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Time travel – Wikipedia

Time travel is the concept of movement between certain points in time, analogous to movement between different points in space by an object or a person, typically using a hypothetical device known as a time machine. Time travel is a widely-recognized concept in philosophy and fiction. The idea of a time machine was popularized by H. G. Wells’ 1895 novel The Time Machine.

It is uncertain if time travel to the past is physically possible. Forward time travel, outside the usual sense of the perception of time, is an extensively-observed phenomenon and well-understood within the framework of special relativity and general relativity. However, making one body advance or delay more than a few milliseconds compared to another body is not feasible with current technology.[1] As for backwards time travel, it is possible to find solutions in general relativity that allow for it, but the solutions require conditions that may not be physically possible. Traveling to an arbitrary point in spacetime has a very limited support in theoretical physics, and usually only connected with quantum mechanics or wormholes, also known as Einstein-Rosen bridges.

Some ancient myths depict a character skipping forward in time. In Hindu mythology, the Mahabharata mentions the story of King Raivata Kakudmi, who travels to heaven to meet the creator Brahma and is surprised to learn when he returns to Earth that many ages have passed.[2] The Buddhist Pli Canon mentions the relativity of time. The Payasi Sutta tells of one of the Buddha’s chief disciples, Kumara Kassapa, who explains to the skeptic Payasi that time in the Heavens passes differently than on Earth.[3] The Japanese tale of “Urashima Tar”,[4] first described in the Nihongi (720) tells of a young fisherman named Urashima Taro who visits an undersea palace. After three days, he returns home to his village and finds himself 300 years in the future, where he has been forgotten, his house is in ruins, and his family has died.[5] In Jewish tradition, the 1st-century BC scholar Honi ha-M’agel is said to have fallen asleep and slept for seventy years. When waking up he returned home but found none of the people he knew, and no one believed he is who he claims to be.[6]

Early science fiction stories feature characters who sleep for years and awaken in a changed society, or are transported to the past through supernatural means. Among them L’An 2440, rve s’il en ft jamais (1770) by Louis-Sbastien Mercier, Rip Van Winkle (1819) by Washington Irving, Looking Backward (1888) by Edward Bellamy, and When the Sleeper Awakes (1899) by H.G. Wells. Prolonged sleep, like the more familiar time machine, is used as a means of time travel in these stories.[7]

The earliest work about backwards time travel is uncertain. Samuel Madden’s Memoirs of the Twentieth Century (1733) is a series of letters from British ambassadors in 1997 and 1998 to diplomats in the past, conveying the political and religious conditions of the future.[8]:9596 Because the narrator receives these letters from his guardian angel, Paul Alkon suggests in his book Origins of Futuristic Fiction that “the first time-traveler in English literature is a guardian angel.”[8]:85 Madden does not explain how the angel obtains these documents, but Alkon asserts that Madden “deserves recognition as the first to toy with the rich idea of time-travel in the form of an artifact sent backward from the future to be discovered in the present.”[8]:9596 In the science fiction anthology Far Boundaries (1951), editor August Derleth claims that an early short story about time travel is “Missing One’s Coach: An Anachronism”, written for the Dublin Literary Magazine[9] by an anonymous author in 1838.[10]:3 While the narrator waits under a tree for a coach to take him out of Newcastle, he is transported back in time over a thousand years. He encounters the Venerable Bede in a monastery and explains to him the developments of the coming centuries. However, the story never makes it clear whether these events are real or a dream.[10]:1138 Another early work about time travel is The Forebears of Kalimeros: Alexander, son of Philip of Macedon by Alexander Veltman published in 1836.[11]

Charles Dickens’s A Christmas Carol (1843) has early depictions of time travel in both directions, as the protagonist, Ebenezer Scrooge, is transported to Christmases past and future. Other stories employ the same template, where a character naturally goes to sleep, and upon waking up finds itself in a different time.[12] A clearer example of backward time travel is found in the popular 1861 book Paris avant les hommes (Paris before Men) by the French botanist and geologist Pierre Boitard, published posthumously. In this story, the protagonist is transported to the prehistoric past by the magic of a “lame demon” (a French pun on Boitard’s name), where he encounters a Plesiosaur and an apelike ancestor and is able to interact with ancient creatures.[13] Edward Everett Hale’s “Hands Off” (1881) tells the story of an unnamed being, possibly the soul of a person who has recently died, who interferes with ancient Egyptian history by preventing Joseph’s enslavement. This may have been the first story to feature an alternate history created as a result of time travel.[14]:54

One of the first stories to feature time travel by means of a machine is “The Clock that Went Backward” by Edward Page Mitchell,[15] which appeared in the New York Sun in 1881. However, the mechanism borders on fantasy. An unusual clock, when wound, runs backwards and transports people nearby back in time. The author does not explain the origin or properties of the clock.[14]:55 Enrique Gaspar y Rimbau’s El Anacronpete (1887) may have been the first story to feature a vessel engineered to travel through time.[16][17] Andrew Sawyer has commented that the story “does seem to be the first literary description of a time machine noted so far”, adding that “Edward Page Mitchell’s story ‘The Clock That Went Backward’ (1881) is usually described as the first time-machine story, but I’m not sure that a clock quite counts.”[18] H. G. Wells’s The Time Machine (1895) popularized the concept of time travel by mechanical means.[19]

Some theories, most notably special and general relativity, suggest that suitable geometries of spacetime or specific types of motion in space might allow time travel into the past and future if these geometries or motions were possible.[20]:499 In technical papers, physicists discuss the possibility of closed timelike curves, which are world lines that form closed loops in spacetime, allowing objects to return to their own past. There are known to be solutions to the equations of general relativity that describe spacetimes which contain closed timelike curves, such as Gdel spacetime, but the physical plausibility of these solutions is uncertain.

Many in the scientific community believe that backward time travel is highly unlikely. Any theory that would allow time travel would introduce potential problems of causality.[21] The classic example of a problem involving causality is the “grandfather paradox”: what if one were to go back in time and kill one’s own grandfather before one’s father was conceived? Some physicists, such as Novikov and Deutsch, suggested that these sorts of temporal paradoxes can be avoided through the Novikov self-consistency principle or to a variation of the many-worlds interpretation with interacting worlds.[22]

Time travel to the past is theoretically possible in certain general relativity spacetime geometries that permit traveling faster than the speed of light, such as cosmic strings, transversable wormholes, and Alcubierre drive.[23][24]:33130 The theory of general relativity does suggest a scientific basis for the possibility of backward time travel in certain unusual scenarios, although arguments from semiclassical gravity suggest that when quantum effects are incorporated into general relativity, these loopholes may be closed.[25] These semiclassical arguments led Stephen Hawking to formulate the chronology protection conjecture, suggesting that the fundamental laws of nature prevent time travel,[26] but physicists cannot come to a definite judgment on the issue without a theory of quantum gravity to join quantum mechanics and general relativity into a completely unified theory.[27][28]:150

The theory of general relativity describes the universe under a system of field equations that determine the metric, or distance function, of spacetime. There exist exact solutions to these equations that include closed time-like curves, which are world lines that intersect themselves; some point in the causal future of the world line is also in its causal past, a situation which is akin to time travel. Such a solution was first proposed by Kurt Gdel, a solution known as the Gdel metric, but his (and others’) solution requires the universe to have physical characteristics that it does not appear to have,[20]:499 such as rotation and lack of Hubble expansion. Whether general relativity forbids closed time-like curves for all realistic conditions is still being researched.[29]

Wormholes are a hypothetical warped spacetime which are permitted by the Einstein field equations of general relativity.[30]:100 A proposed time-travel machine using a traversable wormhole would hypothetically work in the following way: One end of the wormhole is accelerated to some significant fraction of the speed of light, perhaps with some advanced propulsion system, and then brought back to the point of origin. Alternatively, another way is to take one entrance of the wormhole and move it to within the gravitational field of an object that has higher gravity than the other entrance, and then return it to a position near the other entrance. For both of these methods, time dilation causes the end of the wormhole that has been moved to have aged less, or become “younger”, than the stationary end as seen by an external observer; however, time connects differently through the wormhole than outside it, so that synchronized clocks at either end of the wormhole will always remain synchronized as seen by an observer passing through the wormhole, no matter how the two ends move around.[20]:502 This means that an observer entering the “younger” end would exit the “older” end at a time when it was the same age as the “younger” end, effectively going back in time as seen by an observer from the outside. One significant limitation of such a time machine is that it is only possible to go as far back in time as the initial creation of the machine;[20]:503 in essence, it is more of a path through time than it is a device that itself moves through time, and it would not allow the technology itself to be moved backward in time.

According to current theories on the nature of wormholes, construction of a traversable wormhole would require the existence of a substance with negative energy, often referred to as “exotic matter”. More technically, the wormhole spacetime requires a distribution of energy that violates various energy conditions, such as the null energy condition along with the weak, strong, and dominant energy conditions. However, it is known that quantum effects can lead to small measurable violations of the null energy condition,[30]:101 and many physicists believe that the required negative energy may actually be possible due to the Casimir effect in quantum physics.[31] Although early calculations suggested a very large amount of negative energy would be required, later calculations showed that the amount of negative energy can be made arbitrarily small.[32]

In 1993, Matt Visser argued that the two mouths of a wormhole with such an induced clock difference could not be brought together without inducing quantum field and gravitational effects that would either make the wormhole collapse or the two mouths repel each other.[33] Because of this, the two mouths could not be brought close enough for causality violation to take place. However, in a 1997 paper, Visser hypothesized that a complex “Roman ring” (named after Tom Roman) configuration of an N number of wormholes arranged in a symmetric polygon could still act as a time machine, although he concludes that this is more likely a flaw in classical quantum gravity theory rather than proof that causality violation is possible.[34]

Another approach involves a dense spinning cylinder usually referred to as a Tipler cylinder, a GR solution discovered by Willem Jacob van Stockum[35] in 1936 and Kornel Lanczos[36] in 1924, but not recognized as allowing closed timelike curves[37]:21 until an analysis by Frank Tipler[38] in 1974. If a cylinder is infinitely long and spins fast enough about its long axis, then a spaceship flying around the cylinder on a spiral path could travel back in time (or forward, depending on the direction of its spiral). However, the density and speed required is so great that ordinary matter is not strong enough to construct it. A similar device might be built from a cosmic string, but none are known to exist, and it does not seem to be possible to create a new cosmic string. Physicist Ronald Mallett is attempting to recreate the conditions of a rotating black hole with ring lasers, in order to bend spacetime and allow for time travel.[39]

A more fundamental objection to time travel schemes based on rotating cylinders or cosmic strings has been put forward by Stephen Hawking, who proved a theorem showing that according to general relativity it is impossible to build a time machine of a special type (a “time machine with the compactly generated Cauchy horizon”) in a region where the weak energy condition is satisfied, meaning that the region contains no matter with negative energy density (exotic matter). Solutions such as Tipler’s assume cylinders of infinite length, which are easier to analyze mathematically, and although Tipler suggested that a finite cylinder might produce closed timelike curves if the rotation rate were fast enough,[37]:169 he did not prove this. But Hawking points out that because of his theorem, “it can’t be done with positive energy density everywhere! I can prove that to build a finite time machine, you need negative energy.”[28]:96 This result comes from Hawking’s 1992 paper on the chronology protection conjecture, where he examines “the case that the causality violations appear in a finite region of spacetime without curvature singularities” and proves that “there will be a Cauchy horizon that is compactly generated and that in general contains one or more closed null geodesics which will be incomplete. One can define geometrical quantities that measure the Lorentz boost and area increase on going round these closed null geodesics. If the causality violation developed from a noncompact initial surface, the averaged weak energy condition must be violated on the Cauchy horizon.”[26] This theorem does not rule out the possibility of time travel by means of time machines with the non-compactly generated Cauchy horizons (such as the Deutsch-Politzer time machine) or in regions which contain exotic matter, which would be used for traversable wormholes or the Alcubierre drive.

When a signal is sent from one location and received at another location, then as long as the signal is moving at the speed of light or slower, the mathematics of simultaneity in the theory of relativity show that all reference frames agree that the transmission-event happened before the reception-event. When the signal travels faster than light, it is received before it is sent, in all reference frames.[40] The signal could be said to have moved backward in time. This hypothetical scenario is sometimes referred to as a tachyonic antitelephone.[41]

Quantum-mechanical phenomena such as quantum teleportation, the EPR paradox, or quantum entanglement might appear to create a mechanism that allows for faster-than-light (FTL) communication or time travel, and in fact some interpretations of quantum mechanics such as the Bohm interpretation presume that some information is being exchanged between particles instantaneously in order to maintain correlations between particles.[42] This effect was referred to as “spooky action at a distance” by Einstein.

Nevertheless, the fact that causality is preserved in quantum mechanics is a rigorous result in modern quantum field theories, and therefore modern theories do not allow for time travel or FTL communication. In any specific instance where FTL has been claimed, more detailed analysis has proven that to get a signal, some form of classical communication must also be used.[43] The no-communication theorem also gives a general proof that quantum entanglement cannot be used to transmit information faster than classical signals.

A variation of Everett’s many-worlds interpretation (MWI) of quantum mechanics provides a resolution to the grandfather paradox that involves the time traveler arriving in a different universe than the one they came from; it’s been argued that since the traveler arrives in a different universe’s history and not their own history, this is not “genuine” time travel.[44] The accepted many-worlds interpretation suggests that all possible quantum events can occur in mutually exclusive histories.[45] However, some variations allow different universes to interact. This concept is most often used in science-fiction, but some physicists such as David Deutsch have suggested that a time traveler should end up in a different history than the one he started from.[46][47] On the other hand, Stephen Hawking has argued that even if the MWI is correct, we should expect each time traveler to experience a single self-consistent history, so that time travelers remain within their own world rather than traveling to a different one.[48] The physicist Allen Everett argued that Deutsch’s approach “involves modifying fundamental principles of quantum mechanics; it certainly goes beyond simply adopting the MWI”. Everett also argues that even if Deutsch’s approach is correct, it would imply that any macroscopic object composed of multiple particles would be split apart when traveling back in time through a wormhole, with different particles emerging in different worlds.[22]

Certain experiments carried out give the impression of reversed causality, but fail to show it under closer examination.

The delayed choice quantum eraser experiment performed by Marlan Scully involves pairs of entangled photons that are divided into “signal photons” and “idler photons”, with the signal photons emerging from one of two locations and their position later measured as in the double-slit experiment. Depending on how the idler photon is measured, the experimenter can either learn which of the two locations the signal photon emerged from or “erase” that information. Even though the signal photons can be measured before the choice has been made about the idler photons, the choice seems to retroactively determine whether or not an interference pattern is observed when one correlates measurements of idler photons to the corresponding signal photons. However, since interference can only be observed after the idler photons are measured and they are correlated with the signal photons, there is no way for experimenters to tell what choice will be made in advance just by looking at the signal photons, only by gathering classical information from the entire system; thus causality is preserved.[49]

The experiment of Lijun Wang might also show causality violation since it made it possible to send packages of waves through a bulb of caesium gas in such a way that the package appeared to exit the bulb 62 nanoseconds before its entry, but a wave package is not a single well-defined object but rather a sum of multiple waves of different frequencies (see Fourier analysis), and the package can appear to move faster than light or even backward in time even if none of the pure waves in the sum do so. This effect cannot be used to send any matter, energy, or information faster than light,[50] so this experiment is understood not to violate causality either.

The physicists Gnter Nimtz and Alfons Stahlhofen, of the University of Koblenz, claim to have violated Einstein’s theory of relativity by transmitting photons faster than the speed of light. They say they have conducted an experiment in which microwave photons traveled “instantaneously” between a pair of prisms that had been moved up to 3ft (0.91m) apart, using a phenomenon known as quantum tunneling. Nimtz told New Scientist magazine: “For the time being, this is the only violation of special relativity that I know of.” However, other physicists say that this phenomenon does not allow information to be transmitted faster than light. Aephraim Steinberg, a quantum optics expert at the University of Toronto, Canada, uses the analogy of a train traveling from Chicago to New York, but dropping off train cars at each station along the way, so that the center of the train moves forward at each stop; in this way, the speed of the center of the train exceeds the speed of any of the individual cars.[51]

Shengwang Du claims in a peer-reviewed journal to have observed single photons’ precursors, saying that they travel no faster than c in a vacuum. His experiment involved slow light as well as passing light through a vacuum. He generated two single photons, passing one through rubidium atoms that had been cooled with a laser (thus slowing the light) and passing one through a vacuum. Both times, apparently, the precursors preceded the photons’ main bodies, and the precursor traveled at c in a vacuum. According to Du, this implies that there is no possibility of light traveling faster than c and, thus, no possibility of violating causality.[52]

The absence of time travelers from the future is a variation of the Fermi paradox. As the absence of extraterrestrial visitors does not prove they do not exist, so does the absence of time travelers not prove time travel is physically impossible; it might be that time travel is physically possible but is never developed or is cautiously used. Carl Sagan once suggested the possibility that time travelers could be here but are disguising their existence or are not recognized as time travelers.[27] Some versions of general relativity suggest that time travel might only be possible in a region of spacetime that is warped a certain way, and hence time travelers would not be able to travel back to earlier regions in spacetime, before this region existed. Stephen Hawking stated that this would explain why the world has not already been overrun by “tourists from the future.”[48]

Several experiments have been carried out to try to entice future humans, who might invent time travel technology, to come back and demonstrate it to people of the present time. Events such as Perth’s Destination Day or MIT’s Time Traveler Convention heavily publicized permanent “advertisements” of a meeting time and place for future time travelers to meet.[53] In 1982, a group in Baltimore, Maryland, identifying itself as the Krononauts, hosted an event of this type welcoming visitors from the future.[54][55] These experiments only stood the possibility of generating a positive result demonstrating the existence of time travel, but have failed so farno time travelers are known to have attended either event. Some versions of the many-worlds interpretation can be used to suggest that future humans have traveled back in time, but have traveled back to the meeting time and place in a parallel universe.[56]

There is a great deal of observable evidence for time dilation in special relativity[57] and gravitational time dilation in general relativity,[58][59][60] for example in the famous and easy-to-replicate observation of atmospheric muon decay.[61][62][63] The theory of relativity states that the speed of light is invariant for all observers in any frame of reference; that is, it is always the same. Time dilation is a direct consequence of the invariance of the speed of light.[63] Time dilation may be regarded in a limited sense as “time travel into the future”: a person may use time dilation so that a small amount of proper time passes for them, while a large amount of proper time passes elsewhere. This can be achieved by traveling at relativistic speeds or through the effects of gravity.[64]

For two identical clocks moving relative to each other without accelerating, each clock measures the other to be ticking slower. This is possible due to the relativity of simultaneity. However, the symmetry is broken if one clock accelerates, allowing for less proper time to pass for one clock than the other. The twin paradox describes this: one twin remains on Earth, while the other undergoes acceleration to relativistic speed as they travel into space, turn around, and travel back to Earth; the traveling twin ages less than the twin who stayed on Earth, because of the time dilation experienced during their acceleration. General relativity treats the effects of acceleration and the effects of gravity as equivalent, and shows that time dilation also occurs in gravity wells, with a clock deeper in the well ticking more slowly; this effect is taken into account when calibrating the clocks on the satellites of the Global Positioning System, and it could lead to significant differences in rates of aging for observers at different distances from a large gravity well such as a black hole.[24]:33130

A time machine that utilizes this principle might be, for instance, a spherical shell with a diameter of 5 meters and the mass of Jupiter. A person at its center will travel forward in time at a rate four times that of distant observers. Squeezing the mass of a large planet into such a small structure is not expected to be within humanity’s technological capabilities in the near future.[24]:76140 With current technologies, it is only possible to cause a human traveler to age less than companions on Earth by a very small fraction of a second, the current record being about 22 milliseconds for the cosmonaut Sergei Krikalev.[65]

Philosophers have discussed the nature of time since at least the time of ancient Greece; for example, Parmenides presented the view that time is an illusion. Centuries later, Isaac Newton supported the idea of absolute time, while his contemporary Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz maintained that time is only a relation between events and it cannot be expressed independently. The latter approach eventually gave rise to the spacetime of relativity.[66]

Many philosophers have argued that relativity implies eternalism, the idea that the past and future exist in a real sense, not only as changes that occurred or will occur to the present.[67] Philosopher of science Dean Rickles disagrees with some qualifications, but notes that “the consensus among philosophers seems to be that special and general relativity are incompatible with presentism.”[68] Some philosophers view time as a dimension equal to spatial dimensions, that future events are “already there” in the same sense different places exist, and that there is no objective flow of time; however, this view is disputed.[69]

Presentism is a school of philosophy that holds that the future and the past exist only as changes that occurred or will occur to the present, and they have no real existence of their own. In this view, time travel is impossible because there is no future or past to travel to.[67] Keller and Nelson have argued that even if past and future objects do not exist, there can still be definite truths about past and future events, and thus it is possible that a future truth about a time traveler deciding to travel back to the present date could explain the time traveler’s actual appearance in the present;[70] these views are contested by some authors.[71]

Presentism in classical spacetime deems that only the present exists; this is not reconcilable with special relativity, shown in the following example: Alice and Bob are simultaneous observers of event O. For Alice, some event E is simultaneous with O, but for Bob, event E is in the past or future. Therefore, Alice and Bob disagree about what exists in the present, which contradicts classical presentism. “Here-now presentism” attempts to reconcile this by only acknowledging the time and space of a single point; this is unsatisfactory because objects coming and going from the “here-now” alternate between real and unreal, in addition to the lack of a privileged “here-now” that would be the “real” present. “Relativized presentism” acknowledges that there are infinite frames of reference, each of them has a different set of simultaneous events, which makes it impossible to distinguish a single “real” present, and hence either all events in time are realblurring the difference between presentism and eternalismor each frame of reference exists in its own reality. Options for presentism in special relativity appear to be exhausted, but Gdel and others suspect presentism may be valid for some forms of general relativity.[72] Generally, the idea of absolute time and space is considered incompatible with general relativity; there is no universal truth about the absolute position of events which occur at different times, and thus no way to determine which point in space at one time is at the universal “same position” at another time,[73] and all coordinate systems are on equal footing as given by the principle of diffeomorphism invariance.[74]

A common objection to the idea of traveling back in time is put forth in the grandfather paradox or the argument of auto-infanticide.[75] If one were able to go back in time, inconsistencies and contradictions would ensue if the time traveler were to change anything; there is a contradiction if the past becomes different from the way it is.[76][77] The paradox is commonly described with a person who travels to the past and kills their own grandfather, prevents the existence of their father or mother, and therefore their own existence.[27] Philosophers question whether these paradoxes make time travel impossible. Some philosophers answer the paradoxes by arguing that it might be the case that backward time travel could be possible but that it would be impossible to actually change the past in any way,[78] an idea similar to the proposed Novikov self-consistency principle in physics.

According to the philosophical theory of compossibility, what can happen, for example in the context of time travel, must be weighed against the context of everything relating to the situation. If the past is a certain way, it’s not possible for it to be any other way. What can happen when a time traveler visits the past is limited to what did happen, in order to prevent logical contradictions.[79]

The Novikov self-consistency principle, named after Igor Dmitrievich Novikov, states that any actions taken by a time traveler or by an object that travels back in time were part of history all along, and therefore it is impossible for the time traveler to “change” history in any way. The time traveler’s actions may be the cause of events in their own past though, which leads to the potential for circular causation, sometimes called a predestination paradox,[80] ontological paradox,[81] or bootstrap paradox.[81][82] The term bootstrap paradox was popularized by Robert A. Heinlein’s story “By His Bootstraps”.[83] The Novikov self-consistency principle proposes that the local laws of physics in a region of spacetime containing time travelers cannot be any different from the local laws of physics in any other region of spacetime.[84]

The philosopher Kelley L. Ross argues in “Time Travel Paradoxes”[85] that in a scenario involving a physical object whose world-line or history forms a closed loop in time there can be a violation of the second law of thermodynamics. Ross uses “Somewhere in Time” as an example of such an ontological paradox, where a watch is given to a person, and 60 years later the same watch is brought back in time and given to the same character. Ross states that entropy of the watch will increase, and the watch carried back in time will be more worn with each repetition of its history. The second law of thermodynamics is understood by modern physicists to be a statistical law, so decreasing entropy or non-increasing entropy are not impossible, just improbable. Additionally, entropy statistically increases in systems which are isolated, so non-isolated systems, such as an object, that interact with the outside world, can become less worn and decrease in entropy, and it’s possible for an object whose world-line forms a closed loop to be always in the same condition in the same point of its history.[24]:23

Daniel Greenberger and Karl Svozil proposed that quantum theory gives a model for time travel where the past must be self-consistent.[86][87]

Time travel themes in science fiction and the media can generally be grouped into three categories: immutable timeline; mutable timeline; and alternate histories, as in the interacting-many-worlds interpretation.[88][89][90] Frequently in fiction, timeline is used to refer to all physical events in history, so that in time travel stories where events can be changed, the time traveler is described as creating a new or altered timeline.[91] This usage is distinct from the use of the term timeline to refer to a type of chart that illustrates a particular series of events, and the concept is also distinct from a world line, a term from Einstein’s theory of relativity which refers to the entire history of a single object.

Claims of time travel

Culture

Fiction

Science

Time perception

Continued here:

Time travel – Wikipedia

Political correctness – Wikipedia

This article is about political correctness. For other uses of “PC” or “P.C.”, see PC (disambiguation).

The term political correctness (adjectivally: politically correct; commonly abbreviated to PC or P.C.) is used to describe language, policies, or measures that are intended to avoid offense or disadvantage to members of particular groups in society.[1][2][3][4][5] Since the late 1980s, the term has come to refer to avoiding language or behavior that can be seen as excluding, marginalizing, or insulting groups of people considered disadvantaged or discriminated against, especially groups defined by sex or race. In public discourse and the media, it is generally used as a pejorative, implying that these policies are excessive.[6][3][7][8][9][10][11]

The contemporary pejorative usage of the term emerged from conservative criticism of the New Left in the late 20th century. This usage was popularized by a number of articles in The New York Times and other media throughout the 1990s,[12][13][14][15][16][17] and was widely used in the debate about Allan Bloom’s 1987 book The Closing of the American Mind,[7][9][18][19] and gained further currency in response to Roger Kimball’s Tenured Radicals (1990),[7][9][20][21] and conservative author Dinesh D’Souza’s 1991 book Illiberal Education, in which he condemned what he saw as liberal efforts to advance self-victimization and multiculturalism through language, affirmative action, and changes to the content of school and university curricula.[7][8][20][22]

Commentators on the political left contend that conservatives use the concept of political correctness to downplay and divert attention from substantively discriminatory behavior against disadvantaged groups.[20][23][24] They also argue that the political right enforces its own forms of political correctness to suppress criticism of its favored constituencies and ideologies.[25][26][27] The term has played a major role in the United States culture war between liberals and conservatives.[28]

The term “politically correct” was used infrequently until the latter part of the 20th century. This earlier use did not communicate the social disapproval usually implied in more recent usage. In 1793, the term “politically correct” appeared in a U.S. Supreme Court judgment of a political lawsuit.[29] The term also had use in other English-speaking countries in the 1800s.[30] William Safire states that the first recorded use of the term in the typical modern sense is by Toni Cade Bambara in the 1970 anthology The Black Woman.[31] The term probably entered use in the United Kingdom around 1975.[11][clarification needed]

In the early-to-mid 20th century, the phrase “politically correct” was used to describe strict adherence to a range of ideological orthodoxies. In 1934, The New York Times reported that Nazi Germany was granting reporting permits “only to pure ‘Aryans’ whose opinions are politically correct.”[2]

As Marxist-Leninist movements gained political power, the phrase came to be associated with accusations of dogmatic application of doctrine, in debates between American Communists and American Socialists. This usage referred to the Communist party line which, in the eyes of the Socialists, provided “correct” positions on all political matters. According to American educator Herbert Kohl, writing about debates in New York in the late 1940s and early 1950s,

The term “politically correct” was used disparagingly, to refer to someone whose loyalty to the CP line overrode compassion, and led to bad politics. It was used by Socialists against Communists, and was meant to separate out Socialists who believed in egalitarian moral ideas from dogmatic Communists who would advocate and defend party positions regardless of their moral substance.

In the 1970s, the American New Left began using the term “politically correct”.[32] In the essay The Black Woman: An Anthology (1970), Toni Cade Bambara said that “a man cannot be politically correct and a [male] chauvinist, too.” Thereafter, the term was often used as self-critical satire. Debra L. Shultz said that “throughout the 1970s and 1980s, the New Left, feminists, and progressives… used their term ‘politically correct’ ironically, as a guard against their own orthodoxy in social change efforts.”[7][32][33] PC is used in the comic book Merton of the Movement, by Bobby London, which was followed by the term ideologically sound, in the comic strips of Bart Dickon.[32][34] In her essay “Toward a feminist Revolution” (1992) Ellen Willis said: “In the early eighties, when feminists used the term ‘political correctness’, it was used to refer sarcastically to the anti-pornography movement’s efforts to define a ‘feminist sexuality’.”[35]

Stuart Hall suggests one way in which the original use of the term may have developed into the modern one:

According to one version, political correctness actually began as an in-joke on the left: radical students on American campuses acting out an ironic replay of the Bad Old Days BS (Before the Sixties) when every revolutionary groupuscule had a party line about everything. They would address some glaring examples of sexist or racist behaviour by their fellow students in imitation of the tone of voice of the Red Guards or Cultural Revolution Commissar: “Not very ‘politically correct’, Comrade!”[36]

Allan Bloom’s 1987 book The Closing of the American Mind[18] heralded a debate about “political correctness” in American higher education in the 1980s and 1990s.[7][9][19][37] Professor of English literary and cultural studies at CMU Jeffrey J. Williams wrote that the “assault on … political correctness that simmered through the Reagan years, gained bestsellerdom with Bloom’s Closing of the American Mind.” [38] According to Z.F. Gamson, Bloom’s book “attacked the faculty for ‘political correctness’.”[39] Prof. of Social Work at CSU Tony Platt says the “campaign against ‘political correctness'” was launched by Bloom’s book in 1987.[40]

An October 1990 New York Times article by Richard Bernstein is credited with popularizing the term.[14][16][17][41][42] At this time, the term was mainly being used within academia: “Across the country the term p.c., as it is commonly abbreviated, is being heard more and more in debates over what should be taught at the universities”.[12] Nexis citations in “arcnews/curnews” reveal only seventy total citations in articles to “political correctness” for 1990; but one year later, Nexis records 1532 citations, with a steady increase to more than 7000 citations by 1994.[41][43] In May 1991, The New York Times had a follow-up article, according to which the term was increasingly being used in a wider public arena:

What has come to be called “political correctness,” a term that began to gain currency at the start of the academic year last fall, has spread in recent months and has become the focus of an angry national debate, mainly on campuses, but also in the larger arenas of American life.

The previously obscure far-left term became common currency in the lexicon of the conservative social and political challenges against progressive teaching methods and curriculum changes in the secondary schools and universities of the U.S.[8][44] Policies, behavior, and speech codes that the speaker or the writer regarded as being the imposition of a liberal orthodoxy, were described and criticized as “politically correct”.[20] In May 1991, at a commencement ceremony for a graduating class of the University of Michigan, then U.S. President George H.W. Bush used the term in his speech: “The notion of political correctness has ignited controversy across the land. And although the movement arises from the laudable desire to sweep away the debris of racism and sexism and hatred, it replaces old prejudice with new ones. It declares certain topics off-limits, certain expression off-limits, even certain gestures off-limits.”[45]

After 1991, its use as a pejorative phrase became widespread amongst conservatives in the US.[8] It became a key term encapsulating conservative concerns about the left in culture and political debate more broadly, as well as in academia. Two articles on the topic in late 1990 in Forbes and Newsweek both used the term “thought police” in their headlines, exemplifying the tone of the new usage, but it was Dinesh D’Souza’s Illiberal Education: The Politics of Race and Sex on Campus (1991) which “captured the press’s imagination.”[8] Similar critical terminology was used by D’Souza for a range of policies in academia around victimization, supporting multiculturalism through affirmative action, sanctions against anti-minority hate speech, and revising curricula (sometimes referred to as “canon busting”).[8][46][not in citation given] These trends were at least in part a response to multiculturalism and the rise of identity politics, with movements such as feminism, gay rights movements and ethnic minority movements. That response received funding from conservative foundations and think tanks such as the John M. Olin Foundation, which funded several books such as D’Souza’s.[7][20]

Herbert Kohl, in 1992, commented that a number of neoconservatives who promoted the use of the term “politically correct” in the early 1990s were former Communist Party members, and, as a result, familiar with the Marxist use of the phrase. He argued that in doing so, they intended “to insinuate that egalitarian democratic ideas are actually authoritarian, orthodox and Communist-influenced, when they oppose the right of people to be racist, sexist, and homophobic.”[3]

During the 1990s, conservative and right-wing politicians, think-tanks, and speakers adopted the phrase as a pejorative descriptor of their ideological enemies especially in the context of the Culture Wars about language and the content of public-school curricula. Roger Kimball, in Tenured Radicals, endorsed Frederick Crews’s view that PC is best described as “Left Eclecticism”, a term defined by Kimball as “any of a wide variety of anti-establishment modes of thought from structuralism and poststructuralism, deconstruction, and Lacanian analyst to feminist, homosexual, black, and other patently political forms of criticism.”[21][38]

Liberal commentators have argued that the conservatives and reactionaries who used the term did so in effort to divert political discussion away from the substantive matters of resolving societal discrimination such as racial, social class, gender, and legal inequality against people whom conservatives do not consider part of the social mainstream.[7][23][47] Jan Narveson wrote that “that phrase was born to live between scare-quotes: it suggests that the operative considerations in the area so called are merely political, steamrolling the genuine reasons of principle for which we ought to be acting…”[6] Commenting in 2001, one such British journalist,[48][49] Polly Toynbee, said “the phrase is an empty, right-wing smear, designed only to elevate its user”, and, in 2010, “the phrase ‘political correctness’ was born as a coded cover for all who still want to say Paki, spastic, or queer”.[50] Another British journalist, Will Hutton,[51] wrote in 2001:

Political correctness is one of the brilliant tools that the American Right developed in the mid1980s, as part of its demolition of American liberalism…. What the sharpest thinkers on the American Right saw quickly was that by declaring war on the cultural manifestations of liberalism by levelling the charge of “political correctness” against its exponents they could discredit the whole political project.

“Words Really are Important, Mr Blunkett” Will Hutton, 2001

Glenn Loury wrote in 1994 that: “to address the subject of “political correctness” when power and authority within the academic community is being contested by parties on either side of that issue, is to invite scrutiny of one’s arguments by would-be “friends” and “enemies.” Combatants from the left and the right will try to assess whether a writer is “for them” or “against them.”[52]

In the US, the term has been widely used in books and journals, but in Britain, usage has been confined mainly to the popular press.[53] Many such authors and popular-media figures, particularly on the right, have used the term to criticize what they see as bias in the media.[6][20] William McGowan argues that journalists get stories wrong or ignore stories worthy of coverage, because of what McGowan perceives to be their liberal ideologies and their fear of offending minority groups.[54] Robert Novak, in his essay “Political Correctness Has No Place in the Newsroom”, used the term to blame newspapers for adopting language use policies that he thinks tend to excessively avoid the appearance of bias. He argued that political correctness in language not only destroys meaning but also demeans the people who are meant to be protected.[55] Authors David Sloan and Emily Hoff claim that in the US, journalists shrug off concerns about political correctness in the newsroom, equating the political correctness criticisms with the old “liberal media bias” label.[56]

Much of the modern debate on the term was sparked by conservative critiques of liberal bias in academia and education,[7] and conservatives have used it as a major line of attack since.[8]University of Pennsylvania professor Alan Charles Kors and lawyer Harvey A. Silverglate connect speech codes in US universities to philosopher Herbert Marcuse. They claim that speech codes create a “climate of repression”, arguing that they are based on “Marcusean logic”. The speech codes, “mandate a redefined notion of “freedom”, based on the belief that the imposition of a moral agenda on a community is justified”, a view which, “requires less emphasis on individual rights and more on assuring “historically oppressed” persons the means of achieving equal rights.”[57] Kors and Silverglate later established the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education (FIRE), which campaigns against infringement of rights of due process, in particular “speech codes”.[58][unreliable source?] Similarly, a common conservative criticism of higher education in the United States is that the political views of the faculty are much more liberal than the general population, and that this situation contributes to an atmosphere of political correctness.[59]

Groups who oppose certain generally accepted scientific views about evolution, second-hand tobacco smoke, AIDS, global warming, race, and other politically contentious scientific matters have used the term “political correctness” to describe what they view as unwarranted rejection of their perspective on these issues by a scientific community they feel is corrupted by liberal politics.[60]

“Political correctness” is a label typically used to describe liberal terms and actions, but not for equivalent attempts to mold language and behavior on the right.[61] However, the term “right-wing political correctness” is sometimes applied by commentators,[62] especially when drawing parallels: in 1995, one author used the term “conservative correctness” arguing, in relation to higher education, that “critics of political correctness show a curious blindness when it comes to examples of conservative correctness. Most often, the case is entirely ignored or censorship of the Left is justified as a positive virtue. […] A balanced perspective was lost, and everyone missed the fact that people on all sides were sometimes censored.”[25]

In 2003, French fries and French toast were renamed “Freedom fries” and “Freedom toast” in three U.S. House of Representatives cafeterias in response to France’s opposition to the proposed invasion of Iraq; this was described as “polluting the already confused concept of political correctness.”[63] In 2004, then Australian Labor leader Mark Latham described conservative calls for “civility” in politics as “the new political correctness.”[64]

In 2012, Paul Krugman wrote: “the big threat to our discourse is right-wing political correctness, which unlike the liberal version has lots of power and money behind it. And the goal is very much the kind of thing Orwell tried to convey with his notion of Newspeak: to make it impossible to talk, and possibly even think, about ideas that challenge the established order.”[27]

After Mike Pence was booed at a November 2016 performance of Hamilton, president-elect Trump called it harassment and asked for a “safe and special place”.[65] Chrissy Teigen commented that it was “the very thing him [sic] and his supporters make fun of as liberal political correctness.”[66]

Alex Nowrasteh of the Cato Institute defined the right’s own version of political correctness as patriotic correctness.[67] Vox editor Dara Lind summarized the definition as “a brand of right-wing hypersensitivity that gets just as offended by insults to American pride and patriotism (like protests against the president-elect or The Star-Spangled Banner) as any college activist gets over insults to diversity.”[68] Jim Geraghty of National Review replied to Nowrasteh, stating that “There is no right-wing equivalent to political correctness.”[69][why?]

In 2015 and 2016, leading up to the 2016 United States presidential election, Republican candidate Donald Trump used political correctness as a common target in his rhetoric.[68][70][24] According to Trump, Barack Obama and Hillary Clinton were willing to let ordinary Americans suffer because their first priority was political correctness.[71]

In the Huffington Post, Eric Mink characterized Trump’s concept of “political correctness”:

Political correctness is a controversial social force in a nation with a constitutional guarantee of freedom of expression, and it raises legitimate issues well worth discussing and debating. But thats not what Trump is doing. Hes not a rebel speaking unpopular truths to power. Hes not standing up for honest discussions of deeply contentious issues. Hes not out there defying rules handed down by elites to control what we say. All Trumps defying is common decency.[24]

Following the 2016 election, Los Angeles Times columnist Jessica Roy wrote that “political correctness” is one of the key terms used by the American alt-right, referred to as being “responsible for most of society’s ills”.[72]

Some conservative commentators in the West argue that “political correctness” and multiculturalism are part of a conspiracy with the ultimate goal of undermining Judeo-Christian values. This theory, which holds that political correctness originates from the critical theory of the Frankfurt School as part of a conspiracy that its proponents call “Cultural Marxism”, is generally known as the Frankfurt School conspiracy theory by academics.[73] The theory originated with Michael Minnicino’s 1992 essay “New Dark Age: Frankfurt School and ‘Political Correctness'”, published in a Lyndon LaRouche movement journal.[74] In 2001, conservative commentator Patrick Buchanan wrote in The Death of the West that “political correctness is cultural Marxism”, and that “its trademark is intolerance”.[75]

In the United States, left forces of “political correctness” have been blamed for censorship, with Time citing campaigns against violence on network television as contributing to a “mainstream culture [which] has become cautious, sanitized, scared of its own shadow” because of “the watchful eye of the p.c. police”, even though in John Wilson’s view protests and advertiser boycotts targeting TV shows are generally organized by right-wing religious groups campaigning against violence, sex, and depictions of homosexuality on television.[76]

In the United Kingdom, some newspapers reported that a nursery school had altered the nursery rhyme “Baa Baa Black Sheep” to read “Baa Baa Rainbow Sheep” and had banned the original.[77] But it was later reported that in fact the Parents and Children Together (PACT) nursery had the children “turn the song into an action rhyme…. They sing happy, sad, bouncing, hopping, pink, blue, black and white sheep etc.”[78] This story was widely circulated and later extended to suggest that other language bans applied to the terms “black coffee” and “blackboard”.[79] Private Eye magazine reported that similar stories had been published in the British press since The Sun first ran them in 1986.[80]

Political correctness is often satirized, for example in The PC Manifesto (1992) by Saul Jerushalmy and Rens Zbignieuw X,[81] and Politically Correct Bedtime Stories (1994) by James Finn Garner, which presents fairy tales re-written from an exaggerated politically correct perspective. In 1994, the comedy film PCU took a look at political correctness on a college campus.

Other examples include the television program Politically Incorrect, George Carlins “Euphemisms” routine, and The Politically Correct Scrapbook.[82] The popularity of the South Park cartoon program led to the creation of the term “South Park Republican” by Andrew Sullivan, and later the book South Park Conservatives by Brian C. Anderson.[83] In its Season 19 (2015), South Park introduced the character PC Principal, who embodies the principle, to poke fun at the principle of political correctness.[84]

The Colbert Report’s host Stephen Colbert often talked, satirically, about the “PC Police”.[85]

Graham Good, an academic at the University of British Columbia, wrote that the term was widely used in debates on university education in Canada. Writing about a 1995 report on the Political Science department at his university, he concluded:”Political correctness” has become a popular phrase because it catches a certain kind of self-righteous and judgmental tone in some and a pervasive anxiety in others who, fearing that they may do something wrong, adjust their facial expressions, and pause in their speech to make sure they are not doing or saying anything inappropriate. The climate this has created on campuses is at least as bad in Canada as in the United States.[86]

In Hong Kong, as the 1997 handover drew nearer, greater control over the press was exercised by both owners and the Chinese state. This had a direct impact on news coverage of relatively sensitive political issues. The Chinese authorities exerted pressure on individual newspapers to take pro-Beijing stances on controversial issues.[87] Tung Chee-hwa’s policy advisers and senior bureaucrats increasingly linked their actions and remarks to “political correctness.” Zhaojia Liu and Siu-kai Lau, writing in The first Tung Chee-hwa administration: the first five years of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, said that “Hong Kong has traditionally been characterized as having freedom of speech and freedom of press, but that an unintended consequence of emphasizing political ‘correctness’ is to limit the space for such freedom of expression.”[88]

In New Zealand, controversies over PC surfaced during the 1990s regarding the social studies school curriculum.[89][90]

The term “politically correct”, with its suggestion of Stalinist orthodoxy, is spoken more with irony and disapproval than with reverence. But, across the country the term “P.C.”, as it is commonly abbreviated, is being heard more and more in debates over what should be taught at the universities.

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Political correctness – Wikipedia

Superintelligence – Wikipedia

A superintelligence is a hypothetical agent that possesses intelligence far surpassing that of the brightest and most gifted human minds. “Superintelligence” may also refer to a property of problem-solving systems (e.g., superintelligent language translators or engineering assistants) whether or not these high-level intellectual competencies are embodied in agents that act in the world. A superintelligence may or may not be created by an intelligence explosion and associated with a technological singularity.

University of Oxford philosopher Nick Bostrom defines superintelligence as “any intellect that greatly exceeds the cognitive performance of humans in virtually all domains of interest”. The program Fritz falls short of superintelligence even though it is much better than humans at chess because Fritz cannot outperform humans in other tasks. Following Hutter and Legg, Bostrom treats superintelligence as general dominance at goal-oriented behavior, leaving open whether an artificial or human superintelligence would possess capacities such as intentionality (cf. the Chinese room argument) or first-person consciousness (cf. the hard problem of consciousness).

Technological researchers disagree about how likely present-day human intelligence is to be surpassed. Some argue that advances in artificial intelligence (AI) will probably result in general reasoning systems that lack human cognitive limitations. Others believe that humans will evolve or directly modify their biology so as to achieve radically greater intelligence. A number of futures studies scenarios combine elements from both of these possibilities, suggesting that humans are likely to interface with computers, or upload their minds to computers, in a way that enables substantial intelligence amplification.

Some researchers believe that superintelligence will likely follow shortly after the development of artificial general intelligence. The first generally intelligent machines are likely to immediately hold an enormous advantage in at least some forms of mental capability, including the capacity of perfect recall, a vastly superior knowledge base, and the ability to multitask in ways not possible to biological entities. This may give them the opportunity toeither as a single being or as a new speciesbecome much more powerful than humans, and to displace them.

A number of scientists and forecasters argue for prioritizing early research into the possible benefits and risks of human and machine cognitive enhancement, because of the potential social impact of such technologies.

Philosopher David Chalmers argues that artificial general intelligence is a very likely path to superhuman intelligence. Chalmers breaks this claim down into an argument that AI can achieve equivalence to human intelligence, that it can be extended to surpass human intelligence, and that it can be further amplified to completely dominate humans across arbitrary tasks.

Concerning human-level equivalence, Chalmers argues that the human brain is a mechanical system, and therefore ought to be emulatable by synthetic materials. He also notes that human intelligence was able to biologically evolve, making it more likely that human engineers will be able to recapitulate this invention. Evolutionary algorithms in particular should be able to produce human-level AI. Concerning intelligence extension and amplification, Chalmers argues that new AI technologies can generally be improved on, and that this is particularly likely when the invention can assist in designing new technologies.

If research into strong AI produced sufficiently intelligent software, it would be able to reprogram and improve itself a feature called “recursive self-improvement”. It would then be even better at improving itself, and could continue doing so in a rapidly increasing cycle, leading to a superintelligence. This scenario is known as an intelligence explosion. Such an intelligence would not have the limitations of human intellect, and may be able to invent or discover almost anything.

Computer components already greatly surpass human performance in speed. Bostrom writes, “Biological neurons operate at a peak speed of about 200 Hz, a full seven orders of magnitude slower than a modern microprocessor (~2 GHz).” Moreover, neurons transmit spike signals across axons at no greater than 120 m/s, “whereas existing electronic processing cores can communicate optically at the speed of light”. Thus, the simplest example of a superintelligence may be an emulated human mind that’s run on much faster hardware than the brain. A human-like reasoner that could think millions of times faster than current humans would have a dominant advantage in most reasoning tasks, particularly ones that require haste or long strings of actions.

Another advantage of computers is modularity, that is, their size or computational capacity can be increased. A non-human (or modified human) brain could become much larger than a present-day human brain, like many supercomputers. Bostrom also raises the possibility of collective superintelligence: a large enough number of separate reasoning systems, if they communicated and coordinated well enough, could act in aggregate with far greater capabilities than any sub-agent.

There may also be ways to qualitatively improve on human reasoning and decision-making. Humans appear to differ from chimpanzees in the ways we think more than we differ in brain size or speed.[9] Humans outperform non-human animals in large part because of new or enhanced reasoning capacities, such as long-term planning and language use. (See evolution of human intelligence and primate cognition.) If there are other possible improvements to reasoning that would have a similarly large impact, this makes it likelier that an agent can be built that outperforms humans in the same fashion humans outperform chimpanzees.

All of the above advantages hold for artificial superintelligence, but it is not clear how many hold for biological superintelligence. Physiological constraints limit the speed and size of biological brains in many ways that are inapplicable to machine intelligence. As such, writers on superintelligence have devoted much more attention to superintelligent AI scenarios.

Carl Sagan suggested that the advent of Caesarean sections and in vitro fertilization may permit humans to evolve larger heads, resulting in improvements via natural selection in the heritable component of human intelligence.[12] By contrast, Gerald Crabtree has argued that decreased selection pressure is resulting in a slow, centuries-long reduction in human intelligence, and that this process instead is likely to continue into the future. There is no scientific consensus concerning either possibility, and in both cases the biological change would be slow, especially relative to rates of cultural change.

Selective breeding, nootropics, NSI-189, MAO-I’s, epigenetic modulation, and genetic engineering could improve human intelligence more rapidly. Bostrom writes that if we come to understand the genetic component of intelligence, pre-implantation genetic diagnosis could be used to select for embryos with as much as 4 points of IQ gain (if one embryo is selected out of two), or with larger gains (e.g., up to 24.3 IQ points gained if one embryo is selected out of 1000). If this process is iterated over many generations, the gains could be an order of magnitude greater. Bostrom suggests that deriving new gametes from embryonic stem cells could be used to iterate the selection process very rapidly. A well-organized society of high-intelligence humans of this sort could potentially achieve collective superintelligence.

Alternatively, collective intelligence might be constructible by better organizing humans at present levels of individual intelligence. A number of writers have suggested that human civilization, or some aspect of it (e.g., the Internet, or the economy), is coming to function like a global brain with capacities far exceeding its component agents. If this systems-based superintelligence relies heavily on artificial components, however, it may qualify as an AI rather than as a biology-based superorganism.

A final method of intelligence amplification would be to directly enhance individual humans, as opposed to enhancing their social or reproductive dynamics. This could be achieved using nootropics, somatic gene therapy, or braincomputer interfaces. However, Bostrom expresses skepticism about the scalability of the first two approaches, and argues that designing a superintelligent cyborg interface is an AI-complete problem.

Most surveyed AI researchers expect machines to eventually be able to rival humans in intelligence, though there is little consensus on when this will likely happen. At the 2006 AI@50 conference, 18% of attendees reported expecting machines to be able “to simulate learning and every other aspect of human intelligence” by 2056; 41% of attendees expected this to happen sometime after 2056; and 41% expected machines to never reach that milestone.[17]

In a survey of the 100 most cited authors in AI (as of May 2013, according to Microsoft academic search), the median year by which respondents expected machines “that can carry out most human professions at least as well as a typical human” (assuming no global catastrophe occurs) with 10% confidence is 2024 (mean 2034, st. dev. 33 years), with 50% confidence is 2050 (mean 2072, st. dev. 110 years), and with 90% confidence is 2070 (mean 2168, st. dev. 342 years). These estimates exclude the 1.2% of respondents who said no year would ever reach 10% confidence, the 4.1% who said ‘never’ for 50% confidence, and the 16.5% who said ‘never’ for 90% confidence. Respondents assigned a median 50% probability to the possibility that machine superintelligence will be invented within 30 years of the invention of approximately human-level machine intelligence.

Bostrom expressed concern about what values a superintelligence should be designed to have. He compared several proposals:

Responding to Bostrom, Santos-Lang raised concern that developers may attempt to start with a single kind of superintelligence.

Learning computers that rapidly become superintelligent may take unforeseen actions or robots might out-compete humanity (one potential technological singularity scenario).[21] Researchers have argued that, by way of an “intelligence explosion” sometime over the next century, a self-improving AI could become so powerful as to be unstoppable by humans.[22]

Concerning human extinction scenarios, Bostrom (2002) identifies superintelligence as a possible cause:

When we create the first superintelligent entity, we might make a mistake and give it goals that lead it to annihilate humankind, assuming its enormous intellectual advantage gives it the power to do so. For example, we could mistakenly elevate a subgoal to the status of a supergoal. We tell it to solve a mathematical problem, and it complies by turning all the matter in the solar system into a giant calculating device, in the process killing the person who asked the question.

In theory, since a superintelligent AI would be able to bring about almost any possible outcome and to thwart any attempt to prevent the implementation of its goals, many uncontrolled, unintended consequences could arise. It could kill off all other agents, persuade them to change their behavior, or block their attempts at interference.[23]

Eliezer Yudkowsky explains: “The AI does not hate you, nor does it love you, but you are made out of atoms which it can use for something else.”[24]

This presents the AI control problem: how to build a superintelligent agent that will aid its creators, while avoiding inadvertently building a superintelligence that will harm its creators. The danger of not designing control right “the first time”, is that a misprogrammed superintelligence might rationally decide to “take over the world” and refuse to permit its programmers to modify it once it has been activated. Potential design strategies include “capability control” (preventing an AI from being able to pursue harmful plans), and “motivational control” (building an AI that wants to be helpful).

Bill Hibbard advocates for public education about superintelligence and public control over the development of superintelligence.

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Superintelligence – Wikipedia

SuperIntelligence Archives – ComingSoon.net

Release date:December 25, 2019

Studio:New Line Cinema (Warner Bros.)

Director:Ben Falcone

MPAA Rating:N/A

Screenwriters:Steve Mallory, Ben Falcone

Starring:Melissa McCarthy, Bobby Cannavale, James Corden, Sam Richardson, Brian Tyree Henry

Genre:Comedy, Action

Nothing extraordinary ever happens to Carol Peters (McCarthy), so when she starts getting snarky backtalk from her TV, phone and microwave, she thinks shes being punked. Or losing her mind. In fact, the worlds first superintelligence has selected her for observation, taking over her lifewith a bigger, more ominous plan to take over everything. Now Carol is humanitys last chance before this artificial intelligence-with-an-attitude decides to pull the plug.

The rest is here:

SuperIntelligence Archives – ComingSoon.net

Darwinism – Wikipedia

Theory of biological evolution

Darwinism is a theory of biological evolution developed by the English naturalist Charles Darwin (18091882) and others, stating that all species of organisms arise and develop through the natural selection of small, inherited variations that increase the individual’s ability to compete, survive, and reproduce. Also called Darwinian theory, it originally included the broad concepts of transmutation of species or of evolution which gained general scientific acceptance after Darwin published On the Origin of Species in 1859, including concepts which predated Darwin’s theories. It subsequently referred to the specific concepts of natural selection, the Weismann barrier, or the central dogma of molecular biology.[1] Though the term usually refers strictly to biological evolution, creationists have appropriated it to refer to the origin of life, and it has even been applied to concepts of cosmic evolution, both of which have no connection to Darwin’s work. It is therefore considered the belief and acceptance of Darwin’s and of his predecessors’ workin place of other theories, including divine design and extraterrestrial origins.[2][3]

English biologist Thomas Henry Huxley coined the term Darwinism in April 1860.[4] It was used to describe evolutionary concepts in general, including earlier concepts published by English philosopher Herbert Spencer. Many of the proponents of Darwinism at that time, including Huxley, had reservations about the significance of natural selection, and Darwin himself gave credence to what was later called Lamarckism. The strict neo-Darwinism of German evolutionary biologist August Weismann gained few supporters in the late 19th century. During the approximate period of the 1880s to about 1920, sometimes called “the eclipse of Darwinism”, scientists proposed various alternative evolutionary mechanisms which eventually proved untenable. The development of the modern synthesis in the early 20th century, incorporating natural selection with population genetics and Mendelian genetics, revived Darwinism in an updated form.[5]

While the term Darwinism has remained in use amongst the public when referring to modern evolutionary theory, it has increasingly been argued by science writers such as Olivia Judson and Eugenie Scott that it is an inappropriate term for modern evolutionary theory.[6][7] For example, Darwin was unfamiliar with the work of the Moravian scientist and Augustinian friar Gregor Mendel,[8] and as a result had only a vague and inaccurate understanding of heredity. He naturally had no inkling of later theoretical developments and, like Mendel himself, knew nothing of genetic drift, for example.[9][10] In the United States, creationists often use the term “Darwinism” as a pejorative term in reference to beliefs such as scientific materialism, but in the United Kingdom the term has no negative connotations, being freely used as a shorthand for the body of theory dealing with evolution, and in particular, with evolution by natural selection.[6]

While the term Darwinism had been used previously to refer to the work of Erasmus Darwin in the late 18th century, the term as understood today was introduced when Charles Darwin’s 1859 book On the Origin of Species was reviewed by Thomas Henry Huxley in the April 1860 issue of the Westminster Review.[12] Having hailed the book as “a veritable Whitworth gun in the armoury of liberalism” promoting scientific naturalism over theology, and praising the usefulness of Darwin’s ideas while expressing professional reservations about Darwin’s gradualism and doubting if it could be proved that natural selection could form new species,[13] Huxley compared Darwin’s achievement to that of Nicolaus Copernicus in explaining planetary motion:

What if the orbit of Darwinism should be a little too circular? What if species should offer residual phenomena, here and there, not explicable by natural selection? Twenty years hence naturalists may be in a position to say whether this is, or is not, the case; but in either event they will owe the author of “The Origin of Species” an immense debt of gratitude…. And viewed as a whole, we do not believe that, since the publication of Von Baer’s “Researches on Development,” thirty years ago, any work has appeared calculated to exert so large an influence, not only on the future of Biology, but in extending the domination of Science over regions of thought into which she has, as yet, hardly penetrated.[4]

These are the basic tenets of evolution by natural selection as defined by Darwin:

Another important evolutionary theorist of the same period was the Russian geographer and prominent anarchist Peter Kropotkin who, in his book Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution (1902), advocated a conception of Darwinism counter to that of Huxley. His conception was centred around what he saw as the widespread use of co-operation as a survival mechanism in human societies and animals. He used biological and sociological arguments in an attempt to show that the main factor in facilitating evolution is cooperation between individuals in free-associated societies and groups. This was in order to counteract the conception of fierce competition as the core of evolution, which provided a rationalization for the dominant political, economic and social theories of the time; and the prevalent interpretations of Darwinism, such as those by Huxley, who is targeted as an opponent by Kropotkin. Kropotkin’s conception of Darwinism could be summed up by the following quote:

In the animal world we have seen that the vast majority of species live in societies, and that they find in association the best arms for the struggle for life: understood, of course, in its wide Darwinian sensenot as a struggle for the sheer means of existence, but as a struggle against all natural conditions unfavourable to the species. The animal species, in which individual struggle has been reduced to its narrowest limits, and the practice of mutual aid has attained the greatest development, are invariably the most numerous, the most prosperous, and the most open to further progress. The mutual protection which is obtained in this case, the possibility of attaining old age and of accumulating experience, the higher intellectual development, and the further growth of sociable habits, secure the maintenance of the species, its extension, and its further progressive evolution. The unsociable species, on the contrary, are doomed to decay.[14]

Peter Kropotkin, Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution (1902), Conclusion

“Darwinism” soon came to stand for an entire range of evolutionary (and often revolutionary) philosophies about both biology and society. One of the more prominent approaches, summed in the 1864 phrase “survival of the fittest” by Herbert Spencer, later became emblematic of Darwinism even though Spencer’s own understanding of evolution (as expressed in 1857) was more similar to that of Jean-Baptiste Lamarck than to that of Darwin, and predated the publication of Darwin’s theory in 1859. What is now called “Social Darwinism” was, in its day, synonymous with “Darwinism”the application of Darwinian principles of “struggle” to society, usually in support of anti-philanthropic political agenda. Another interpretation, one notably favoured by Darwin’s half-cousin Francis Galton, was that “Darwinism” implied that because natural selection was apparently no longer working on “civilized” people, it was possible for “inferior” strains of people (who would normally be filtered out of the gene pool) to overwhelm the “superior” strains, and voluntary corrective measures would be desirablethe foundation of eugenics.

In Darwin’s day there was no rigid definition of the term “Darwinism”, and it was used by opponents and proponents of Darwin’s biological theory alike to mean whatever they wanted it to in a larger context. The ideas had international influence, and Ernst Haeckel developed what was known as Darwinismus in Germany, although, like Spencer’s “evolution”, Haeckel’s “Darwinism” had only a rough resemblance to the theory of Charles Darwin, and was not centered on natural selection.[15] In 1886, Alfred Russel Wallace went on a lecture tour across the United States, starting in New York and going via Boston, Washington, Kansas, Iowa and Nebraska to California, lecturing on what he called “Darwinism” without any problems.[16]

In his book Darwinism (1889), Wallace had used the term pure-Darwinism which proposed a “greater efficacy” for natural selection.[17][18] George Romanes dubbed this view as “Wallaceism”, noting that in contrast to Darwin, this position was advocating a “pure theory of natural selection to the exclusion of any supplementary theory.”[19][20] Taking influence from Darwin, Romanes was a proponent of both natural selection and the inheritance of acquired characteristics. The latter was denied by Wallace who was a strict selectionist.[21] Romanes’ definition of Darwinism conformed directly with Darwin’s views and was contrasted with Wallace’s definition of the term.[22]

The term Darwinism is often used in the United States by promoters of creationism, notably by leading members of the intelligent design movement, as an epithet to attack evolution as though it were an ideology (an “ism”) of philosophical naturalism, or atheism.[23] For example, UC Berkeley law professor and author Phillip E. Johnson makes this accusation of atheism with reference to Charles Hodge’s book What Is Darwinism? (1874).[24] However, unlike Johnson, Hodge confined the term to exclude those like American botanist Asa Gray who combined Christian faith with support for Darwin’s natural selection theory, before answering the question posed in the book’s title by concluding: “It is Atheism.”[25][26] Creationists use the term Darwinism, often pejoratively, to imply that the theory has been held as true only by Darwin and a core group of his followers, whom they cast as dogmatic and inflexible in their belief.[27] In the 2008 documentary film Expelled: No Intelligence Allowed, which promotes intelligent design (ID), American writer and actor Ben Stein refers to scientists as Darwinists. Reviewing the film for Scientific American, John Rennie says “The term is a curious throwback, because in modern biology almost no one relies solely on Darwin’s original ideas… Yet the choice of terminology isn’t random: Ben Stein wants you to stop thinking of evolution as an actual science supported by verifiable facts and logical arguments and to start thinking of it as a dogmatic, atheistic ideology akin to Marxism.” [28]

However, Darwinism is also used neutrally within the scientific community to distinguish the modern evolutionary synthesis, sometimes called “neo-Darwinism”, from those first proposed by Darwin. Darwinism also is used neutrally by historians to differentiate his theory from other evolutionary theories current around the same period. For example, Darwinism may be used to refer to Darwin’s proposed mechanism of natural selection, in comparison to more recent mechanisms such as genetic drift and gene flow. It may also refer specifically to the role of Charles Darwin as opposed to others in the history of evolutionary thoughtparticularly contrasting Darwin’s results with those of earlier theories such as Lamarckism or later ones such as the modern evolutionary synthesis.

In political discussions in the United States, the term is mostly used by its enemies. “It’s a rhetorical device to make evolution seem like a kind of faith, like ‘Maoism,'” says Harvard University biologist E. O. Wilson. He adds, “Scientists don’t call it ‘Darwinism’.”[29] In the United Kingdom the term often retains its positive sense as a reference to natural selection, and for example British ethologist and evolutionary biologist Richard Dawkins wrote in his collection of essays A Devil’s Chaplain, published in 2003, that as a scientist he is a Darwinist.[30]

In his 1995 book Darwinian Fairytales, Australian philosopher David Stove[31] used the term “Darwinism” in a different sense than the above examples. Describing himself as non-religious and as accepting the concept of natural selection as a well-established fact, Stove nonetheless attacked what he described as flawed concepts proposed by some “Ultra-Darwinists.” Stove alleged that by using weak or false ad hoc reasoning, these Ultra-Darwinists used evolutionary concepts to offer explanations that were not valid (e.g., Stove suggested that sociobiological explanation of altruism as an evolutionary feature was presented in such a way that the argument was effectively immune to any criticism). Philosopher Simon Blackburn wrote a rejoinder to Stove,[32] though a subsequent essay by Stove’s protegee James Franklin’s[33] suggested that Blackburn’s response actually “confirms Stove’s central thesis that Darwinism can ‘explain’ anything.”

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Darwinism – Wikipedia

Darwinism Refuted.com

Here we will analyze this scientific crisis faced by the theory of evolution. This work rests solely upon scientific findings. Those advocating the theory of evolution on behalf of scientific truth should confront these findings and question the presumptions they have so far held. Refusal to do this would mean openly accepting that their adherence to the theory of evolution is dogmatic rather than scientific…

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Darwinism Refuted.com

A Scientific Dissent from Darwinism – There is a …

“We are skeptical of claims for the ability of random mutations and natural selection to account for the complexity of life. Careful examination of the evidence for Darwinian theory should be encouraged.”

There Is ScientificDissent From Darwinism.

It deserves to be heard.

“I signed the Scientific Dissent From Darwinism statement, because I am absolutely convinced of the lack of true scientific evidence in favour of Darwinian dogma. Nobody in the biological sciences, medicine included, needs Darwinism at all. Darwinism is certainly needed, however, in order to pose as a philosopher, since it is primarily a worldview. And an awful one, as George Bernard Shaw used to say.”Dr. Raul Leguizamon, Pathologist, and a Professor of Medicine at the Autonomous University of Guadalajara, Mexico

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A Scientific Dissent from Darwinism – There is a …

Psychological Egoism vs Ethical Egoism | Flow Psychology

It is said that selfishness is a human nature. Consequently, selfishness is something that relates to egoism. Selfishness is in many forms, which will be discussed later on. Both of these subjects have been a center of discussion for years now. Among the subjects that have been part of it is the topic about psychological egoism vs. ethical egoism.

As for the psychological egoism vs. ethical egoism, the latter is described as the belief in which it states that humans are usually always selfish. Humans are always acting out of their own self-interest, which leads to happiness. The former, however, is the belief that humans are supposed to act only concerning their own interest.

Based on the beliefs itself and how each was defined, the kinds of egoisms that people practice are now differentiated. One type of egoism tells about acting based on or with the presence of a motive and the other acting on something based purely for the persons benefit.

In psychological egoism, it is explained that individuals only do good things because it is in their own interest to do so. As an example, a person decided and chose not to steal for the fact that he or she is afraid to feel the guilt or afraid to go to prison. As for ethical egoism, it is explained that it is just right for individuals to act based on their own self-interest. It means a person acts out for his or her benefit only.

In general, it is described as the empirical doctrine in which the motive for which a person makes a voluntary action is one that falls for that same individuals benefit. In a wider scope, in every action that a person does, even though it is seen as something that is for the benefit of others, there is still a hidden motive that serves for the self-interest of the person.

There are two arguments under this. One, this egoism is considered as a descriptive theory that resulted from the observations made on human behavior. Thus, it can only become a real empirical theory once there are no present exceptions. Second, there is no claim as to how a person should act. Thus, it is a fact that all individuals are seeking their self-interest in the theory. For psychological egoist, they view this as a verifiable and non-moral.

It is described as that doctrine that is prescriptive or normative. It means a person is supposed to seek something only for his own welfare. The primary idea in this belief is that only the persons own welfare is the one valuable for that same individual. There are also two arguments here. One, not all people are naturally seeking just their self-interest. It only claims that people should seek ones self-interest even if not everyone will do the same thing. The second, if it is to be regarded as one theory, then it must be applicable to all persons.

In the end, there is only one thing that can be concluded about the subject psychological egoism vs. ethical egoism. It is that even with the stated theories on egoism, people are not always motivated to act based on selfishness. At times, people just act based on pure kindness in mind.

Dec 20, 2013-Flow Psychology Editor

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Psychological Egoism vs Ethical Egoism | Flow Psychology

Dr. Charles Kay Egoism

Egoism is a teleological theory of ethics that sets as its goal the benefit, pleasure, or greatest good of the oneself alone. It is contrasted with altruism, which is not strictly self-interested, but includes in its goal the interests of others as well. There are at least three different ways in which the theory of egoism can be presented:

This is the claim that humans by nature are motivated only by self-interest . Any act, no matter how altruistic it might seem, is actually motivated by some selfish desire of the agent (e.g., desire for reward, avoidance of guilt, personal happiness). This is a descriptive claim about human nature. Since the claim is universalall acts are motivated by self interestit could be proven false by a single counterexample.

It will be difficult to find an action that the psychological egoist will acknowledge as purely altruistic, however. There is almost always some benefit to ourselves in any action we choose. For example, if I helped my friend out of trouble, I may feel happy afterwards. But is that happiness the motive for my action or just a result of my action? The psychological egoist must demonstrate that the beneficial consequences of an action are actually the motivation of of all of our actions. (Why would it make me happy to see my friend out of trouble if I didnt already care about my friends best interest? Wouldnt that be altruism?)

This is the claim that individuals should always act in their own best interest. It is a normative claim. If ethical egoism is true, that appears to imply that psychological egoism is false: there would be no point to arguing that we ought to do what we must do by nature.

But if altruism is possible, why should it be avoided? Some writers suggest we all should focus our resources on satisfying our own interests, rather than those of others. Society will then be more efficient and this will better serve the interests of all. By referring to the interests of all, however, this approach reveals itself to be a version of utilitarianism, and not genuine egoism. It is merely a theory about how best to achieve the greatest good for the greatest number.

An alternative formulation of ethical egoism states that I ought always to act in my own self-interesteven if this conflicts with the values and interests of otherssimply because that is what I desire most. It is not clear how an altruist could find common ground to argue with such an individualistic ethical egoist, but it is also not clear why such an egoist would ever want to argue against the altruist: Since the individualistic egoist believes that whatever serves his own interests is (morally) right, he will want everyone else to be altruistic. Otherwise they would not serve the egoists own interests! It seems that anyone who truly believed in individualistic ethical egoism could not publicly promote the theory without such inconsistency. Indeed, the self-interest of the egoist is best served by publicly claiming to be an altruist and thereby keeping everyones good favor.

When working with certain economic or sociological models, we may frequently assume that people will act in such a way as to promote their own interests. This is not a normative claim and usually not even a descriptive claim. Instead it is a minimalist assumption used for certain calculations. If we assume only self-interest on the part of all agents, we can determine certain extreme-case (e.g., maximin) outcomes for the model. Implicit in this assumption, although not always stated, is the idea that altruistic behavior on the part of the agents, although not presupposed, would yield outcomes at least as good and probably better.

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Dr. Charles Kay Egoism

Psychological egoism – Wikipedia

For other forms of egoism, see Egoism.

Psychological egoism is the view that humans are always motivated by self-interest and selfishness, even in what seem to be acts of altruism. It claims that, when people choose to help others, they do so ultimately because of the personal benefits that they themselves expect to obtain, directly or indirectly, from doing so. This is a descriptive rather than normative view, since it only makes claims about how things are, not how they ought to be. It is, however, related to several other normative forms of egoism, such as ethical egoism and rational egoism.

A specific form of psychological egoism is psychological hedonism, the view that the ultimate motive for all voluntary human action is the desire to experience pleasure or to avoid pain. Many discussions of psychological egoism focus on this type, but the two are not the same: theorists have explained behavior motivated by self-interest without using pleasure and pain as the final causes of behavior.[1] Psychological hedonism argues actions are caused by both a need for pleasure immediately and in the future. However, immediate gratification can be sacrificed for a chance of greater, future pleasure.[2] Further, humans are not motivated to strictly avoid pain and only pursue pleasure, but, instead, humans will endure pain to achieve the greatest net pleasure. Accordingly, all actions are tools for increasing pleasure or decreasing pain, even those defined as altruistic and those that do not cause an immediate change in satisfaction levels.

Beginning with ancient philosophy, Epicureanism claims humans live to maximize pleasure.[3] Epicurus argued the theory of human behavior being motivated by pleasure alone is evidenced from infancy to adulthood. Humanity performs altruistic, honorable, and virtuous acts not for the sake of another or because of a moral code but rather to increase the well being of the self.

In modern philosophy, Jeremy Bentham asserted, like Epicurus, that human behavior is governed by a need to increase pleasure and decrease pain.[4] Bentham explicitly described what types and qualities of pain and pleasure exist, and how human motives are singularly explained using psychological hedonism. Bentham attempted to quantify psychological hedonism. Bentham endeavored to find the ideal human behavior based on hedonic calculus or the measurement of relative gains and losses in pain and pleasure to determine the most pleasurable action a human could choose in a situation.

From an evolutionary perspective, Herbert Spencer, a psychological egoist, argued that all animals primarily seek to survive and protect their lineage. Essentially, the need for the individual and for the individual’s immediate family to live supersedes the others’ need to live.[5] All species attempt to maximize their own chances of survival and, therefore, well being. Spencer asserted the best adapted creatures will have their pleasure levels outweigh their pain levels in their environments. Thus, pleasure meant an animal was fulfilling its egoist goal of self survival, and pleasure would always be pursued because species constantly strive for survival.

Whether or not Sigmund Freud was a psychological egoist, his concept of the pleasure principle borrowed much from psychological egoism and psychological hedonism in particular.[6] The pleasure principle rules the behavior of the Id which is an unconscious force driving humans to release tension from unfulfilled desires. When Freud introduced Thanatos and its opposing force, Eros, the pleasure principle emanating from psychological hedonism became aligned with the Eros, which drives a person to satiate sexual and reproductive desires.[7] Alternatively, Thanatos seeks the cessation of pain through death and the end of the pursuit of pleasure: thus a hedonism rules Thanatos, but it centers on the complete avoidance of pain rather than psychological hedonist function which pursues pleasure and avoids pain. Therefore, Freud believed in qualitatively different hedonisms where the total avoidance of pain hedonism and the achievement of the greatest net pleasure hedonism are separate and associated with distinct functions and drives of the human psyche.[8] Although Eros and Thanatos are ruled by qualitatively different types of hedonism, Eros remains under the rule of Jeremy Bentham’s quantitative psychological hedonism because Eros seeks the greatest net pleasure.

Traditional behaviorism dictates all human behavior is explained by classical conditioning and operant conditioning. Operant conditioning works through reinforcement and punishment which adds or removes pleasure and pain to manipulate behavior. Using pleasure and pain to control behavior means behaviorists assumed the principles of psychological hedonism could be applied to predicting human behavior. For example, Thorndike’s law of effect states that behaviors associated with pleasantness will be learned and those associated with pain will be extinguished.[9] Often, behaviorist experiments using humans and animals are built around the assumption that subjects will pursue pleasure and avoid pain.[10] Although psychological hedonism is incorporated into the fundamental principles and experimental designs of behaviorism, behaviorism itself explains and interprets only observable behavior and therefore does not theorize about the ultimate cause of human behavior. Thus, behaviorism uses but does not strictly support psychological hedonism over other understandings of the ultimate drive of human behavior.

Psychological egoism is controversial. Proponents cite evidence from introspection: reflection on one’s own actions may reveal their motives and intended results to be based on self-interest. Psychological egoists and hedonists have found through numerous observations of natural human behavior that behavior can be manipulated through reward and punishment both of which have direct effects of pain and pleasure.[11] Also, the work of some social scientists has empirically supported this theory.[12] Further, they claim psychological egoism posits a theory that is a more parsimonious explanation than competing theories.[13]

Opponents have argued that psychological egoism is not more parsimonious than other theories. For example, a theory that claims altruism occurs for the sake of altruism explains altruism with less complexity than the egoistic approach. The psychological egoist asserts humans act altruistically for selfish reasons even when cost of the altruistic action is far outweighed by the reward of acting selfishly because altruism is performed to fulfill the desire of a person to act altruistically.[13] Other critics argue that it is false either because it is an over-simplified interpretation of behavior[14][15][16] or that there exists empirical evidence of altruistic behaviour.[17] Recently, some have argued that evolutionary theory provides evidence against it.[18]

Critics have stated that proponents of psychological egoism often confuse the satisfaction of their own desires with the satisfaction of their own self-regarding desires. Even though it is true that every human being seeks his own satisfaction, this sometimes may only be achieved via the well-being of his neighbor. An example of this situation could be phoning for an ambulance when a car accident has happened. In this case, the caller desires the well-being of the victim, even though the desire itself is the caller’s own.[19]

To counter this critique, psychological egoism asserts that all such desires for the well being of others are ultimately derived from self-interest. For example, German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche was a psychological egoist for some of his career, though he is said to have repudiated that later in his campaign against morality. He argues in 133 of The Dawn, that in such cases compassionate impulses arise out of the projection of our identity unto the object of our feeling. He gives some hypothetical examples as illustrations to his thesis: that of a person, feeling horrified after witnessing a personal feud, coughing blood, or that of the impulse felt to save a person who is drowning in the water. In such cases, according to Nietzsche, there comes into play unconscious fears regarding our own safety. The suffering of another person is felt as a threat to our own happiness and sense of safety, because it reveals our own vulnerability to misfortunes, and thus, by relieving it, one could also ameliorate those personal sentiments. Essentially, proponents argue that altruism is rooted in self-interest whereas opponents claim altruism occurs for altruism’s sake or is caused by a non-selfish reason.[20]

David Hume once wrote, “What interest can a fond mother have in view, who loses her health by assiduous attendance on her sick child, and afterwards languishes and dies of grief, when freed, by its death [the child’s], from the slavery of that attendance?”.[15] It seems incorrect to describe such a mother’s goal as self-interested.

Psychological egoists, however, respond that helping others in such ways is ultimately motivated by some form of self-interest, such as non-sensory satisfaction, the expectation of reciprocation, the desire to gain respect or reputation, or by the expectation of a reward in a putative afterlife. The helpful action is merely instrumental to these ultimately selfish goals.

In the ninth century, Mohammed Ibn Al-Jahm Al-Barmaki ( ) has been quoted saying:

“No one deserves thanks from another about something he has done for him or goodness he has done, he is either willing to get a reward from God, therefore he wanted to serve himself, or he wanted to get a reward from people, therefore, he has done that to get profit for himself, or to be mentioned and praised by people, therefore, to it is also for himself, or due to his mercy and tenderheartedness, so he has simply done that goodness to pacify these feelings and treat himself.”[21]

This sort of explanation appears to be close to the view of La Rochefoucauld[22] (and perhaps Hobbes[23]).

According to psychological hedonism, the ultimate egoistic motive is to gain good feelings of pleasure and avoid bad feelings of pain. Other, less restricted forms of psychological egoism may allow the ultimate goal of a person to include such things as avoiding punishments from oneself or others (such as guilt or shame) and attaining rewards (such as pride, self-worth, power or reciprocal beneficial action).

Some psychologists explain empathy in terms of psychological hedonism. According to the “merge with others hypothesis”, empathy increases the more an individual feels like they are one with another person, and decreases as the oneness decreases.[24] Therefore, altruistic actions emanating from empathy and empathy itself are caused by making others’ interests our own, and the satisfaction of their desires becomes our own, not just theirs. Both cognitive studies and neuropsychological experiments have provided evidence for this theory: as humans increase our oneness with others our empathy increases, and as empathy increases our inclination to act altruistically increases.[25] Neuropsychological studies have linked mirror neurons to humans experiencing empathy. Mirror neurons are activated both when a human (or animal) performs an action and when they observe another human (or animal) performs the same action. Researchers have found that the more these mirror neurons fire the more human subjects report empathy. From a neurological perspective, scientists argue that when a human empathizes with another, the brain operates as if the human is actually participating in the actions of the other person. Thus, when performing altruistic actions motivated by empathy, humans experience someone else’s pleasure of being helped. Therefore, in performing acts of altruism, people act in their own self interests even at a neurological level.

Even accepting the theory of universal positivity, it is difficult to explain, for example, the actions of a soldier who sacrifices his life by jumping on a grenade in order to save his comrades. In this case, there is simply no time to experience positivity toward one’s actions, although a psychological egoist may argue that the soldier experiences moral positivity in knowing that he is sacrificing his life to ensure the survival of his comrades, or that he is avoiding negativity associated with the thought of all his comrades dying.[26] Psychological egoists argue that although some actions may not clearly cause physical nor social positivity, nor avoid negativity, one’s current contemplation or reactionary mental expectation of these is the main factor of the decision. When a dog is first taught to sit, it is given a biscuit. This is repeated until, finally, the dog sits without requiring a biscuit. Psychological egoists could claim that such actions which do not ‘directly’ result in positivity, or reward, are not dissimilar from the actions of the dog. In this case, the action (sitting on command) will have become a force of habit, and breaking such a habit would result in mental discomfort. This basic theory of conditioning behavior, applied to other seemingly ineffective positive actions, can be used to explain moral responses that are instantaneous and instinctive such as the soldier jumping on the grenade.

Psychological egoism has been accused of being circular: “If a person willingly performs an act, that means he derives personal enjoyment from it; therefore, people only perform acts that give them personal enjoyment.” In particular, seemingly altruistic acts must be performed because people derive enjoyment from them and are therefore, in reality, egoistic. This statement is circular because its conclusion is identical to its hypothesis: it assumes that people only perform acts that give them personal enjoyment, and concludes that people only perform acts that give them personal enjoyment. This objection was tendered by William Hazlitt[27] and Thomas Macaulay[28] in the 19th century, and has been restated many times since. An earlier version of the same objection was made by Joseph Butler in 1726.

Joel Feinberg, in his 1958 paper “Psychological Egoism”, embraces a similar critique by drawing attention to the infinite regress of psychological egoism. He expounds it in the following cross-examination:

In their 1998 book, Unto Others, Sober and Wilson detailed an evolutionary argument based on the likelihood for egoism to evolve under the pressures of natural selection.[18] Specifically, they focus on the human behavior of parental care. To set up their argument, they propose two potential psychological mechanisms for this. The hedonistic mechanism is based on a parent’s ultimate desire for pleasure or the avoidance of pain and a belief that caring for its offspring will be instrumental to that. The altruistic mechanism is based on an altruistic ultimate desire to care for its offspring.

Sober and Wilson argue that when evaluating the likelihood of a given trait to evolve, three factors must be considered: availability, reliability and energetic efficiency. The genes for a given trait must first be available in the gene pool for selection. The trait must then reliably produce an increase in fitness for the organism. The trait must also operate with energetic efficiency to not limit the fitness of the organism. Sober and Wilson argue that there is neither reason to suppose that an altruistic mechanism should be any less available than a hedonistic one nor reason to suppose that the content of thoughts and desires (hedonistic vs. altruistic) should impact energetic efficiency. As availability and energetic efficiency are taken to be equivalent for both mechanisms it follows that the more reliable mechanism will then be the more likely mechanism.

For the hedonistic mechanism to produce the behavior of caring for offspring, the parent must believe that the caring behavior will produce pleasure or avoidance of pain for the parent. Sober and Wilson argue that the belief also must be true and constantly reinforced, or it would not be likely enough to persist. If the belief fails then the behavior is not produced. The altruistic mechanism does not rely on belief; therefore, they argue that it would be less likely to fail than the alternative, i.e. more reliable.

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Psychological egoism – Wikipedia

Cyberpunk – Wikipedia

Cyberpunk is a subgenre of science fiction in a futuristic setting that tends to focus on a “combination of lowlife and high tech”[1] featuring advanced technological and scientific achievements, such as artificial intelligence and cybernetics, juxtaposed with a degree of breakdown or radical change in the social order.[2]

Much of cyberpunk is rooted in the New Wave science fiction movement of the 1960s and 70s, when writers like Philip K. Dick, Roger Zelazny, J. G. Ballard, Philip Jos Farmer and Harlan Ellison examined the impact of drug culture, technology and the sexual revolution while avoiding the utopian tendencies of earlier science fiction. Released in 1984, William Gibson’s influential debut novel Neuromancer would help solidify cyberpunk as a genre, drawing influence from punk subculture and early hacker culture. Other influential cyberpunk writers included Bruce Sterling and Rudy Rucker.

Early films in the genre include Ridley Scott’s 1982 film Blade Runner, one of several of Philip K. Dick’s works that have been adapted into films. The films Johnny Mnemonic[3] and New Rose Hotel,[4][5] both based upon short stories by William Gibson, flopped commercially and critically. More recent additions to this genre of filmmaking include the 2017 release of Blade Runner 2049, sequel to the original 1982 film, and the 2018 Netflix TV series Altered Carbon.

Lawrence Person has attempted to define the content and ethos of the cyberpunk literary movement stating:

Classic cyberpunk characters were marginalized, alienated loners who lived on the edge of society in generally dystopic futures where daily life was impacted by rapid technological change, an ubiquitous datasphere of computerized information, and invasive modification of the human body.

Cyberpunk plots often center on conflict among artificial intelligences, hackers, and megacorporations, and tend to be set in a near-future Earth, rather than in the far-future settings or galactic vistas found in novels such as Isaac Asimov’s Foundation or Frank Herbert’s Dune.[7] The settings are usually post-industrial dystopias but tend to feature extraordinary cultural ferment and the use of technology in ways never anticipated by its original inventors (“the street finds its own uses for things”).[8] Much of the genre’s atmosphere echoes film noir, and written works in the genre often use techniques from detective fiction.[9] There are sources who view that cyberpunk has shifted from a literary movement to a mode of science fiction due to the limited number of writers and its transition to a more generalized cultural formation.[10][11][12]

The origins of cyberpunk are rooted in the New Wave science fiction movement of the 1960s and 70s, where New Worlds, under the editorship of Michael Moorcock, began inviting and encouraging stories that examined new writing styles, techniques, and archetypes. Reacting to conventional storytelling, New Wave authors attempted to present a world where society coped with a constant upheaval of new technology and culture, generally with dystopian outcomes. Writers like Roger Zelazny, J.G. Ballard, Philip Jose Farmer, and Harlan Ellison often examined the impact of drug culture, technology, and the sexual revolution with an avant-garde style influenced by the Beat Generation (especially William S. Burroughs’ own SF), Dadaism, and their own ideas.[13] Ballard attacked the idea that stories should follow the “archetypes” popular since the time of Ancient Greece, and the assumption that these would somehow be the same ones that would call to modern readers, as Joseph Campbell argued in The Hero with a Thousand Faces. Instead, Ballard wanted to write a new myth for the modern reader, a style with “more psycho-literary ideas, more meta-biological and meta-chemical concepts, private time systems, synthetic psychologies and space-times, more of the sombre half-worlds one glimpses in the paintings of schizophrenics.”[14]

This had a profound influence on a new generation of writers, some of whom would come to call their movement “Cyberpunk”. One, Bruce Sterling, later said:

Ballard, Zelazny, and the rest of New Wave was seen by the subsequent generation as delivering more “realism” to science fiction, and they attempted to build on this.

Similarly influential, and generally cited as proto-cyberpunk, is the Philip K. Dick novel Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep, first published in 1968. Presenting precisely the general feeling of dystopian post-economic-apocalyptic future as Gibson and Sterling later deliver, it examines ethical and moral problems with cybernetic, artificial intelligence in a way more “realist” than the Isaac Asimov Robot series that laid its philosophical foundation. This novel was made into the seminal movie Blade Runner, released in 1982. This was one year after another story, “Johnny Mnemonic” helped move proto-cyberpunk concepts into the mainstream. This story, which also became a film years later, involves another dystopian future, where human couriers deliver computer data, stored cybernetically in their own minds.

In 1983 a short story written by Bruce Bethke, called Cyberpunk, was published in Amazing Stories. The term was picked up by Gardner Dozois, editor of Isaac Asimov’s Science Fiction Magazine and popularized in his editorials. Bethke says he made two lists of words, one for technology, one for troublemakers, and experimented with combining them variously into compound words, consciously attempting to coin a term that encompassed both punk attitudes and high technology.

He described the idea thus:

Afterward, Dozois began using this term in his own writing, most notably in a Washington Post article where he said “About the closest thing here to a self-willed esthetic school would be the purveyors of bizarre hard-edged, high-tech stuff, who have on occasion been referred to as cyberpunks Sterling, Gibson, Shiner, Cadigan, Bear.”[17]

About that time, William Gibson’s novel Neuromancer was published, delivering a glimpse of a future encompassed by what became an archetype of cyberpunk “virtual reality”, with the human mind being fed light-based worldscapes through a computer interface. Some, perhaps ironically including Bethke himself, argued at the time that the writers whose style Gibson’s books epitomized should be called “Neuromantics”, a pun on the name of the novel plus “New Romantics”, a term used for a New Wave pop music movement that had just occurred in Britain, but this term did not catch on. Bethke later paraphrased Michael Swanwick’s argument for the term: “the movement writers should properly be termed neuromantics, since so much of what they were doing was clearly Imitation Neuromancer”.

Sterling was another writer who played a central role, often consciously, in the cyberpunk genre, variously seen as keeping it on track, or distorting its natural path into a stagnant formula.[18] In 1986 he edited a volume of cyberpunk stories called Mirrorshades: The Cyberpunk Anthology, an attempt to establish what cyberpunk was, from Sterling’s perspective.[19]

In the subsequent decade, the motifs of Gibson’s Neuromancer became formulaic, climaxing in the satirical extremes of Neal Stephenson’s Snow Crash in 1992.

Bookending the Cyberpunk era, Bethke himself published a novel in 1995 called Headcrash, like Snow Crash a satirical attack on the genre’s excesses. Fittingly, it won an honor named after cyberpunk’s spiritual founder, the Philip K. Dick Award.

It satirized the genre in this way:

The impact of cyberpunk, though, has been long-lasting. Elements of both the setting and storytelling have become normal in science fiction in general, and a slew of sub-genres now have -punk tacked onto their names, most obviously Steampunk, but also a host of other Cyberpunk derivatives.

Primary figures in the cyberpunk movement include William Gibson, Neal Stephenson, Bruce Sterling, Bruce Bethke, Pat Cadigan, Rudy Rucker, and John Shirley. Philip K. Dick (author of Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?, from which the film Blade Runner was adapted) is also seen by some as prefiguring the movement.[21]

Blade Runner can be seen as a quintessential example of the cyberpunk style and theme.[7] Video games, board games, and tabletop role-playing games, such as Cyberpunk 2020 and Shadowrun, often feature storylines that are heavily influenced by cyberpunk writing and movies. Beginning in the early 1990s, some trends in fashion and music were also labeled as cyberpunk. Cyberpunk is also featured prominently in anime and manga:[22] Akira, Gunnm, Ghost in the Shell, Cowboy Bebop, Serial Experiments Lain, Dennou Coil, Ergo Proxy and Psycho Pass being among the most notable.[22]

Cyberpunk writers tend to use elements from hardboiled detective fiction, film noir, and postmodernist prose to describe an often nihilistic underground side of an electronic society. The genre’s vision of a troubled future is often called the antithesis of the generally utopian visions of the future popular in the 1940s and 1950s. Gibson defined cyberpunk’s antipathy towards utopian SF in his 1981 short story “The Gernsback Continuum,” which pokes fun at and, to a certain extent, condemns utopian science fiction.[25][26][27]

In some cyberpunk writing, much of the action takes place online, in cyberspace, blurring the line between actual and virtual reality.[28] A typical trope in such work is a direct connection between the human brain and computer systems. Cyberpunk settings are dystopias with corruption, computers and internet connectivity. Giant, multinational corporations have for the most part replaced governments as centers of political, economic, and even military power.

The economic and technological state of Japan is a regular theme in the Cyberpunk literature of the ’80s. Of Japan’s influence on the genre, William Gibson said, “Modern Japan simply was cyberpunk.”[24] Cyberpunk is often set in urbanized, artificial landscapes, and “city lights, receding” was used by Gibson as one of the genre’s first metaphors for cyberspace and virtual reality.[29] The cityscapes of Hong Kong[30] and Shanghai[31] have had major influences in the urban backgrounds, ambiance and settings in many cyberpunk works such as Blade Runner and Shadowrun. Ridley Scott envisioned the landscape of cyberpunk Los Angeles in Blade Runner to be “Hong Kong on a very bad day”.[32] The streetscapes of Ghost in the Shell were based on Hong Kong. Its director Mamoru Oshii felt that Hong Kong’s strange and chaotic streets where “old and new exist in confusing relationships”, fit the theme of the film well.[30] Hong Kong’s Kowloon Walled City is particularly notable for its disorganized hyper-urbanization and breakdown in traditional urban planning to be an inspiration to cyberpunk landscapes.

One of the cyberpunk genre’s prototype characters is Case, from Gibson’s Neuromancer.[33] Case is a “console cowboy,” a brilliant hacker who has betrayed his organized criminal partners. Robbed of his talent through a crippling injury inflicted by the vengeful partners, Case unexpectedly receives a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to be healed by expert medical care but only if he participates in another criminal enterprise with a new crew.

Like Case, many cyberpunk protagonists are manipulated, placed in situations where they have little or no choice, and although they might see things through, they do not necessarily come out any further ahead than they previously were. These anti-heroes”criminals, outcasts, visionaries, dissenters and misfits”[34]call to mind the private eye of detective fiction. This emphasis on the misfits and the malcontents is the “punk” component of cyberpunk.

Cyberpunk can be intended to disquiet readers and call them to action. It often expresses a sense of rebellion, suggesting that one could describe it as a type of culture revolution in science fiction. In the words of author and critic David Brin:

…a closer look [at cyberpunk authors] reveals that they nearly always portray future societies in which governments have become wimpy and pathetic …Popular science fiction tales by Gibson, Williams, Cadigan and others do depict Orwellian accumulations of power in the next century, but nearly always clutched in the secretive hands of a wealthy or corporate elite.[35]

Cyberpunk stories have also been seen as fictional forecasts of the evolution of the Internet. The earliest descriptions of a global communications network came long before the World Wide Web entered popular awareness, though not before traditional science-fiction writers such as Arthur C. Clarke and some social commentators such as James Burke began predicting that such networks would eventually form.[36]

Some observers cite that cyberpunk tends to marginalize sectors of society such as women and Africans. For instance, it is claimed that cyberpunk depicts fantasies that ultimately empower masculinity using fragmentary and decentered aesthetic that culminate in a masculine genre populated by male outlaws.[37] Critics also note the absence of any reference to Africa or an African-American character in the quintessential cyberpunk film Blade Runner[10] while other films reinforce stereotypes.[38]

Minnesota writer Bruce Bethke coined the term in 1980 for his short story “Cyberpunk,” which was published in the November 1983 issue of Amazing Science Fiction Stories.[39] The term was quickly appropriated as a label to be applied to the works of William Gibson, Bruce Sterling, Pat Cadigan and others. Of these, Sterling became the movement’s chief ideologue, thanks to his fanzine Cheap Truth. John Shirley wrote articles on Sterling and Rucker’s significance.[40] John Brunner’s 1975 novel The Shockwave Rider is considered by many[who?] to be the first cyberpunk novel with many of the tropes commonly associated with the genre, some five years before the term was popularized by Dozois.[41]

William Gibson with his novel Neuromancer (1984) is arguably the most famous writer connected with the term cyberpunk. He emphasized style, a fascination with surfaces, and atmosphere over traditional science-fiction tropes. Regarded as ground-breaking and sometimes as “the archetypal cyberpunk work,”[6] Neuromancer was awarded the Hugo, Nebula, and Philip K. Dick Awards. Count Zero (1986) and Mona Lisa Overdrive (1988) followed after Gibson’s popular debut novel. According to the Jargon File, “Gibson’s near-total ignorance of computers and the present-day hacker culture enabled him to speculate about the role of computers and hackers in the future in ways hackers have since found both irritatingly nave and tremendously stimulating.”[42]

Early on, cyberpunk was hailed as a radical departure from science-fiction standards and a new manifestation of vitality.[43] Shortly thereafter, however, some critics arose to challenge its status as a revolutionary movement. These critics said that the SF New Wave of the 1960s was much more innovative as far as narrative techniques and styles were concerned.[44] Furthermore, while Neuromancer’s narrator may have had an unusual “voice” for science fiction, much older examples can be found: Gibson’s narrative voice, for example, resembles that of an updated Raymond Chandler, as in his novel The Big Sleep (1939).[43] Others noted that almost all traits claimed to be uniquely cyberpunk could in fact be found in older writers’ worksoften citing J. G. Ballard, Philip K. Dick, Harlan Ellison, Stanisaw Lem, Samuel R. Delany, and even William S. Burroughs.[43] For example, Philip K. Dick’s works contain recurring themes of social decay, artificial intelligence, paranoia, and blurred lines between objective and subjective realities.[45] The influential cyberpunk movie Blade Runner (1982) is based on his book, Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?.[46] Humans linked to machines are found in Pohl and Kornbluth’s Wolfbane (1959) and Roger Zelazny’s Creatures of Light and Darkness (1968).[citation needed]

In 1994, scholar Brian Stonehill suggested that Thomas Pynchon’s 1973 novel Gravity’s Rainbow “not only curses but precurses what we now glibly dub cyberspace.”[47] Other important predecessors include Alfred Bester’s two most celebrated novels, The Demolished Man and The Stars My Destination,[48] as well as Vernor Vinge’s novella True Names.[49]

Science-fiction writer David Brin describes cyberpunk as “the finest free promotion campaign ever waged on behalf of science fiction.” It may not have attracted the “real punks,” but it did ensnare many new readers, and it provided the sort of movement that postmodern literary critics found alluring. Cyberpunk made science fiction more attractive to academics, argues Brin; in addition, it made science fiction more profitable to Hollywood and to the visual arts generally. Although the “self-important rhetoric and whines of persecution” on the part of cyberpunk fans were irritating at worst and humorous at best, Brin declares that the “rebels did shake things up. We owe them a debt.”[50]

Fredric Jameson considers cyberpunk the “supreme literary expression if not of postmodernism, then of late capitalism itself”.[51]

Cyberpunk further inspired many professional writers who were not among the “original” cyberpunks to incorporate cyberpunk ideas into their own works,[citation needed] such as George Alec Effinger’s When Gravity Fails. Wired magazine, created by Louis Rossetto and Jane Metcalfe, mixes new technology, art, literature, and current topics in order to interest today’s cyberpunk fans, which Paula Yoo claims “proves that hardcore hackers, multimedia junkies, cyberpunks and cellular freaks are poised to take over the world.”[52]

The film Blade Runner (1982)adapted from Philip K. Dick’s Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?is set in 2019 in a dystopian future in which manufactured beings called replicants are slaves used on space colonies and are legal prey on Earth to various bounty hunters who “retire” (kill) them. Although Blade Runner was largely unsuccessful in its first theatrical release, it found a viewership in the home video market and became a cult film.[53] Since the movie omits the religious and mythical elements of Dick’s original novel (e.g. empathy boxes and Wilbur Mercer), it falls more strictly within the cyberpunk genre than the novel does. William Gibson would later reveal that upon first viewing the film, he was surprised at how the look of this film matched his vision for Neuromancer, a book he was then working on. The film’s tone has since been the staple of many cyberpunk movies, such as The Matrix trilogy (1999-2003), which uses a wide variety of cyberpunk elements.

The number of films in the genre or at least using a few genre elements has grown steadily since Blade Runner. Several of Philip K. Dick’s works have been adapted to the silver screen. The films Johnny Mnemonic[3] and New Rose Hotel,[4][5] both based upon short stories by William Gibson, flopped commercially and critically. These box offices misses significantly slowed the development of cyberpunk as a literary or cultural form although a sequel to the 1982 film Blade Runner was released in October 2017 with Harrison Ford reprising his role from the original film.

In addition, “tech-noir” film as a hybrid genre, means a work of combining neo-noir and science fiction or cyberpunk. It includes many cyberpunk films such as Blade Runner, Burst City,[54] Robocop, 12 Monkeys, The Lawnmower Man, Hackers, Hardware, and Strange Days.

Cyberpunk themes are widely visible in anime and manga. In Japan, where cosplay is popular and not only teenagers display such fashion styles, cyberpunk has been accepted and its influence is widespread. William Gibson’s Neuromancer, whose influence dominated the early cyberpunk movement, was also set in Chiba, one of Japan’s largest industrial areas, although at the time of writing the novel Gibson did not know the location of Chiba and had no idea how perfectly it fit his vision in some ways. The exposure to cyberpunk ideas and fiction in the mid 1980s has allowed it to seep into the Japanese culture.

Cyberpunk anime and manga draw upon a futuristic vision which has elements in common with western science fiction and therefore have received wide international acceptance outside Japan. “The conceptualization involved in cyberpunk is more of forging ahead, looking at the new global culture. It is a culture that does not exist right now, so the Japanese concept of a cyberpunk future, seems just as valid as a Western one, especially as Western cyberpunk often incorporates many Japanese elements.”[55] William Gibson is now a frequent visitor to Japan, and he came to see that many of his visions of Japan have become a reality:

Modern Japan simply was cyberpunk. The Japanese themselves knew it and delighted in it. I remember my first glimpse of Shibuya, when one of the young Tokyo journalists who had taken me there, his face drenched with the light of a thousand media-sunsall that towering, animated crawl of commercial informationsaid, “You see? You see? It is Blade Runner town.” And it was. It so evidently was.[24]

Cyberpunk has influenced many anime and manga including the ground-breaking Akira, Appleseed, Ghost in the Shell, Ergo Proxy, Battle Angel Alita, Megazone 23, Neo Tokyo, Goku Midnight Eye, Cyber City Oedo 808, Bubblegum Crisis, A.D. Police: Dead End City, Angel Cop, Extra, Blame!, Armitage III, Texhnolyze, Serial Experiments Lain, Neon Genesis Evangelion and Psycho-Pass.

There are many cyberpunk video games. Popular series include the Megami Tensei series, Deus Ex series, Syndicate series, and System Shock and its sequel. Other games, like Blade Runner, Ghost in the Shell, and the Matrix series, are based upon genre movies, or role-playing games (for instance the various Shadowrun games).

Several RPGs called Cyberpunk exist: Cyberpunk, Cyberpunk 2020 and Cyberpunk v3, by R. Talsorian Games, and GURPS Cyberpunk, published by Steve Jackson Games as a module of the GURPS family of RPGs. Cyberpunk 2020 was designed with the settings of William Gibson’s writings in mind, and to some extent with his approval[citation needed], unlike the approach taken by FASA in producing the transgenre Shadowrun game. Both are set in the near future, in a world where cybernetics are prominent. In addition, Iron Crown Enterprises released an RPG named Cyberspace, which was out of print for several years until recently being re-released in online PDF form. CD Projekt Red is currently developing Cyberpunk 2077, a cyberpunk first-person open world RPG video-game based on the tabletop RPG Cyberpunk 2020.[56][57][58]In 1990, in a convergence of cyberpunk art and reality, the United States Secret Service raided Steve Jackson Games’s headquarters and confiscated all their computers. Officials denied that the target had been the GURPS Cyberpunk sourcebook, but Jackson would later write that he and his colleagues “were never able to secure the return of the complete manuscript; […] The Secret Service at first flatly refused to return anything then agreed to let us copy files, but when we got to their office, restricted us to one set of out-of-date files then agreed to make copies for us, but said “tomorrow” every day from March 4 to March 26. On March 26 we received a set of disks which purported to be our files, but the material was late, incomplete and well-nigh useless.”[59] Steve Jackson Games won a lawsuit against the Secret Service, aided by the new Electronic Frontier Foundation. This event has achieved a sort of notoriety, which has extended to the book itself as well. All published editions of GURPS Cyberpunk have a tagline on the front cover, which reads “The book that was seized by the U.S. Secret Service!” Inside, the book provides a summary of the raid and its aftermath.

Cyberpunk has also inspired several tabletop, miniature and board games such as Necromunda by Games Workshop. Netrunner is a collectible card game introduced in 1996, based on the Cyberpunk 2020 role-playing game. Tokyo NOVA, debuting in 1993, is a cyberpunk role-playing game that uses playing cards instead of dice.

Julie Romandetta[60]

Some musicians and acts have been classified as cyberpunk due to their aesthetic style and musical content. Often dealing with dystopian visions of the future or biomechanical themes, some fit more squarely in the category than others. Bands whose music has been classified as cyberpunk include Psydoll, Front Line Assembly, Clock DVA and Sigue Sigue Sputnik. Some musicians not normally associated with cyberpunk have at times been inspired to create concept albums exploring such themes. Albums such as Gary Numan’s Replicas, The Pleasure Principle and Telekon were heavily inspired by the works of Philip K. Dick. Kraftwerk’s The Man-Machine and Computer World albums both explored the theme of humanity becoming dependent on technology. Nine Inch Nails’ concept album Year Zero also fits into this category. Fear Factory concept albums are heavily based upon future dystopia, cybernetics, clash between man and machines, virtual worlds. Billy Idol’s Cyberpunk drew heavily from cyberpunk literature and the cyberdelic counter culture in its creation. 1. Outside, a cyberpunk narrative fueled concept album by David Bowie, was warmly met by critics upon its release in 1995. Many musicians have also taken inspiration from specific cyberpunk works or authors, including Sonic Youth, whose albums Sister and Daydream Nation take influence from the works of Philip K. Dick and William Gibson respectively.

Vaporwave and synthwave are also influenced by cyberpunk. The former has been interpreted as a dystopian[61] critique of capitalism[62] in the vein of cyberpunk and the latter as a nostalgic retrofuturistic revival of aspects of cyberpunk’s origins.

Some Neo-Futurism artworks and cityscapes have been influenced by cyberpunk, such as[24] the Sony Center in the Potsdamer Platz public square of Berlin, Germany.[63]

Several subcultures have been inspired by cyberpunk fiction. These include the cyberdelic counter culture of the late 1980s and early 90s. Cyberdelic, whose adherents referred to themselves as “cyberpunks”, attempted to blend the psychedelic art and drug movement with the technology of cyberculture. Early adherents included Timothy Leary, Mark Frauenfelder and R. U. Sirius. The movement largely faded following the dot-com bubble implosion of 2000.

Cybergoth is a fashion and dance subculture which draws its inspiration from cyberpunk fiction, as well as rave and Gothic subcultures. In addition, a distinct cyberpunk fashion of its own has emerged in recent years[when?] which rejects the raver and goth influences of cybergoth, and draws inspiration from urban street fashion, “post apocalypse”, functional clothing, high tech sports wear, tactical uniform and multifunction. This fashion goes by names like “tech wear”, “goth ninja” or “tech ninja”. Important designers in this type of fashion[according to whom?] are ACRONYM, Demobaza,[64] Boris Bidjan Saberi, Rick Owens and Alexander Wang.

The Kowloon Walled City in Hong Kong (demolished in 1994) is often referenced as the model cyberpunk/dystopian slum as, given its poor living conditions at the time coupled with the city’s political, physical, and economic isolation has caused many in academia to be fascinated by the ingenuity of its spawning.[65]

As a wider variety of writers began to work with cyberpunk concepts, new subgenres of science fiction emerged, some of which could be considered as playing off the cyberpunk label, others which could be considered as legitimate explorations into newer territory. These focused on technology and its social effects in different ways. One prominent subgenre is “steampunk,” which is set in an alternate history Victorian era that combines anachronistic technology with cyberpunk’s bleak film noir world view. The term was originally coined around 1987 as a joke to describe some of the novels of Tim Powers, James P. Blaylock, and K.W. Jeter, but by the time Gibson and Sterling entered the subgenre with their collaborative novel The Difference Engine the term was being used earnestly as well.[66]

Another subgenre is “biopunk” (cyberpunk themes dominated by biotechnology) from the early 1990s, a derivative style building on biotechnology rather than informational technology. In these stories, people are changed in some way not by mechanical means, but by genetic manipulation. Paul Di Filippo is seen as the most prominent biopunk writer, including his half-serious ribofunk. Bruce Sterling’s Shaper/Mechanist cycle is also seen as a major influence. In addition, some people consider works such as Neal Stephenson’s The Diamond Age to be postcyberpunk.

Cyberpunk works have been described as well-situated within postmodern literature.[67]

Role playing game publisher R. Talsorian Games, owner of the Cyberpunk 2020 franchise, trademarked the word “Cyberpunk” in the United States in 2012.[68] Video game developer CD Projekt, which is developing Cyberpunk 2077, bought the U.S. trademark from R. Talsorian Games, and has filed a trademark in the European Union.[69][70]

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Cyberpunk – Wikipedia

Noir Nights – A Cyberpunk Noir soundtrack

You lived a life of privilege and comfort sheltered in the upper city until one day a chance encounter turns your world upside down. Reluctantly , now you must travel to the lower city that holds the only key to your way out of this mess. Along the way, you uncover more than you ever expected, and you find out the truth behind all the lies youve been told. What you do with this information is up to you. From the splendors of the Upper City to the grim realities of the Lower City, these are your Noir Nights.

“You were one of the elite, now you’re one of us.”

//Splendors of the Upper City00:00:00 Peaks and Valleys – Holon 00:06:06 Seven Days – Xaeroseven00:09:40 Transient – Synkro00:16:24 Return – Gridlock 00:21:39 Please not yet – Palmer’s Medic

//Surveillance00:27:09 The City is watching – The Enigma TNG

//Premonition00:32:57 “- – -” – Access to Arasaka

//Upper City late nights00:35:20 Song 23 – Gridlock00:40:25 Quiet Little Rain – Palmer’s Medic

//Rude Awakening00:47:50 Dream Sequence – Amon Tobin00:54:48 After Dark – Ahnst Anders

//Lower City Transition00:59:43 Something Wicked This Way Comes – Iszoloscope

//Black Market01:04:55 Discordia – Maduro01:08:31 Proper Hoodidge – Amon Tobin

//Proposition01:13:35 Juno Wakes – Maduro

//Lower City Streets01:19:35 Silent Whisper – Ahnst Anders01:27:09 Temptation and Desire – Silent Servant01:30:28 Dark Twinkle Rose – The Enigma TNG01:35:50 And then it was (Oktopus remix) – Obsidian Kingdom

//Manuevers in the dark01:40:42 Telemetry – Bad Sector01:45:55 Antenna – Swarm Intelligence01:50:49 Deadly Covers – Raphael Acohen

//Chase sequence01:55:28 Insight – Diaphane

//Captured01:59:44 Verge – Freeze Etch02:01:22 Irrotator – Freeze Etch

//Interrogation02:07:04 Nebulous Illumine – The Enigma TNG

//Escape02:14:55 Morningstar – Palmer’s Medic02:22:46 Reconsider – Aphorism

//Regroup02:25:46 LX-R – Camerxn02:30:25 Highway – Access to Arasaka

//Point of no Return02:33:18 Untitled 06 – Totakeke02:40:09 All that is Hidden – Raphael Acohen

//All or nothing02:45:50 All Torque (F Buttons Remix) – Hybrid02:50:55 Alma the hellcat – Palmer’s Medic

post on Tumblr: https://casie-mod.tumblr.com/post/151…Artwork by yours truly https://casie-mod.tumblr.com/post/142…

Links to artists in this playlist:

Palmer’s Medichttps://palmersmedic.bandcamp.com/

Camerxnhttps://camerxn.bandcamp.com/album/cr…

Freeze Etchhttps://freezeetch.bandcamp.com/album…

Holon https://holon-subatomic-audio.bandcam…https://soundcloud.com/mark-r-3

Synkrohttps://synkro.bandcamp.com/album/tra…

Gridlock https://www.amazon.com/Formless-Gridl…

Access to Arasakahttps://crlstudios.bandcamp.com/album…

Amon Tobinhttps://amontobinmusic.bandcamp.com/

Ahnst Andershttps://ant-zen.bandcamp.com/album/ma…

Iszoloscopehttps://iszoloscope.bandcamp.com/albu…

Madurohttps://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B00…

Silent Servanthttps://www.beatport.com/track/tempta…

The Enigma TNGhttps://theenigmatng.bandcamp.com/

Obsidian Kingdomhttps://obsidiankingdom.bandcamp.com/…

Bad Sectorhttps://loki-found.bandcamp.com/album…

Swarm Intelligencehttps://adnoiseam.bandcamp.com/album/…

Raphael Acohenhttps://concrete.bandcamp.com/album/n…

Diaphanehttps://tympanikaudio.bandcamp.com/tr…

Aphorismhttps://tympanikaudio.bandcamp.com/al…

Totakekehttps://tympanikaudio.bandcamp.com/al…

Hybridhttps://www.amazon.com/Driveclub-Orig…

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Noir Nights – A Cyberpunk Noir soundtrack

Cyberpunk 2020 | Cyberpunk Wiki | FANDOM powered by Wikia

R.Talsorian Games

Johnny Silverhand

The Second edition was titled 2020 to reflect the updated setting of the year 2020. The Second edition was originally produced as a box set that included the rulebook and a supplementary screamsheet booklet, featuring information and several mini adventures.

Cyberpunk 2020 spawned numerous Sourcebooks and Adventurebooks and was followed up with the Firestorm series that moved the timeline to the year 2022 and the beginnings of the Fourth Corporate War.

In 2005 the series was followed up by an official sequel, Cyberpunk Version 3.0. In 2013 it was announced that an official video game sequel would be made by Polish developer, CDProjekt Red as well as an official fourth edition of the pen and paper RPG titled Cyberpunk RED.

Mike Pondsmith moved Cyberpunk into the 2020s for the second edition, with this updated setting came new world events, technology and characters as well as greatly expanding the existing world. The setting of Night City became a real world rather than the ambiguous near future city of Cyberpunk 2013 and many of the Corporations received fully fleshed out histories, and names for high level members. The Cyberpunk 2020 rulebook included almost everything from the first edition from the character roles to the Never Fade Away adventure with Johnny Silverhand. After the widespread publication of the book, the first edition, Cyberpunk 2013 became obsolete and Cyberpunk 2020 took its place as the primary way to play the game.

To start playing, first one must create their character. A Cyberpunk on the mean streets of Night City, working for whoever pays best, taking down local gangs or going up against multinational conglomerates, whatever it is you will need to prepare accordingly. In both Cyberpunk 2013 and 2020 there are nine primary character roles, each filling a specific niche. In the subsequent sourcebooks many of these roles were greatly expanded upon to give location or scenario specific alternates.

The first printing of Cyberpunk 2020 was published in 1990 and like Cyberpunk 2013, came as a boxed set, featuring dice, the version 1.00 rule-book and the scream sheet supplementary booklet.

A Year later in 1991 the version 2.00 edition was released. It is assume that this was just the standalone book release after the initial run of the box set. The Screamsheet booklet was included as part of the book.

Two years later in 1993 R.Talsorian Games published their 2.01 version of the core rulebook. Included are the screamsheets and character sheets as spelling and grammatical error fixes. The biggest new addition is the new artwork from the Italian printing of the book by Stratelibri. Creator Mike Pondsmith thanks Stratelibri as well as the team and artist that put it together.

After the 2013 reveal of the Cyberpunk 2077 video game R.Talsorian Games began production on a new printing of the Cyberpunk 2020 rule book. The new printing of the book is essentially the 2.01 version with a slightly altered cover art. The book subtitled was changed to The Classic Role Playing Game of the Dark Future, the sign advertising the new artwork was removed, and the two horizontal white bars were removed from around the logo.

With the release of the first edition, Cyberpunk 2013, R.Talsorian Games also produced several supplementary sourcebooks, to give players a little bit more information on certain aspects of the game. Only four were produces and were nothing more than small, magazine sized booklets. In the coming years after 2020s initial release, dozens of Sourcebooks would be produced, details all aspects that were not covered by the original rulebooks. Everything from guides to Night City, America and the far East, to detailed reports on the various Corporations as well as several catalogue style books, giving players more choice in their fashion, technology and weapons.

As of 2018 the Box set is long out of print and is seldom seen on online auction websites, typically going for a large sum. However in 2013, after the announcement of the video game Cyberpunk 2077, R.Talsorian Games began a fourth printing. In mid 2018, after the E3 reveal of Cyberpunk 2077, the popularity surged once again with a high demand for the books and several more printings are planned throughout 2018.

PONDSMITH, M. Cyberpunk 2020. 2nd ed. Berkeley CA; R.Talsorian Games, 1990.

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Cyborg – Wikipedia

In current prosthetic applications, the C-Leg system developed by Otto Bock HealthCare is used to replace a human leg that has been amputated because of injury or illness. The use of sensors in the artificial C-Leg aids in walking significantly by attempting to replicate the user’s natural gait, as it would be prior to amputation.[16] Prostheses like the C-Leg and the more advanced iLimb are considered by some to be the first real steps towards the next generation of real-world cyborg applications.[citation needed] Additionally cochlear implants and magnetic implants which provide people with a sense that they would not otherwise have had can additionally be thought of as creating cyborgs.[citation needed]

In vision science, direct brain implants have been used to treat non-congenital (acquired) blindness. One of the first scientists to come up with a working brain interface to restore sight was private researcher William Dobelle.Dobelle’s first prototype was implanted into “Jerry”, a man blinded in adulthood, in 1978. A single-array BCI containing 68 electrodes was implanted onto Jerry’s visual cortex and succeeded in producing phosphenes, the sensation of seeing light. The system included cameras mounted on glasses to send signals to the implant. Initially, the implant allowed Jerry to see shades of grey in a limited field of vision at a low frame-rate. This also required him to be hooked up to a two-ton mainframe, but shrinking electronics and faster computers made his artificial eye more portable and now enable him to perform simple tasks unassisted.[17]

In 1997, Philip Kennedy, a scientist and physician, created the world’s first human cyborg from Johnny Ray, a Vietnam veteran who suffered a stroke. Ray’s body, as doctors called it, was “locked in”. Ray wanted his old life back so he agreed to Kennedy’s experiment. Kennedy embedded an implant he designed (and named “neurotrophic electrode”) near the part of Ray’s brain so that Ray would be able to have some movement back in his body. The surgery went successfully, but in 2002, Johnny Ray died.[18]

In 2002, Canadian Jens Naumann, also blinded in adulthood, became the first in a series of 16 paying patients to receive Dobelle’s second generation implant, marking one of the earliest commercial uses of BCIs. The second generation device used a more sophisticated implant enabling better mapping of phosphenes into coherent vision. Phosphenes are spread out across the visual field in what researchers call the starry-night effect. Immediately after his implant, Naumann was able to use his imperfectly restored vision to drive slowly around the parking area of the research institute.[19]

In contrast to replacement technologies, in 2002, under the heading Project Cyborg, a British scientist, Kevin Warwick, had an array of 100 electrodes fired into his nervous system in order to link his nervous system into the internet to investigate enhancement possibilities. With this in place Warwick successfully carried out a series of experiments including extending his nervous system over the internet to control a robotic hand, also receiving feedback from the fingertips in order to control the hand’s grip. This was a form of extended sensory input. Subsequently, he investigated ultrasonic input in order to remotely detect the distance to objects. Finally, with electrodes also implanted into his wife’s nervous system, they conducted the first direct electronic communication experiment between the nervous systems of two humans.[20][21]

Since 2004, British artist Neil Harbisson has had a cyborg antenna implanted in his head that allows him to extend his perception of colors beyond the human visual spectrum through vibrations in his skull.[22] His antenna was included within his 2004 passport photograph which has been claimed to confirm his cyborg status.[23] In 2012 at TEDGlobal,[24] Harbisson explained that he started to feel cyborg when he noticed that the software and his brain had united and given him an extra sense.[24] Neil Harbisson is a co-founder of the Cyborg Foundation (2004)[25]

Furthermore many cyborgs with multifunctional microchips injected into their hand are known to exist. With the chips they are able swipe cards, open or unlock doors, operate devices such as printers or, with some using a cryptocurrency, buy products, such as drinks, with a wave of the hand.[26][27][28][29][30]

bodyNET is an application of human-electronic interaction currently in development by researchers from Stanford University.[31] The technology is based on stretchable semiconductor materials (Elastronic). According to their article in Nature (journal), the technology is composed of smart devices, screens, and a network of sensors that can be implanted into the body, woven into the skin or worn as clothes. It has been suggested, that this platform can potentially replace the smartphone in the future.[32]

The US-based company Backyard Brains released what they refer to as “The world’s first commercially available cyborg” called the RoboRoach. The project started as a University of Michigan biomedical engineering student senior design project in 2010[33] and was launched as an available beta product on 25 February 2011.[34] The RoboRoach was officially released into production via a TED talk at the TED Global conference,[35] and via the crowdsourcing website Kickstarter in 2013,[36] the kit allows students to use microstimulation to momentarily control the movements of a walking cockroach (left and right) using a bluetooth-enabled smartphone as the controller. Other groups have developed cyborg insects, including researchers at North Carolina State University,[37][38] UC Berkeley,[39][40] and Nanyang Technological University, Singapore,[41][42] but the RoboRoach was the first kit available to the general public and was funded by the National Institute of Mental Health as a device to serve as a teaching aid to promote an interest in neuroscience.[35] Several animal welfare organizations including the RSPCA [43] and PETA [44] have expressed concerns about the ethics and welfare of animals in this project.

In medicine, there are two important and different types of cyborgs: the restorative and the enhanced. Restorative technologies “restore lost function, organs, and limbs”.[45] The key aspect of restorative cyborgization is the repair of broken or missing processes to revert to a healthy or average level of function. There is no enhancement to the original faculties and processes that were lost.

On the contrary, the enhanced cyborg “follows a principle, and it is the principle of optimal performance: maximising output (the information or modifications obtained) and minimising input (the energy expended in the process)”.[46] Thus, the enhanced cyborg intends to exceed normal processes or even gain new functions that were not originally present.

Although prostheses in general supplement lost or damaged body parts with the integration of a mechanical artifice, bionic implants in medicine allow model organs or body parts to mimic the original function more closely. Michael Chorost wrote a memoir of his experience with cochlear implants, or bionic ear, titled “Rebuilt: How Becoming Part Computer Made Me More Human.”[47] Jesse Sullivan became one of the first people to operate a fully robotic limb through a nerve-muscle graft, enabling him a complex range of motions beyond that of previous prosthetics.[48] By 2004, a fully functioning artificial heart was developed.[49] The continued technological development of bionic and nanotechnologies begins to raise the question of enhancement, and of the future possibilities for cyborgs which surpass the original functionality of the biological model. The ethics and desirability of “enhancement prosthetics” have been debated; their proponents include the transhumanist movement, with its belief that new technologies can assist the human race in developing beyond its present, normative limitations such as aging and disease, as well as other, more general incapacities, such as limitations on speed, strength, endurance, and intelligence. Opponents of the concept describe what they believe to be biases which propel the development and acceptance of such technologies; namely, a bias towards functionality and efficiency that may compel assent to a view of human people which de-emphasizes as defining characteristics actual manifestations of humanity and personhood, in favor of definition in terms of upgrades, versions, and utility.[50]

A brain-computer interface, or BCI, provides a direct path of communication from the brain to an external device, effectively creating a cyborg. Research of Invasive BCIs, which utilize electrodes implanted directly into the grey matter of the brain, has focused on restoring damaged eyesight in the blind and providing functionality to paralyzed people, most notably those with severe cases, such as Locked-In syndrome. This technology could enable people who are missing a limb or are in a wheelchair the power to control the devices that aide them through neural signals sent from the brain implants directly to computers or the devices. It is possible that this technology will also eventually be used with healthy people.[51]

Deep brain stimulation is a neurological surgical procedure used for therapeutic purposes. This process has aided in treating patients diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, Tourette syndrome, epilepsy, chronic headaches, and mental disorders. After the patient is unconscious, through anesthesia, brain pacemakers or electrodes, are implanted into the region of the brain where the cause of the disease is present. The region of the brain is then stimulated by bursts of electric current to disrupt the oncoming surge of seizures. Like all invasive procedures, deep brain stimulation may put the patient at a higher risk. However, there have been more improvements in recent years with deep brain stimulation than any available drug treatment.[52]

Retinal implants are another form of cyborgization in medicine. The theory behind retinal stimulation to restore vision to people suffering from retinitis pigmentosa and vision loss due to aging (conditions in which people have an abnormally low number of ganglion cells) is that the retinal implant and electrical stimulation would act as a substitute for the missing ganglion cells (cells which connect the eye to the brain.)

While work to perfect this technology is still being done, there have already been major advances in the use of electronic stimulation of the retina to allow the eye to sense patterns of light. A specialized camera is worn by the subject, such as on the frames of their glasses, which converts the image into a pattern of electrical stimulation. A chip located in the user’s eye would then electrically stimulate the retina with this pattern by exciting certain nerve endings which transmit the image to the optic centers of the brain and the image would then appear to the user. If technological advances proceed as planned this technology may be used by thousands of blind people and restore vision to most of them.

A similar process has been created to aide people who have lost their vocal cords. This experimental device would do away with previously used robotic sounding voice simulators. The transmission of sound would start with a surgery to redirect the nerve that controls the voice and sound production to a muscle in the neck, where a nearby sensor would be able to pick up its electrical signals. The signals would then move to a processor which would control the timing and pitch of a voice simulator. That simulator would then vibrate producing a multitonal sound which could be shaped into words by the mouth.[53]

An article published in Nature Materials in 2012 reported a research on “cyborg tissues” (engineered human tissues with embedded three-dimensional mesh of nanoscale wires), with possible medical implications.[54]

In 2014, researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Washington University in St. Louis had developed a device that could keep a heart beating endlessly. By using 3D printing and computer modeling these scientist developed an electronic membrane that could successfully replace pacemakers. The device utilizes a “spider-web like network of sensors and electrodes” to monitor and maintain a normal heart-rate with electrical stimuli. Unlike traditional pacemakers that are similar from patient to patient, the elastic heart glove is made custom by using high-resolution imaging technology. The first prototype was created to fit a rabbit’s heart, operating the organ in an oxygen and nutrient-rich solution. The stretchable material and circuits of the apparatus were first constructed by Professor John A. Rogers in which the electrodes are arranged in a s-shape design to allow them to expand and bend without breaking. Although the device is only currently used as a research tool to study changes in heart rate, in the future the membrane may serve as a safeguard from heart attacks.[55]

Military organizations’ research has recently focused on the utilization of cyborg animals for the purposes of a supposed tactical advantage. DARPA has announced its interest in developing “cyborg insects” to transmit data from sensors implanted into the insect during the pupal stage. The insect’s motion would be controlled from a Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) and could conceivably survey an environment or detect explosives and gas.[56] Similarly, DARPA is developing a neural implant to remotely control the movement of sharks. The shark’s unique senses would then be exploited to provide data feedback in relation to enemy ship movement or underwater explosives.[57]

In 2006, researchers at Cornell University invented[58] a new surgical procedure to implant artificial structures into insects during their metamorphic development.[59][60] The first insect cyborgs, moths with integrated electronics in their thorax, were demonstrated by the same researchers.[61][62] The initial success of the techniques has resulted in increased research and the creation of a program called Hybrid-Insect-MEMS, HI-MEMS. Its goal, according to DARPA’s Microsystems Technology Office, is to develop “tightly coupled machine-insect interfaces by placing micro-mechanical systems inside the insects during the early stages of metamorphosis”.[63]

The use of neural implants has recently been attempted, with success, on cockroaches. Surgically applied electrodes were put on the insect, which were remotely controlled by a human. The results, although sometimes different, basically showed that the cockroach could be controlled by the impulses it received through the electrodes. DARPA is now funding this research because of its obvious beneficial applications to the military and other areas[64]

In 2009 at the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Micro-electronic mechanical systems (MEMS) conference in Italy, researchers demonstrated the first “wireless” flying-beetle cyborg.[65] Engineers at the University of California at Berkeley have pioneered the design of a “remote controlled beetle”, funded by the DARPA HI-MEMS Program. Filmed evidence of this can be viewed here.[66] This was followed later that year by the demonstration of wireless control of a “lift-assisted” moth-cyborg.[67]

Eventually researchers plan to develop HI-MEMS for dragonflies, bees, rats and pigeons.[68][69] For the HI-MEMS cybernetic bug to be considered a success, it must fly 100 metres (330ft) from a starting point, guided via computer into a controlled landing within 5 metres (16ft) of a specific end point. Once landed, the cybernetic bug must remain in place.[68]

In 2016 the first cyborg Olympics were celebrated in Zurich Switzerland. Cybathlon 2016 were the first Olympics for cyborgs and the first worldwide and official celebration of cyborg sports. In this event, 16 teams of people with disabilities used technological developments to turn themselves into cyborg athletes. There were six different events and its competitors used and controlled advanced technologies such as powered prosthetic legs and arms, robotic exoskeletons, bikes and motorized wheelchairs.[70]

If on one hand this was already a remarkable improvement, as it allowed disabled people to compete and showed the several technological enhancements that are already making a difference, on the other hand it showed that there is still a long way to go. For instance, the exoskeleton race still required its participants to stand up from a chair and sit down, navigate a slalom and other simple activities such as walk over stepping stones and climb up and down stairs. Despite the simplicity of these activities, 8 of the 16 teams that participated in the event drop of before the start.[71]

Nonetheless, one of the main goals of this event and such simple activities is to show how technological enhancements and advanced prosthetic can make a difference in peoples’ lives. The next Cybathlon is expected to occur in 2020

The concept of the cyborg is often associated with science fiction. However, many artists have tried to create public awareness of cybernetic organisms; these can range from paintings to installations. Some artists who create such works are Neil Harbisson, Moon Ribas, Patricia Piccinini, Steve Mann, Orlan, H. R. Giger, Lee Bul, Wafaa Bilal, Tim Hawkinson and Stelarc.

Stelarc is a performance artist who has visually probed and acoustically amplified his body. He uses medical instruments, prosthetics, robotics, virtual reality systems, the Internet and biotechnology to explore alternate, intimate and involuntary interfaces with the body. He has made three films of the inside of his body and has performed with a third hand and a virtual arm. Between 19761988 he completed 25 body suspension performances with hooks into the skin. For ‘Third Ear’ he surgically constructed an extra ear within his arm that was internet enabled, making it a publicly accessible acoustical organ for people in other places.[72] He is presently performing as his avatar from his second life site.[73]

Tim Hawkinson promotes the idea that bodies and machines are coming together as one, where human features are combined with technology to create the Cyborg. Hawkinson’s piece Emoter presented how society is now dependent on technology.[74]

Wafaa Bilal is an Iraqi-American performance artist who had a small 10 megapixel digital camera surgically implanted into the back of his head, part of a project entitled 3rd I.[75] For one year, beginning 15 December 2010, an image is captured once per minute 24 hours a day and streamed live to http://www.3rdi.me and the Mathaf: Arab Museum of Modern Art. The site also displays Bilal’s location via GPS. Bilal says that the reason why he put the camera in the back of the head was to make an “allegorical statement about the things we don’t see and leave behind.”[76] As a professor at NYU, this project has raised privacy issues, and so Bilal has been asked to ensure that his camera does not take photographs in NYU buildings.[76]

Machines are becoming more ubiquitous in the artistic process itself, with computerized drawing pads replacing pen and paper, and drum machines becoming nearly as popular as human drummers. This is perhaps most notable in generative art and music. Composers such as Brian Eno have developed and utilized software which can build entire musical scores from a few basic mathematical parameters.[77]

Scott Draves is a generative artist whose work is explicitly described as a “cyborg mind”. His Electric Sheep project generates abstract art by combining the work of many computers and people over the internet.[78]

Artists have explored the term cyborg from a perspective involving imagination. Some work to make an abstract idea of technological and human-bodily union apparent to reality in an art form utilizing varying mediums, from sculptures and drawings to digital renderings.Artists that seek to make cyborg-based fantasies a reality often call themselves cyborg artists, or may consider their artwork “cyborg”. How an artist or their work may be considered cyborg will vary depending upon the interpreter’s flexibility with the term.Scholars that rely upon a strict, technical description of cyborg, often going by Norbert Wiener’s cybernetic theory and Manfred E. Clynes and Nathan S. Kline’s first use of the term, would likely argue that most cyborg artists do not qualify to be considered cyborgs.[79] Scholars considering a more flexible description of cyborgs may argue it incorporates more than cybernetics.[80] Others may speak of defining subcategories, or specialized cyborg types, that qualify different levels of cyborg at which technology influences an individual. This may range from technological instruments being external, temporary, and removable to being fully integrated and permanent.[81] Nonetheless, cyborg artists are artists. Being so, it can be expected for them to incorporate the cyborg idea rather than a strict, technical representation of the term,[82] seeing how their work will sometimes revolve around other purposes outside of cyborgism.[79]

As medical technology becomes more advanced, some techniques and innovations are adopted by the body modification community. While not yet cyborgs in the strict definition of Manfred Clynes and Nathan Kline, technological developments like implantable silicon silk electronics,[83] augmented reality[84] and QR codes[85] are bridging the disconnect between technology and the body. Hypothetical technologies such as digital tattoo interfaces[86][87] would blend body modification aesthetics with interactivity and functionality, bringing a transhumanist way of life into present day reality.

In addition, it is quite plausible for anxiety expression to manifest. Individuals may experience pre-implantation feelings of fear and nervousness. To this end, individuals may also embody feelings of uneasiness, particularly in a socialized setting, due to their post-operative, technologically augmented bodies, and mutual unfamiliarity with the mechanical insertion. Anxieties may be linked to notions of otherness or a cyborged identity.[88]

Cyborgs have become a well-known part of science fiction literature and other media. Although many of these characters may be technically androids, they are often referred to as cyborgs. Well-known examples from film and television include RoboCop, The Terminator, Evangelion, United States Air Force Colonel Steve Austin in both Cyborg and, as acted out by Lee Majors, The Six Million Dollar Man, Replicants from Blade Runner, Daleks and Cybermen from Doctor Who, the Borg from Star Trek, Darth Vader and General Grievous from Star Wars, Inspector Gadget, and Cylons from the 2004 Battlestar Galactica series. From comics, manga and anime are characters such as 8 Man (the inspiration for RoboCop), Kamen Rider, Ghost in the Shell’s Motoko Kusanagi, as well as characters from western comic books like Tony Stark (after his Extremis and Bleeding Edge armor) and Victor “Cyborg” Stone. The Deus Ex videogame series deals extensively with the near-future rise of cyborgs and their corporate ownership, as does the Syndicate series. William Gibson’s Neuromancer features one of the first female cyborgs, a “Razorgirl” named Molly Millions, who has extensive cybernetic modifications and is one of the most prolific cyberpunk characters in the science fiction canon.[89]

Sending humans to space is a dangerous task in which the implementation of various cyborg technologies could be used in the future for risk mitigation.[90] Stephen Hawking, a renowned physicist, stated “Life on Earth is at the ever-increasing risk of being wiped out by a disaster such as sudden global warming, nuclear war… I think the human race has no future if it doesn’t go into space.” The difficulties associated with space travel could mean it might be centuries before humans ever become a multi-planet species.[citation needed] There are many effect of spaceflight on the human body. One major issue of space exploration is the biological need for oxygen. If this necessity was taken out of the equation, space exploration would be revolutionized. A theory proposed by Manfred E. Clynes and Nathan S. Kline is aimed at tackling this problem. The two scientists theorized that the use of an inverse fuel cell that is “capable of reducing CO2 to its components with removal of the carbon and re-circulation of the oxygen…”[91] could make breathing unnecessary. Another prominent issue is radiation exposure. Yearly, the average human on earth is exposed to approximately 0.30 rem of radiation, while an astronaut aboard the International Space Station for 90 days is exposed to 9 rem.[92] To tackle the issue, Clynes and Kline theorized a cyborg containing a sensor that would detect radiation levels and a Rose osmotic pump “which would automatically inject protective pharmaceuticals in appropriate doses.” Experiments injecting these protective pharmaceuticals into monkeys have shown positive results in increasing radiation resistance.[91]

Although the effects of spaceflight on our body is an important issue, the advancement of propulsion technology is just as important. With our current technology, it would take us about 260 days to get to Mars.[93] A study backed by NASA proposes an interesting way to tackle this issue through deep sleep, or torpor. With this technique, it would “reduce astronauts’ metabolic functions with existing medical procedures”.[94] So far experiments have only resulted in patients being in torpor state for one week. Advancements to allow for longer states of deep sleep would lower the cost of the trip to mars as a result of reduced astronaut resource consumption.

Theorists such as Andy Clark suggest that interactions between humans and technology result in the creation of a cyborg system. In this model “cyborg” is defined as a part biological, part mechanical system which results in the augmentation of the biological component and the creation of a more complex whole. Clark argues that this broadened definition is necessary to an understanding of human cognition. He suggests that any tool which is used to offload part of a cognitive process may be considered the mechanical component of a cyborg system. Examples of this human and technology cyborg system can be very low tech and simplistic, such as using a calculator to perform basic mathematical operations or pen and paper to make notes, or as high tech as using a personal computer or phone. According to Clark, these interactions between a person and a form of technology integrate that technology into the cognitive process in a way which is analogous to the way that a technology which would fit the traditional concept a cyborg augmentation becomes integrated with its biological host. Because all humans in some way use technology to augment their cognitive processes, Clark comes to the conclusion that we are “natural-born cyborgs”.[95]

In 2010, the Cyborg Foundation became the world’s first international organization dedicated to help humans become cyborgs.[96] The foundation was created by cyborg Neil Harbisson and Moon Ribas as a response to the growing number of letters and emails received from people around the world interested in becoming a cyborg.[97] The foundation’s main aims are to extend human senses and abilities by creating and applying cybernetic extensions to the body,[98] to promote the use of cybernetics in cultural events and to defend cyborg rights.[99] In 2010, the foundation, based in Matar (Barcelona), was the overall winner of the Cre@tic Awards, organized by Tecnocampus Matar.[100]

In 2012, Spanish film director Rafel Duran Torrent, created a short film about the Cyborg Foundation. In 2013, the film won the Grand Jury Prize at the Sundance Film Festival’s Focus Forward Filmmakers Competition and was awarded with $100,000 USD.[101]

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Cyborg – Wikipedia

Cyborg (comics) – Wikipedia

Victor Stone is the son of Silas Stone and Elinore Stone, scientists who use him as a test subject for various intelligence enhancement projects. While these treatments are ultimately successful and Victor’s IQ subsequently grows to genius levels, he grows to resent his treatment.

Victor strikes up a friendship with Ron Evers, a young miscreant who leads him into trouble with the law. This is the beginning of a struggle in which Victor strives for independence, engaging in pursuits of which his parents disapprove, such as athletics and abandoning his studies. Victor’s association with underage criminals leads him down a dark path in which he is often injured, but he still lives a “normal” life in which he is able to make his own decisions. However, this rebellious path does not bury Victor’s conscience considering that he refuses to participate in Evers’ grandiose plans of racially motivated terrorism.

Victor’ situation changes radically when he visits his parent’s lab where experiments in inter-dimensional access are done. At that moment of his entry, an aggressive gelatinous creature was accidentally pulled through and Victor’s mother is killed by it. It then turned on Victor and he was severely injured by its attack before his father was able to send it back to its native dimension.

With his wife dead and his son mutilated, unconscious and near death from the incident, Silas is driven to taken advantage of prototype medical prosthetic research he has access to treat Victor. Unfortunately, Victor only regains consciousness after the extensive artificial limbs and implants were installed in his body without his consent. Victor was horrified at the discovery of the sheer metallic components, which includes most of the left side of his head and face, and raged that he would preferred to die than be such a victim of his father’s manipulations.

Although his bitterness remained for some time, Victor eventually calmed down enough to successfully adjust to his implants physically. However, Victor found himself rejected by the public because of his implants, including his girlfriend who would later thoughtlessly blurt out that she would preferred him dead than be in that state. However, Victor’s conscience was unbowed considering when Evers tried manipulate him into participating in a terrorist attack on the United Nations, Victor decided to equip himself with his weaponized attachments and stop him on the top of United Nations Headquarters.

When Raven assembles the Teen Titans, Victor joins initially for the benefit of a support group of kindred spirits and freaks, and has remained with that group ever since.[1] Fortunately, Victor eventually finds additional new civilian friends of better character such as a group of juveniles who are adjusting to their own prosthetics and idolize him because of his fancy parts and his exciting adventures. It also turns out that their beautiful teacher Sarah Simms, who has often assisted Cyborg and the Titans, admires him as well.

Another person who sees past the cybernetic shell is Dr. Sarah Charles, a S.T.A.R. Labs scientist who helps him to recuperate after having his cybernetic parts replaced. Cyborg and Dr. Charles date for some time and she, along with Changeling, keeps trying to reach him when he is seemingly mindless following the severe injuries he incurs during the “Titans Hunt” storyline.

Although Cyborg’s body was repaired by a team of Russian scientists after the missile crash he had been in, albeit with more mechanical parts than previously, his mind was not. Eventually, his mind was restored by an alien race of computer intelligences called the Technis, created from the sexual union of Swamp Thing and a machine-planet when Swamp Thing was travelling through space. Cyborg, however, had to remain with the Technis both to maintain his mind and because, in return for restoring him, he had to teach them about humanity. He took the name Cyberion, and gradually started becoming less human in outlook, connecting entirely to the Technis planet.

Eventually, Cyberion returned to Earth, establishing a Technis construct on the moon and a smaller base on Earth. With Vic’s consciousness dormant, but his desire for companionship controlling the actions of the Technis’ planet, it began kidnapping former Titans members, his conscious mind so suppressed that he was not only searching for deceased Titans, but even sent one probe looking for himself as Cyborg. He ended up plugging them into virtual reality scenarios, representing what he believed to be their “perfect worlds”; for example, Beast Boy was back with the Doom Patrol, Damage was spending time being congratulated by the Justice Society as a true hero, and Nightwing was confronted by a Batman who actually smiled and offered to talk about their relationship. Although the Titans were freed, there was a strong disagreement between them and the Justice League over what action to take; the League believed that there was nothing left of Victor to save, whereas the Titans were willing to try, culminating in a brief battle, where the Atom and Catwoman (who had followed the Justice League to investigate) sided with the League while the Flash fought with the Titans. While Vic was distracted trying to aid his friends, a Titans team consisting of Changeling and the original five Titans were sent by Raven to try making contact with Vic’s human side, while Superman, Wonder Woman, Green Lantern, the Martian Manhunter, Power Girl, Captain Marvel, and Mary Marvel moved the moon back to its proper place. Eventually, thanks primarily to Changeling’s encouragement, and Omen and Raven holding Vic together long enough to come up with a plan, Vic’s consciousness was restored, and “downloaded” into the Omegadrome, a morphing war-suit belonging to former Titan Minion. In the wake of this event, the Titans reformed and Vic was part of the new group.[1] However, he felt less human than ever before.

Shortly after this, Nightwing revealed he had cloned Vic’s body, and by flowing the Omegadrome through the clone, Vic regained his human form, but still had the abilities of the Omegadrome. He often used the Omegadrome to recreate his original look in battle. With his newfound humanity, Vic took a leave of absence, moving first to L.A. with Beast Boy and then to Central City. While in Central City, Vic was involved in one of the Thinker’s schemes, helping Wally hack the Thinker’s attempt to plug himself into the minds of Central City’s population so that Wally could outthink his opponent, though Vic lost the abilities of the Omegadrome in the process.

Vic mentored the new incarnation of the Teen Titans, consisting mainly of sidekicks, most of whom have taken over the identities of former members (i.e. Tim Drake, the third Robin, instead of Dick Grayson, the original Robin and Titans leader), as well as stalwarts such as Starfire, Raven, and Beast Boy, where they have fought enemies such as Deathstroke, Brother Blood, Doctor Light, The Titans Tomorrow, and a brainwashed Superboy and Indigo during a team up with the Outsiders in the Insiders storyline. In the end, Cyborg was the only one capable of standing up to Dr. Light, thanks to his solar shields, although he makes it clear that he only won the fight because the rest of the Titans had softened Light up first.

During the 20052006 storyline “Infinite Crisis”, Cyborg joined Donna’s New Cronus team that went to investigate a hole in the universe that was found during the Rann-Thanagar War. He left Beast Boy in charge of the Titans while he was gone. They arrived at the reset center of the universe and with the help of assorted heroes aided in the defeat of Alexander Luthor, who was attempting to recreate the multiverse and build a perfect Earth from it.

According to 52 Week 5, Cyborg was fused together with Firestorm after returning to Earth. This was caused by the energy ripples caused by Alexander Luthor Jr. which altered the Zeta Ray Beams the heroes were going to use to return home.

After being severely damaged during the events of “Infinite Crisis”, Cyborg was rebuilt over time in thanks to Tower caretakers Wendy and Marvin. He awoke a year later to find a wholly different Teen Titans being led by Robin, the only member from the team he formed prior to going into space. He is still a member of the team, but feels that Kid Devil and Ravager are hardly worthy Titans, and thus is attempting to find a way to reform “the real Titans”.

After the team along with the Doom Patrol defeated the Brotherhood of Evil, Cyborg asked Beast Boy to rejoin the Titans, but Gar refused, saying that his skills were needed with the Doom Patrol. After returning to Titans Tower, Cyborg began reviewing the security tapes during the last year, in which it appears that he was looked to by all the Titans of the past year for a shoulder to lean on, despite being in a coma-like state.

It appears that although Cyborg has returned to the team, the role of leader is now in the hands of Robin. He does however retain the position of statesman amongst the team and occasionally plays second-in-command.

In Justice League of America (vol. 2) #3, Batman, Wonder Woman, and Superman agree that Cyborg should be offered membership in the new Justice League. However, following a battle against Amazo, Green Lantern and Black Canary take over the formation of the JLA, and Cyborg is not amongst the roster.

In the Teen Titans East one-shot, Cyborg gathered together a new team of Titans. During a training exercise, the group was attacked by Trigon, and Cyborg was blasted by a giant energy beam. He was last seen in a crater, with only his head and torso remaining.

In the aftermath of Trigon’s assault in the Titans East one shot, Cyborg has been placed into a special hoverchair while he recuperates. Cyborg’s body is completely repaired in Titans #5. Soon after, the resurrected and unbalanced Jericho enters Cyborg’s body, using him to manipulate the defenses at Titans Tower to kill the Teen Titans. Jericho’s plans are foiled when Static, the newest Teen Titan, uses his electrical powers to overload the Tower’s systems, causing feedback that knocks Jericho out of Cyborg.[3] After recovering, Cyborg pretends to still have Jericho inside of him, in order to draw out Vigilante, who was currently targeting Jericho. The plot works too well when Vigilante appears and shoots Cyborg in the head.[4]

In an unspecified time during the Teen Titans comics, a man with enhancements similar to Cyborg’s attacks Dr. Sarah Charles on the day of her wedding to Deshaun, a young scientist. Cyborg rushes in for the save, discovering how Deshaun, connected to Project M, has sold the technology used to turn Stone into Cyborg to the military. He also finds that the enhanced man was Ron Evers, once Vic’s best friend now turned terrorist, who was seeking vengeance for the soldiers used as test subjects. After Cyborg manages to calm down his friend and discovers the truth: Mr. Orr, revealed as the mastermind behind Project M’s cyborg research, brings his Stone-derived best subjects: the current Equus, an armored form of the Wildebeest, and a cyberized man sporting enhancements even more powerful than Stone’s current ones called Cyborg 2.0.

Cyborg 2.0 turns out to be the Titans Tomorrow Cyborg 2.0, snatched from his proper timeline and cajoled by Orr into fighting his younger self for the possession of their shared technology and Orr’s permission to use it in the battlefield. Cyborg is soon forced to fight simultaneously against the Phantom Limbs, an elite force of soldiers crippled in the Middle East and restored by his tech, and the Cyborg Revenge Squad, a broader formation composed of the Fearsome Five, Magenta, Girder, the Thinker, and Cyborgirl. Although the Cyborg Revenge Squad soon gains the upper hand, with the help of his fellow Titans Cyborg is able to hold his own in combat, reverse engineer on the fly some of the future technology used by Cyborg 2.0, and enhance his own body enough to win against Mr. Orr. He later decides to get a new lease in life, forgiving Deshaun and Sarah Charles on their wedding day for abusing his technology, resuming dating Sarah Simms and having the Phantom Limbs fitted with new, non-military, prosthetics. It is however implied the Phantom Limbs, unwilling to see Stone’s offer as a sign of good will, are trying to get back their weaponized prosthetics and wait for a rematch.

During the events of Blackest Night, Cyborg joins with Starfire, Beast Boy, and several other heroes to form an emergency team to fight off the army of dead Titans who have been reanimated as Black Lanterns. He later joins in the final battle at Coast City.

Following the dissolution of the current JLA after Justice League: Cry for Justice, Cyborg is invited by Donna to join Kimiyo Hoshi’s new Justice League.[5] He befriends Red Tornado, and claims that he has come up with a plan to make him indestructible.[6]

After a battle with Doctor Impossible’s gang, Cyborg is forced to take a leave of absence from the team in order to not only help rebuild Red Tornado, but also help Roy Harper, who had his arm severed by Prometheus.[7] During this time, Victor leads Superboy and Kid Flash to the city of Dakota to rescue the Teen Titans, who had been defeated and captured by Holocaust.[8] The Titans emerge victorious from the battle after Kid Flash uses his powers to send Holocaust plummeting into the Earth’s inner core.[9]

Despite apparently being written off the team, writer James Robinson explained that Cyborg will continue to have a presence on the JLA, and will even be given a co-feature in the back of the book for Justice League of America #4850.[10] In the co-feature, Cyborg battles Red Tornado after he has been driven insane by the power of the Starheart. In the midst of the battle, a flashback reveals that Victor had rebuilt Red Tornado using self-replicating nanites similar to the ones that Prometheus infected Roy with after cutting off his arm, thus making the android indestructible.[11] Cyborg manages to free Red Tornado his power matrix.[12]

Cyborg briefly appears in Justice League: Generation Lost, where he is shown helping Wonder Woman and Starfire search for Maxwell Lord after his resurrection.[13]

Following an adventure in another dimension, Static is left powerless, and Miss Martian is rendered comatose. Cyborg stops the powerless Static from returning to Dakota, and instead tells him that he and a scientist named Rochelle Barnes will be taking him to Cadmus Labs to find a way to get his powers back and awaken Miss Martian. As Static packs up his belongings, Cyborg and Rochelle have a conversation which reveals that they are lying to Static, and have an ulterior motive for taking the two Titans to Cadmus.[14]

He later appears in the final two issues of The Return of Bruce Wayne, where he helps his former teammate Red Robin in his attempt to stop Bruce Wayne from inadvertently unleashing an apocalyptic explosion of Omega Energy.

Cyborg and Red Tornado later travel to the moon alongside Doctor Light, Animal Man, Congorilla, Zauriel, Tasmanian Devil and Bulleteer as part of an emergency group of heroes gathered to assist the Justice League in their battle against Eclipso. Shortly into the battle, Cyborg and the others are taken over by Eclipso and are turned against their JLA comrades.[15] The reserve JLA members are all freed after Eclipso is defeated.[16]

As of August 2011, Cyborg is featured as one of the main characters in a new Justice League ongoing series written by Geoff Johns and drawn by Jim Lee as part of DC’s The New 52 relaunch. Johns has said of Cyborg, “He represents all of us in a lot of ways. If we have a cellphone and we’re texting on it, we are a cyborgthat’s what a cyborg is, using technology as an extension of ourselves.”[17]

The first storyline takes place five years in the past and details the revised origin of the original Justice League. Victor Stone appears as a high school football star who is heavily sought after by a number of college scouts, but apparently has a distant relationship with his father, Silas. After winning a big game, Victor is shown calling his father and angrily telling him that he broke his promise and missed yet another one of his son’s games.[18] Later Victor appears at S.T.A.R. Labs where his father works. The scientists appear to be working on the Mother Box that Superman came in contact with from the Parademon. Victor engages in another argument with his father and tells him that the scouts were there to give him full scholarships to college. When asking if his father will ever appear at any of his games, his father replies “No.” Just then the Mother Box explodes, killing the other scientists and destroying most of Victor’s body while Victor’s father looks on in horror.[19] Silas does everything he can for Victor’s survival. He along with Sarah Charles, and T. O. Morrow go in “The Red Room” in S.T.A.R. labs which contains every piece of technology from around the world. Silas attempts to treat Victor with something that has never been attempted before and he is seen injecting Victor with some type of nanites and having Dr. Morrow put the robotic pieces on Victor (devices such as: a Promethean skin graft, Doctor William Magnus’ responsometer, Anthony Ivo’s A-maze operating system, The classified and prototypical B-maze operating system and Ryan Choi’s White Dwarf Stabilizer). Vic’s life is saved and the energies from the motherbox are incorporated into his new form as Cyborg. This allows Victor to access the vast New Gods data library and discover Darkseid’s true invasion plans.[20]

In the following issue we see Victor as Cyborg. As the issue opens Victor cannot feel his hands or legs. He sees himself for the first time with his robotic parts and is panicked by his new body. Suddenly, Parademons burst into the red room and leap toward Sarah Charles. However, Cyborg’s defense systems react, automatically weaponizing his arm into a sound cannon from which he fires his powerful white noise cannon, disintegrating the two Parademons and blasting a gigantic hole in the Star Labs building. After saving Sarah’s life Victor asks his father what has happened to him, his father tells him that he couldn’t let him die. Cyborg obviously distraught exclaims, “You did this to me.” and flees, despite Silas’ plea for him to wait. Later in the street Cyborg sees a woman being set upon by a group of Parademons. He leaps to the woman’s aid, punching the parademon. However, in ensuing scuffle Cyborg inadvertently absorbs some of the Parademon’s components giving him access to Boom Tube technology. This new ability automatically transports or teleports Victor to where Superman, Batman, Wonder Woman, Flash, Green Lantern, and Aquaman are fighting the Parademons, moments before Darkseid arrives. Cyborg fights alongside the other heroes against Darkseid and his Parademons, but despite their best efforts Darkseid proves to be too strong. Cyborg is able to reverse engineer the alien boom tube technology and with a considerable amount of stress on his systems he is able to teleport all the invading aliens including Darkseid off the planet, saving the Earth. After sending Darkseid back where he came from, Cyborg helps to found the Justice League.

Victor has not begun any process of reconciliation with his father, who is primarily concerned with Victor’s mechanics rather than his humanity. Cyborg primarily focuses on his super-heroics, aiding Batman and others when he can and monitoring crime through his cybernetics. After the villain David Graves makes an attack against the Justice League, Cyborg and his teammates travel to the Valley of Souls. There he learns that he walks the line between life and death. He sees a false apparition of his human self that tries to convince him that Victor Stone is dead and Cyborg is just an imitation. Victor quickly sees past this ruse, and he and the rest of the Justice League defeat Graves. We learn through a conversation with Flash, that Cyborg questions his humanity now that he is part machine and that he lives on the Watch Tower, the Justice League’s headquarters.[21] Flash cracks a joke in an attempt to lighten the mood and assure Cyborg he is still human. During the Throne of Atlantis storyline, Cyborg at first rejects an upgrade his father has that would allow him to operate underwater at the price of his remaining lung which to him would mean sacrificing more of his humanity.[22] However following the capture of the rest of the Justice League by Orm who sentenced them to the bottom of the ocean, Cyborgas he calls in reserves to hold off Orm’s forcesreluctantly accepts the upgrade.[23] This allows him and Mera to rescue the others.[24]

During the “Trinity War” storyline, Cyborg gets a visual of Shazam heading to Kahndaq, to which Batman assembles the Justice League with the help from Zatanna to meet in Kahndaq to stop Shazam.[25] Following the supposed death of Doctor Light in Kahndaq, Batman tells Superman that Cyborg and Martian Manhunter are doing an autopsy to prove his death was not Superman’s fault.[26] As Wonder Woman leads the Justice League Dark to go look for Pandora, Cyborg is among the superheroes that remain at A.R.G.U.S. while Batman, Flash, Aquaman, Shazam, Steve Trevor, the Justice League of America, Zatanna, and Phantom Stranger go to stop Wonder Woman.[27] Cyborg was present when Atom tells him, Superman, Element Woman and Firestorm the true purpose of the creation of the Justice League of America and that she was spying on the Justice League which is how the Justice League of America ended up in Kahndaq.[28] When the Crime Syndicate arrives on Prime Earth, Cyborg’s old prosthetic parts combine to form a robot called Grid (who is operated by a sentient computer virus).[29] During the Forever Evil event, after Batman and Catwoman drop Cyborg off to his father in Detroit,[30] he makes the choice to willingly receive a new cybernetic body and helps his father and Dr. Morrow create one that is slimmer in appearance so Cyborg could look more human.[31] Working together with the Metal Men created by Doc Magus, Cyborg succeeds in shutting down Grid.[32]

Afterwards Cyborg helped newcomer to the group Shazam fit in with the league as the rest set out to find Power ring’s missing accessory which flew off after the death of the former wearer.[33] While on monitor duty he and Shazam experiment with some of his magical powers to aid in finding the ring after joking of having an Xbox in his left shoulder; only for the young ward to conjure up a ping pong table, which they play while having spare time on their hands.[34] Eventually the call goes out and everyone in the league mobilizes to secure the new rampaging Power Ring before the Doom Patrol does.[35] After coaxing Billy into action against Jessica Cruis, Victor moves in to interface with the ring itself, finding out a great deal about the ring of Volthoom and his current host, only to be forcefully thrown out after the ring entity rejects him by causing his systems to short circuit, removing him from the battle.[36] He is last seen recovering at S.T.A.R. Labs, after Shazam rushed him to the med bay, following the power ring crisis. Cyborg wondered what he saw within the ring, after his dad warned him interfacing with it again could trap him in it forever.[37]

An incident involving Batman’s son, Damian Wayne, during the “Robin Rises Alpha & Omega” story arc in Batman, led up to most of the justice League battling against Glorious Godfrey and a Parademon horde from Apokolips when they captured the chaos shard and the sarcophagus of Damian, before retreating back home.[38] All the league members present, Cyborg included, state to an adamant Bruce Wayne that running headlong into unmarked X-factor territory for a suicide mission was less than ideal, considering the consequences that could befall earth. This eventually culminates with Batman hijacking Cyborg’s teleportation systems, to zip up to the Watchtower in an attempt to retrieve an experimental and highly dangerous combat suit, in order to mete out his agenda; But Cyborg manages to block his administrative access so that he, Shazam, Aquaman, Wonder Woman, Lex and Cold could physically restrain him, causing Batman to begrudgingly give up and retire to the batcave.[39]

After the Bat left, the rest of the Bat Family turned up asking Victor for help with some digitized doppelgangers of baddies that Bruce initially set up in order to distract the League, destabilize watchtower security to secure the Hellbat, and eventually use a personal Mother Box (secured from a Parademon kept in cold storage) to vacate to Apokolips.[40] After making his way to the Batcave to meet with them, he’s directed over to a console which enabled him to directly access the Batcomputer’s more sophisticated systems. However, it was all a ruse utilizing a preemptive countermeasure devised by Batman tailored to Cyborg’s specific weaknesses. Cyborg was temporarily incapacitated and was set into a VR simulation where he relived his more peaceful days in college, while Batgirl went to work on his Motherbox in order to secure a path towards Apokolips and chase after their father. But Victor eventually snapped out of his dream haze and followed them through, angered that they used him in such a way.[40] Cyborg traveled along with Titus, who hitched a ride on his leg, to catch up with the rest of the Batman Family. They all then have a run in with the scavengers of Armegeddo who quickly vacate after some Apokoliptian Hunger Dogs make their way onto the scene. They eventually catch up with the armor-clad Dark Knight ripping his way through a sizable chunk of Apokolips’s forces singlehandedly. Jason Tim and Barbara show Batman the Robin Medals Alfred gave them in order to remind him of his purpose, causing him to snap out of his berserker rage and note that Cyborg had reluctantly accompanied them to Hell itself. Having made their way into Darkseid’s citadel where Kalibak was readying his Chaos Cannon to fire again, the caped crusaders kept Darkseid’s forces occupied while Cyborg made short work of the massive war engine, literally tearing it in half. But when he went to set a timed self-destruct sequence within the Apokoliptian computers, Vic suffered a catastrophic feedback that fried most of his internal systems leaving him inoperable just as Darkseid himself made his appearance.[41]

While Batman fought and held Darkseid off, Cyborg ran Batgirl through a crash course on how to hot wire his own Motherbox. Since Darkseid smashed Batman’s Boom Tube generator, Cyborg was their only chance off Apokolips. After successfully jury-rigging his internal systems, Cyborg and the rest of the Bat rogues made a hasty exit stage left as Bruce powered his recovered fragment of the Chaos Shard with Darkseid’s Omega Effect, blasting Darkseid against a wall to cover their escape.[42] In the aftermath, Cyborg, who is still unable to facilitate himself, wonders what is going on as Damian Wayne is successfully revived, however a second anomaly cranks out of the Boom Tube that was opened and Kalibak comes charging through it. With Kalibak occupied by the rest of the gang, Vic tries his best to reestablish his downed systems. He is successful and gains control over the still-open tube as Batman readies the Batplane. As Batman rams his jet into the evil New God sending him careening back to Apokolips, Cyborg closes the portal banishing Darksied’s first born for good. With the threat over, Cyborg heads back topside to inform the rest of the league of what all transpired and stating he has JL business to attend to.[43]

An eponymous ongoing series, by writer David F. Walker and artist Ivan Reis, debuted in July 2015.[44]

This article needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (August 2017)

As of Rebirth, he is a part of the relaunched Justice League bi-monthly series as well as his own solo monthly series. It is unclear whether he has the ability of flight in Rebirth.

During Dark Nights: Metal, he is captured by the alternate Batmen of the Dark Multiverse, who attempt to hack him in order to learn the secrets of his teammates. As the crisis escalates, Cyborg is confronted by the controlling consciousness of other Mother Boxes, who claim that he will only gain the power to overcome the Dark Batmen if he fully surrenders to the Mother Box that powers his body at the cost of the transformation deleting his old personality. He is nearly tempted to give in to this transformation, but the appearance of Raven’s soul-self convinces him to hold on to himself while partially succumbing to the transformation. This allows him to free his teammates and ‘hack’ the multiverse as they travel to find new allies in the battle against the Dark Batmen.

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1960, in the meaning defined above

cybernetic + organism

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Cyborg | Teen Titans Wiki | FANDOM powered by Wikia

It’s not in the circuitry, is it? It’s not the machine that resists you; it’s me, my spirit! That’s the part you can’t break! I don’t need you to make me a man! I already am one! Cyborg to an overwhelmed Brother BloodCyborgVoiceKhary Payton (English), Ken Uo (Japanese), Daniel Lob (French), Tobias Kluckert (German), Roberto Draghetti (Italian), Kim So-hyung (Korean), Zoltn Dzsa (Hungarian), Onur Glcolu (Turkish)Real name

Victor “Vic” Stone

Elinore Stone (mother, deceased)Silas Stone (father)Tucker Stone (grandfather)Maude Stone (grandmother)

Eating Food,Electronic Gadgets,Fourth of July,Listening to Music,Playing Practical Jokes,Science Fiction Movies,Sports Video Games,Watching TV, Hanging Out With Beast Boy, Playing basketball with Robin, Playing chess with Raven, Lifting weights with Starfire

Brother BloodAnyone who abuses his technology,Being half machine,Gizmo,Losing battles,Not being strong enough,Not Having the remote for the TV,Tofu,Beast Boy losing things,Being ignored by Beast Boy, Starfire’s singing and cookingBeing kicked out of his house

A body made up of entirely robotic systems granting him superhuman strength, resilience to damage, capability to fix many appliances, unsurpassed knowledge of technology and robotics, a cannon built into his arm that can shoot sonic blasts, and numeral other gadgets built into his body

Sonic Cannons built into his arms and numerous other gadgets installed throughout his body

Cyborg (sometimes “Cy”) is the half-cybernetic half-man, chief technological expert and one of the five founding members of the Teen Titans.

Cyborg was a promising strong teenage athlete named Victor Stone before an accident that killed his mother and injured him so severely that his father replaced the damaged body parts with cybernetics to keep his son alive. But since these mechanical parts were not inconspicuous, he was shunned by his home environment and his friends, which frustrated him greatly.

One night, took to the streets wearing a hoodie to cover his cybernetic parts, where he ran into the new arrivals Robin and Beast Boy fighting a rather violent alien girl, who was actually a fugitive from a prisoner transport. Soon joined by the mystery girl Raven, the youngsters teamed up to defeat the girl’s alien captors and formed a permanent team to combat villainy. constructed the Titans Tower and its systems from a Gordanian landing ship, and the team moved into its new headquarters. From that point on served as the team’s chief technician, constructing their primary vehicles such as the T-Car and T-Ship.

Cyborg wearing a hoodie to hide his cybernetics.

In the series’ third season, used the alias of Stone and a pair of holographic rings to infiltrate the H.I.V.E. Academy, which was at that time administered and mind-controlled by Brother Blood.

The Titans exposed and foiled his scheme to utilize a new superweapon called the Ion Amplifier, but in the process unknowingly had the construction plans for his cybernetics copied by Blood, who used them to build new superweapons. Outraged, declared a personal vendetta on Blood and confronted him personally when he attempted to employ a gigantic sonic cannon from an undersea base. However, Blood’s martial arts skills got the better of him, and he won only with Bumblebee’s assistance, who was at that time infiltrating the H.I.V.E. with the help of Aqualad. In order to hunt down Blood and other supervillains more efficiently, helped Bumblebee and Aqualad establish and outfit an Eastern branch of the Titans, with Speedy and Ms y Menos joining the ranks. Soon they were attacked by Blood and an army of -modeled robots, but apparently managed to repel them all. Met with a proposal to remain and become the leader of the Titans East, decided to stay with his new team.

Cyborg as his original “human” self

At one point, attempted to upgrade himself by installing a super-processor chip called Maximum-7 (or Max-7) into his cybernetic brain. Initially it did work for his benefit, boosting his physical and mental processing speed well beyond his former capacities. But when the Titans first engaged Billy Numerous and were unable to catch him, a frustrated and obsessive began shutting down his human personality in order to increase the Max-7’s efficiency, which had the detrimental effect of making him more and more a robot, and eventually this conflict between human and cybernetic nature led to a short-circuit which nearly killed him. The other Titans managed to remove the chip before this could happen, and now restored to his true self, devised a successful plan which brought down Numerous for good.

In the comic series based on the TV show, meets a young teaching volunteer by the name of Sarah Simms. Despite several rocky times they have since formed a very close romance.

Cyborg eating meat

Cyborg is a very outgoing, cool, and fun-loving character who likes to enjoy life, especially since he found friends who consider him a person, not a freak. He is upbeat, smart, funny, and cheerful, but serious and heroic when he needs to be. He likes to enjoy playing video games, tinkering with technological gizmos and eating. He also tends to be stubborn at times and has had some serious arguments with Robin in the past, but he does make a capable second-in-command in Robin’s absence. He also frequently bickers with Beast Boy, mostly about the latter’s culinary taste and habit of misplacing all manners of personal items, though the two entertain a close friendship.

often plays the protective big brother role of the team, getting quite serious when they are upset and does whatever he can to make them feel better. He is never hesitant to put Beast Boy in his place when he thinks the younger Titan is being inconsiderate of Raven’s or Starfire’s feelings. Likewise, Raven and Starfire also do the same for him, evident in Car Trouble and Deception.

Much like the other Titans, does not take betrayal lightly. He hates losing battles, especially to seemingly insignificant opponents. Their first defeat from Terra made him extremely angry with himself, because he had a chance to take a shot but didn’t. He has been known to display emotions of anger (which he often takes out on his friends), frustration, and becoming depressed.

Cyborg’s replacement robot dressed up

One facet of personal vulnerability is ‘s great personal pride in his inventions and constructions. For this reason, he tends to foster an immense dislike for anyone abusing his technology for selfish reasons, especially Gizmo and Brother Blood, and to be overprotective of his most personal projects, like the T-Car.[1][2][3][4]

He also possesses a tremendous appetite, and he will consume any edibles within his reach when hungry. His favorite food is barbecue and he also especially enjoys other meat, milkshakes, pizza, and waffles. The only food he would not voluntarily touch is Starfire’s cooking and tofu (especially since Beast Boy goes to great lengths to try and make him eat it) although he once mistakenly ate the alien meat substitute.

As revealed in Troq, he has a personal dislike for bigots as shown when he became disgusted with Val-Yor when he found out what he had really be calling Starfire.

However, he can be surprised when Beast Boy adopts a more serious persona as shown when he took note of the latter’s behavior when reuniting with the Doom Patrol. He was even more surprised Beast Boy went with them to defeat their old enemies. This likely showed him Beast Boy merely puts up an act, as he had no problem with Beast Boy’s leadership when fighting the Brotherhood of Evil.

Despite this can sometime show his immature side with Beast Boy as they also enjoy playing their favorite game they made up “Stankball”.

Cyborg and Raven fixing the T-Car

Raven and have a fairly stable and healthy relationship. They had very few episodes dedicated to mostly the two of them, but this is likely because the two of them have always been fairly close and comfortable around each other. , despite being the Titan most similar to Beast Boy, is more mature than he is and is more considerate of Raven’s preferences. Raven, for her part, reciprocates this, as she is more patient with than she is with Beast Boy.

often looks out for Raven, making sure that Beast Boy does not go over the top to annoy her or hurt her feelings. In Nevermore, was especially serious with Beast Boy, reminding him that he shouldn’t be messing with her following the prior night’s events, and made sure he went to apologize. Even though he tried to get Raven to play Stank Ball with him and Beast Boy, she clearly stated she doesn’t want to play, which made Beast Boy angry. He called her creepy, with Raven still listening, and told him to leave her be, knowing she wanted to be alone.

In the Teen Titans Go! comics, on Christmas, bought Raven an antique bookcase he knew she wanted, causing Raven to become uncharacteristically elated and showing an appreciation for her tastes and hobbies.

When they first met, Raven felt as if she did not fit in, but reassures her that she fits in just fine. Even though they fight occasionally, they maintain a healthy friendship.

Despite sometimes being a bit inconsiderate of ‘s feelings, Raven never intends to hurt him emotionally. This is evident in Car Trouble, where she initially dismissed ‘s dismay over his stolen T-Car by telling him “Calm down, it’s just a car.” which made rather angry. However she ultimately realizes her fault, and goes to comfort him and help him get his car back. Although he was forced to destroy it, Raven goes as far as to help him rebuild it, further proving their close friendship.

When is the only one left with Raven in Fear Itself, he likely knew she was afraid, and tried to reassure her that they’ll get through the ordeal. being the last Titan to disappear that night may further hint at his big brother role to Raven, being protective of her when she wanted to save Starfire when there was no possible way to.

is shown to often be more understanding of Raven than the other Titans, as he respects her desires to be alone but still tries to include her when he can. Raven, in turn, seems to accept as he is without question and accepts his enthusiasm for his hobbies, even if she does not share it.

makes Raven smile more than anyone else in the series. Her biggest smiles, at least, two episodes centering around ‘s troubles.

Cyborg and Robin fighting

It is revealed that is Robin’s second-in-command.

“I didn’t know you before,so to me – you are normal.”

Starfire and are incredibly close. Their relationship is much like an older brother and younger sister, and is really protective over her. They hardly ever get angry at each other, however, in Final Exam, does lose his temper and hurt Starfire. Despite this, the two have remained extremely close throughout the series.

had helped Starfire greatly in How Long is Forever? when she was pushed forward in time. Even after so many years, cared deeply for Starfire’s well-being. In the series, seems to act like the big brother to Starfire, and Starfire looks up to him.

The two often like to lift weights together, and despite countless times having witnessed Starfire’s impressive strength, is still shocked when she is able to lift heavier weights than he is with relative ease. They are the strongest in the team physically, as their physical prowess far outmatches Robin’s, Raven’s, and even Beast Boy’s.

and Starfire have a practically mirrored personality, both being cheerful yet considerate of others’ feelings, and they seemed to get along well from the very beginning.

In the episode, Troq, was the first one to learn the meaning of the word Val Yor had been calling Starfire, (Troq, which is a slur for literally “nothing”). Because he initially misinterpreted Starfire’s explanation that it meant nothing, he went to call her that, which hurt her deeply. But after learning that it literally meant nothing, went to comfort her. Being half-robot, knows exactly what it is like to be mistreated just for how you look, and completely empathized with her. He then told Robin, who was equally outraged.

also makes note of Starfire’s close relationship with Robin, and in Stranded, he even teased Robin, calling Starfire his girlfriend. And when Starfire and Robin had their first real kiss in the final movie-episode of the series, Trouble in Tokyo, voiced his approval, saying, “Well, it’s about time.”

Cyborg with cannons

This ability has its own cons though. His entire power cell and the whole power of Titans’ Tower is only just enough to make one blast. This is why he only uses it in desperation, and it is much like an ultimate form, much like Beast Boy’s Werebeast form and Raven’s white form.

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Cyborg (Character) – Comic Vine

Current EventsOriginVictor Stone

Victor Stone is the son of Silas and Elinore Stone, two STAR Labs scientists intent on using their research to improve mankind. Silas and Elinore scientific adventures often estranged their son, as they would sometime dedicate more time and toward their work, oppose to him. The two even used their son as a test subject for intelligence-boosting experimentation. While the successful experiment granted Victor a genius-level intellect, he resented his parents for treating him more like a lab subject oppose to a son.

Vic’s resentment caused him to steer away from science and math in high school. Instead, he pursued an interest in athletics, much to his father’s disdain. His life changed profoundly during a visit to STAR Labs to meet up with his parents, who were busy conducting inter-dimensional experiments. The experiment accidentally allowed a protoplasmic creature into the lab. Silas managed to return the creature to its home dimension, but not before it had slain Elinore and severely injured Victor. Desperate to save his son’s life, Silas used untested cybernetic enhancements to rebuild and reconstruct Victor’s body. He succeeded, but didn’t anticipate Victor’s horror and anger at what he had done.

Cyborg was created by Marv Wolfman and George Perez

The reaction of others to his new form made Vic even more resentful, and he isolated himself from his former life as much as possible by moving to Hell’s Kitchen. It was in this bad neighborhood that Raven found Vic and invited him to join the Teen Titans. After the team formed, Vic found a place where he was accepted and appreciated, despite his inhuman appearance. His father, still feeling guilt over what he made his son go through, constructed the Titan’s Tower for his son and his companions. Victor would remain a steadfast member of the Titans for a long time, serving not only as a hero but as a primary supplemental tech source for the team.

After the events of Flashpoint, DC Comics relaunched their entire comic catalog. In this continuity, Cyborg is now one of the seven founding members of the Justice League (replacing the Martian Manhunter), having never served with Teen Titan. He makes his first appearance in Justice League #1 but not as part of the team. In fact, he’s a high school football player who hasn’t even become “Cyborg” yet. After the Darkseid invasion, Victor was gravely injured and later cybernetically enhanced by his father.

Due to the events of Forever Evil, Cyborg gets an upgraded armor that appears to be much slimmer.

Tragedy struck when the Wildebeest Society captured the Titans and more shocking that the leader of the group was their teammate Jericho. Vic was launched in a rocket along with several members and crashed landed in Russia where he was seriously injured and damaged. The Russian scientists with the help of Red Star rebuilt Vic but due to such heavy brain trauma he had become no more than a walking robot with a human appearance. After several months, Vic’s mind started to regain his memories but when the race known as the Technis came to Earth looking for a way to integrate with society and save their race. Cyborg sacrificed himself for both the Earth and the Technis was was rebuilt into Cyberion.

Cyberion became their protector as they traveled throughout the galaxy. Some time later, Cyberion was reunited with his former teammates and engaged in an interstellar conflict which resulted in the destruction of Tamaran. But there was triumph to be found in tragedy: The Titans were able to restore Raven – who was reborn in a golden spirit form. Following that, Raven, Minion and Garfield Logan elected to remain in space as traveling companions to Cyberion. Frightened by Cyberion’s total embrace of technology, Gar left his friend and returned to earth. Jarras Minion also had doubts about Cyberion’s new attitude and decided to leave as well. Jarras, a sworn pacifist, made Victor a gift of his Omegadrome war suit before he left. The Omegadrome allowed Victor to try to carry out his Technis Imperative: To recreate the planet Technis at all costs.

Having collected a planet-size assortment of technological debris, Cyberion journeyed to Earth to turn its moon into a new Technis world and populate it with his Titans allies. The JLA and the Titans first clashed, then united, to prevent Cyberion from destroying the planet while saving Vic’s soul and downloading it into Minion’s morphing battlesuit, the Omegadrome. Vic was later offered a human body if he would help Vandal Savage harvest Addie Kane’s immortal blood. Before he could make a decision, Starfire destroyed Addie’s body, thus robbing Vic of the chance to make a choice. Also, Vic had to remain a member of the team, per a deal that Nightwing made with Batman.

Following the events of his Technis Imperative, the JLA only trusted Vic to remain free if the Titans kept a watchful eye on him. Feeling like he owed his old friend a debt, Nightwing worked constantly to find a cure for Vic’s condition. With Jesse Quick’s help, Victor was given a new lease on organic life with a body cloned from cell samples harvested by the Russian scientists who once spared him.

Though his mind and cybernetic abilities were still encapsulated in the Omegadrome, Victor inhabited a truly biological body. And for the first time in years, Cyborg knew what it is to live and feel and breathe unaided by mechanized parts. Embarking on a new life, Victor Stone left the Titans for the West Coast. Vic Stone later aided the Flash during the “Our Worlds At War” crisis. At that time, Vic started using the golden Omegadrome to morph into a cybernetic form. Cyborg decided to return to adventuring and settled in Keystone City, home of the Flash. But when Vic Stone linked with the evil computerized Thinker in an attempt to stop him from taking over the city, his body became mechanically paralyzed – reverting him to his silver cyborg form.

Shortly afterward, a mysterious android from the future known as Indigo attacked the Titans and Young Justice , resulting in the apparent deaths of Troia and Omen. At Troia’s funeral, Nightwing disbanded this version of the Titans. Meanwhile, members of Young Justice, especially Wonder Girl, felt responsible for the tragic deaths. This led Wonder Girl, Robin, Impulse and Superboy to form a new group of Teen Titans under the guidance of the more experienced Cyborg, Starfire and Beast Boy.

Cyborg, who was damaged in the battle caused by Indigo, has since received an upgrade in his cybernetic parts. He would experience the formation and reformation of the Titans multiple times, mentoring some versions of the team and even starting a short-lived team of his own. But he would always return to the companionship of his original Titans teammates, even to the extent of joining several of them in the Justice League of America.

After the Infinite Crisis Cyborg was fused to Firestorm and entered into a coma. When he finally woke up, he learned that the Teen Titans had dramatically changed. Wonder Girl, Speedy, Kid Flash, Raven, and Beast Boy had left the team; Starfire was lost in space; and Superboy was dead. Along with Robin, Kid Devil, Ravager, and Wonder Girl (who had just rejoined) he started a quest for Raven.

Vic Stone is a star wide receiver for the Ford Titans, a high school football team. He has an interest in super human activities but is more focused on going to college, earning a football scholarship, and hoping his father makes it to his games. Vic and his father have a distant relationship and after missing several games, Victor finally ventures to S.T.A.R Labs to confront him. Silas tells his son that given the current state of metahumans starting to show up around the planet, Vic’s love for football is going to become irrelevant at some point. Discouraged, Victor begins to leave when everything takes a tragic turn, as a Mother Box unit springs to life and opens a Boom Tube. Victor and several scientists are fatally injured or killed by the boom tube energy.

Not intending to lose his son the same way he lost his wife, Silas outfits Vic with experimental bionics that have been reverse engineered from alien technology found around the globe. With aid from T.O. Morrow and Sarah Charles, Vic’s life is saved and the energies from the motherbox are incorporated into his new form as Cyborg. This allows Victor to access the vast New Gods data library and discover Darkseid’s true invasion plans. After aiding in sending Darkseid back where he came from, Cyborg helps to found the Justice League. He has not begun any process of reconciliation with his father, who is primarily concerned with Victor’s mechanics rather than his humanity.

After the villain David Graves makes an attack against the Justice League, Cyborg and his team mates travel to the valley of souls. There he learns that he walks the line between life and death–meaning that part of his soul has left his body. He sees a false apparition of his human self that tries to convince him that Victor Stone is dead and Cyborg is just an imitation. Victor quickly sees past this ruse, and he and the rest of the Justice League defeat Graves. The situation lead to Vic embracing who he has become, not a young man who has lost his humanity, but a man who has learned to be a hero through shocking means. Allowing Vic to start to forgive his father, as he knows his father was just trying to save his life.

To help retrieve Superman and Wonder Woman from the depths of the ocean floor, Victor upgraded his suit to have an Environmental Mode that allows him to operate underwater. He then commenced a world wide League recruitment initiate to combat the Atlanteans hostiles

At the conclusion of the Trinity War, all of Victor’s cybernetics were brutally ripped from his body as Grid, a software virus deeply embedded into Victor’s cybernetics, revealed itself. The virus was planted by Atomica to help the Crime Syndicate of America. Atomica told Cyborg about what she did the Justice League and Justice League of America/ She also told him that she was the one that poisoned Superman and put the green Kryptonite in his nervous system where she trigger his heat vision, which killed Dr. Light. Cyborg was upset to hear this happening and all of a sudden she told Cyborg that he also betrayed the Justice League and it was Grid that was in his body. Cyborg body turned in to him as the Justice League and Justice League of America watched in horror and where all in shock to see this happening and that the Crime Syndicate of America was taking over the world they where from Earth 3. Atomica was a spy on both teams and she had all their plans. She was planning for the CSA to come and attack the various Justice Leagues.

Cyborg is kept alive with the help of Simon Baz and Batman. Batman and Catwoman manage to escape and bring along Cyborg to S.T.A.R. Labs to get the help of Victor’s father Silas. Silas is initially reluctant to turn his son back to Cyborg once again for fear of hurting him but Victor pushes him to do so saying that this time it is his choice and he must help stop the Crime Syndicate. Cyborg is given an upgraded more slimmer armor. Cyborg goes to enlist the help of Doctor Will Magnus so that he can revive the Metal Men and fight the Crime Syndicate.

Magnus is also initially unwilling to revive the Metal Men as they were deemed failures the first time, but Cyborg convinces him to do so. The team is once again brought together and they join Cyborg in an attempt to fight. Cyborg directly confronts Grid while the Metal Men help fight the Secret Society members that were with him. Cyborg and Grid both enter the digital world where they do battle with each other. Grid initially appears to have the upper hand in the battle attempting to exploit Cyborg’s human side. However, Cyborg states that he has embraced his tech side and that he is the bridge between human and tech. He manages to shut down Grid and goes into the fallen watchtower where he helps Batman use Wonder Woman’s lasso to free the Justice League teams from the Firestorm matrix.

Cyborg possesses cybernetic enhancements that provide superhuman strength, endurance and durability. Cyborg can also interface with computers. Built into his body-armor were an infrared eye, computer generator, sound amplifier, and special programming adapters that allowed him to interface with other body extensions.

Shape-Change: Cyborg has virtually unlimited shape-changing abilities that allow him to mimic road, air or space vehicles and even reshape his entire body or parts of it to form such complex shapes such as a tank.

Superhuman Strength: At optimal capacity, Vic can lift/press in excess of four metric tons. If he pushes himself, he can even exceed five tons, but not without causing severe stress to his cybernetic components. Recently Victor breaks apart Kalibak’s Chaos Cannon used to destroy planets.

Superhuman Speed/Agility: He possesses a degree of superspeed.

Flight

Sensor Systems/superhuman Senses:. Due cybernetic enhancements their five senses were increased to superhuman levels.

Superhuman Stamina: Victor doesn’t need to sleep,eat or drink. Adding the Environmental Mode (that replaced his last lung) no longer has the need to breathe, and can operate in any area that has no oxygen in space or as in underwater.

Superhuman Durability: The nature of Cyborg’s body provides offers protection against physical and energy attacks,being able to withstand the pressures of the deepest parts of the oceans.

Computer Interfacing: Cyborg is connected with all Earth’s computers and satellites including government agencies, secret service (CIA,MI-6…) and even the Batcomputer.

Technopathy: Since is linked with Earth’s computers and satellites Victor can control any type of technology that have connection with the Internet as well control any form of electronic communication,allowing it to manipulate data or rearrange security privileges. Recently demonstrated the ability to hear Brainiac’s drones communicating with each other.

Teleportation – Cyborg can use Boom Tubes to transport himself and the League to anywhere n Earth and in the Universe,since is stated Darkseid use it to cross dimensions,however one out of every thousand ‘jumps’ results in transporting himself and whoever is with him to Apokolips. Recently installed a silent mode to not be noticed by others,not even Superman couldn’t note him coming.

Integrated Weapons: He had various types of weapons integrated into his cybernetic parts.

When Reverse Flash goes back in time and messes with the timeline, the DC Universe turns into a very different place where the world’s greatest heroes are not how we know them to be. In this timeline Cyborg is America’s greatest hero, and he is based in Detroit where he has his headquarters. When the Amazons and the Atlanteans go to war, Cyborg tries to gather a group of Earth’s superhumans to help stop the war that has ravaged half of Europe. No one joins his group when they find that Batman (Thomas Wayne) has no interest. But before long Barry Allen arrives and convinces Wayne otherwise, and the three set off to gather an army.

Stage actor Ray Fisher portrays the character in the upcoming Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice film. In a brief cameo, Victor’s mangled body is shown being bonded with a Mother Box during one of his father’s experiments.

Ray Fisher reprises his role in the live-action Justice League movie. This movie is directed by Zack Snyder and Joss Whedon, who served as the post-production director of this movie after Snyder stepped down from directing duties. This movie was released on November 17th, 2017.

In this film, Cyborg initially refuses to join the team, though after his father, Silas Stone, is captured, he voluntarily pitches in. He successfully saves his father from the hands of Steppenwolf, and escapes from the water tower from which he resided in. When Superman returned, his offense system kicked in and attacked Superman, which triggered the Man of Steel to fight the League.

Cyborg also played a crucial role in the final act, where he began to separate the Mother Boxes that had formed “The Unity”. With the help of Superman, he succeeded.

Cyborg appears in Justice League: Doom in a major role. The film marks the first time Cyborg has been portrayed as a member of the Justice League in any non-comic form of media. He is voiced by Bumper Robinson. In the film, Cyborg first appears after Batman asks for his help in discovering how the Royal Flush Gang are pulling off a series of impossible heists. Cyborg later rescues Wonder Woman after she is poisoned by Cheetah, and ends up being brought along during the subsequent attempt to rescue the other JLA members. After saving Superman from a Kryptonite bullet, Cyborg helps the Justice League during the final battle against Vandal Savage and his Legion of Doom. After the League saves the Earth from a massive solar flare, Cyborg is officially inducted into the Justice League as the team’s newest member.

He was voiced by Bumper Robinson

Cyborg appears in Justice League: The Flashpoint Paradox, an adaptation of Flashpoint. In the film, Cyborg is a member of the League. In the alternate timeline the bulk of the film takes place in, he is depicted as the world’s top hero, since Kal-El never became Superman and most of the rest of the League never came to resemble their classic forms.

He was voiced by Michael B. Jordan.

Cyborg appears in JLA Adventures: Trapped In Time, voiced by Avery Kidd Waddell.

In Justice League: War, based off of the New 52 Justice League Origins comic book by Geoff Johns, Cyborg appears as one of the founding members of the Justice League in light of the invasion of Darkseid. Victor Stone was originally a talented high school football quarterback but has a troubled relationship with his father Silas due to his father’s lack of support for his football playing career. In frustration, Cyborg grabs one of the boom tubes asking whether his work is more important than his own son. The boom tubes suddenly activate at that moment and engulfs Victor. In a last ditch effort to save his son’s life, Silas grafts technology from the red room and successfully saves his son’s life but at the cost of making him a Cyborg at the same time. Cyborg helps the rest of the Justice League in battling Darkseid and his Parademons, with Cyborg having access to almost any technological interface he is able to open up the boom tubes to send them back to Apokolips. At the end of the film, the newly formed Justice League team is introduced to the world and Cyborg seems to have embraced his new role more as he sees his father nod in approval. Cyborg was voiced by Shemar Moore.

Cyborg appears alongside his Justice League teammates in the sequel to Justice League: War, titled: Justice League: Throne of Atlantis. The film is based off of the New 52 comic book story line of the same name and was released in 2015. Shemar Moore reprised his role.

Cyborg appears in Batman Unlimited: Monster Mayhem, voiced by Khary Payton.

Cyborg appears in Justice League vs. Teen Titans, with Shemar Moore once again reprising his role. In the film, it’s shown that he relates more closely to the Titans, as they are closer in age to him.

Cyborg appeared in The Super Powers Team: Galactic Guardians from 1985 to 1986. He was voiced by Ernie Hudson. Cyborg’s origin was told via a medical journal read by Dr. Martin Stein saying Cyborg was a promising decathlon athlete until an accident destroyed most of his body and his father replaced part of his body with machine parts. Also, he is not a Titan. He becomes fast friends with fellow teammate Firestorm. He is an affiliate of the Justice League of America under Superman. In the introductory episode to Cyborg, “The Seeds of Doom”, Cyborg’s abilities save Earth from Darkseid’s seeds, but as Superman warns, make Darkseid a dangerous enemy to Cyborg, so Cyborg joins the League.

Cyborg appears in the Teen Titans animated series, voiced by Khary Payton. This version of Cyborg is very similar to his comic book counterpart. His nickname is “Cy”, and like his teammates, in the animated series Cyborg is never referred to by his given name; however, he does take the alias “Stone” (based on his real last name) in the Season 3 episode “Deception”. The two main differences are his design and that he is more easygoing than his comics counterpart. His head is considerably more rounded and bald (based on his Titans Hunt counterpart), and his mechanical parts are bulkier. His primary weapon is a sonic cannon housed in his forearm; initially he uses only his right arm to fire, but later episodes reveal that his left arm has an identical cannon built into it as well. Other on-board weapons and tools, such as an acetylene torch, a remote-operated video camera, and several missile launchers, can be deployed as needed, and his arms and legs are detachable.

Cyborg is the Titans’ chief technician and gadgeteer. He is responsible for the construction of the Titan Tower’s electronic and security systems and the team’s main vehicles, the T-Car and the T-Ship. His most dominant personality faults featured in the series are his enormous appetite and a tendency to be overly vain about his work as a result, he fosters a special dislike for those who abuse his devices irresponsibly, especially Gizmo and Brother Blood. On occasion, Cyborg acts as the team’s second-in-command, but he tends to butt heads with Robin on rather trivial matters. In “Cyborg the Barbarian”, he was sent back to 3,000 B.C. There, he met a woman named Sarasim and fell in love with her. The relationship ended when Cyborg was brought back to his own time.

Cyborg’s age is never specified, but he mentions in “Deception” that he never had a chance to finish high school due to circumstances that made him what he is. The only time Cyborg’s personal history has been discussed is in “Deception”, in which he discusses his involuntary cyborg status with Starfire, and in the 4th season episode “The End: Part 2”. In this episode, Trigon creates duplicates of Cyborg, Starfire, and Beast Boy. These duplicates reflect the dark side of each character. During the fight between Cyborg and his duplicate, the dark duplicate says harmful things about Cyborgs mother and her death.

Cyborg appeared in the 15th episode of the fifth season of Smallville on the 16th February 2006 and is played by Lee Thompson Young. In this version, Victor is a former Metropolis High School football star. He is involved in a car accident that kills him, supposedly, and the rest of his family. However, he is secretly rebuilt by Cyntechnics scientists including Dr. Alistair Krieg, who experimented on a group of test subjects. Victor was the only test subject to survive the experiments. Cyntechnics was bought up by LuthorCorp shortly before Victor’s escape. Lex denies any knowledge of Cyntechnics’ secretive activities.

Although Victor’s cybernetic enhancements are entirely on the inside [under his skin] instead of exoskeletal as they are in the comics and other media, a shot of Clark Kent’s X-ray vision reveals that Victor’s cranial armor covers the same-shaped area as it does in the comics. He also bleeds a dark fluid as he does in the comics. Smallville never uses the name “Cyborg” in his first appearance. Instead, Victor refers to his enhancements as bionic.

Lee Thompson Young reprises his role of Cyborg in the season 6 episode “Justice”, episode about Green Arrow gathering together a group of individuals to combat Lex Luthor and his experiments. The episode premiered on 18 January 2007. In this episode, Victor has finally taken the name “Cyborg”, as Green Arrow’s team uses code names. Also on the team are Aquaman and Impulse. While Victor was last seen with a girlfriend named Katherine, he explains that his mechanical parts put a strain on the relationship. After their eventual break up, Victor states that it was Green Arrow who kept him from committing suicide. The episode also shows Cyborg wearing a stylized silver vest and black pants, and utilizing further enhancements Green Arrow gave him. One of his new functions allows him to hack into and disable security systems. While connecting to machines, Cyborg’s left eye glows red.

Teen Titans Go!

Cyborg appears as a member of the Teen Titans in this more humorous take on the DC Universe.

Cyborg appears as a playable character in Lego Batman 2. He has a laser eye and the ability to pull magnetic legos.

Cyborg appears as a playable character in the game. He appears to be a combination of a power/gadget character in game.

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Cyborg

Victor Stone is a former college athlete and football star. Following a horrible accident, his father Silas Stone, was able to save him via the use of a Mother Box that crafted cybernetics onto him. Victor then became known as the superhero Cyborg.

He would eventually be recruited by Batman and Wonder Woman to become a member of the Justice League, in order to help defend Earth against the imminent alien invasion of Steppenwolf and his Parademon army.

Shortly after joining the team, Cyborg assisted Batman and Flash in resurrecting Superman from the dead. With the team now fully assembled, Cyborg contributes to the successful offensive against Steppenwolf, forcing the alien invasion into retreat. Following this, Cyborg finally reveals himself to the world, becoming an official superhero, as further plans for the Justice League are made by Batman.

Victor Stone prior to his accident.

Victor Stone was born on June 29, 1994, in Gotham City, New Jersey, to Silas Stone and Elinore Stone. At some point Victor’s mother died, leaving Silas to raise him all by himself.[1] While growing up, he often heard rumors about the vigilante known as Batman, but never actually believed them.[2] Victor Stone was an athlete and attended Gotham City University, however, his career was cut short when he was involved in a nearly fatal accident, that mutilated most of his body.[3]

Victor Stone after his accident.

Reduced to nothing more than a torso, head and half of his arms, Victor was kept alive by his father, who attempted every kind of medical procedure to help heal him. Eventually, Silas was desperate enough to try using a government sanctioned cube-shaped piece of alien technology in a final attempt to save his son’s life.

The foreign technology self-activated and levitated over Victor, where it to began crafting cybernetic body parts to replace his lost body parts (while simultaneously granting him knowledge it held). Although this saved Victor’s life, it was undoubtedly very painful, as Victor was seen screaming out in pain.

Footage of this transformation would be obtained from the S.T.A.R. Labs database by Lex Luthor shortly thereafter.[1]

Victor learn his new abilities at home

After his transformation, Victor began hiding from the world at his father’s home. He also hid the Mother Box from his own father and S.T.A.R. Labs. Silas was saddened at his son’s plight, telling that he could have a life if he wanted.

Victor was afraid of his new abilities, noting that every time he woke up in the morning he was different, somehow modified. He worried that what was happening to him was the vanguard of a new alien invasion.

Diana tries to convince Victor to join the team

Using his new abilities to interact with data streams and surveillance cameras, Victor became aware of Bruce’s interest in him. Tracking him down to his home, Victor was in the woods and witnessed Bruce and Diana Prince talk about Steppenwolf and his first invasion of Earth, along with the fact that he was invading once more. Aware that Diana was now looking for him, he hacked into the computers she was using. When Diana asked to meet him face to face, Victor asked why he should trust her. Diana replied that she knew he was at the lake, and if she wanted to attack him, she would have done it then.

Meeting in person, Victor told Diana that he had been doing some tracking, and the invaders they were after were sticking to the dead spots where they could not be detected. Diana tried to reach out to Victor and convince him to join the fight against Steppenwolf, he flew away instead.

Victor realizes that his father was kidnapped

Cyborg decides to help the team

As the Justice League reconvened with Commissioner James Gordon, who filled them in on the missing persons who’ve been reported throughout the precinct and the city. Cyborg showed up to the gathering with additional information on the subject at hand, he was able to deduce the Parademon tracking routes with which to allocate the location they were taking the missing persons to. Figuring out where they were being whisked away for questioning about the location of Steppenwolf’s Mother Box.Having deduced the likeliest point to search; He, Batman and Diana took off without a trace leaving a solemn Gordon with a much befuddled Flash behind in their wake.

Cyborg talking with Batman.

The team goes to find, the team climb up, to find Steppenwolf interrogating the S.T.A.R. Labsemployees about the final Mother Box, which Barry get’s nervous and tell’s the team that he hasn’t done battle before, which Batman says just save one person.

Steppenwolf then grabsSilas Stone, which Cyborg shots Steppenwolf and saves his father, which Wonder Woman helps out buy attacking the Parademons and taking Steppenwolf to a different part of the factory, while Batman fights the Parademons, Barry goes and save one of the employees. Steppenwolf tells the Parademons that he will deal with Diana alone, meanwhile Batman is being attacked by one of the Parademons which he tells Alfred that he needs theNightcrawlerwhich he sents the machine to Bruce.

Flash and Cyborg save all the hostage whichSilas Stonetells Victor that Steppenwolf can not get the final Mother Box. Batman then jumps down into the Nightcrawler and saves Wonder Woman before the Parademons could kill her, The Nightcrawler get’s attacked by Steppenwolf, which Barry helps Wonder Woman get her Sword so she can help Batman.

Cyborg in the Nightcrawler.

Flash and Wonder Woman get attacked by Steppenwolf and the Parademons before Batman helps her by killing one of the Parademons. Cyborg then fall into the Nightcrawler and and hacks it so it in his control, which he uses it against Steppenwolf but falls when Steppenwolf catches a missile and throw it against the wall, which causes the factory to flood which allows Steppenwolf to escape.

Before Diana could get hit with the flooding water, Arthur comes and saves the team by using his tridentto hold back the water while the League escaped.

Cyborg revealing to theJustice Leaguethat he got the lastMother Box.

After the fight with Steppenwolf, After Batman meets with Gordon before Arthur shows up and say that Steppenwolf took the Mother Box from Atlantis, then Victorreveals that he is possession of the finalMother Box, which he hid from his father. The team returns to theBatcavewhich Barry runs around the cave and sits in theBatmobile, before Bruce call for a meeting with the team. Bruce conclusion that they should use the Mother Box to bringSuperman back to live. Hebelieves that they need Superman to restore hope in humanity. Diana and Author are hesitant about the idea, but Bruce forms a secret contingency plan.

TheLeaguewatching the return ofSuperman.

The team put Clark’s body in the waters of theKryptonian ship, using Allen’sSpeed Forceto activate the Box, causing the resurrection of Superman. Which he flies out of the Kryptonian ship and lands inHeroes ParkwhereAquaman, Cyborg,FlashandWonder Woman meet him, which they notice that something is wrong with him, which Clark uses his x-ray vision to scan the League which Stone accidentally launches a projectile at him as his cybernetic body registers a threat to him. Superman attacks Cyborg with his heat vision as the reason of the Justice League tries to calm him down by he over powers them.

Clark vs the Justice League

As the League all jump on top of Superman, Barry runs around him but Superman see him and attacks him. Batman arrives and tries to get Superman to stop fighting the League, but he hits them and asks Batman the same question that Bruce asked him “Tell me, do you Bleed?”. Before Kal-El could kill Bruce,Loisand Alfred to stop him.

Superman calms down and leaves with Lois to theKent Farmwhere he reflects and tries to recover his memories. during the battle Steppenwolf retrievesthe final Mother Box.

Justice Leaguegetting ready to battleSteppenwolf.

The team returns to theBatcavewhere Cyborg figures out Steppenwolf’s plan, Bruce ask Arthur if he can use his powers of talking with aquatic lifeto locate Steppenwolf. Which Arthur responds with the water does the talking but says hell see what he can do. TheJustice LeagueusesFlying FoxtoRussiato stop Steppenwolf from being theMother Boxestogether, the team plan how there going to stop Steppenwolf, Batman tells the team that he going to take out the tower while the reason of the League will separate the Mother Boxes, Batman destroys the tower but also the controls on the Flying Fox didn’t reporting which cause it to crash, but Bruce get in the Batmobile and using a siren to get the attention of the Parademons, this allows the rest to get to the Mother Boxes without any problems.

Cyborg saving Aquaman.

The Parademons attack the Batmobile, ripping of one on the guns that it has and opening up the car before Wonder Woman and the reason the League saves Batman, Arthur jumps on the Batmobile before getting attacked by Parademons which leads Cyborg to save him and throwing him to the other Parademons. The Batmobile get’s knocked which Bruce ejects from the vehicle and using his grapple, swings across to take out the Parademons.

Cyborg fighting Steppenwolf.

Diana confronts Steppenwolf, before Cyborg attacks him which leads to Wonder Woman fighting Steppenwolf, while Flash helps Victor get to the Mother Boxes, which Barry takes care of the Parademons while Cyborg tries to separate the Mother Boxes, Batman saves Barry by grappling his legs from stopping him falling, Bruce takes one of the Parademons guns and fires at them. Steppenwolf finds out the Victor is trying to separate the Mother Boxes, which he grabs him before Wonder Woman saves him.

Alfred informs Bruce that people are in danger which Batman tells Barry that he needs to save the civilians, Diana and Arthur tries to keep Steppenwolf away from Cyborg by using theLasso of Truthto pull him down, Steppenwolf attacks them both before he knocks Arthur into a wall breaking the ceiling before Diana saves him, Cyborg tries to keep Steppenwolf away from him but failures which leads with Steppenwolf pulling of one of his legs.

Cyborg with the Justice League.

Before Steppenwolf could kill Cyborg, Superman comes and saves him, Bruce tells Superman he needs to buy Cyborg some time to separate the Mother Boxes and to help civilians, Superman catches up with Barry saving he got the ones on the right. Victor calls for Superman help with the Mother Boxes, which Steppenwolf attack the Justice League which Superman freezes Steppenwolf’s Axe and Diana breaks it with her Sword, which cause Steppenwolf to be attacked by the Parademons before he returns back toApokolips.

After the accident, however, Victor abandons football and becomes gloomy, secluded, depressed, and even somewhat robotic. Cyborg can also be quite blunt and robotically stiff, sternly pointing out to a person that the latter should have moved out of the path of the Humvee flying right at him.[2] This all stems from the fact that after becoming a cyborg, Victor no longer feels fully human, thinks of himself as a monster, and even Wonder Woman herself was initially unable to persuade him otherwise. However, when his father Silas Stone gets kidnapped by Steppenwolf, Cyborg joins the League without hesitation, and even personally attacks the fearsome New God in order to save him.

Cyborg accepts his condition and upgrade his cybernetics.

After fighting alongside the Justice League for some time, however, Cyborg seems to have warmed a bit to all of his teammates, as he bonds a bit with Flash over their unexpected metahuman power gain (though he still found the latter’s humor a bit annoying[4]), he somewhat bonds with Batman over their engineering expertise, he notably reassures the previously skeptical Aquaman that “the ride ain’t over yet” (before helping the Atlantean fight a group of Parademons), he comes to appreciate Wonder Woman’s emotional support, and even shares a laugh of relief with resurrected Superman (after they successfully pry apart the 3 Mother Boxes). Indeed, Cyborg is the first member of the League to have befriended every single one of his teammates during their first major battle. Superman’s return and the defeat of Steppenwolf finally grants Cyborg the confidence to reveal his cybernetic self to the world, and begin mending his strained relationship with his father, as he is seen beginning to work with Silas at S.T.A.R. Labs.

Cyborg’s automatic cybernetic modification

Cyborg’s flight mode

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CyborgVariations:

New 52, Justice League, Rebirth

Cyborg (a.k.a. Victor Stone) is a Super Heroes minifigure who first appears in LEGO Batman 2: DC Super Heroes, LEGO Batman: The Movie DC Super Heroes Unite, and LEGO Batman 3: Beyond Gotham. He was physically released in the set 76028 Darkseid Invasion in 2015.

Cyborg’s head has dark skin, his right half has short black hair and left half is covered by silver plating with red eyes. He has a silver torso with part of his chest exposed and a red circle in the center of his chest, which is covered by silver plating and machinery. His arms are also printed,with part of his skin exposed, and his legs and hips are also silver and covered up with machinery.

Cyborg has dark skin, with the right half of his face being left unotuched by the machinery. He has short, black hair. The left side of his face is covered by a silver helmet with extends around his chin and on his cheeks on the right half of his face. The mask has a red, glowing eye and a small, red circle on the forehead. Cyborg’s face has two expressions, one confident and one angry. Cyborg’s torso is black with the details of his armor, and his arms are pearl silver. The suits’ armored details continue down Cyborg’s legs, which are also pealr silver.

In LEGO Batman 2: DC Super Heroes, Cyborg is magnetic, able to activate machinery, and shoot lasers from his artificial eye. He is unlocked for free-play after the level “Tower Defiance” is completed and is also playable in the story-mode of “Heroes Unite”.

On the portable versions of the game, Cyborg is a playable character in Story Mode of the level “Wayne Industries”. His minikit can be found on the same level, and he costs 100,000 studs. In the portable version, Cyborg has different torso and leg printing.

Half of Victor Stone’s body was destroyed in a tragic accident. He was saved through experimental technology created by his father Silas, and his body parts were replaced with high-tech gadgets and weaponry. To have Vic around people who may understand his condition, Silas asked the Titans to accept Vic among them as Cyborg, and in exchnage Silas built a T-shaped tower as the Titans’ new headquarters.

He is a member of the Justice League, which mainly consists of Superman, Batman, the Flash, Green Lantern, Wonder Woman, Martian Manhunter, Aquaman, and on some occasions Nightwing, Batgirl, and Huntress. He was also a member of the Teen Titans, with notable members consisting of Nightwing, Miss Martian, Blue Beetle, Superboy, Kid Flash, Roy Harper, Tempest, Troia, Raven, Starfire and Beast Boy, who is also Cyborg’s best friend.

In LEGO Batman 2: DC Super Heroes, Cyborg is a member of the Justice League. He is one of the members being monitored by The Martian Manhunter when he checks in on Bruce Wayne.

Later, when Lex Luthor and the Joker attacked Wayne Tower with their Kryptonite powered mech, Cyborg, Batman, Robin, and Green Lantern entered through the bottom of the destroyed tower while Superman and Wonder Woman held it in place. When Green Lantern used a train construct to knock the robot off of the building, Cyborg and the others dove off the edge after it and fought with The Joker. When the robot was defeated, Green Lantern created an elevator and lowered the heroes unable to fly to safety. The Flash and Green Lantern repaired the tower, relieving Superman and Wonder Woman. Cyborg then joined Batman, Robin, Wonder Woman, Green Lantern, The Flash, and Martian Manhunter (from the Watchtower) in destroying what was left of the robot, fought with and defeated Joker again, and then tried to avoid Luthor’s weaponry from his back-up mech until Robin and Manhunter could target the Watchtower’s cannon long enough to destroy it.

Cyborg teams up with other DC superheroes to save the world from Brainiac. Cyborg, just like Batman, Robin, Lex Luthor, and the Joker has a wide selection of new suits to help out with stopping Brainiac.

His LEGO Dimensions Figure

Cyborg with the Justice League

Portable Version Back Printing

Cyborg in the new justice league sets

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