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Here’s how to Watch NASA’s InSight Rover Land on Mars

NASA's InSight rover will land on Mars one way or another on Monday. Here's how you can tune in and watch how it goes down.

Welcome Wagon

NASA’s newest rover, InSight, is set to land on the surface of Mars around 11:00 AM PST on Monday. And in spite of NASA’s spotty track record with Mars landings, experts expect for InSight to touch down and get to work on several years’ worth of scheduled scientific research.

We at Futurism will be watching NASA’s live stream of the event, and you can do the same below. The actual landing will happen shortly after this article goes live, but it will still take three hours after the landing for NASA scientists to confirm that the rover is fully operational.

New Kid on the Block

Recently, we’ve mourned NASA’s Curiosity rover, which spent 14 years exploring the red planet before finally crapping out in October. Then there’s the Kepler Space Telescope, which ran out of fuel and was decommissioned last month.

While we deeply miss these lost scientific instruments, InSight could usher in a new era of Mars exploration and research, probing beneath the planet’s surface and letting us learn more about our planetary neighbor than we ever could — if it survives the perilous landing.

We’ll be watching with our fingers crossed, hoping that it goes well.

Read more: NASA Live: Official Stream of NASA TV [YouTube]

More on InSight: We’ve Seen Less Than One Percent of Mars. NASA’s New Lander Is Going To Change That.

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Here’s how to Watch NASA’s InSight Rover Land on Mars

Scientists Want to Fight Climate Change by Dimming the Sun

To halt climate change, some scientists suggest geoengineering our own planet by releasing particles into the stratosphere that will deflect sunlight.

Sum of the Particles

The long-term outlook on climate change is bleak. Last month, a United Nations report found that the international community’s current efforts are unlikely to stave off catastrophic global fallout.

That gloomy consensus is driving some researchers to investigate moonshot solutions, including an idea so extreme that it has divided scientific community: geoengineering our own planet by releasing particles into the stratosphere that will deflect sunlight and prevent future warming.

Backup Plan

A new study by researchers from Harvard and Yale, published Friday in the journal Environmental Research Letters, found that building a fleet of high-altitude planes to release sunlight-blocking particles could cost just $2 or $3 billion per year — a drop in the bucket compared to the tens of trillions of dollars in climate-related damages the UN report predicted.

The report’s authors found that the effort could be pulled off by about 100 specially-designed aircraft, which would eventually make a total of about 60,000 flights per year. That’s not an enormous program, they wrote, but it is substantial enough that a rogue nation wouldn’t be able to pull off something comparable in secret.

Risky Business

Many scientists oppose geoengineering. They argue that it could have unintended consequences and that it treats the symptoms of climate changes instead of the causes.

But other researchers say it’s imperative to investigate the effects of programs like the sunlight-blocking particles before governments start their own geoengineering programs to fight climate change.

“Unfortunately, climate change is dire enough for us to have to consider drastic action,” University of Bristol Earth scientist Matthew Watson, who was not an author of the paper, told The Guardian. “Some argue against researching these ideas but personally I think that is a mistake. There may come a time, in a future not so far away, where it would be immoral not to intervene.”

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Scientists Want to Fight Climate Change by Dimming the Sun

Self-Driving Trucks Will Transport Limestone in a Norwegian Mine

Rock Carriers

An often-overlooked use for autonomous driving technology is in industrial applications, where raw materials have to be shipped from point A to point B.

In what automaker Volvo calls its “first commercial autonomous solution transporting limestone from an open pit mine to a nearby port,” six existing autonomous trucks will be upgraded with sophisticated tech, allowing them to deliver raw limestone to a crusher three miles away without any human interaction.

Enemy Mine

If anything does go wrong, it will be up to Volvo fix it — in fact, Volvo claims full responsibility of the transportation of goods. Otherwise it won’t get paid.

One big advantage: higher efficiency, as the self-driving trucks can operate during the day and night.

Truck Drivers

That also means fewer truck drivers on the payroll. We have yet to find out the effects of that shift on the economy. But it’s a trend that’s here to say — more and more driverless commercial trucks are planning to hit the road in the very near future, developed by autonomous driving juggernauts like Waymo.

Volvo’s mine trucks bring us yet another step closer to a future where pretty much any vehicle — self-driving taxis, and industrial trucks alike — can take care of driving without the intervention of humans.

READ MORE: Volvo’s self-driving trucks will haul limestone from a mine [Engadget]

More on autonomous trucks: Uber’s Autonomous Trucks Still Need a Human Touch

The post Self-Driving Trucks Will Transport Limestone in a Norwegian Mine appeared first on Futurism.

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Self-Driving Trucks Will Transport Limestone in a Norwegian Mine

The World Reacts to the Success of NASA’s InSight Mars Lander

The successful landing of NASA's InSight probe on Mars set the internet ablaze Monday afternoon. Here's what the world had to say about the mission.

Final Destination

A six-month-long journey that could shape the future of humanity reached its nail-biting conclusion today.

On May 5th, NASA launched its InSight Mars lander from California’s Vanderberg Air Force Base. On Monday afternoon, following “seven minutes of terror,” the craft reached its final destination — Elysium Planitia, a flat plain near the Red Planet’s equator — where it will now spend the next two years conducting scientific research focused on the planet’s interior.

Everybody’s Talking

InSight’s efforts have the potential to teach us valuable information about the formation of rocky planets in our solar system. They could also inform our plans to one day visit, and perhaps colonize, the Red Planet.

No surprise, then, that the success of the landing set the internet ablaze. Here’s what notable experts, organizations, and politicians had to say about InSight’s triumphant touchdown.

Image Credit: Twitter
Image Credit: Twitter
Image Credit: Twitter
Image Credit: Twitter
Image Credit: Twitter
Image Credit: Twitter
Image Credit: Twitter

There's something in my eye. #MarsLanding

— Adam Savage (@donttrythis) November 26, 2018

READ MORE: Video Shows What Should Happen During the InSight Mars Landing Today [Inverse]

More on InSight: Breaking: NASA’s InSight Lander Just Landed on Mars

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The World Reacts to the Success of NASA’s InSight Mars Lander

Breaking: NASA’s InSight Lander Just Landed on Mars

Mission Accomplished

It took six and a half long months of space travel to reach the Martian surface, but NASA’s InSight Mars Lander has finally made it.

The robotic lander had to cover some 300 million miles (483 million km) to get there after it was launched aboard an Atlas V rocket from the Vandenberg Air Force Base in California on May 5.

A Treacherous Journey

We don’t have to tell you that landing on the Red Planet is not an easy feat: in fact, as Space.com points out, half of all Mars missions have failed to arrive safely in the past.

It’s a treacherous landing. InSight reached a breakneck speed of 12,000 miles per hour before slowing to just five miles per hour as it touched down with the help of a supersonic parachute and an array of small thrusters.

Destination: the Elysium Planitia plain — a large, mostly flat surface that straddles the equator, close to some of the largest volcanic regions on Mars.

Pulse of the Planet

The InSight team is planning to glean data about Mars’ ancient history. To do so, it’s outfitted with:

  • seismometer to map the Martian interior (and activity)
  • heat probe that will measure the heat coming from deep below the Martian surface
  • A special radio will try to glean how much Mars wobbles on its own axis as it orbits the sun

And Now We Wait

There’s still one more big hurdle to overcome: the lander has yet to unfurl its solar panel array to power the instruments on board. We’re expecting to know if the lander did so successfully in a few hours.

Then we’ll have to wait until InSight actually deploys all its instruments — and finally starts sending some long-awaited data back to Earth.

READ MORE: NASA’s InSight Mars Lander Reaches Mars Today! Here’s What to Expect [Space.com]

More on the InSight lander: NASA’s InSight Mars Lander to Investigate Inside the Red Planet

The post Breaking: NASA’s InSight Lander Just Landed on Mars appeared first on Futurism.

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Breaking: NASA’s InSight Lander Just Landed on Mars

Home | The Aerospace Corporation

Advanced Technology. Objective Analysis. Innovative Solutions.

As an independent, nonprofit corporation operating the only federally funded research and development center for the space enterprise, The Aerospace Corporation performs objective technical analyses and assessments for a variety of government, civil, and commercial customers. With more than five decades of experience, Aerospace provides leadership and support in all fields and disciplines of research, design, development, acquisition, operations, and program management.

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Dublin Aerospace Careers

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For more information on the job and to apply for the position, please click on the job that interests you.

We currently have requirements for the following contractors:

If you are interested in the above please contact Irish Aviation Solutions for more information.

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North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD)

U.S. Air Force Gen. Terrence J. OShaughnessy receives the North American Aerospace Defense Commands flag from the Canadian Armed Forces Chief of the Defence Staff, Gen. J.H. Vance, signifying his acceptance of command, May 24, 2018 on Peterson U.S. Air Force Base, Colorado OShaughnessy is the 25th NORAD commander. (DoD Photo by N&NC Public Affairs)

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North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD)

AsMA | Aerospace Medical Association

AsMA | Aerospace Medical Association

This website uses cookies to ensure the best possible web experience. By continuing and using the site, you consent to the use of cookies. If you wish to disable them or to learn more about how we use cookies, please view our Cookies Policy. Got it!

Learn about the history and mission of Aerospace Medicine by watching the professionals making it happen!

Military aviation operations present numerous unique Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance issues. Sustained acceleration, fatigue, orientation problems, and attention management issues are just a few.

Commercial aviation presents Aerospace Medicine problems for the aircrew, ground support crews, and the passengers they serve.

General aviation aircraft present unique Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance problems. Human Performance factors continue to be leading causes of General Aviation mishaps.

The ability for humans to perform under extreme environmental conditions poses challenging problems for Aerospace Medicine professionals. Altitude, thermal issues, fatigue, acceleration, and numerous other environmental stressors must be appropriately managed to ensure optimized human performance. Managing the mission environment through technology requires a process of human-centered design and acquisition known as Human Systems Integration.

Human participation in space operations presents some of the most interesting and challenging Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance problems. Microgravity, bone density and muscle atrophy issues, radiation exposure, and thermal stressors are just some of the space medicine problems.

AsMA is a scientific forum providing a setting for many different disciplines to come together and share their expertise for the benefit of all persons involved in air and space travel. The Association has provided its expertise to a multitude of Federal and international agencies on a broad range of issues, including aviation and space medical standards, the aging pilot, and physiological stresses of flight. AsMA’s membership includes aerospace medicine specialists, flight nurses, physiologists, psychologists, human factors specialists, physician assistants, and researchers in this field. Most are with industry, civil aviation regulatory agencies, departments of defense and military services, the airlines, space programs, and universities.

Approximately 30% of the membershiporiginate from outside the United States.

Through the efforts of the AsMA members, safety in flight and man’s overall adaptation to adverse environments have been more nearly achieved.

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Lifestyle Diseases conference, Lifestyle Diseases workshop, Global Lifestyle Diseases Conference, Lifestyle Diseases symposium, Lifestyle Diseases congress, Lifestyle Diseases meeting, Lifestyle Di…Read More

The peer-reviewed monthly journal provides contact with physicians, life scientists, bioengineers, and medical specialists working in both basic medical research and in its clinical applications…

AsMAs staff were deeply saddened to hear of the death of L. Edward Antosek, M.D.

The AsMA Global Connection Story with IAASMRoland Vermeiren, M.D., FAsMA

Allen Parmet, M.D., M.P.H., a Fellow of the Aerospace Medical Association, was recently deployed to Florida to respond to Hurricane Michael.

James T. Webb, Ph.D., was recognized by Congressman Dan Newhouse for having received the Louis H. Bauer Founders Award.

AsMA was saddened to hear of the death of David P. Millett, M.D., M.P.H.

The Translational Research Institute for Space Health (TRISH) is offering several funding opportunities:

Call for 2019 TRISH Postdoctoral Fellowships Now open!Read more

The American Board of Preventive Medicine Responds to its Diplomates preference by Establishing an Annual Maintenance of Certification Fee for those Diplomates Certified in the Specialties o…Read more

More Announcements

The Aerospace Medical Association offers free information publications for passengers preparing for commercial airline travel. We also offer more detailed medical guidelines for physicians that can be used to advise patients with preexisting illness planning to travel by air.

What is a sanitary airport?

a.An airport provided with public rest rooms and pure drinking water.b.An international airport designated as sanitary by the World Health Organization (WHO).c.An airport to which the local health authorities can direct foreign aircraft, arriving from areas of the world where vector-borne infectious diseases are known to exist, so that appropriate public health measures can be implemented (isolation of passengers, disinsecting of aircraft, etc.).d.An airport of entry and departure for international traffic, designated as sanitary by the local health administration, where the formalities for public health, animal and plant quarantine and similar procedures are carried out; which is provided with pure drinking water and wholesome food; which is provided with an effective system for disposal of excrement, refuse, waste water, etc., and which has at its disposal an organized medical service, facilities for isolation and care of infected persons, facilities for efficient disinfection and disinsecting, access to a bacteriological laboratory, and facilities for vaccination against yellow fever.e.An airport free of Aedes aegypti and the mosquito-vectors of malaria and where active anti-mosquito measures are maintained within a distance of at least 400 meters around the perimeter.

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Aerospace – Wikipedia

Aerospace is the human effort in science, engineering and business to fly in the atmosphere of Earth (aeronautics) and surrounding space (astronautics). Aerospace organizations research, design, manufacture, operate, or maintain aircraft or spacecraft. Aerospace activity is very diverse, with a multitude of commercial, industrial and military applications.

Aerospace is not the same as airspace, which is the physical air space directly above a location on the ground. The beginning of space and the ending of the air is considered as 100km above the ground according to the physical explanation that the air pressure is too low for a lifting body to generate meaningful lift force without exceeding orbital velocity.[1]

In most industrial countries, the aerospace industry is a cooperation of public and private industries. For example, several countries have a civilian space program funded by the government through tax collection, such as National Aeronautics and Space Administration in the United States, European Space Agency in Europe, the Canadian Space Agency in Canada, Indian Space Research Organisation in India, Japanese Aeronautics Exploration Agency in Japan, RKA in Russia, China National Space Administration in China, SUPARCO in Pakistan, Iranian Space Agency in Iran, and Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) in South Korea.

Along with these public space programs, many companies produce technical tools and components such as spaceships and satellites. Some known companies involved in space programs include Boeing, Airbus, SpaceX, Lockheed Martin, MacDonald Dettwiler and Northrop Grumman. These companies are also involved in other areas of aerospace such as the construction of aircraft.

Modern aerospace began with Engineer George Cayley in 1799. Cayley proposed an aircraft with a “fixed wing and a horizontal and vertical tail,” defining characteristics of the modern airplane.[2]

The 19th century saw the creation of the Aeronautical Society of Great Britain (1866), the American Rocketry Society, and the Institute of Aeronautical Sciences, all of which made aeronautics a more serious scientific discipline.[2] Airmen like Otto Lilienthal, who introduced cambered airfoils in 1891, used gliders to analyze aerodynamic forces.[2] The Wright brothers were interested in Lilienthal’s work and read several of his publications.[2] They also found inspiration in Octave Chanute, an airman and the author of Progress in Flying Machines (1894).[2] It was the preliminary work of Cayley, Lilienthal, Chanute, and other early aerospace engineers that brought about the first powered sustained flight at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina on December 17, 1903, by the Wright brothers.

War and science fiction inspired great minds like Konstantin Tsiolkovsky and Wernher von Braun to achieve flight beyond the atmosphere.

The launch of Sputnik 1 in October 1957 started the Space Age, and on July 20, 1969 Apollo 11 achieved the first manned moon landing.[2] In April 1981, the Space Shuttle Columbia launched, the start of regular manned access to orbital space. A sustained human presence in orbital space started with “Mir” in 1986 and is continued by the “International Space Station”.[2] Space commercialization and space tourism are more recent focuses in aerospace.

Aerospace manufacturing is a high-technology industry that produces “aircraft, guided missiles, space vehicles, aircraft engines, propulsion units, and related parts”.[3] Most of the industry is geared toward governmental work. For each original equipment manufacturer (OEM), the US government has assigned a Commercial and Government Entity (CAGE) code. These codes help to identify each manufacturer, repair facilities, and other critical aftermarket vendors in the aerospace industry.

In the United States, the Department of Defense and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are the two largest consumers of aerospace technology and products. Others include the very large airline industry. The aerospace industry employed 472,000 wage and salary workers in 2006.[4] Most of those jobs were in Washington state and in California, with Missouri, New York and Texas also being important. The leading aerospace manufacturers in the U.S. are Boeing, United Technologies Corporation, SpaceX, Northrop Grumman and Lockheed Martin. These manufacturers are facing an increasing labor shortage as skilled U.S. workers age and retire. Apprenticeship programs such as the Aerospace Joint Apprenticeship Council (AJAC) work in collaboration with Washington state aerospace employers and community colleges to train new manufacturing employees to keep the industry supplied.

Important locations of the civilian aerospace industry worldwide include Washington state (Boeing), California (Boeing, Lockheed Martin, etc.); Montreal, Quebec, Canada (Bombardier, Pratt & Whitney Canada); Toulouse, France (Airbus/EADS); Hamburg, Germany (Airbus/EADS); and So Jos dos Campos, Brazil (Embraer), Quertaro, Mexico (Bombardier Aerospace, General Electric Aviation) and Mexicali, Mexico (United Technologies Corporation, Gulfstream Aerospace).

In the European Union, aerospace companies such as EADS, BAE Systems, Thales, Dassault, Saab AB and Leonardo S.p.A. (formerly Finmeccnica)[5] account for a large share of the global aerospace industry and research effort, with the European Space Agency as one of the largest consumers of aerospace technology and products.

In India, Bangalore is a major center of the aerospace industry, where Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, the National Aerospace Laboratories and the Indian Space Research Organisation are headquartered. The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) launched India’s first Moon orbiter, Chandrayaan-1, in October 2008.

In Russia, large aerospace companies like Oboronprom and the United Aircraft Building Corporation (encompassing Mikoyan, Sukhoi, Ilyushin, Tupolev, Yakovlev, and Irkut which includes Beriev) are among the major global players in this industry. The historic Soviet Union was also the home of a major aerospace industry.

The United Kingdom formerly attempted to maintain its own large aerospace industry, making its own airliners and warplanes, but it has largely turned its lot over to cooperative efforts with continental companies, and it has turned into a large import customer, too, from countries such as the United States. However, the UK has a very active aerospace sector, including the second largest defence contractor in the world, BAE Systems, supplying fully assembled aircraft, aircraft components, sub-assemblies and sub-systems to other manufacturers, both in Europe and all over the world.

Canada has formerly manufactured some of its own designs for jet warplanes, etc. (e.g. the CF-100 fighter), but for some decades, it has relied on imports from the United States and Europe to fill these needs. However Canada still manufactures some military aircraft although they are generally not combat capable. Another notable example was the late 1950s development of the Avro Canada CF-105 Arrow, a supersonic fighter-interceptor that was cancelled in 1959 a highly controversial decision.

France has continued to make its own warplanes for its air force and navy, and Sweden continues to make its own warplanes for the Swedish Air Forceespecially in support of its position as a neutral country. (See Saab AB.) Other European countries either team up in making fighters (such as the Panavia Tornado and the Eurofighter Typhoon), or else to import them from the United States.

Pakistan has a developing aerospace engineering industry. The National Engineering and Scientific Commission, Khan Research Laboratories and Pakistan Aeronautical Complex are among the premier organizations involved in research and development in this sector. Pakistan has the capability of designing and manufacturing guided rockets, missiles and space vehicles. The city of Kamra is home to the Pakistan Aeronautical Complex which contains several factories. This facility is responsible for manufacturing the MFI-17, MFI-395, K-8 and JF-17 Thunder aircraft. Pakistan also has the capability to design and manufacture both armed and unarmed unmanned aerial vehicles.

In the People’s Republic of China, Beijing, Xi’an, Chengdu, Shanghai, Shenyang and Nanchang are major research and manufacture centers of the aerospace industry. China has developed an extensive capability to design, test and produce military aircraft, missiles and space vehicles. Despite the cancellation in 1983 of the experimental Shanghai Y-10, China is still developing its civil aerospace industry.

The aircraft parts industry was born out of the sale of second-hand or used aircraft parts from the aerospace manufacture sector. Within the United States there is a specific process that parts brokers or resellers must follow. This includes leveraging a certified repair station to overhaul and “tag” a part. This certification guarantees that a part was repaired or overhauled to meet OEM specifications. Once a part is overhauled its value is determined from the supply and demand of the aerospace market. When an airline has an aircraft on the ground, the part that the airline requires to get the plane back into service becomes invaluable. This can drive the market for specific parts. There are several online marketplaces that assist with the commodity selling of aircraft parts.

In the aerospaces & defense industry, a lot of consolidation has appeared over the last couple of decades. Between 1988 and 2011, worldwide more than 6,068 mergers & acquisitions with a total known value of 678 bil. USD have been announced.[6] The largest transactions have been: the acquisition of Goodrich Corporation by United Technologies Corporation for 16.2 bil. USD in 2011,[7] Allied Signal merged with Honeywell in a stock swap valued 15.6 bil. USD in 1999,[8] the merger of Boeing with McDonnell valued at 13.4 bil. USD in 1996,[9] Marconi Electronic Systems, a subsidiary of GEC, was acquired by British Aerospace for 12.9 bil. USD in 1999[10] (now called: BAE Systems), and Raytheon acquired Hughes Aircraft for 9.5 bil. USD in 1997.

Functional safety relates to a part of the general safety of a system or a piece of equipment. It implies that the system or equipment can be operated properly and without causing any danger, risk, damage or injury.

Functional safety is crucial in the aerospace industry, which allows no compromises or negligence. In this respect, supervisory bodies, such as the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA),[11] regulate the aerospace market with strict certification standards. This is meant to reach and ensure the highest possible level of safety. The standards AS 9100 in America, EN 9100 on the European market or JISQ 9100 in Asia particularly address the aerospace and aviation industry. These are standards applying to the functional safety of aerospace vehicles. Some companies are therefore specialized in the certification, inspection verification and testing of the vehicles and spare parts to ensure and attest compliance with the appropriate regulations.

Spinoffs refer to any technology that is a direct result of coding or products created by NASA and redesigned for an alternate purpose.[12] These technological advancements are one of the primary results of the aerospace industry, with $5.2 billion worth of revenue generated by spinoff technology, including computers and cellular devices.[12] These spinoffs have applications in a variety of different fields including medicine, transportation, energy, consumer goods, public safety and more.[12] NASA publishes an annual report called Spinoffs, regarding many of the specific products and benefits to the aforementioned areas in an effort to highlight some of the ways funding is put to use.[13] For example, in the most recent edition of this publication, Spinoffs 2015, endoscopes are featured as one of the medical derivations of aerospace achievement.[12] This device enables more precise and subsequently cost-effective neurosurgery by reducing complications through a minimally invasive procedure that abbreviates hospitalization.[12]

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Aerospace – Wikipedia

Home | The Aerospace Corporation

Advanced Technology. Objective Analysis. Innovative Solutions.

As an independent, nonprofit corporation operating the only federally funded research and development center for the space enterprise, The Aerospace Corporation performs objective technical analyses and assessments for a variety of government, civil, and commercial customers. With more than five decades of experience, Aerospace provides leadership and support in all fields and disciplines of research, design, development, acquisition, operations, and program management.

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Aerospace engineering – Wikipedia

Aerospace engineering is the primary field of engineering concerned with the development of aircraft and spacecraft.[3] It has two major and overlapping branches: Aeronautical engineering and Astronautical Engineering. Avionics engineering is similar, but deals with the electronics side of aerospace engineering.

Aeronautical engineering was the original term for the field. As flight technology advanced to include craft operating in outer space (astronautics), the broader term “aerospace engineering” has come into common use.[4] Aerospace engineering, particularly the astronautics branch, is often colloquially referred to as “rocket science”.[5]

Flight vehicles are subjected to demanding conditions such as those produced by changes in atmospheric pressure and temperature, with structural loads applied upon vehicle components. Consequently, they are usually the products of various technological and engineering disciplines including aerodynamics, propulsion, avionics, materials science, structural analysis and manufacturing. The interaction between these technologies is known as aerospace engineering. Because of the complexity and number of disciplines involved, aerospace engineering is carried out by teams of engineers, each having their own specialized area of expertise.[6]

The origin of aerospace engineering can be traced back to the aviation pioneers around the late 19th to early 20th centuries, although the work of Sir George Cayley dates from the last decade of the 18th to mid-19th century. One of the most important people in the history of aeronautics,[7] Cayley was a pioneer in aeronautical engineering[8] and is credited as the first person to separate the forces of lift and drag, which are in effect on any flight vehicle.[9]

Early knowledge of aeronautical engineering was largely empirical with some concepts and skills imported from other branches of engineering.[10] Scientists understood some key elements of aerospace engineering, like fluid dynamics, in the 18th century. Many years later after the successful flights by the Wright brothers, the 1910s saw the development of aeronautical engineering through the design of World War I military aircraft.

The first definition of aerospace engineering appeared in February 1958.[4] The definition considered the Earth’s atmosphere and the outer space as a single realm, thereby encompassing both aircraft (aero) and spacecraft (space) under a newly coined word aerospace. In response to the USSR launching the first satellite, Sputnik into space on October 4, 1957, U.S. aerospace engineers launched the first American satellite on January 31, 1958. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration was founded in 1958 as a response to the Cold War.[11]

Some of the elements of aerospace engineering are:[12][13]

The basis of most of these elements lies in theoretical physics, such as fluid dynamics for aerodynamics or the equations of motion for flight dynamics. There is also a large empirical component. Historically, this empirical component was derived from testing of scale models and prototypes, either in wind tunnels or in the free atmosphere. More recently, advances in computing have enabled the use of computational fluid dynamics to simulate the behavior of the fluid, reducing time and expense spent on wind-tunnel testing. Those studying hydrodynamics or Hydroacoustics often obtained degrees in Aerospace Engineering.

Additionally, aerospace engineering addresses the integration of all components that constitute an aerospace vehicle (subsystems including power, aerospace bearings, communications, thermal control, life support, etc.) and its life cycle (design, temperature, pressure, radiation, velocity, lifetime).

Aerospace engineering may be studied at the advanced diploma, bachelor’s, master’s, and Ph.D. levels in aerospace engineering departments at many universities, and in mechanical engineering departments at others. A few departments offer degrees in space-focused astronautical engineering. Some institutions differentiate between aeronautical and astronautical engineering. Graduate degrees are offered in advanced or specialty areas for the aerospace industry.

A background in chemistry, physics, computer science and mathematics is important for students pursuing an aerospace engineering degree.[15]

The term “rocket scientist” is sometimes used to describe a person of great intelligence since rocket science is seen as a practice requiring great mental ability, especially technically and mathematically. The term is used ironically in the expression “It’s not rocket science” to indicate that a task is simple.[16] Strictly speaking, the use of “science” in “rocket science” is a misnomer since science is about understanding the origins, nature, and behavior of the universe; engineering is about using scientific and engineering principles to solve problems and develop new technology.[5][17] However, the media and the public often use “science” and “engineering” as synonyms.[5][17][18]

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Aerospace engineering – Wikipedia

Aerospace | Thales Group

In Aerospace, governments, airports, airlines, pilots, crews and passengers rely on Thales to make flight safer, easier and more efficient.We do this by designing, delivering and supporting the systems that keep our skies running. From air traffic management, training and simulation solutions, nose-to-tail aircraft connectivity and in-flight services, we enable and connect all parts of the aerospace ecosystem in the air, on the ground, and in between.Whatever it takes.

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Careers | The Aerospace Corporation

Make a Career Out of Making a Difference: Explore Jobs

Whether youre ensuring the resiliency of satellite systems or finding a better way to remove dangerous debris from orbit, your work at Aerospace will make a difference. From delivering world-class mission assurance to pioneering technological breakthroughs, youll help build a safer, stronger future.

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Careers | The Aerospace Corporation

Aerospace – definition of aerospace by The Free Dictionary

Hickling, along with thousands of other aerospace veterans who left or were laid off during the consolidation of the 1990s, reflects how radically the region’s economy has shifted away from its historic dependence on aerospace jobs.That’s a far cry from 1985, when aerospace was a nascent $250 million business for Goodrich, representing just 7 percent of sales.Rexnord Aerospace will partner with Dixie Aerospace to market, sell and distribute PSI Bearings, Shafer Roller Bearings, Tuflite Composite Bearings and Shafer Tooling to the aerospace market.The aerospace cluster is just starting to take off,” said Jack Kyser, the chief economist for the Los Angeles Economic Development Corporation.The increased use of composite materials in aerospace applications will dramatically change the economics of flight and the process of developing aircraft.The great power that has yet to be released in growing the aerospace industry in California is truly the suppliers and manufacturers who are contractors to the aerospace corporations,” Runner told business people gathered for the Santa Clarita 2000 Aerospace Conference.Jefferies Quarterdeck, the aerospace and defense investment banking group of Jefferies & Company, Inc.Called “Other State’s Incentives to Attract or Encourage Aerospace Manufacturing,” the draft report notes that despite defense cutbacks of the early 1990s, there is potential growth for the industry, notably in space projects.The Aerospace & Defense in the United Kingdom industry profile is an essential resource for top-level data and analysis covering the Aerospace & Defense industry.British Aerospace and Marconi – together employing some 130,000 people worldwide, more than 18,000 of them in the United States – said most jobs would be safeguarded.Catherine Gridley, President, Smiths Aerospace Customer Services said: “PBLs have transformed the supply chain resulting in a win-win situation for customers and suppliers.The study, “Beyond Consolidation – A Study of the Continuing Transformation of Aerospace and Defense in Southern California,” concludes the region can pick up 73,000 new aerospace jobs over the next 20 years, mainly from commercial space activity.

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Aerospace – definition of aerospace by The Free Dictionary

Cryptocurrency Price Forecast: Trust Is Growing, But Prices Are Falling

Trust Is Growing…
Before we get to this week’s cryptocurrency news, analysis, and our cryptocurrency price forecast, I want to share an experience from this past week. I was at home watching the NBA playoffs, trying to ignore the commercials, when a strange advertisement caught my eye.

It followed a tomato from its birth on the vine to its end on the dinner table (where it was served as a bolognese sauce), and a diamond from its dusty beginnings to when it sparkled atop an engagement ring.

The voiceover said: “This is a shipment passed 200 times, transparently tracked from port to port. This is the IBM blockchain.”

Let that sink in—IBM.

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Cryptocurrency Price Forecast: Trust Is Growing, But Prices Are Falling

Cryptocurrency News: XRP Validators, Malta, and Practical Tokens

Cryptocurrency News & Market Summary
Investors finally saw some light at the end of the tunnel last week, with cryptos soaring across the board. No one quite knows what kicked off the rally—as it could have been any of the stories we discuss below—but the net result was positive.

Of course, prices won’t stay on this rocket ride forever. I expect to see a resurgence of volatility in short order, because the market is moving as a single unit. Everything is rising in tandem.

This tells me that investors are simply “buying the dip” rather than identifying which cryptos have enough real-world value to outlive the crash.

So if you want to know when.

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Cryptocurrency News: XRP Validators, Malta, and Practical Tokens

Cryptocurrency News: Bitcoin ETFs, Andreessen Horowitz, and Contradictions in Crypto

Cryptocurrency News
This was a bloody week for cryptocurrencies. Everything was covered in red, from Ethereum (ETH) on down to the Basic Attention Token (BAT).

Some investors claim it was inevitable. Others say that price manipulation is to blame.

We think the answers are more complicated than either side has to offer, because our research reveals deep contradictions between the price of cryptos and the underlying development of blockchain projects.

For instance, a leading venture capital (VC) firm launched a $300.0-million crypto investment fund, yet liquidity continues to dry up in crypto markets.

Another example is the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission’s.

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Cryptocurrency News: Bitcoin ETFs, Andreessen Horowitz, and Contradictions in Crypto

Cryptocurrency News: Looking Past the Bithumb Crypto Hack

Another Crypto Hack Derails Recovery
Since our last report, hackers broke into yet another cryptocurrency exchange. This time the target was Bithumb, a Korean exchange known for high-flying prices and ultra-active traders.

While the hackers made off with approximately $31.5 million in funds, the exchange is working with relevant authorities to return the stolen tokens to their respective owners. In the event that some is still missing, the exchange will cover the losses. (Source: “Bithumb Working With Other Crypto Exchanges to Recover Hacked Funds,”.

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Cryptocurrency News: Looking Past the Bithumb Crypto Hack


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