Senior Research Assistant in Experimental Condensed Matter Physics job with THE UNIVERSITY OF HONG KONG | 230871 – Times Higher Education (THE)

Work type: Full-timeDepartment: Department of Physics (25600)Categories: Academic-related Staff, Research Support Staff

Applications are invited for appointment asSenior Research Assistant in Experimental Condensed Matter Physics in the Department of Physics(Ref.: 502385) to commence as soon as possible for one year, with the possibility of renewal subject to satisfactory performance.

Applicants should possess a Masters degree or above in Physics or Mechanical Engineering, or in relevant disciplines with comprehensive experience in Perovskite materials, and/or 3D printing, and/or nano-electronics. Preference will be given to those with a Ph.D. degree in a related area, or who are expecting to complete the degree before March 2021. The appointee will conduct researches on thermoelectric properties of Perovskite nanowires grown by a state-of-art 3D printing technique under the joint supervision of Dr. DongKeun Ki (e-mail: dkki@hku.hk; https://www.physics.hku.hk/~dkkilab/) in Physics and Dr. Jitae Kim (e-mail: jtkim@hku.hk; https://sites.google.com/site/kimlabhku/) in Mechanical Engineering.

A highly competitive salary commensurate with qualifications and experience will be offered, in addition to annual leave and medical benefits.

The University only accepts online application for the above post. Applicants should apply online and upload an up-to-date C.V. and a cover letter, preferably with academic transcript(s) and a publication list.Review of applications will commence as soon as possible and continue untilJanuary 8, 2021, or until the post is filled, whichever is earlier.

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Senior Research Assistant in Experimental Condensed Matter Physics job with THE UNIVERSITY OF HONG KONG | 230871 - Times Higher Education (THE)

Small Satellite Market Size to Hit USD 9.75 Billion by 2027; Presence of Several Large Scale Companies will have a Positive Impact on Market Growth,…

Pune, Oct. 28, 2020 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- The global small satellite market size is projected to reach USD 9.75 billion by the end of 2027. The increasing number of space programs across the world will emerge in favor of market growth. According to a report published by Fortune Business Insights, titled Small Satellite Market Size, Share & COVID-19 Impact Analysis, By Type (Mini, Micro, Nano), Component (Structures, Payload, Electric Power System, Solar Panel and Antennas System, Propulsion System, Others), Application (Communication, Navigation, Earth Observation, Technology Development, Others), End-User (Commercial, Civil, Military, Government), and Regional Forecast, 2020-2027, the market was worth USD 3.07 billion and will exhibit a CAGR of 18.99% during the forecast period, 2020-2027.

Small satellites are widely used in several space applications including observational and functional purposes. These satellites have a lower massas well as the size and require lesserpropellant fuel than conventional satellites. The increasing demand for small satellites is consequential to the rising awareness as well as debates surrounding high fuel consumption in larger satellites. The huge investments in the research and development of small satellites will bode well for the growth of the market in the coming years. An increasing number of observational space programs by globally renowned organizations such as ISRO and NASA will give the platform for growth for the companies operating in the small satellite market.

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Covid-19 Pandemic to Halt Production of Proposed Satellites

The recent coronavirus outbreak has had a drastic impact on several businesses across the world. Due to the rapid spread of the disease governments across the world have been compelled to implement strict measures with the aim to curb the spread of the disease. As a result, people have been advised to stay indoors which has ultimately led to a shortage of labor and workforce across the world. Thus several space programs that were lined up during the pandemic have been delayed. Moreover, the coronavirus outbreak has also brought a halt in the production of proposed satellites. These factors have had a direct negative impact on the small satellite market in the past few months. Having said that the efforts taken to recover these economic losses will bring relief to manufacturers in the small satellite sector.

Increasing Number of Company Mergers and Acquisitions will Emerge in Favor of Market Growth

The report encompasses several factors that have contributed to the growth of the overall market in recent years. Accounting to the massive demand for small satellites across the world, larger organizations and businesses are looking to collaborate as well as acquire companies in the mid-level brackets. As a result, there has been an increase in the number of company collaborations and mergers across the world in the past two decades. In February 2020, rocket labs announced that it has signed a contract with NASA,through which it will work onNASAsplans to launch small satellitesto the moon in 2021. The contract is said to be worth an estimated USD 15.5 million. This contract will not just benefit the company but will also encourage other companies of the similar stature as well as small scale businesses. The increasing number of such company collaborations will bode well for the growth of the market in the coming years.

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North America to Emerge Dominant; Presence of Several Large Scale Companies will Emerge in Favor of Market Growth

The report analyzes the ongoing market trends across five major regions. Among all regions, the market in North America is expected to hold the largest market share in the coming years. The presence of several large scale space organizations in the US will have a positive impact on the growth of the market in the coming years. As of 2019, the market in North America was worth USD 1.91 billion, and this value is projected to rise at a considerable pace in the coming years. Besides North America, the market in Asia Pacific will rise at a considerable pace driven by rapid urbanization across the region.

List of the Leading Companies Profiled in the Global Small Satellite Marketare:

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Industry Developments:

April 2020: VOX Space announced that it has signed a contract with the U.S. Space Force (USSF). Through this contract, the company will work towards USSFs plans for the launch of three small satellite missions delivering multiple spacecraft to orbit for the Department of Defense (DoD) Space Test Program- S28 (STP-28).

Have a Look at Related Research Insights:

Satellite Communication Market Size, Share & Industry Analysis, By Component (Receiver, Transmitter/Transponder, Transceiver, Antenna, Modem/Router), By Technology (Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT), SATCOM-On-The-Move (SOTM), SATCOM-On-The-Pause (SOTP), SATCOM Telemetry), By Platform (Commercial and Government & Defense), By End-Use (Portable equipment, Land equipment, Maritime equipment), and Regional Forecast, 2019-2026

US Reusable Launch Vehicle Market Size, Share & Industry Analysis, By Type (Partially Reusable and Fully Reusable), By Stage (Single Stage and Multi-Stage), By Orbit Type (Low Earth Orbit and Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit), and Regional Forecast, 2019-2026

Satellite Payload Market Size, Share & COVID-19 Impact Analysis, By Payload Type (Communication, Imaging, Navigation, and Others), By Vehicle Type (Small, Medium-to-heavy), By Orbit (GEO, LEO, and MEO), By Application (Weather Monitoring, Telecommunication, Scientific Research, Surveillance, Others), By End-Use (Commercial and Military) and Regional Forecasts, 2020-2027

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Small Satellite Market Size to Hit USD 9.75 Billion by 2027; Presence of Several Large Scale Companies will have a Positive Impact on Market Growth,...

Impact Of Covid 19 On 3D Print Materials Industry 2020 Market Challenges, Business Overview And Forecast Research Study 2026 – The Think Curiouser

3D Print Materials Market Data and Acquisition Research Study with Trends and Opportunities 2019-2024The study of 3D Print Materials market is a compilation of the market of 3D Print Materials broken down into its entirety on the basis of types, application, trends and opportunities, mergers and acquisitions, drivers and restraints, and a global outreach. The detailed study also offers a board interpretation of the 3D Print Materials industry from a variety of data points that are collected through reputable and verified sources. Furthermore, the study sheds a lights on a market interpretations on a global scale which is further distributed through distribution channels, generated incomes sources and a marginalized market space where most trade occurs.

Along with a generalized market study, the report also consists of the risks that are often neglected when it comes to the 3D Print Materials industry in a comprehensive manner. The study is also divided in an analytical space where the forecast is predicted through a primary and secondary research methodologies along with an in-house model.

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Key players in the global 3D Print Materials market covered in Chapter 4:LEGOR GROUPFORMLTYPEEight Oclock Coffee PodsEXCELTECArevo LTypeLomiko MetalsNascent Objects, INCADVANCE3D MATERIALSCOOKSON PRECIOUSDSM SOMOSNano SteelEVONIKMaker JuiceGRAPHENE 3D LABARCAMMillstone K CupsCRP GROUPMETALSRahn AGAdvanced Powder and Coating

In Chapter 11 and 13.3, on the basis of types, the 3D Print Materials market from 2015 to 2026 is primarily split into:NylonAbsResinStainless SteelGold&SliverTitaniumCeramicGypsum

In Chapter 12 and 13.4, on the basis of applications, the 3D Print Materials market from 2015 to 2026 covers:AerospaceArchitectureEngineeringOthers

Geographically, the detailed analysis of consumption, revenue, market share and growth rate, historic and forecast (2015-2026) of the following regions are covered in Chapter 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 13:North America (Covered in Chapter 6 and 13)United StatesCanadaMexicoEurope (Covered in Chapter 7 and 13)GermanyUKFranceItalySpainRussiaOthersAsia-Pacific (Covered in Chapter 8 and 13)ChinaJapanSouth KoreaAustraliaIndiaSoutheast AsiaOthersMiddle East and Africa (Covered in Chapter 9 and 13)Saudi ArabiaUAEEgyptNigeriaSouth AfricaOthersSouth America (Covered in Chapter 10 and 13)BrazilArgentinaColumbiaChileOthers

For a global outreach, the 3D Print Materials study also classifies the market into a global distribution where key market demographics are established based on the majority of the market share. The following markets that are often considered for establishing a global outreach are North America, Europe, Asia, and the Rest of the World. Depending on the study, the following markets are often interchanged, added, or excluded as certain markets only adhere to certain products and needs.

Here is a short glance at what the study actually encompasses:Study includes strategic developments, latest product launches, regional growth markers and mergers & acquisitionsRevenue, cost price, capacity & utilizations, import/export rates and market shareForecast predictions are generated from analytical data sources and calculated through a series of in-house processes.

However, based on requirements, this report could be customized for specific regions and countries.

Brief about 3D Print Materials Market Report with [emailprotected]https://hongchunresearch.com/report/3d-print-materials-market-size-2020-77278

Some Point of Table of Content:

Chapter One: Report Overview

Chapter Two: Global Market Growth Trends

Chapter Three: Value Chain of 3D Print Materials Market

Chapter Four: Players Profiles

Chapter Five: Global 3D Print Materials Market Analysis by Regions

Chapter Six: North America 3D Print Materials Market Analysis by Countries

Chapter Seven: Europe 3D Print Materials Market Analysis by Countries

Chapter Eight: Asia-Pacific 3D Print Materials Market Analysis by Countries

Chapter Nine: Middle East and Africa 3D Print Materials Market Analysis by Countries

Chapter Ten: South America 3D Print Materials Market Analysis by Countries

Chapter Eleven: Global 3D Print Materials Market Segment by Types

Chapter Twelve: Global 3D Print Materials Market Segment by Applications12.1 Global 3D Print Materials Sales, Revenue and Market Share by Applications (2015-2020)12.1.1 Global 3D Print Materials Sales and Market Share by Applications (2015-2020)12.1.2 Global 3D Print Materials Revenue and Market Share by Applications (2015-2020)12.2 Aerospace Sales, Revenue and Growth Rate (2015-2020)12.3 Architecture Sales, Revenue and Growth Rate (2015-2020)12.4 Engineering Sales, Revenue and Growth Rate (2015-2020)12.5 Others Sales, Revenue and Growth Rate (2015-2020)

Chapter Thirteen: 3D Print Materials Market Forecast by Regions (2020-2026) continued

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List of tablesList of Tables and FiguresTable Global 3D Print Materials Market Size Growth Rate by Type (2020-2026)Figure Global 3D Print Materials Market Share by Type in 2019 & 2026Figure Nylon FeaturesFigure Abs FeaturesFigure Resin FeaturesFigure Stainless Steel FeaturesFigure Gold&Sliver FeaturesFigure Titanium FeaturesFigure Ceramic FeaturesFigure Gypsum FeaturesTable Global 3D Print Materials Market Size Growth by Application (2020-2026)Figure Global 3D Print Materials Market Share by Application in 2019 & 2026Figure Aerospace DescriptionFigure Architecture DescriptionFigure Engineering DescriptionFigure Others DescriptionFigure Global COVID-19 Status OverviewTable Influence of COVID-19 Outbreak on 3D Print Materials Industry DevelopmentTable SWOT AnalysisFigure Porters Five Forces AnalysisFigure Global 3D Print Materials Market Size and Growth Rate 2015-2026Table Industry NewsTable Industry PoliciesFigure Value Chain Status of 3D Print MaterialsFigure Production Process of 3D Print MaterialsFigure Manufacturing Cost Structure of 3D Print MaterialsFigure Major Company Analysis (by Business Distribution Base, by Product Type)Table Downstream Major Customer Analysis (by Region)Table LEGOR GROUP ProfileTable LEGOR GROUP Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020Table FORMLTYPE ProfileTable FORMLTYPE Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020Table Eight Oclock Coffee Pods ProfileTable Eight Oclock Coffee Pods Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020Table EXCELTEC ProfileTable EXCELTEC Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020Table Arevo LType ProfileTable Arevo LType Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020Table Lomiko Metals ProfileTable Lomiko Metals Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020Table Nascent Objects, INC ProfileTable Nascent Objects, INC Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020Table ADVANCE3D MATERIALS ProfileTable ADVANCE3D MATERIALS Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020Table COOKSON PRECIOUS ProfileTable COOKSON PRECIOUS Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020Table DSM SOMOS ProfileTable DSM SOMOS Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020Table Nano Steel ProfileTable Nano Steel Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020Table EVONIK ProfileTable EVONIK Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020Table Maker Juice ProfileTable Maker Juice Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020Table GRAPHENE 3D LAB ProfileTable GRAPHENE 3D LAB Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020Table ARCAM ProfileTable ARCAM Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020Table Millstone K Cups ProfileTable Millstone K Cups Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020Table CRP GROUP ProfileTable CRP GROUP Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020Table METALS ProfileTable METALS Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020Table Rahn AG ProfileTable Rahn AG Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020Table Advanced Powder and Coating ProfileTable Advanced Powder and Coating Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020Figure Global 3D Print Materials Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)Figure Global 3D Print Materials Revenue ($) and Growth (2015-2020)Table Global 3D Print Materials Sales by Regions (2015-2020)Table Global 3D Print Materials Sales Market Share by Regions (2015-2020)Table Global 3D Print Materials Revenue ($) by Regions (2015-2020)Table Global 3D Print Materials Revenue Market Share by Regions (2015-2020)Table Global 3D Print Materials Revenue Market Share by Regions in 2015Table Global 3D Print Materials Revenue Market Share by Regions in 2019Figure North America 3D Print Materials Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)Figure Europe 3D Print Materials Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)Figure Asia-Pacific 3D Print Materials Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)Figure Middle East and Africa 3D Print Materials Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)Figure South America 3D Print Materials Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)Figure North America 3D Print Materials Revenue ($) and Growth (2015-2020)Table North America 3D Print Materials Sales by Countries (2015-2020)Table North America 3D Print Materials Sales Market Share by Countries (2015-2020)Figure North America 3D Print Materials Sales Market Share by Countries in 2015Figure North America 3D Print Materials Sales Market Share by Countries in 2019Table North America 3D Print Materials Revenue ($) by Countries (2015-2020)Table North America 3D Print Materials Revenue Market Share by Countries (2015-2020)Figure North America 3D Print Materials Revenue Market Share by Countries in 2015Figure North America 3D Print Materials Revenue Market Share by Countries in 2019Figure United States 3D Print Materials Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)Figure Canada 3D Print Materials Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)Figure Mexico 3D Print Materials Sales and Growth (2015-2020)Figure Europe 3D Print Materials Revenue ($) Growth (2015-2020)Table Europe 3D Print Materials Sales by Countries (2015-2020)Table Europe 3D Print Materials Sales Market Share by Countries (2015-2020)Figure Europe 3D Print Materials Sales Market Share by Countries in 2015Figure Europe 3D Print Materials Sales Market Share by Countries in 2019Table Europe 3D Print Materials Revenue ($) by Countries (2015-2020)Table Europe 3D Print Materials Revenue Market Share by Countries (2015-2020)Figure Europe 3D Print Materials Revenue Market Share by Countries in 2015Figure Europe 3D Print Materials Revenue Market Share by Countries in 2019Figure Germany 3D Print Materials Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)Figure UK 3D Print Materials Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)Figure France 3D Print Materials Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)Figure Italy 3D Print Materials Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)Figure Spain 3D Print Materials Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)Figure Russia 3D Print Materials Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)Figure Asia-Pacific 3D Print Materials Revenue ($) and Growth (2015-2020)Table Asia-Pacific 3D Print Materials Sales by Countries (2015-2020)Table Asia-Pacific 3D Print Materials Sales Market Share by Countries (2015-2020)Figure Asia-Pacific 3D Print Materials Sales Market Share by Countries in 2015Figure Asia-Pacific 3D Print Materials Sales Market Share by Countries in 2019Table Asia-Pacific 3D Print Materials Revenue ($) by Countries (2015-2020)Table Asia-Pacific 3D Print Materials Revenue Market Share by Countries (2015-2020)Figure Asia-Pacific 3D Print Materials Revenue Market Share by Countries in 2015Figure Asia-Pacific 3D Print Materials Revenue Market Share by Countries in 2019Figure China 3D Print Materials Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)Figure Japan 3D Print Materials Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)Figure South Korea 3D Print Materials Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)Figure Australia 3D Print Materials Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)Figure India 3D Print Materials Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)Figure Southeast Asia 3D Print Materials Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)Figure Middle East and Africa 3D Print Materials Revenue ($) and Growth (2015-2020) continued

About HongChun Research:HongChun Research main aim is to assist our clients in order to give a detailed perspective on the current market trends and build long-lasting connections with our clientele. Our studies are designed to provide solid quantitative facts combined with strategic industrial insights that are acquired from proprietary sources and an in-house model.

Contact Details:Jennifer GrayManager Global Sales+ 852 8170 0792[emailprotected]

NOTE: Our report does take into account the impact of coronavirus pandemic and dedicates qualitative as well as quantitative sections of information within the report that emphasizes the impact of COVID-19.

As this pandemic is ongoing and leading to dynamic shifts in stocks and businesses worldwide, we take into account the current condition and forecast the market data taking into consideration the micro and macroeconomic factors that will be affected by the pandemic.

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Impact Of Covid 19 On 3D Print Materials Industry 2020 Market Challenges, Business Overview And Forecast Research Study 2026 - The Think Curiouser

The U.S. Finally Has a Sputnik Moment With China – Foreign Policy

As I researched global innovation over the past four years, the more I looked into Chinas amazing ascent as a technological poweramid growing U.S. angst and anti-China angerthe more one puzzling question constantly jumped out at me: Why has there been no Sputnik moment with China, as occurred early in the Cold War when the Soviet Union launched a satellite into space in 1957? Then, U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower elevated science and technology to a national mission, creating NASA and dramatically ramping up support for research and development.

True, theres been no single Chinese achievement that made headlinessave perhaps Beijings recent victory over the coronavirus, muted by having helped spread the virus in the first place. The fields where China is ahead of the United States, such as financial technology, are largely matters of everyday life, not grand and singular achievements. But for all the febrile fear and loathing of China, a panoply of tariffs, tech bans, and an unraveling U.S.-China relationship, the United States has done far more whining about China than competing with it. Huawei as a national security threat, intellectual property theft, bans on Chinese appsAmericas (mostly legitimate) grievances against predatory Chinese industrial policies seem to mount by the day. Yet beyond sanctions and tariffs, there has been little idea how the United States would meet the challenge.

Thats no longer the case. Fears of the United States losing its competitive edge to China have proved so powerful that they have begun to transcend Americas bitter tribal politics, transforming traditional U.S. laissez-faire views into a fervent techno-nationalism that may end up looking like Beijings approach itself. Much of this exists only in potential at the moment, but its becoming the new norm.

Sinophobia has turned traditional free market Republicans into advocates, captured in Sen. Marco Rubios call for a pro-American industrial policy. This is evident in a flood of legislation in the U.S. Congress: 366 pieces of China-focused legislation filed in 2019-2020much on trade, investment, and techthough only a handful are likely to become law. The mostly bipartisan legislation is also mirrored in Democratic presidential candidate Joe Bidens manufacturing plans that look a lot like President Donald Trumps.

Major pending bipartisan tech legislation seeks to boost U.S. manufacturing, promote R&D in key tech sectors, diversify and expand U.S. tech hubs now concentrated on the East Coast and West Coast, and forge a national tech strategy. Most prominently, a bill likely to soon become lawthe Creating Helpful Incentives to Produce Semiconductors for America Act (CHIPS for America Act)aims to subsidize the semiconductor industry. The CHIPS bill passed as an amendment to the current Defense Authorization Act and may become law before the end of the year.

This is a very big deal. Why? Because semiconductors, a $470 billion global industry, are core drivers of all things digital, the foundation and lifeblood of the entire knowledge economy. China itself, currently dependent on imported chips (many from Taiwan), has been attempting to domesticize its own productionfailing to make a 40 percent domestic target this year, but redoubling efforts to hit a 70 percent target by 2025.

The CHIPS bill aims to boost and reshore semiconductor manufacturing with a 40 percent tax credit to 2024 for investments in semiconductor equipment or manufacturing facilities; creates a $10 billion matching fund for states and cities to incentivize investment in advanced semiconductor manufacturing; includes measures for bolstering STEM workforce development; and parcels out $12 billion in R&D to the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the Department of Energy, the Department of Commerce, and the National Science Foundation, as well as to establish an advanced manufacturing institute. It also mandates that the administration develop a semiconductor R&D strategy and a public-private national semiconductor technology center.

One provision in the CHIPS bill that moves beyond narrow techno-nationalism seeks to build multilateral cooperation among democracies in supply chain security. It creates a $750 million trust fund to be allocated upon reaching agreement with foreign governments to form a consortium to harmonize policies related to microelectronics, transparency in microelectronics, and greater alignment in policies toward non-market economies.

There is an array of other legislation designed to bolster U.S. tech competitiveness, beef up R&D in high tech, incentivize private sector investment, and change the geography of innovation80 percent of venture capital and 90 percent of tech employment is concentrated in major tech hubs. For example, several bills would rename the National Science Foundation as the National Science and Technology Foundation, creating a center for technology and authorizing $100 billion in R&D funds to support work on artificial intelligence, boost semiconductors, and incentivize geographic diversity, with $80 billion for cities to compete to build tech innovation centers.

The flurry of legislation and the rhetoric of both presidential candidates underscore the degree to which the fear of Chinese tech dominance has animated a newfound bipartisan eagerness to sustain and advance the eroding U.S. innovation edge. While industrial policies have had mixed success in the United States, the sheer breadth and scope of new resources and public and private collaboration will no doubt have a considerable impact on U.S. tech capacity.

What unintended consequences all the positive and negative aspects of this energized techno-nationalism in the United States will have is another question. In the best-case scenario, the results of the new U.S. zeitgeist may better position Washingtonif it can mobilize like-minded partnersto compete with China and pressure Beijing to move back toward promised economic reforms, rolling back many of its state-driven forms of capitalist measures. In the worst case, it may lead to a bifurcated global economy with conflicting rules, norms, and standards. One big fear is that the victim of the techno-nationalism trend will be global innovation, which thrives on openness and transparency.

The world is in the early stages of what has been dubbed the Fourth Industrial Revolution. The converging new technologiesAI, big data, robotics, biotech, nanoengineering, new materials, the Internet of Things, 3D printingmerge the digital and physical worlds and will drive economic growth and shape geopolitics in the decades ahead. It should have been obvious to U.S. officialdom long ago that tech innovation was the fulcrum of the future, but they mostly just paid lip service to it. Instead, it has taken an existential fear of being overtaken by China to create an impetus to get changes done. The price may be innovation constrained by techno-nationalismbut the next Sputnik moment is finally here.

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The U.S. Finally Has a Sputnik Moment With China - Foreign Policy

Medtronic Announces Adaptix Interbody System, the First Navigated Titanium Cage with Titan nanoLOCK Surface Technology – BioSpace

A World's First That Combines Innovative Technologies: Titan nanoLOCK Surface Technology and Navigation

DUBLIN, Oct. 7, 2020 /PRNewswire/ -- Medtronic plc (NYSE:MDT), the global leader in medical technology, today announced the U.S. launch of Adaptix Interbody System, the first navigated titanium implant with Titan nanoLOCK Surface Technology, a proprietary blend of surface textures on the macro, micro, and nano levels. The Adaptix Interbody System, mirrored after the veteran Capstone Spinal System, touts improved features for increased strength,1 subsidence resistance,1,2,3 easy insertion, and data-backed bone growth4,5. The announcement was made during the virtual edition of the North American Spine Society (NASS) annual meeting. Adaptix received U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval in August 2020.

This milestone represents the first 3D printed titanium implant, developed in house by Medtronic engineers, that incorporates the state-of-the-art Titan nanoLOCK Surface Technology.

Titan Spine, acquired in 2019, pioneered this surface technology that is the first to demonstrate the elements to be considered a nanotechnology for spinal devices as outlined in the FDA nanotechnology guidance document. Interbody implants are spacers that surgeons may insert between the vertebrae during spinal fusion surgery to help relieve pressure on nerves and hold the vertebrae in place while fusion occurs.

"Adaptix Interbody System allows me the best chance to meet my patients' needs by confidently placing the implant under navigation and trusting the Titan nanoLOCK Surface Technology to allow the implant to promote fusion. Surface technology, material type, and implant design all play a role in bone growth process during fusion," said J. Justin Seale, M.D. of OrthoArkansas Spine Institute. "The unique features and world-class technologies make the Adaptix Interbody System a truly differentiated implant."

The Adaptix Interbody System addresses surgeons' universal needs of fusion outcomes and offers:

Medtronic continues to transform spine care and deliver on its Surgical Synergy strategy by offering solutions that integrate implants, biologics, and enabling technologies. Adaptix Interbody System is compatible with the Medtronic navigation platform (StealthStation Navigation and O-arm imaging) and the newly released Grafton DBF Inject, a unique graft delivery syringe that delivers an osteoinductive6 DBM into the surgical site.

"Adaptix Interbody System is an exciting addition to our portfolio that leads with our Titan nanoLOCK Surface Technology," said Sharrolyn Josse, vice president and general manager of Medtronic Core Spine and Biologics division, which is part of the Restorative Therapies Group at Medtronic. "It is a fully navigated procedure, leveraging our leadership in navigation."

About MedtronicMedtronic plc (www.medtronic.com), headquartered in Dublin, Ireland, is among the world's largest medical technology, services and solutions companies alleviating pain, restoring health and extending life for millions of people around the world. Medtronic employs more than 90,000 people worldwide, serving physicians, hospitals and patients in more than 150 countries. The company is focused on collaborating with stakeholders around the world to take healthcare Further, Together.

Any forward-looking statements are subject to risks and uncertainties such as those described in Medtronic's periodic reports on file with the Securities and Exchange Commission. Actual results may differ materially from anticipated results.

1 Comparison of Adaptix and Capstone testing per ASTM F2077and ASTM F2267.2 Based on surface area measurement.3 Based on engineering principles.4 Wennerberg, A., & Albrektsson, T. (2009). Effects of titanium surface topography on bone integration: a systematic review. Clin Oral Implants Res, 20 Suppl 4, 172-184.5 Gittens, R.A., Olivares-Navarrete, R., Schwartz, Z, Boyan, B.D. (2014). Implant osseointegration and the role of microroughness and nanostructures: lessons for spine implants. Acta Biomater., 10(8), 3363-71.6 Data on file. Animal data is not necessarily indicative of human clinical outcomes.

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Medtronic Announces Adaptix Interbody System, the First Navigated Titanium Cage with Titan nanoLOCK Surface Technology - BioSpace

Nanocoolant Alternative for Cooling Elements by UMP Researchers – QS WOW News

The Advanced Nano Lab for Coolant and Lubricant in the Faculty of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering Technology Universiti Malaysia Pahang led by Associate Professor Ts. Ir. Dr. Kumaran Kadirgama and Associate Professor Ts. Dr. Devarajan Ramasamy has come out with a nanocellulose-engineered coolant for the cooling system.

Nanocellulose is an abundant organic material from plants that reduces the use of harmful coolants in the market. This coolant can be an alternative way to overcome heating problems in manufacturing, automotive, and heating parts in electric vehicles. This coolant can extend a car engines life by around 35% and cutting tools by around 25%.

In the 2018 and 2018 International Invention, Innovation & Technology Exhibition (ITEX), this product bagged a gold medal. Also, it won platinum and gold medals in the British Invention Show 2018. The work regarding this product has been published in various reputed international journals and conferences.

The product has already been applied for a patent on manufacturing and automotive usage. The research team is currently approached by one of the local industries to help in commercializing the product and for a joint application on the commercialization grant.

The Advanced Nano Lab for Coolant and Lubricant has managed to secure RM 800,000 from national and international agencies. The lab works with the Automotive Excellence Center (AEC) of Universiti Malaysia Pahang to solve the heating problem and expand the engines life with a new solution and components machining.

Currently, seven students are pursuing their masters or PhD degrees in this laboratory. This is an excellent opportunity for the students to learn new technology and data using the current technology. This lets them learn in theory and practice, where they need to understand the skills of preparing the liquid and running the experimental test rig. Engine lubrication is another focus of the lab. It can be further enhanced with the new nanomaterials.

The current research will focus on the new advancement of nanomaterials to solve the heating problem in the manufacturing, solar, and automotive sectors.

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Nanocoolant Alternative for Cooling Elements by UMP Researchers - QS WOW News

Post Pandemic Nano Gas Sensor Market Size to Reach USD XX Million Billion by 2027 Analysis by Top Manufacturers Raytheon Company, Ball Aerospace and…

Global Coronavirus pandemic has impacted all industries across the globe, Nano Gas Sensor market being no exception. As Global economy heads towards major recession post 2009 crisis, Cognitive Market Research has published a recent study which meticulously studies impact of this crisis on Global Nano Gas Sensor market and suggests possible measures to curtail them. This press release is a snapshot of research study and further information can be gathered by accessing complete report. To Contact Research Advisor Mail us @ [emailprotected] or call us on +1-312-376-8303.

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Some of the key players operating in this market include Raytheon Company, Ball Aerospace and Technologies, Thales Group, Lockheed Martin Corporation, Environmental Sensors, Emerson, Siemens, Endress Hauser, Falcon Analytical, Agilent Technologies . Manufacturers are facing continued downward pressure on demand, production and revenues as the COVID-19 pandemic strengthens. Manufacturing in the Euro-area experienced a substantial deterioration in its business cycle as the impact of COVID-19 hit both the demand and supply sides of the technology industry.

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The business is particularly defenseless given that the greater part of its workforce is utilized on location employments that are impossible remotely. Also, given the idea of the business, manufacturers should be creating social distancing in workplaces that are typically worker-dense (e.g., manufacturing plants, warehouses, material movements and logistics, etc.). Furthermore, manufacturers should be prepared for major supply chain disruptions. This will influence the OEMs, however will likewise wave all through flexibly chain, influencing manufactures by driving reduced demand for materials and parts.

There is hardly any place in the world that has remained unaffected by the brutality of the Covid-19 pandemic; almost every manufacturing company is suffering from ruthless Novel Coronavirus Disease. To encompass the pandemic, many nations and Governments around the world has imposed a lockdown, restricting the gatherings and the movement of people. Lockdown has multiple consequences, which further stretch the troubles for various sector like reverse migration, disruption of supply chains, manufacturing sector. As the government have close down shops, stores and malls that helps to slow the spread of the virus, which is the major factor that is affecting the industry.

The global Nano Gas Sensor market research report examined on the basis of the various parameters such as Porters Five Force Model, SWOT Analysis which provides the precise information about the global Nano Gas Sensor market. Furthermore, in-depth analysis of the global Nano Gas Sensormarket research report helps to identify the drivers, restraints, and opportunity regarding current market scenario.This report offers the detailed information regarding the global Nano Gas Sensor market. Report covers the brief summary of product, which defines the scope of the report in the Nano Gas Sensor market. Along with that, production methods used in it are also covered in the report. In addition, global Nano Gas Sensor market research report analyzes the diverse dynamics which are influencing the global Nano Gas Sensor market.

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Post Pandemic Nano Gas Sensor Market Size to Reach USD XX Million Billion by 2027 Analysis by Top Manufacturers Raytheon Company, Ball Aerospace and...

IISc Bengaluru researchers discover nanomotors can lead to early detection of cancer cells – The Indian Express

Written by Ralph Alex Arakal | Bengaluru | Updated: October 7, 2020 8:47:20 amThe IISc Bengaluru research team.

A team of researchers at the Indian Institute of Science (IISc) in Bengaluru has discovered that nanomotors can help in early detection of cancer cells. The researchers used a 3-D model of a tumour and magnetically-driven nanomotors for the study, Nanomotors Sense Local Physiochemical Heterogeneities in Tumour Microenvironments.

Debayan Dasgupta, co-first author of the study and Ph.D. student at Centre for Nano Science and Engineering (CeNSE), said, We tried driving the nanomotors toward cancer cells in a tumour model and observed them getting stuck to the matrix near cancer cells, but this was not observed near normal cells.

The team found that the nanomotors got stuck because cancer cells coat their surrounding matrix with negatively charged sugars known as sialic acids.

We searched for appropriate molecules within the vicinity of breast cancer cells and found specifically charged sugars known as 2,3-linked sialic acids. Normal breast cells show no such properties in the matrix close to them, Ramray Bhat, Assistant Professor at the IISc Department of Molecular Reproduction, Development and Genetics (MRDG) told Indianexpress.com.

The study has also led the team to study how cancer cells change their environment within the organ in which they develop, in this case the breast.

These results enrich our understanding about the anatomy of tumors as well as help us devise strategies to localize and attack tiny tumor populations, Bhat added.

According to the World Health Organisation, breast cancer is the most frequent form of cancer among women, impacting 2.1 million women per year. This also causes the greatest number of cancer-related deaths among women. In 2018, it is estimated that 627,000 women died from breast cancer that is approximately 15% of all cancer deaths among women, a report by WHO read. Early detection greatly improves chances of survival.

Bhat said the study will be carried out on animals next.

While Dasgupta and Dharma Pally (Department of Molecular Reproduction, Development and Genetics) are the first authors of the study, the other researchers who worked in the team are Ambarish Ghosh, Associate Professor at CeNSE, Deepak Kumar Saini from the Centre for Biosystems Science and Engineering and Dr Bhat at the IISc.

The study also got published in Angewandte Chemie, a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal of the German Chemical Society.

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IISc Bengaluru researchers discover nanomotors can lead to early detection of cancer cells - The Indian Express

Breakout Paper in Journal of Theoretical Biology Explicitly Supports Intelligent Design – Discovery Institute

Photo: Red poppy, Auckland Botanic Gardens, Auckland, New Zealand, by Sandy Millar via Unsplash.

As John West noted here last week, the Journal of Theoretical Biology has published an explicitly pro-intelligent design article, Using statistical methods to model the fine-tuning of molecular machines and systems. Lets take a closer look at the contents. The paper is math-heavy, discussing statistical models of making inferences, but it is also groundbreaking for this crucial reason: it considers and proposes intelligent design, by name, as a viable explanation for the origin of fine-tuning in biology. This is a major breakthrough for science, but also for freedom of speech. If the paper is any indication, appearing as it does in a prominent peer-reviewed journal, some of the suffocating constraints on ID advocacy may be coming off.

The authors are Steinar Thorvaldsen, a professor of information science at the University of Troms in Norway, and Ola Hssjer, a professor of mathematical statistics at Stockholm University. The paper, which is open access, begins by noting that while fine-tuning is widely discussed in physics, it needs to be considered more in the context of biology:

Fine-tuning has received much attention in physics, and it states that the fundamental constants of physics are finely tuned to precise values for a rich chemistry and life permittance. It has not yet been applied in a broad manner to molecular biology.

The authors explain the papers main thrust:

However, in this paper we argue that biological systems present fine-tuning at different levels, e.g. functional proteins, complex biochemical machines in living cells, and cellular networks. This paper describes molecular fine-tuning, how it can be used in biology, and how it challenges conventional Darwinian thinking. We also discuss the statistical methods underpinning finetuning and present a framework for such analysis.

They explain how fine-tuning is defined. The definition is essentially equivalent to specified complexity:

We define fine-tuning as an object with two properties: it must a) be unlikely to have occurred by chance, under the relevant probability distribution (i.e. complex), and b) conform to an independent or detached specification (i.e. specific).

They then introduce the concept of design, and explain how humans are innately able to recognize it:

A design is a specification or plan for the construction of an object or system, or the result of that specification or plan in the form of a product. The very term design is from the Medieval Latin word designare (denoting mark out, point out, choose); from de (out) and signum (identifying mark, sign). Hence, a public notice that advertises something or gives information. The design usually has to satisfy certain goals and constraints. It is also expected to interact with a certain environment, and thus be realized in the physical world. Humans have a powerful intuitive understanding of design that precedes modern science. Our common intuitions invariably begin with recognizing a pattern as a mark of design. The problem has been that our intuitions about design have been unrefined and pre-theoretical. For this reason, it is relevant to ask ourselves whether it is possible to turn the tables on this disparity and place those rough and pre-theoretical intuitions on a firm scientific foundation.

That last sentence is key: the purpose is to understand if there is a scientific method by which design can be inferred. They propose that design can be identified by uncovering fine-tuning. The paper explicates statistical methods for understanding fine-tuning, which they argue reflects design:

Fine-tuning and design are related entities. Fine-tuning is a bottom-up method, while design is more like a top-down approach. Hence, we focus on the topic of fine-tuning in the present paper and address the following questions: Is it possible to recognize fine-tuning in biological systems at the levels of functional proteins, protein groups and cellular networks? Can fine-tuning in molecular biology be formulated using state of the art statistical methods, or are the arguments just in the eyes of the beholder?

They cite the work of multiple leading theorists in the ID research community.

They return to physics and the anthropic principle, the idea that the laws of nature are precisely suited for life:

Suppose the laws of physics had been a bit different from what they actually are, what would the consequences be? (Davies, 2006). The chances that the universe should be life permitting are so infinitesimal as to be incomprehensible and incalculable. The finely tuned universe is like a panel that controls the parameters of the universe with about 100 knobs that can be set to certain values. If you turn any knob just a little to the right or to the left, the result is either a universe that is inhospitable to life or no universe at all. If the Big Bang had been just slightly stronger or weaker, matter would not have condensed, and life never would have existed. The odds against our universe developing were enormous and yet here we are, a point that equates with religious implications

However, rather than getting into religion, they apply statistics to consider the possibility of design as an explanation for the fine-tuning of the universe. They cite ID theorist William Dembski:

William Dembski regards the fine-tuning argument as suggestive, as pointers to underlying design. We may describe this inference as abductive reasoning or inference to the best explanation. This reasoning yields a plausible conclusion that is relatively likely to be true, compared to competing hypotheses, given our background knowledge. In the case of fine-tuning of our cosmos, design is considered to be a better explanation than a set of multi-universes that lacks any empirical or historical evidence.

The article offers additional reasons why the multiverse is an unsatisfying explanation for fine-tuning namely that multiverse hypotheses do not predict fine-tuning for this particular universe any better than a single universe hypothesis and we should prefer those theories which best predict (for this or any universe) the phenomena we observe in our universe.

The paper reviews the lines of evidence for fine-tuning in biology, including information, irreducible complexity, protein evolution, and the waiting-timeproblem. Along the way it considers the arguments of many ID theorists, starting with a short review showing how the literature uses words such as sequence code, information, and machine to describe lifes complexity:

One of the surprising discoveries of modern biology has been that the cell operates in a manner similar to modern technology, while biological information is organized in a manner similar to plain text. Words and terms like sequence code, and information, and machine have proven very useful in describing and understanding molecular biology (Wills, 2016). The basic building blocks of life are proteins, long chain-like molecules consisting of varied combinations of 20 different amino acids. Complex biochemical machines are usually composed of many proteins, each folded together and configured in a unique 3D structure dependent upon the exact sequence of the amino acids within the chain. Proteins employ a wide variety of folds to perform their biological function, and each protein has a highly specified shape with some minor variations.

The paper cites and reviews the work of Michael Behe, Douglas Axe, Stephen Meyer, and Gnter Bechly. Some of these discussions are quite long and extensive. First, the article contains a lucid explanation of irreducible complexity and the work of Michael Behe:

Michael Behe and others presented ideas of design in molecular biology, and published evidence of irreducibly complex biochemical machines in living cells. In his argument, some parts of the complex systems found in biology are exceedingly important and do affect the overall function of their mechanism. The fine-tuning can be outlined through the vital and interacting parts of living organisms. In Darwins Black Box (Behe, 1996), Behe exemplified systems, like the flagellum bacteria use to swim and the blood-clotting cascade, that he called irreducibly complex, configured as a remarkable teamwork of several (often dozen or more) interacting proteins. Is it possible on an incremental model that such a system could evolve for something that does not yet exist? Many biological systems do not appear to have a functional viable predecessor from which they could have evolved stepwise, and the occurrence in one leap by chance is extremely small. To rephrase the first man on the moon: Thats no small steps of proteins, no giant leap for biology.

[]

A Behe-system of irreducible complexity was mentioned in Section 3. It is composed of several well-matched, interacting modules that contribute to the basic function, wherein the removal of any one of the modules causes the system to effectively cease functioning. Behe does not ignore the role of the laws of nature. Biology allows for changes and evolutionary modifications. Evolution is there, irreducible design is there, and they are both observed. The laws of nature can organize matter and force it to change. Behes point is that there are some irreducibly complex systems that cannot be produced by the laws of nature:

If a biological structure can be explained in terms of those natural laws [reproduction, mutation and natural selection] then we cannot conclude that it was designed. . . however, I have shown why many biochemical systems cannot be built up by natural selection working on mutations: no direct, gradual route exist to these irreducible complex systems, and the laws of chemistry work strongly against the undirected development of the biochemical systems that make molecules such as AMP1 (Behe, 1996, p. 203).

Then, even if the natural laws work against the development of these irreducible complexities, they still exist. The strong synergy within the protein complex makes it irreducible to an incremental process. They are rather to be acknowledged as finetuned initial conditions of the constituting protein sequences. These structures are biological examples of nano-engineering that surpass anything human engineers have created. Such systems pose a serious challenge to a Darwinian account of evolution, since irreducibly complex systems have no direct series of selectable intermediates, and in addition, as we saw in Section 4.1, each module (protein) is of low probability by itself.

The article also reviews the peer-reviewed research of protein scientist Douglas Axe, as well as his 2016 book Undeniable, on the evolvability of protein folds:

An important goal is to obtain an estimate of the overall prevalence of sequences adopting functional protein folds, i.e. the right folded structure, with the correct dynamics and a precise active site for its specific function. Douglas Axe worked on this question at the Medical Research Council Centre in Cambridge. The experiments he performed showed a prevalence between 1 in 1050 to 1 in 1074 of protein sequences forming a working domain-sized fold of 150 amino acids (Axe, 2004). Hence, functional proteins require highly organised sequences, as illustrated in Fig. 2. Though proteins tolerate a range of possible amino acids at some positions in the sequence, a random process producing amino-acid chains of this length would stumble onto a functional protein only about one in every 1050 to 1074 attempts due to genetic variation. This empirical result is quite analog to the inference from fine-tuned physics.

[]

The search space turns out to be too impossibly vast for blind selection to have even a slight chance of success. The contrasting view is innovations based on ingenuity, cleverness and intelligence. An element of this is what Axe calls functional coherence, which always involves hierarchical planning, hence is a product of finetuning. He concludes: Functional coherence makes accidental invention fantastically improbable and therefore physically impossible (Axe, 2016, p. 160).

They conclude that the literature shows the probability of finding a functional protein in sequence space can vary broadly, but commonly remains far beyond the reach of Darwinian processes (Axe, 2010a).

Citing the work of Gnter Bechly and Stephen Meyer, the paper also reviews the question of whether sufficient time is allowed by the fossil record for complex systems to arise via Darwinian mechanisms. This is known as the waiting-time problem:

Achieving fine-tuning in a conventional Darwinian model: The waiting time problem

In this section we will elaborate further on the connection between the probability of an event and the time available for that event to happen. In the context of living systems, we need to ask the question whether conventional Darwinian mechanisms have the ability to achieve fine-tuning during a prescribed period of time. This is of interest in order to correctly interpret the fossil record, which is often interpreted as having long periods of stasis interrupted by very sudden abrupt changes (Bechly and Meyer, 2017). Examples of such sudden changes include the origin of photosynthesis, the Cambrian explosions, the evolution of complex eyes and the evolution of animal flight. The accompanying genetic changes are believed to have happen very rapidly, at least on a macroevolutionary timescale, during a time period of length t. In order to test whether this is possible, a mathematical model is needed in order to estimate the prevalence P(A) of the event A that the required genetic changes in a species take place within a time window of length t.

Throughout the discussions are multiple citations of BIO-Complexity, a journal dedicated to investigating the scientific evidence for intelligent design.

Lastly, the authors consider intelligent design as a possible explanation of biological fine-tuning, citing heavily the work of William Dembski, Winston Ewert, Robert J. Marks, and other ID theorists:

Intelligent Design (ID) has gained a lot of interest and attention in recent years, mainly in USA, by creating public attention as well as triggering vivid discussions in the scientific and public world. ID aims to adhere to the same standards of rational investigation as other scientific and philosophical enterprises, and it is subject to the same methods of evaluation and critique. ID has been criticized, both for its underlying logic and for its various formulations (Olofsson, 2008; Sarkar, 2011).

William Dembski originally proposed what he called an explanatory filter for distinguishing between events due to chance, lawful regularity or design (Dembski, 1998). Viewed on a sufficiently abstract level, its logics is based on well-established principles and techniques from the theory of statistical hypothesis testing. However, it is hard to apply to many interesting biological applications or contexts, because a huge number of potential but unknown scenarios may exist, which makes it difficult to phrase a null hypothesis for a statistical test (Wilkins and Elsberry, 2001; Olofsson, 2008).

The re-formulated version of a complexity measure published by Dembski and his coworkers is named Algorithmic Specified Complexity (ASC) (Ewert et al., 2013; 2014). ACS incorporates both Shannon and Kolmogorov complexity measures, and it quantifies the degree to which an event is improbable and follows a pattern. Kolmogorov complexity is related to compression of data (and hence patterns), but suffers from the property of being unknowable as there is no general method to compute it. However, it is possible to give upper bounds for the Kolmogorov complexity, and consequently ASC can be bounded without being computed exactly. ASC is based on context and is measured in bits. The same authors have applied this method to natural language, random noise, folding of proteins, images etc (Marks et al., 2017).

[]

The laws, constants, and primordial initial conditions of nature present the flow of nature. These purely natural objects discovered in recent years show the appearance of being deliberately fine-tuned. Functional proteins, molecular machines and cellular networks are both unlikely when viewed as outcomes of a stochastic model, with a relevant probability distribution (having a small P(A)), and at the same time they conform to an independent or detached specification (the set A being defined in terms of specificity). These results are important and deduced from central phenomena of basic science. In both physics and molecular biology, fine-tuning emerges as a uniting principle and synthesis an interesting observation by itself.

In this paper we have argued that a statistical analysis of fine-tuning is a useful and consistent approach to model some of the categories of design: irreducible complexity (Michael Behe), and specified complexity (William Dembski). As mentioned in Section 1, this approach requires a) that a probability distribution for the set of possible outcomes is introduced, and b) that a set A of fine-tuned events or more generally a specificity function f is defined. Here b) requires some apriori understanding of what fine-tuning means, for each type of application, whereas a) requires a naturalistic model for how the observed structures would have been produced by chance. The mathematical properties of such a model depend on the type of data that is analyzed. Typically a stochastic process should be used that models a dynamic feature such as stellar, chemical or biological (Darwinian) evolution. In the simplest case the state space of such a stochastic process is a scalar (one nucleotide or amino acid), a vector (a DNA or amino acid string) or a graph (protein complexes or cellular networks).

A major conclusion of our work is that fine-tuning is a clear feature of biological systems. Indeed, fine-tuning is even more extreme in biological systems than in inorganic systems. It is detectable within the realm of scientific methodology. Biology is inherently more complicated than the large-scale universe and so fine-tuning is even more a feature. Still more work remains in order to analyze more complicated data structures, using more sophisticated empirical criteria. Typically, such criteria correspond to a specificity function f that not only is a helpful abstraction of an underlying pattern, such as biological fitness. One rather needs a specificity function that, although of non-physical origin, can be quantified and measured empirically in terms of physical properties such as functionality. In the long term, these criteria are necessary to make the explanations both scientifically and philosophically legitimate. However, we have enough evidence to demonstrate that fine-tuning and design deserve attention in the scientific community as a conceptual tool for investigating and understanding the natural world. The main agenda is to explore some fascinating possibilities for science and create room for new ideas and explorations. Biologists need richer conceptual resources than the physical sciences until now have been able to initiate, in terms of complex structures having non-physical information as input (Ratzsch, 2010). Yet researchers have more work to do in order to establish fine-tuning as a sustainable and fully testable scientific hypothesis, and ultimately a Design Science.

This is a significant development. The article gives the arguments of intelligent design theorists a major hearing in a mainstream scientific journal. And dont miss the purpose of the article, which is stated in its final sentence to work towards establish[ing] fine-tuning as a sustainable and fully testable scientific hypothesis, and ultimately a Design Science. The authors present compelling arguments that biological fine-tuning cannot arise via unguided Darwinian mechanisms. Some explanation is needed to account for why biological systems show the appearance of being deliberately fine-tuned. Despite the noise that often surrounds this debate, for ID arguments to receive such a thoughtful and positive treatment in a prominent journal is itself convincing evidence that ID has intellectual merit. Claims of IDs critics notwithstanding, design science is being taken seriously by scientists.

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Breakout Paper in Journal of Theoretical Biology Explicitly Supports Intelligent Design - Discovery Institute

Elon Musk’s million-mile battery: What it really means – Los Angeles Times

Perhaps youve heard about the million-mile battery the latest buzz phrase electric vehicle proponents hope will energize public interest in buying EVs.

If you havent, Elon Musk will make sure you do on Tuesday, when Tesla goes online for what its calling Battery Day. Musk is expected to detail a million-mile battery project along with, he teased on Twitter, other exciting things.

Musks teasers dont always pan out. (Update: At the event, Musk undershot expectations, announcing what amounts to a pilot project he suggested could reach volume production by 2030. Theres still a lot of work to do, he said. Were not saying this is completely in the bag.)

But the idea of a million-mile battery offers real promise.

[I]t would eliminate one of the big negatives associated with electric vehicles, said Donald Sadoway, a materials chemist and battery expert at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology: the car owners fear that the battery will die and require costly replacement.

But because the battery industry is loaded with start-ups and inventors promoting their wares, often before theyre ready for prime time, Sadoway suggests some skepticism is in order.

A million-mile battery does not mean you can drive a million miles between recharges. It means a battery that will last for 1 million miles or more before it cant hold a charge strong enough to power an electric car anymore. Regular recharges every few hundred miles would still be needed to keep a car or truck powered.

Todays batteries face limits on the number of times they can be recharged. Right now, most car batteries are rated to handle about 1,000 full charges total. Manufacturer warranties on car batteries top out at about eight years and 150,000 miles which is proving conservative, as car batteries in general are outlasting their warranties. A battery that lasts 1 million miles could handle 4,000 full recharges or more.

Musk could extend the warranty to 15 years. You think hell do that?

Vince Battaglia, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab

No car is likely to last 1 million miles. It would fall apart long before that. But its possible to design cars so that batteries can be swapped in and out. Individual car owners, theoretically, could keep their batteries and install them into new car bodies. A long-lasting battery could increase a cars resale value.

Perhaps more important, swappable batteries could power long-haul trucks, city buses and driverless robotaxis, all of which log many miles a day, every day. The same batteries could also pump energy into the electric grid when the vehicles not being used, with less worry about battery life degradation.

For those applications, this would totally change the game, said Shirley Meng, professor of nano-engineering and materials at UC San Diego.

Tesla, which has aspirations to build electric semi trucks and deploy fleets of robotaxis while attempting to build a grid energy battery storage business, plans to begin manufacturing batteries itself. It currently buys batteries from Panasonic and LG Chem.

Maybe. Chinas battery manufacturing giant, Contemporary Amperex Technology Ltd. (CATL), said in June it is ready to produce a battery that will last 16 years and 1.2 million miles but hasnt said much more about it.

The battery would cost 10% more than the typical battery CATL sells now, company Chairman Zeng Yuqun told Bloomberg in June. No detail has been provided on the batterys inner workings, its weight, range, energy or power, and no carmaker has yet announced an interest in buying it.

No battery maker beyond CATL has made a million-mile claim. If Musk announces hes ready to produce one, it would raise eyebrows throughout the industry.

Battery Day certainly creates some buzz, Sadoway said. But remarkable claims require remarkable proof.

Its not clear yet that it has one. A research paper released last September by Tesla-funded scientists at Canadas Dalhousie University reported theyd created a million-mile battery in the lab. The team was led by Jeff Dahn, a major figure in lithium-ion battery research who began working with Tesla in 2016.

The three-year project showed that by using specific combinations of cathode and electrolyte materials, charge-recharge limits could be pushed from about 1,000 cycles up to 4,000 cycles, a major step toward longer-lasting car batteries.

A big question for Musk on Battery Day is whether his manufacturing plans are getting ahead of the science. Some leading battery experts express scientific skepticism. Its one thing to show results in a lab, quite another to develop manufacturing lines and turn out large volumes at a profit.

Dahn is very famous, hes very good, hes committed to his work, said Vince Battaglia, who heads the Battery Storage Group at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. This is interesting. Who knew you could do so many cycles?

Yet he calls some of the methods and findings different from my own.

Battaglia noted the batteries Dahns lab tested were far smaller than the cells that would be used in electric vehicles. I dont know whats going to happen when you make those bigger cells and the temperature gets a little hotter inside. Youll maybe get back to an eight-to-10-year life, Battaglia said. Dahn said he stands by his findings.

The website Electrek, which sometimes gets advance looks at Teslas plans, last week published pictures of unusually large battery cylinders it said Musk might introduce. The cells in Teslas current cars look like slightly larger AA batteries. These look like junior-size beer cans.

Perhaps Tesla will reveal convincing data to show those cells can boost energy density and cost efficiency to reach a million-mile cycle life, Battaglia said but its a tall order.

The big question here is how its going to increase cost, said MITs Sadoway.

The battery price I think will go up, because dollars per kilowatt-hour will go up, Battaglia said. Maybe Tesla buyers will spend extra on a battery that will last longer.

Meng, of UC San Diego, said such a battery could be considered an asset for the car buyer. If the battery can be swapped into other vehicles and last 1 million miles, it will retain a certain value, said Meng, who drives a Tesla herself. How much that might be is unknown. It will take some economists looking into this to show how the equations will be changed, she said.

Musk created a new and significant market for electric cars. His SpaceX sends rockets into outer space and lands them on barges. He has pushed the envelope with driver-assist technologies. He has accomplished much.

Yet his promises in recent years have far outreached performance. A semi truck unveiled in 2017 has yet to be produced. He predicted 1 million driverless robotaxis by the end of this year; so far, Tesla is on pace for zero. (The company doesnt make self-driving cars, never mind 1 million robotaxis.)

A solar roof project announced with a nonfunctional prototype in 2016 remains an experiment. Grand plans to solve traffic problems with underground tunnels have amounted to a single tourist attraction in Las Vegas.

Musk has overpromised and underdelivered on battery technologies too. In 2013, he put on a show to demonstrate a plan to build a network of stations to swap batteries for Tesla owners and relieve range anxiety. Only a single station was built. Little used, it was dismantled, but not before the California Air Resources Board gave Tesla extra emissions credits for the effort, which it later sold at a profit.

Musk has set a high bar for himself on Tuesday. In a conference call with stock analysts in 2017, asked about a Toyota solid-state battery project, he said this:

You know, I could give you a PowerPoint presentation about teleportation to the Andromeda Galaxy. That doesnt mean it works, he said. When somebody has like some great claim that theyve got this awesome battery, you know what, send us a sample. Or if you dont trust us, send it to an independent lab, where the parameters can be verified. Otherwise, [shut up].

Lawrence Berkeleys Battaglia said Musk could silence the critics with one simple statement. Teslas battery warranty is good for eight years and 150,000 miles. Musk could extend the warranty to 15 years, Battaglia said. You think hell do that?

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Elon Musk's million-mile battery: What it really means - Los Angeles Times

Politecnico di Milano: Project for innovation in Nanotechnology is the winner of ERC Starting grant – Science Business

Politecnico di Milano has won a new Starting Grant issued by the European Research Council (ERC), the European Unions programme that funds scientific research. Funds have been awarded to project B3YOND (acronym for Beyond nanofabrication via nanoscale phase engineering of matter), coordinated by Edoardo Albisetti, which proposes innovations in the nanomanufacturing scene.

The term designates the overall processes and techniques, which underpin the creation of new materials and devices bymanipulating matter with very high precision standards(in the range of one billionth of a millimetre!). These techniques have been an extraordinary stimulus for the development of nanoscience and of nanotechnology over the past decades. They seem to have achieved physical limitations that can only be overcome with original and entirely innovative approaches.

The aim of Albisettis project B3YOND is to innovate the nanotechnological approach by proving the efficacy of a new processing method calledphasic nano-engineering.A heat source of nanometric dimensions is positioned and shifted with the utmost precision on the materials surface in order to induce controlled phasic changes. Phasic manipulation of the material will allow to control its physical properties (e.g., electrical resistivity and conductivity, or magnetism) with unprecedented mastery. This innovative method will be used to develop a new class of artificial nanomaterials and devices for nanoelectronics and spintronics.

The project will be conducted at the Department of Physics, in partnership with PoliFab, Politecnico di Milanos micro and nanomanufacturing centre.

Counting 386 funded projects (amounting to a total of ca. 164,295,670 euro), Politecnico di Milano ranks as the first Italian university for the number of Horizon 2020 projects it has won.

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Politecnico di Milano: Project for innovation in Nanotechnology is the winner of ERC Starting grant - Science Business

Fruit flies’ protective corneal coatings reproduced | Research – Chemistry World

A nanoscale replica of the coating that protects the eyes of fruit flies that retains its anti-reflective and anti-adhesive properties has been developed by a team of reserchers at the University of Geneva. This new nano-coating, which is comprised of the protein retinin and corneal wax, could find applications in contact lenses, medical implants and textiles.

The researchers were able to produce retinin cheaply by using genetically modified bacteria, and then purifying it and mixing it with various commercial waxes and coating glass and plastic surfaces. They also showed that their nano-coating can be deposited on other surfaces such as wood, paper, metal and plastic.

Our work identifies how multifunctional nano-coatings are created in nature and translates this knowledge into technological applications, the scientists explained. They noted that they achieved this through a combination of mathematical simulation, phylogeny, genetics, biochemistry and forward engineering.

The bio-inspired nano-coatings proved to be stable, even after 20 hours of washing. However, the material was easily damaged by detergent or scratching, and the researchers suggest that technological enhancements could make it stronger. Its anti-reflective properties have already caught the attention of contact lens manufacturers, and its anti-adhesive properties could be of interest to medical implant manufacturers.

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Fruit flies' protective corneal coatings reproduced | Research - Chemistry World

Toy Insider unveils its Hot 20 List of the year’s most wished-for toys – FOX43.com

Industry experts recommend planning ahead and starting your holiday shopping before you've even finished carving pumpkins due to changes brought on by COVID-19.

Attention, shoppers. The first of 2020's trending toy lists for the upcoming holiday season is upon us.

The Toy Insider,a trusted go-to resource for parents and gift-givers, unveiled its expert picks for the best kids toys and gifts in its 15th annual holiday gift guide.

The guide's Hot 20 list consists of the most wish-for items of the year.

The STEM 10 (a list of science, math, technology and engineering toys) and the 12 Under $12 (a list of affordable toys packed with play value and unboxing experiences) are also available at toyinsider.com.

Shopping for holiday gifts will look different this year as the Coronavirus pandemic continues: social distancing guidelines are still in place, limiting the number of in-store shoppers; retailers are starting holiday promotions earlier; and consumers are increasingly conscious of their spending during a tough economic year.

"This holiday shopping season will be unlike any other," said Laurie Schacht, Chief Toy Officer of Toy Insider. "It will be in your best interest to plan ahead and grab these hot toys before you start carving out your pumpkins.

"Playtime offers a powerful way of coping with the world we live in, and the wide assortment of toys we reviewed for this year's holiday gift guide showcase the innovative, creative and affordable ways toymakers are serving the needs of families during challenging times.

This years hand-picked selections represent an extensive variety of open-ended toys to keep kids busy; screen-free playthings filled with educational value; toys that promote diversity, sustainability, and accessibility; and affordable toys that fit any budget, among many more categories that are sure to please kids of all ages this holiday season.

0-2 years

Pick fruits and vegetables, play with the light-up juicer, spin the honey jar, turn the lights on and off, and more with this two-sided interactive kitchen and garden. Includes more than 30 removable pieces and 125 songs, sounds, and phrases.

This puppy features head movements, paw buttons, songs, and real-time responses to help teach babies about animals, food, feelings, letters, and numbers. It features three levels of play to grow with babies: babble, talk, and music.

3-4 years

This colorful truck features sounds, seven Blippi phrases, and a working lever to collect bins and dispose of the pretend trash. Comes with an exclusive Blippi figure.

Press the buttons on Joshs guitar to activate the plush Blue, who will dance along to music from the show and wiggle her ears. Press the guitar strings to speed up or slow down Blues dancing.

This set features multiple layers of unboxing with more than 35 surprises, including Color Reveal Barbie and Chelsea dolls, three Color Reveal Pets, a long-haired wig, slumber party accessories, pet accessories, and more.

Assemble this vibrant nano Flash habitat with snap-together track pieces and obstacles. Comes with three newly designed, light-up nano Flash that move at twice the speed, plus four additional nanos.

Kids can dance along with Baby Shark to seven fun songs and popular remixes. Features Dance Detection technology and three game modes to get kids moving, and even helps teach ABCs and 123s.

Transform the PJ Masks Seeker into a 3-foot-tall Headquarters featuring five levels of play, a lights and sounds control board, drop-down ramps, a ground-level exit ramp, and a cage. Includes a Catboy figure and a Cat-Car.

This stealth dojo storage case is filled with martial arts-themed surprises, including six exclusive mystery figures, a ninja star spinner, a foam ninja sword, a headband, and more. Kids can be just like Ninja Ryan with this set.

Touch the top of The Childs head to activate more than 25 sound and motion combinations. Become the interactive creatures protector and pretend to harness the power of the Force as The Child closes its eyes, raises its arms, giggles, and more.

5-7 years

This kid-friendly camera features more than 20 animated backgrounds that set the stage for creative videos. It also includes on-screen editing capabilities and comes with a green screen and a tabletop tripod/selfie stick.

Build a level inspired by the Super Mario video games, then play through the level with the interactive LEGO Mario figure. Collect coins for your best score, then rebuild to create new challenges.

Discover Present Pets, the only gifts that unbox themselves! Unboxing on Oct. 1.

Each of the articulated dolls in the Rainbow High collection Ruby Anderson, Poppy Rowan, Sunny Madison, Jade Hunter, Skyler Bradshaw, and Violet Willow comes with two complete outfits and mix-and-match fashion accessory pieces.

Squeakee is an interactive balloon dog pet that kids can train and feed. Hell listen and respond with more than 60 sounds and movements activated by voice commands and multiple touch sensors.

This 18-inch dolls hair is specially designed with curl power. Kids can wash it with real products and style it in different ways, such as puffs and box braids. Zoe empowers kids to learn to love the hair theyre born with.

8+ years

This customizable Beystadium has four sections for multiple ways to play. Comes with two Beyblade Burst launchers with Hypersphere battling tops that can climb up ramps and drop in from the Brick Plane for head-to-head collisions.

Load the pen with real chocolate, then draw, write, and fill the candy molds. The colorful, edible creations harden in minutes and the included warming tray keeps the chocolate melted.

The first board game adaptation of the classic Pokmon Trading Card Game makes gameplay an easy-to-learn family experience. Two players can battle with the three included 60-card decks, featuring Raichu, Charizard, and Mewtwo.

Build to battle with the largest and most heavily armed Snap Ship. Follow the instructions to create two different crafts using 124 interchangeable pieces, including an action-ready UJU piece. Includes two pilot figures.

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Toy Insider unveils its Hot 20 List of the year's most wished-for toys - FOX43.com

Thin and ultra-fast photodetector sees the full spectrum – Science Codex

Researchers have developed the world's first photodetector that can see all shades of light, in a prototype device that radically shrinks one of the most fundamental elements of modern technology.

Photodetectors work by converting information carried by light into an electrical signal and are used in a wide range of technologies, from gaming consoles to fibre optic communication, medical imaging and motion detectors.Currently photodetectors are unable to sense more than one colour in the one device.

This means they have remained bigger and slower than other technologies, like the silicon chip, that they integrate with.

The new hyper-efficient broadband photodetector developed by researchers at RMIT University is at least 1,000 times thinner than the smallest commercially available photodetector device.

In a significant leap for the technology, the prototype device can also see all shades of light between ultraviolet and near infrared, opening new opportunities to integrate electrical and optical components on the same chip.

*New possibilities*

The breakthrough technology opens the door for improved biomedical imaging, advancing early detection of health issues like cancer.

Study lead author, PhD researcher Vaishnavi Krishnamurthi, said in photodetection technologies, making a material thinner usually came at the expense of performance.

"But we managed to engineer a device that packs a powerful punch, despite being thinner than a nanometre, which is roughly a million times smaller than the width of a pinhead," she said.

As well as shrinking medical imaging equipment, the ultra-thin prototype opens possibilities for more effective motion detectors, low-light imaging and potentially faster fibre optical communication.

"Smaller photodetectors in biomedical imaging equipment could lead to more accurate targeting of cancer cells during radiation therapy," Krishnamurthi said.

"Shrinking the technology could also help deliver smaller, portable medical imaging systems that could be brought into remote areas with ease, compared to the bulky equipment we have today."

*Lighting up the spectrum*

How versatile and useful photodetectors are depends largely on three factors: their operating speed, their sensitivity to lower levels of light and how much of the spectrum they can sense.

Typically, when engineers have tried improving a photodetector's capabilities in one of those areas, at least one of the other capabilities have been diminished.

Current photodetector technology relies on a stacked structure of three to four layers.

Imagine a sandwich, where you have bread, butter, cheese and another layer of bread - regardless of how good you are at squashing that sandwich, it will always be four layers thick, and if you remove a layer, you'd compromise the quality.

The researchers from RMIT's School of Engineering scrapped the stacked model and worked out how to use a nanothin layer - just a single atom thick - on a chip.

Importantly, they did this without diminishing the photodetector's speed, low-light sensitivity or visibility of the spectrum.

The prototype device can interpret light ranging from deep ultraviolet to near infrared wavelengths, making it sensitive to a broader spectrum than a human eye.

And it does this over 10,000 times faster than the blink of an eye.

*Nano-thin technology*

A major challenge for the team was ensuring electronic and optical properties didn't deteriorate when the photodetector was shrunk, a technological bottleneck that had previously prevented miniaturisation of light detection technologies.

Chief investigator Associate Professor Sumeet Walia said the material used, tin monosulfide, is low-cost and naturally abundant, making it attractive for electronics and optoelectronics.

"The material allows the device to be extremely sensitive in low-lighting conditions, making it suitable for low-light photography across a wide light spectrum," he said.

Walia said his team is now looking at industry applications for their photodetector, which can be integrated with existing technologies such as CMOS chips.

"With further development, we could be looking at applications including more effective motion detection in security cameras at night and faster, more efficient data storage", he said.

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Thin and ultra-fast photodetector sees the full spectrum - Science Codex

DiOX carbon free DWR and anti-viral treatments launch in Turkey – Innovation in Textiles

18th September 2020, London

DiOX, part of Liquid-Nano, a global company which develops protective coatings using emerging nanotechnologies, has produced high performance fabric coatings which offer water and oil repellency as well as anti-viral properties. Diox entire product portfolio is now being made available through Kem-Color, in Istanbul, Turkey.

The coatings include a flagship DiOX D1, a carbon free (C) DWR coating which has been independently tested to AATCC22 giving exemplary water repellent performance up to 40 washes, DiOX says. The nano-scale Silica Dioxide technology has been developed to be applied as a finishing chemical either through pad or spray and DiOX has worked with both mills and machinery manufacturers to ensure simple and easy implementation.

DiOX D4 is a QUATS based anti-viral coating that is one of the few treatments that has been independently tested against mammalian coronavirus, which is the closest surrogate to SARS-COVID available, DiOX adds. Tests carried out by Cambridge Universitys department of chemical engineering and biotechnology have shown that D4 reduces surface virons by 97% within an hour and 99.99% in four hours and continues to be effective up to 20 washes.

DiOX D4 is already being applied to LiquidNano masks by Akbaslar in Bursa, Turkey.

Dr. Graham Christie, senior lecturer at Cambridge Universitys department of chemical engineering and biotechnology oversaw the tests of DiOX D4 and commented: We followed the industry standard testing for viruses on material (ISO18184:19) but made some critical adaptations to give it a more real-world relevance. This included conducting splash tests with the inoculum to mimic sneezing to ensure the tests were as rigorous as possible. We also used a mammalian Coronavirus as the inoculum, although we expect this material will be effective against many viruses, it is this class of viruses that the world is obviously watching right now.

D4 is also effective against the usual array of bacteria, fungus and mildew making it not only an ideal treatment for apparel fabric but also wider textiles being used in upholstery, carpets and mattresses, explains DiOX.

Commenting on the deal, Kem-Colour GM, Cengiz Kahraman said: The DiOX product portfolio fits in very well with our current range of finishing chemicals and dyes. There is no doubt the demand for the products in the DiOX range is significant, and brands are in dire need of proven anti-viral and carbon free DWR so were looking forward to a very busy time and were ready to go now.

DiOX is now ready for testing by mills, and independent test results from accredited labs and academic intuitions are all available, the company sayss. Working with some mills and machinery manufacturers, DiOX is also building a comprehensive library of performance across its products with a number of fabrics and substrates.

Dave Evans, DiOX lead said: Behind every overnight success is always a lot of hard work and perseverance, which sums up the last 12 months with DiOX. We are market ready with a commercially compelling portfolio of products which are all based on four main pillars. EPIC stands for Environmental, Performance, Implementation and Cost and in each of these elements we aim to be best-in-class.

We are really pleased to form what I am sure will be a highly successful collaboration with Kem-Color and we are on the hunt for territory-exclusive partnerships that can bring DiOX to market.

http://www.liquidnano.com

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DiOX carbon free DWR and anti-viral treatments launch in Turkey - Innovation in Textiles

New Thin and Ultra-Fast Photodetector can See the Full Spectrum of Light – AZoOptics.com

Written by AZoOpticsSep 23 2020

Scientists have created the worlds first photodetector that can visualize all shades of light, in a prototype device that profoundly shrinks one of the most underlying elements of contemporary technology.

The function of photodetectors is to convert data carried by light into an electrical signal. They are used in a broad range of technologies, right from medical imaging to gaming consoles, fiber optic communication, and motion detectors.

At present, photodetectors are incapable of sensing more than one color in a single device. This means they have continued to remain slower and bigger than other technologies, similar to the silicon chip, that they combine with.

The new highly-efficient broadband photodetector built by RMIT University scientists is at least 1,000 times thinner than the smallest photodetector device available in the market.

In a major leap for the technology, the prototype device is also capable of seeing all shades of light between near-infrared and ultraviolet, paving the way for new opportunities to incorporate optical and electrical components on the same chip.

The innovative technology also paves the way for better biomedical imaging, improving early detection of health problems like cancer.

According to Vaishnavi Krishnamurthi, the studys lead author and Ph.D. researcher, in photodetection technologies, creating a thinner material would mean compromising on performance.

But we managed to engineer a device that packs a powerful punch, despite being thinner than a nanometre, which is roughly a million times smaller than the width of a pinhead.

Vaishnavi Krishnamurthi, Study Lead Author and PhD Researcher, RMIT University

In addition to reducing the size of medical imaging equipment, the ultra-thin prototype opens the door for low-light imaging, more effective motion detectors, and possibly faster fiber optical communication.

Smaller photodetectors in biomedical imaging equipment could lead to more accurate targeting of cancer cells during radiation therapy. Shrinking the technology could also help deliver smaller, portable medical imaging systems that could be brought into remote areas with ease, compared to the bulky equipment we have today.

Vaishnavi Krishnamurthi, Study Lead Author and PhD Researcher, RMIT University

The level of usefulness and versatility of photodetectors are largely dependent on three factors:their sensitivity to lower levels of light, their running speed, and the amount of the spectrum that can be detected by them.

Normally, when engineers have attempted to enhance the capabilities of a photodetector in one of those areas, at least one of the other features has been reduced. Existing photodetector technology depends on a stacked structure of three to four layers.

Individuals can visualize a sandwich made with bread, cheese, butter, and another layer of breadand irrespective of how good they are at squashing it, the sandwich will invariably have the same thickness of four layers, and if a layer is removed, the quality would be compromised.

The team from RMIT Universitys School of Engineering rejected the stacked model and explored how to use a nano thin layer (only a single atom thick) on a chip.

Most significantly, they did this without reducing the photodetectors speed, visibility, or low-light sensitivity of the spectrum.

The prototype device can deduce light ranging from deep ultraviolet to near-infrared wavelengths, rendering it sensitive to a wider spectrum than a human eye.

And it does this more than 10,000 times faster than the blink of an eye.

A huge challenge for the researchers was to make sure that optical and electronic properties did not decline when the size of the photodetector was reduceda technological bottleneck that had formerly inhibited the miniaturization of light detection technologies.

Professor Sumeet Walia, chief investigator and Associate explained that the material usedtin monosulfideis economical and naturally abundant, making it advantageous for optoelectronics and electronics.

The material allows the device to be extremely sensitive in low-lighting conditions, making it suitable for low-light photography across a wide light spectrum.

Sumeet Walia, Chief Investigator and Associate Professor, RMIT University

Walia added that his team is currently exploring industry applications for their photodetector, which can be combined with present-day technologies, like CMOS chips.

With further development, we could be looking at applications including more effective motion detection in security cameras at night and faster, more efficient data storage, Walia concluded.

Krishnamurthi, V., et al. (2020) Liquid-metal synthesized ultra-thin SnS layers for high-performance broadband photodetectors. Advanced Materials. doi.org/10.1002/adma.202004247.

Source: https://www.rmit.edu.au

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New Thin and Ultra-Fast Photodetector can See the Full Spectrum of Light - AZoOptics.com

French Exotrail signs two contracts with ESA and stays on track for its electric propulsion mission – SpaceWatch.Global

Image: Exotrail

Luxembourg, 16 September 2020. The French space start-up Exotrail continues its steady development in a challenging environment and has signed two nano- and micro-satellite contracts with the European Space Agency (ESA), the companies cofounder and CEO David Henri said on Wednesday at the Luxembourg Space Forum.

Exotrail will build and deliver engineering, qualification, and flight models of its nano- and micro-electric propulsion systems called ExoMG-nano and ExoMG-micro, the company said.

The first contract follows a General Support Technology Programme (GSTP) under which Exotrail has been supported by the French space agency CNES and will accelerate the qualification and flight demonstration of ExoMG-micro. The second contract follows a standard competitive procurement process from ESA and will enable Exotrail to test and deliver an electric propulsion system in 2021.

Exotrail develops flexible and modular solutions for on-orbit transportation, including electric propulsion, mission optimisation and operation solutions for small satellites, Henri said in an interview at the ICT Spring Europe Space Forum in Luxembourg. The contracts will allow us to develop new features on both products ready to be demonstrated in space.

We have signed a row of contracts with enterprises and institutions in the admittedly difficult first half of the year; this puts us in a position to reach our business plan objectives and allowed us to secure a second funding round in difficult times.

Exotrail employs 30 people in Massy, France, where it works on propulsion systems, and in Toulouse, France, where it develops mission software, Henri said. Exotrail has raised to date more than 17 million of funding, out of which11 million were secured this year.

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French Exotrail signs two contracts with ESA and stays on track for its electric propulsion mission - SpaceWatch.Global

Kanazawa University research: Potential drug treatment for particular type of lung-cancer – PRNewswire

KANAZAWA, Japan, Sept. 16, 2020 /PRNewswire/ -- Researchers at Kanazawa University report in Nature Communications the mechanism making some lung-cancer patients resistant to the drug osimertinib. In addition, they suggest a combined drug treatment resolving osimertinib resistance in the case of cancer cells expressing low amounts of AXL, a protein belonging to the class of receptor tyrosine kinases.

The effectiveness of cancer treatment is often hampered by cancer cells being heterogeneous. This is the case for EGFR-mutated lung cancer: drugs based on biomolecules of a type known as tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) have been used to treat the disease, but with various levels of efficacy. (EGFR stands for "epidermal growth factor receptor", a protein playing an important role in signaling processes from the extracellular environment to a cell.) Sometimes, tumor cells are simply resistant to the drug. Now, Seiji Yano from Kanazawa University and colleagues have investigated the efficacy of the TKI osimertinib for treating EGFR-mutated lung cancer, and how it relates to the expression in tumor cells of a particular protein called AXL. They found that both AXL-high and -low expressing tumor cells showed tolerance (acquired resistance) to osimertinib, but that the mechanisms involved are different for the two situations. Moreover, the researchers suggest a way to enhance the success of osimertinib treatment for the case of AXL-low expressing tumors.

First, the scientists compared the susceptibility to osimertinib in both AXL-high and -low expressing tumor cells in in vitro experiments. They observed that osimertinib inhibited the viability of the cancer cells in both cases, but that the sensitivity to the drug was higher for AXL-low expressing EGFR-mutated lung cancer cells.They also noticed that a small number of tumor cells survived the procedure an indication of osimertinib tolerance.These findings were consistent with results from the clinical study of the drug performed earlier on 29 patients with EGFR-mutated non-small cell lung cancer.

Through experiments aiming to understand the mechanism behind osimertinib tolerance, Yano and colleagues discovered that phosphorylation of IGF-1R was increased in AXL-low-expressing tumor cell lines, but not in AXL-high expressing tumors. (IGF-1R stands for 'insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor'; it is a protein located on the surface of human cells. Phosphorylation is the chemical process of adding a phosphoryl group.) The researchers then found that phosphorylated IGF-1R supported the survival of AXL-low expressing tumors after exposure to osimertinib.

The scientists then tested whether the observed osimertinib resistance could be resolved by administering linsitinib, a substance known to inhibit the phosphorylation of IGF-1R. Encouraged by the positive outcome of the experiment, Yano and colleagues went further and evaluated the combination of osimertinib and linsitinib. Their conclusion was that the transient combination of linsitinib with continuous osimertinib treatment could cure or at least dramatically delay tumor recurrence in AXL-low-expressing EGFR-mutated lung cancer. More investigating needs to be done, though. Quoting the researchers: " the safety and efficacy of the transient combination of IGF-1R inhibitor and osimertinib should be evaluated in the clinical trials."

Background

Tyrosine kinase inhibitors

A tyrosine kinase inhibitor is a drug inhibiting (that is, preventing or reducing the activity of) a specific tyrosine kinase. A tyrosine kinase is a protein (enzyme) involved in the activation of other proteins by signaling cascades. The activation happens by the addition of a phosphate group to the protein (phosphorylation); it is this step that a tyrosine kinase inhibitor inhibits. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors are used as anticancer drugs. One such drug is osimertinib, used to treat EGFR-mutated lung cancer.

AXL

AXL is a receptor tyrosine kinase a tyrosine kinase consisting of an extracellular part, a transmembrane part ('sitting' within a cell membrane) and an intracellular part. AXL regulates various important cellular processes, including proliferation, survival and motility.

In recent years, it has become clear that AXL is a key facilitator of drug tolerance by cancer cells. Seiji Yano from Kanazawa University and colleagues have found that this is also the case for EGFR-mutated lung cancer. While a high expression of AXL correlates with resistance to osimertinib, such tolerance also occurs in AXL-low-expressing cancer cells. Yano and colleagues have now found that for the latter case, phosphorylation of IGF-1R (insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor) is responsible for the resistance to osimertinib.

Reference

Rong Wang, Tadaaki Yamada, Kenji Kita, Hirokazu Taniguchi, Sachiko Arai, Koji Fukuda, Minoru Terashima, Akihiko Ishimura, Akihiro Nishiyama, Azusa Tanimoto, Shinji Takeuchi, Koshiro Ohtsubo, Kaname Yamashita, Tomoyoshi Yamano, Akihiro Yoshimura, Koichi Takayama, Kyoichi Kaira, Yoshihiko Taniguchi, Shinji Atagi, Hisanori Uehara, Rikinari Hanayama, Isao Matsumoto, Xujun Han, Kunio Matsumoto, Wei Wang, Takeshi Suzuki, and Seiji Yano. Transient IGF-1R inhibition combined with osimertinib eradicates AXL-low expressing EGFR mutated lung cancer, Nature Communications 11, XX(2020).

DOI: 10.1038/s41467-020-18442-4

URL: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-18442-4

Link to figure https://nanolsi.kanazawa-u.ac.jp/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/Figure-768x567.png

Figure CaptionMechanism of targeted drugs tolerance in lung cancer cells

Further information

About WPI NanoLSI Kanazawa University Hiroe YonedaVice Director of Public AffairsWPI Nano Life Science Institute (WPI-NanoLSI)Kanazawa UniversityKakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192, JapanEmail: [emailprotected]Tel: +81 (76) 234-4550

About Nano Life Science Institute (WPI-NanoLSI) https://nanolsi.kanazawa-u.ac.jp/en/

Nano Life Science Institute (NanoLSI), Kanazawa University is a research center established in 2017 as part of the World Premier International Research Center Initiative of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. The objective of this initiative is to form world-tier research centers. NanoLSI combines the foremost knowledge of bio-scanning probe microscopy to establish 'nano-endoscopic techniques' to directly image, analyze, and manipulate biomolecules for insights into mechanisms governing life phenomena such as diseases.

About Kanazawa Universityhttp://www.kanazawa-u.ac.jp/e/

As the leading comprehensive university on the Sea of Japan coast, Kanazawa University has contributed greatly to higher education and academic research in Japan since it was founded in 1949. The University has three colleges and 17 schools offering courses in subjects that include medicine, computer engineering, and humanities.

The University is located on the coast of the Sea of Japan in Kanazawa a city rich in history and culture. The city of Kanazawa has a highly respected intellectual profile since the time of the fiefdom (1598-1867). Kanazawa University is divided into two main campuses: Kakuma and Takaramachi for its approximately 10,200 students including 600 from overseas.

SOURCE Kanazawa University

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Kanazawa University research: Potential drug treatment for particular type of lung-cancer - PRNewswire

Could Tattoo Ink Be Used to Detect Cancer? – Smithsonian Magazine

When amateur artist Cristina Zavaleta signed up to take an illustration class with Pixar animators on character design, she had no idea shed also be embarking on a new scientific study. At the time, Zavaletas work as a post-doctoral biomedical researcher in a molecular imaging lab at Stanford involved evaluating contrasting agents, like dyes, used to detect tumors in animals. During her art class, the researcher was struck by the intensity of the colors of gouache, vibrant water-based paints, that her fellow illustrators were using. They were bringing back these pieces that were just incredible, really rich colors. And I thought, how do you even achieve that color, visually, says Zavaleta.

That simple question ultimately led Zavaleta, now an assistant professor of biomedical engineering at the University of Southern California, and her colleagues to create a first-of-its-kind library detailing the optical imaging properties of commonly used pigments and dyes, found in everything from tattoos to food coloring. The researchers hope their study will open the doors for the novel use of everyday colorants as imaging agents in medical tests, that may be more effective at early detection of several kinds of cancers.

Currently, only three dyes with fluorescent properties used as optical imaging contrast agentsmethylene blue, indocyanine green and fluoresceinare approved for human use by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In diagnostic medicine and in some surgical procedures, imaging contrast agents are materials used to improve internal body pictures produced by X-rays, computed tomography (CT) scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and ultrasounds. These materials can be ingested or injected and temporarily color targeted parts of the body, like specific cells, organs, blood vessels and tissues, to help clinicians see differences and abnormalities that may indicate disease. Yet, Zavaleta wondered about the significant catalogue of approved food, drug and cosmetic dyes that people routinely encounter in their everyday lives. Are there other imaging agents hiding in plain sight?

As my art brain was thinking about these paints [from class], I thought to myself, what paints are already being used in humans? says Zavaleta. And a lightbulb went off.

Tattoos. High quality pigments used in tattooing are made from mineral salts and metal chelates, which have been isolated from natural sources and used by humans for thousands of years.

Zavaletas next step was to do her homework, as any good researcher would. She contacted Adam Sky, a tattoo artist in the Bay Area whose work she admired. Sky was interested in her research, and gave her samples of some of the inks he was using, which Zavaleta collected in a well plate, a tray with multiple divots, or wells, that can be used as test tubes, shed brought along, just in case.

I immediately took them to my microscope over at Stanford, and I did all these different tests on them, Zavaleta says. I was amazed at what I was seeing.

She measured two optical elements of the inks, their fluorescence properties and Raman properties. Fluorescence relates to a dye or pigments capacity for absorption and emission of light, while Raman indicates how light scatters. Both are commonly used in imaging techniques in the cancer field. Highly fluorescent agents offer sensitivity in imaging; very small amounts are needed for them to illuminate areas very brightly. Raman imaging, on the other hand, offers specificity by allowing multiplexing, or the ability to look at several processes happening inside the human body at once. These can help show whether cells or tissues are expressing multiple genes, for example, or expressing one more highly that may be associated with a particular cancer, like HER2 and breast cancer or EGFR with lung cancer. Each of the targets has different receptors that will be illuminated by different agents, and depending on their optical properties, some agents will be better than others.

In all, the researchers evaluated the optical properties of 30 approved food, drug and cosmetic coloring dyes and tattoo ink pigments using a spectrophotometer, an instrument that measures the intensity of light after it passes through a sample solution. Seven of the colorants displayed fluorescence properties that were comparable to or exceeded the three FDA-approved clinical dyes. The researchers next measured the Raman signatures, to see how high the colors unique signatures of light photon peaks were, with high peaks being indicative of usefulness in terms of multiplexing. Finally, they tested the best-performing dyes and pigments by injecting them as imaging agents in mice with cancerous tumors.

Data from Zavaleta and her colleagues study showed that FDA-approved Green 8 dyes used in drugs and cosmetics have significant tumor targeting potential in mice with cervical and colon tumors, and the Orange 16 pigment found in tattoo inks also showed, according to the authors, promising fluorescent properties and tumor targeting potential. This is significant because, as they note in the study, no single imaging modality currently meets all the clinical needs of high sensitivity, high spatial and temporal resolution, high multiplexing capacity, high depth of penetration, low cost, and high throughput. In other words, no single imaging agent can provide all the information a doctor might need.

The USC lab where Zavaleta and her colleagues conducted the research uses nano-based imaging contrast agents, or tiny spherical vesicles that are loaded with the dyes or pigments. While nano-based agents are approved for use as a medium in human imaging, they have been controversial in the past because of potential toxicity. Metallic-based nanoparticles like those made from gold and silver have been known to stay inside the body for long periods of time after exposure. This is one of the main reasons the team instead uses liposomal nanoparticles, made up of biodegradable materials with fatty skins similar to human body cells, that are already used in other applications, like drug and nutrient delivery.

You can think of it as us having all these different batches of nanoparticles, and one has a different tattoo ink [or other dye or pigment] inside of it. And that tattoo ink has a very special barcode thats associated with it; every ink has a unique fingerprint, yellow different from red, red different from purple, Zavaleta explains. So, if we have all these different flavors of nanoparticles that we can now target to different receptors on tumors, we can enhance our ability to distinguish between different [cancers].

One use for such materials could be gathering real-time information during a test, such as a colonoscopy, where physicians are visually searching for certain kinds of polyps. Enhanced imaging agents have the potential to also reduce the invasiveness of disease detection and diagnosis, such as the number and size of biopsies needed, by providing more information from a smaller sample.

Christian Kurtis, who made the career change from biomedical researcher at the National Institutes of Health to tattoo artist in Rockville, Maryland, spent his post-doctoral period in a cancer research lab at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences. Kurtis says the specificity these kinds of dyes could offer for imaging is key to better treatment.

The unfortunate problem with malignant [tumors] is that they comprise a [variety] of molecular markers that may not be present on all cell types. The increased metabolic activity of malignancy is the signature most commonly exploited in imaging, and is the reason these liposomal techniques are effective, says Kurtis. In other words, because cancer cells tend to spread quickly, researchers and physicians are able to track their growth with imaging. Having multiple types of agents that bind to the different markers would be even more helpful. In my opinion, it will be personalized or individualized medicine that will hold the key to meaningful early diagnosis of disease, he adds.

Jocelyn Rapelyea, the associate director of breast imaging and the program director of the radiology residency program at the George Washington University Cancer Center, adds that while tools like molecular breast imaging have been around for a while and help to identify problematic cells before they grow into lumps, advancing knowledge is always a positive. What works well for one patient may not for another.

Its always exciting to have the ability to be able to identify tumors at a potentially early stage. It's quite interesting how [Zavaleta] came to dyes, Rapelyea says. This is obviously a model in mice at this point, but it is promising to see that there could be potential of being able to identify earlier development.

Zavaleta knows the dyes and pigments her team has catalogued in a library will be subject to the FDAs rigorous regulatory procedures before they could ever be used as imaging agents in humans. We're not suggesting in any way that theyre safe, she says. Were saying, Hey, these are dyes that were continuously being exposed to on a day-to-day basis. Lets have a look at them further.

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Could Tattoo Ink Be Used to Detect Cancer? - Smithsonian Magazine

Simulation Software Market Key Drivers, Business Insights, Trends And Forecast 2026 Altair Engineering, Inc., Bentley Systems, Ansys, Inc, Ptc – The…

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Simulation Software Market Key Drivers, Business Insights, Trends And Forecast 2026 Altair Engineering, Inc., Bentley Systems, Ansys, Inc, Ptc - The...