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September 19, 2019
University of Washington astrobiologist Rory Barnes and co-authors have created VPLanet, a software package that simulates multiple aspects of planetary evolution across billions of years, with an eye toward finding and studying potentially habitable worlds.ESA/Hubble, NASA
University of Washington astrobiologist Rory Barnes has created software that simulates multiple aspects of planetary evolution across billions of years, with an eye toward finding and studying potentially habitable worlds.
Barnes, a UW assistant professor of astrobiology, astronomy and data science, released the first version of VPLanet, his virtual planet simulator, in August. He and his co-authors described it in a paper accepted for publication in the Proceedings of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific.
It links different physical processes together in a coherent manner, he said, so that effects or phenomena that occur in some part of a planetary system are tracked throughout the entire system. And ultimately the hope is, of course, to determine if a planet is able to support life or not.
VPLanets mission is three-fold, Barnes and co-authors write. The software can:
The first version includes modules for the internal and magnetic evolution of terrestrial planets, climate, atmospheric escape, tidal forces, orbital evolution, rotational effects, stellar evolution, planets orbiting binary stars and the gravitational perturbations from passing stars.
Its designed for easy growth. Fellow researchers can write new physical modules and almost plug and play them right in, Barnes said. VPLanet can also be used to complement more sophisticated tools such as machine learning algorithms.
An important part of the process, he said, is validation, or checking physics models against actual previous observations or past results, to confirm that they are working properly as the system expands.
Then we basically connect the modules in a central area in the code that can model all members of a planetary system for its entire history, Barnes said.
And though the search for potentially habitable planets is of central importance, VPLanet can be used for more general inquiries about planetary systems.
We observe planets today, but they are billions of years old, he said. This is a tool that allows us to ask: How do various properties of a planetary system evolve over time?
The projects history dates back almost a decade to a Seattle meeting of astronomers called Revisiting the Habitable Zone convened by Victoria Meadows, principal investigator of the UW-based Virtual Planetary Laboratory, with Barnes. The habitable zone is the swath of space around a star that allows for orbiting rocky planets to be temperate enough to have liquid water at their surface, giving life a chance.
They recognized at the time, Barnes said, that knowing if a planet is within its stars habitable zone simply isnt enough information: So from this meeting we identified a whole host of physical processes that can impact a planets ability to support and retain water.
Barnes discussed VPLanet and presented a tutorial on its use at the recent AbSciCon19 worldwide astrobiology conference, held in Seattle.
The research was done through the Virtual Planetary Laboratory and the source code is available online.
Barness other faculty co-authors are astronomy professor Tom Quinn; Cecilia Bitz, professor of atmospheric sciences; and research scientist Pramod Gupta. Other UW co-authors are doctoral students David Fleming, Rodolfo Garcia, and Hayden Smotherman; and undergraduate researchers Caitlyn Wilhelm, Benjamin Guyer and Diego McDonald.
Other co-authors are Peter Driscoll of the Carnegie Institution for Science; Rodrigo Luger of the Flatiron Institute, Patrick Barth of the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy in Heidelberg, Germany, Russell Deitrick of the University of Bern, Shawn Domagal-Goldman of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and John Armstrong of Weber State University.
The research was funded by a grant from the NASA Astrobiology Programs Virtual Planetary Laboratory team, as part of the Nexus for Exoplanet System Science research coordination network, or NExSS.
For more information, contact Barnes at 206-543-8979 or email@example.com.
VPL under cooperative agreement #NNA13AA93A
NASA grants #NNX15AN35G, #13-13-NA17 0024, and #80NSSC18K0829
NASA Earth and Space Science Fellowship Program grant #80NSSC17K0482
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