the vessel for re-installation after performing a full strut alignment on the vessel.

Strut alignment is often overlooked when trying to determine the cause of vibrations in a boat. All too often the first or second course of actions are shaft straightening or engine alignment when the root of the problem may lie in the struts. Struts can be out of alignment due to poor factory set-up or a hard grounding causing a bent or twisted strut.

Strut alignments are complex and require special tools and experienced mechanics. Once a strut is removed from the boat it is a major repair and should only be done by specialist in this field.

We begin the process with an optical scope alignment for precision measurements of the misalignment. In order to align the strut, it must be removed or dropped from the bottom of the boat. All strut bolts are removed and a considerable force is applied to break the bond between the strut and the hull. Proper equipment and safety are a major concern since some struts can weigh hundreds of pounds.

Once removed, the strut pad and hull pockets must be ground clean in preparation for installation. Extra jacking holes are drilled and tapped in the four corners of the strut pads to help with fine tuning adjustments. Once preparation is complete, the strut is hung back in its original place and the optical scope is once again used for precision alignment of the strut cutlass bearing.

When the strut is properly aligned, we use ChockFast to inject into the gap between the hull and strut to form a perfect fit with the bottom of the hull.

A strut alignment is typically a one-time project for any vessel unless it is driven hard aground. A properly aligned strut will free-up an engine to provide a smooth ride for comfort and higher speed with lower fuel consumption. For more details on performing a full strut alignment, click here.

When a 112-foot Westport yacht returned to Lauderdale Marine Center, our running gear team dropped in on the vessel for a courtesy visit and health check. The ship was in the yard last year and we did a full running gear job including shaft work and alignment.

Checking Tolerances

Since the yacht was back on the hard, our team checked the cutlass bearing clearance on the shafts to ensure that the shafts were properly aligned. The tool we used to perform this task is called a feelers gauge which are an assortment of fine thickened strips with marked thickness which are used to measure gap width or clearance between the shaft and the cutlass bearings. We also visually inspected the bearing seals.

Feelers Gauge

We were happy to report back to the captain that everything checked out properly and the running gear work that we performed last year was holding true. When you engage High Seas Yacht Service, you can rest assured that we will stand by our work and go that extra mile to keep our valued customers sailing smoothly.

Link:

High Seas Yacht Service

Amazon.com: Pepe The Frog Mask – Perfect for Halloween …

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Unwelcome Greetings is the leading manufacturer and retailer of trending and meme inspired greeting cards and gift products designed to prank and troll friends and loved ones. Rap Masks are perfect for perfect for parties, pranks, festivals, and especially Halloween. Masks are printed on Premium 120 lb Matte Cardstock and then masterfully hand cut. Masks are then heat pressed for vacuum sealed Waterproof Lamination. Each mask comes equipped with a durable, elastic stretch string that can accommodate any size head or hairstyle. Rap Masks are resistant to abrasion, mildew, and UV sunlight. Each mask has been extensively tested and quality checked. —- In 2005, artist Matt Furie created the comic series Boys Club, which stars the teenage monster characters Pepe, Brett, Andy and Landwolf. In 2008, a comic in which Pepe pulls his pants down to his ankles in order to urinate was popularized on 4chan, along with the expression Feels good man. Sad Frog is an illustration of a depressed-looking Pepe used to express feelings of failure or disappointment. Pepe is basically the range of human emotion that we are all capable of feeling. But because the internet does not know sensitivity, Pepe must be the scapegoat (or scrapefrog) through which the internet channels their feelings.

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Trance 2 (2018) – Giant Bicycles | United States

Giant believes the Giant/Liv/Momentum retailer is an essential part of the cycling foundation. Competent bicycle retailers make the difference in creating a cyclist for life. Our family of retailers is ready to communicate our mutual commitment to the cycling lifestyle and its lifelong health benefits. Our promise to you; we are committed to your riding experience, there is no better way to service, fit, or impact the cycling experience with such emotion and sustainability than through an energized Giant/Liv/Momentum retailer.

Thank you for supporting a local business. Lets ride!

All the best,John JT ThompsonGeneral Manager Giant Bicycle USA

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Trance 2 (2018) – Giant Bicycles | United States

Trance music | Last.fm

Trance is a style of electronic dance music that developed in the 1980s. Trance music is generally characterized by a tempo of between 130 and 160 BPM, featuring repeating melodic synthesizer phrases, and a musical form that builds up and down throughout a track. It often features crescendos and breakdowns. Sometimes vocals are also utilized. The style is arguably derived from a combination of largely electronic music such as ambient music, techno, and house. In the early 1980s, the German read more

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Trance music | Last.fm

Trance Synonyms, Trance Antonyms | Thesaurus.com

It was Daisy’s voice which awakened me from this species of trance.

There’s sort of a look in your eyes as if you’d got in a trance and couldn’t get out.

Had she been, indeed, as her mother said she looked, “in a trance?”

Indeed, he did not awake from this kind of trance until the geese and turkeys were unspitted.

As in a trance, he saw more than the dam; he saw what it symbolized.

Martha Graham gasped, entered the hall as though in a trance.

Miss Martha also seemed to be coming out of a dream, or trance.

Her trance was over now, and rude indeed had been the awakening.

At that word Davy looked like a man newly awakened from a trance.

I stood there, in front of our street-door, in a kind of trance.

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Trance Synonyms, Trance Antonyms | Thesaurus.com

Trance Definition and Meaning – Bible Dictionary

TRANCE

trans (ekstasis):

The condition expressed by this word is a mental state in which the person affected is partially or wholly unconscious of objective sensations, but intensely alive to subjective impressions which, however they may be originated, are felt as if they were revelations from without. They may take the form of visual or auditory sensations or else of impressions of taste, smell, heat or cold, and sometimes these conditions precede epileptic seizures constituting what is named the aura epileptica. The word occurs 5 times in the King James Version, twice in the story of Balaam (Numbers 24:4,16), twice in the history of Peter (Acts 10:10; 11:5), and once in that of Paul (Acts 22:17). In the Balaam story the word is of the nature of a gloss rather than a translation, as the Hebrew naphal means simply “to fall down” and is translated accordingly in the Revised Version (British and American). Here Septuagint has en hupno, “in sleep” (see SLEEP, DEEP). In Peter’s vision on the housetop at Joppa he saw the sail (othone) descending from heaven, and heard a voice. Paul’s trance was also one of both sight and sound. The vision on the Damascus road (Acts 9:3-9) and that recorded in 2Corinthians 12:2-4 were also cases of trance, as were the prophetic ecstasies of Saul, Daniel and Elisha, and the condition of John in which he says that he was “in the Spirit” (Revelation 1:10).

The border line between trance and dream is indefinite:

the former occurs while one is, in a sense, awake; the latter takes place in the passage from sleep to wakefulness. The dream as well as the vision were supposed of old to be channels of revelation (Job 33:15). In Shakespearean English, “trance” means a dream (Taming of the Shrew, I, i, 182), or simply a bewilderment (Lucrece, 1595).

In the phenomena of hypnotic suggestion, sometimes affecting a number of persons simultaneously we have conditions closely allied to trance, and doubtless some of the well-authenticated phantom appearances are similar subjective projections from the mind affecting the visual and auditory centers of the brain.

Alex. Macalister

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Trance Definition and Meaning – Bible Dictionary

trance | Definition of trance in English by Oxford Dictionaries

noun

1A half-conscious state characterized by an absence of response to external stimuli, typically as induced by hypnosis or entered by a medium.

she put him into a light trance

More example sentences

Synonyms

daze, stupor, haze, hypnotic state, half-conscious state, dream, daydream, reverie, brown study, suspended animation

the kind of trance he went into whenever illness was discussed

More example sentences

Synonyms

daze, stupor, haze, hypnotic state, half-conscious state, dream, daydream, reverie, brown study, suspended animation

in the Hades Warehouse there’s the finest in trance and techno

More example sentences

Put into a trance.

she’s been tranced and may need waking

More example sentences

Middle English (originally as a verb in the sense be in a trance): from Old French transir depart, fall into trance, from Latin transire go across.

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trance | Definition of trance in English by Oxford Dictionaries

Trance (2013) – Rotten Tomatoes

Simon (James McAvoy), a fine art auctioneer, teams up with a criminal gang to steal a Goya painting worth millions of dollars, but after suffering a blow to the head during the heist he awakens to discover he has no memory of where he hid the painting. When physical threats and torture fail to produce answers, the gang’s leader Frank (Vincent Cassel) hires hypnotherapist Elizabeth Lamb (Rosario Dawson) to delve into the darkest recesses of Simon’s psyche. As Elizabeth begins to unravel Simon’s broken subconscious, the lines between truth, suggestion, and deceit begin to blur. (c)Fox Searchlight

Rating:

R (for sexual content, graphic nudity, violence, some grisly images, and language)

Genre:

Directed By:

Written By:

In Theaters:

Apr 5, 2013 limited

On Disc/Streaming:

Jul 23, 2013

Box Office:

$4,856,227

Runtime:

101 minutes

Studio:

Link:

Trance (2013) – Rotten Tomatoes

Scraping By: Wage Labor, Slavery, and Survival in Early …

“Graceful, engaging work.” — History Wire – Where the Past Comes Alive

“Scraping By is an impressive, eloquently written study that provides a seminal history of Baltimore’s working class, and makes a fine addition to the already outstanding list of titles in the Studies in Early American Economy and Society series.” — Maryland Historical Magazine

“Scraping By is about breaking new ground: the often nasty, unhealthy labor essential to Baltimore’s growth as a boomtown from the 1790s to 1830s. Rockman breaks new ground himself in studying ‘low-end laborers’: slaves, free blacks, European immigrants, and the native-born who struggled to cobble together a few days’ ill-paid toil… Highly recommended.” — Choice

“A creative treatment of an intriguing and important topic… The effort to make slavery history a part of labor history, and vice versa, is commendable, effective, and overdue.” — Peter H. Wood, Duke University

“Scraping By offers an entirely new way of understanding the early republic. Through a combination of prodigious research, keen insight, and graceful, lively prose, Seth Rockman brings to life the labor and laborers who built early America from the cobblestones up. Here are workers free and enslaved, male and female, black and white, immigrant and native born, all struggling to attain the basic wherewithal of survival in a boomtown of their own making. This is no local story but a fresh paradigm, nothing less than the future of American social history.” — Jane Kamensky, Brandeis University

“The economy of the Early Republic has long served as a kind of Rorschach test for American historians, with some perceiving a world of unprecedented opportunity and upward mobility and others a class-ridden society riven by inequality, exploitation, and conflict. In this exhaustively researched and vividly rendered book, Seth Rockman reminds us that these competing visions represent two sides of the same coin, that the ability of some Americans to prosper hinged on their ability to mobilize and exploit the labor of others, including enslaved and free people of color, women, indentured servants, immigrants, and others excluded from the full promise of American freedom. Scraping By is essential reading for anyone interested in American economic history.” — James T. Campbell, Stanford University

“Seth Rockman has written a powerful book… Scraping By is an ambitious, impressive, and fully realized piece of work that will engage and educate scholars, teachers, citizens, and activists. The book will take its place on the shelf beside the classics of early American labor history, written by Ira Berlin, William B. Morris, Gary B. Nash, Billy G. Smith, Laurel Thatcher Ulrich, and Alfred F. Young.” — Marcus Rediker, William and Mary Quarterly

“Seth Rockman has written a book to be reckoned with… This is a terrific book, at times abrasive, which deserves a wide audience. That would include undergraduates, for whom Rockman’s vivid writing and clear argument should resonate, especially within an economic climate that is forcing millions more to scrape by.” — John Bezs-Selfa, American Historical Review

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transhumanism | Definition, Origins, Characteristics …

Transhumanism, social and philosophical movement devoted to promoting the research and development of robust human-enhancement technologies. Such technologies would augment or increase human sensory reception, emotive ability, or cognitive capacity as well as radically improve human health and extend human life spans. Such modifications resulting from the addition of biological or physical technologies would be more or less permanent and integrated into the human body.

The term transhumanism was coined by English biologist and philosopher Julian Huxley in his 1957 essay of the same name. Huxley referred principally to improving the human condition through social and cultural change, but the essay and the name have been adopted as seminal by the transhumanist movement, which emphasizes material technology. Huxley held that, although humanity had naturally evolved, it was now possible for social institutions to supplant evolution in refining and improving the species. The ethos of Huxleys essayif not its lettercan be located in transhumanisms commitment to assuming the work of evolution, but through technology rather than society.

The movements adherents tend to be libertarian and employed in high technology or in academia. Its principal proponents have been prominent technologists like American computer scientist and futurist Ray Kurzweil and scientists like Austrian-born Canadian computer scientist and roboticist Hans Moravec and American nanotechnology researcher Eric Drexler, with the addition of a small but influential contingent of thinkers such as American philosopher James Hughes and Swedish philosopher Nick Bostrom. The movement has evolved since its beginnings as a loose association of groups dedicated to extropianism (a philosophy devoted to the transcendence of human limits). Transhumanism is principally divided between adherents of two visions of post-humanityone in which technological and genetic improvements have created a distinct species of radically enhanced humans and the other in which greater-than-human machine intelligence emerges.

The membership of the transhumanist movement tends to split in an additional way. One prominent strain of transhumanism argues that social and cultural institutionsincluding national and international governmental organizationswill be largely irrelevant to the trajectory of technological development. Market forces and the nature of technological progress will drive humanity to approximately the same end point regardless of social and cultural influences. That end point is often referred to as the singularity, a metaphor drawn from astrophysics and referring to the point of hyperdense material at the centre of a black hole which generates its intense gravitational pull. Among transhumanists, the singularity is understood as the point at which artificial intelligence surpasses that of humanity, which will allow the convergence of human and machine consciousness. That convergence will herald the increase in human consciousness, physical strength, emotional well-being, and overall health and greatly extend the length of human lifetimes.

The second strain of transhumanism holds a contrasting view, that social institutions (such as religion, traditional notions of marriage and child rearing, and Western perspectives of freedom) not only can influence the trajectory of technological development but could ultimately retard or halt it. Bostrom and British philosopher David Pearce founded the World Transhumanist Association in 1998 as a nonprofit organization dedicated to working with those social institutions to promote and guide the development of human-enhancement technologies and to combat those social forces seemingly dedicated to halting such technological progress.

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transhumanism | Definition, Origins, Characteristics …


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