Ethereum Mining Guide for AMD and NVidia GPUs – Windows …

Im mining ethereum for quite some time now. I have a collection of lots of RX 4xx/5xx GPUs and many Nvidia Gtx 1060/1070 Gpus and I have helped people on various forums, and had a lot of customers from which Ive gained all of this knowledge. I have written this guide to help you setup your own gpu for mining purposes.

If my guide helped you please send a donation to:

Ethereum Address: 0xC3935595660f16A6549EFd3263673C6a2fb25327

If you need help in setting up your bios for your GPU, send me your original bios through Skype, my ID is: bijac666, but try to check the GPU Bios Guide first, it will teach you how to bios mod with just 1 click, and yes it will 99% mod your bios the proper way, if not contact me.

Please follow all the steps described in this guide by their order! This is a collection of my experiences with fixing various mining problems. I have helped over 500 people with their problems and this guide should have an answer to most or probably all of them

IMPORTANT: You MUST have the latest motherboard bios installed. (you can check your motherboard bios update history, to see what was changed from your bios version till the latest available one. If there are no major changes, then you can skip this step.(Chipset, PCI-E, GPU support changes are the most important ones and you NEED to upgrade your Motherboard BIOS if they came out).

IMPORTANT never use WiFi to connect your mining rigs, from my experiences that can cause big trouble. Higher ping, random disconnects, Wifi freezing at start of mining, shares rejected and so on. For example my Wifi adapter would stop working if it was directly connected to the mining rig, but if I was using an usb extender so I can place Wifi Adapter away from the rig (1-2m) then it would work, as if the rig itself disrupted the Wifi signal, as strange as it sounds. If you want to use Wifi, use the 5G. The more mining rigs you have, the more trouble with Wifi you will get.






You can get Windows 10 Pro for FREE at their official website. You can download their Windows tool for making a bootable USB stick(If you are doing this on a PC that has Original Windows already on it) or download the Windows 10 ISO from their site and make yourself a bootable USB, install Windows on your SSD and , you will never have to pay for the license if you dont want to. Still dont have any GPUs connected to your Mining rig! Because the first thing we want is to optimize Windows for our own mining purposes. THIS IS THE MOST IMPORTANT PART THAT PEOPLE DO WRONG!If you want to have original Windows 10, buy them at Kinguin. The only difference from OEM version instead of Retail version is that you can have the Windows activated on only 1 PC (you cant reactivate the key on another PC), this version is used by most miners.

Most people think that Linux is a more stable operating system or because its so lightweight, that it runs better, it can have more GPU support (Windows 10 supports 12 GPU now) and should be a better option for 24/7 mining. It would seem logical, but it isnt:

Because Linux has various problems, such as:

If you have downloaded Windows 10 from the official Microsoft website (never use torrents for this) then your Windows 10 pro is almost up to date.

Download latest.NET Framework 3.5 Offline Installer it is required to run Polaris 1.6 and OverdriveNtool. Windows 10 Comes with 4.x Framework, but that one will not work with Polaris and OverdriveNtool. You need to install the .NET 3.5 manually. Insert the Windows 10 USB stick into the PC (the one you used to install Windows) and set the USB Disc Drive as the Source for installing the .NET 3.5. Here is the Guide how to do it, its very simple.

Download LATEST Drivers for your motherboard, especially latest Chipset driver. This is very important.

Now after Windows is setup properly, download a tool called DDU,That tool will uninstall your current driver (even your integrated GPU) and block Windows from automatically installing GPU drivers. Thats important so that Windows does not install an outdated driver! It will ask you to run in safe mode but that is not necessary. When you run the program just click on Clean and restart. We want to manually download and install the right drivers.

Now turn off your PC and connect onlyONEGPU.

IMPORTANT From AMD Crimson 17.10 driver (and all drivers released after that) they have added the mining mode in the driver and enabled up to 12 AMD GPUs to be able to run on Windows 10.

AMD released Radeon Software Adrenaline Edition, download latest version of it. It will improve hashrate on some cards and in general give you best possible hashrate on all RX 4xx and 5xx cards.

Very rare its possible that you will get better results with the Beta Blockchain Driver , but that driver only supports 8 AMD GPUs and please try first the Adrenaline edition (In the Blockchain driver you will not need to change GPUs to Compute mode, they are there on default).

If Adrenaline or Blockchain driver is not working, your last hope is latest Crimson ReLive Driver release (you need to change in Radeon Settings to compute mode each GPU)

At the beginning of the install process go toCUSTOMinstead of Express and ONLY select AMD Display Driver and AMD Settings. During installSKIP theinstalling of ReLive, because we wont need it.

After you have installed the driver restart your PC. If youve already modified your GPUs before, there might be a possibility that you wont be able to see them anymore. That is most likely a problem with the RX 570 series and its very rare with some RX 580 models. The problem comes from the bios mod, because it changes how the GPUs work and you will need to Patch your drivers to make them work properly or the driver will just end up disabling or hiding the GPUs (Error 43). This is only needed if you cant see your bios modified GPUs in the Windows Device Manager. Download the Pixel Clock Patcher. Run the program, it should give you a message that the values were patched. After that restart your PC and you should have proper working modified GPUs.

Once you successfully installed the driver with just one GPU, shut down your PC and plug in all of the other GPUs. After that, when you turn the PC back on it should automatically detect each of them and it will install the drivers for all of them. Just remember that it will take some time (about 5-10 minutes) for all of the GPUs to be detected properly. You can open up the Device manager, to see if all of the GPUs are listed there. Just turn the PC on and wait 5-10 minutes before doing anything, Windows will do its job.

Now after you have all of your GPUs under the right driver, there is one more important step to make.

Radeon Settings

Radeon Settings Gaming

Radeon Settings Global Settings

Each GPU has its own bios, that tells it how it should work. There are four different memory types that you will encounter on your GPU : Hynix, Elpida, Micron, Samsung

During the mining of ethereum, you will only be using memory of the GPU, that means that the higher quality of the memory is, the better hashrate you can get. While testing all of the memory types, Ive found out that Samsung and Hynix are a little bit better than Elpida and Micron, but the difference is very subtle.

Download a tool called GPU-Z.

This tool allows you to see what memory type your card has as you can see in this picture.

On the Green selection you can see the Memory Type. In this example its Elpida. If you bought your GPUs all at once, and they are the same card type and if you see that they all have the same Memory Type, that means that they allCANUSE THE SAME BIOS.ExportingGPU BIOScan be done with clicking on the Red circle as displayed in the picture above, under the BIOS Version. Now you have your original bios exported, make a backup before going to the next step.

Go to my guide: GPU Bios Mod

IMPORTANT Always work with the original BIOS of your cards, dont download random BIOS online cause you cant be sure they are made for your card type, even if they are the same model that does not mean they have the same bios.Its very important to work with the original card BIOS to reduce the unnecessary risk to the minimum.

First you will need to download a tool for flashing the bios called ATIFlash.

With this tool you can put the custom bios over your current one. Always make a backup for your current bios and store it somewhere safe, you can never know when you are going to need it.

IMPORTANT be very careful what bios you are going to flash on what GPU, I would recommend you to never have different card types plugged in when you are going to flash, so you dont flash by accident a wrong bios to a wrong card (even if this is almost impossible, because if you use the AtiFlash properly (as explained in this guide) it should give you a warning that you cant flash the specific bios, because its a different type than your original card)

Upgraded BIOS

Copy File Path

Run CMD as Admininstrator

Change Directory to AtiWinFlash

Now after all your GPUs are flashed with the right upgraded bios we can move on to the most important step, the mining software part. There are a couple of different popular mining programs, depending on the algorithm they are working with, the most popular are:

This guide is focused on theEthashalgorithm mining, so the settings and the tutorials from this guide are not optimized for the other mining algorithms likeCryptoNight.For this I plan to make another guide or expand this one so that you will understand how to optimize your GPUs for the other algorithms.

Claymore 11.8 is currently the best miner for Ethereum, and it comes with a nice option of dual mining with some other altcoins (Decred, Sia ) that can boost your profit by around 20-30% for 20% more power draw. Even if you have expensive electricity the bonus profit is probably worth it.

Claymore software has a fixed fee of 1% when you are mining ethereum or 2% fee when you are mining decred. There are various problems that can happen due to the way the Fee is working. The fee works in a way that each hour you will be disconnected from your mining process and for about 1-2 minutes, you will mine for the Claymore developers. After that it will connect you again to your pool and start the mining again. By constant disconnecting and reconnecting each hour your GPU cools down and then heats up again, and by doing that you are risking the life of your GPUs. I heard from many people that after some time one of the GPUs would reset to the default clock settings because of the constant disconnecting/reconnecting or it would hang and crash the miner or cause it to recreate the DAG file, and you end up losing valuable time with that. Claymore is a really cool software and I think there could be a better way to support the developers, rather than risking our own miner stability. By using the official Claymore I lost about 3% of my shares compared to using the Claymore without the Developer Fee, everyone can try it for themselves and see the difference.

Recently there is a good source for the NoFee version that is constantly uploaded to the newest version, and from my testing I get exact 1.1% higher hashrate compared to the official Claymore release (calculated by 24hour comparison of found shares on the mining pool Im using nanopool)

Latest Claymore version brings a straight 0.3-0.5% performance increase compared to the previous Claymore versions. This is only for AMD gpus, there is no effect on the hashrate for Nvidia Gpus.

The comparison tested on 12 RX 570 4GB GPU rig (1-2 MH/s more total hashrate):

You can download the Claymore with the developer fee removed:Claymore Ethereum Miner 11.8 No Fee Download Thanks tod33z0r upload.

The Claymore miner software source code is encrypted (if someone would have the source code he could make his own miner and would be much easier to remove the developer fee. Thats why Windows Defender is going mad when he encounters Claymore miner, because it does not know what the Claymore software is doing it will try to remove it and warn you about dangerous file.

The best way to disable Windows Defender (its good in general to disable it cause it can disrupt mining performance or even crash the rig, especially the real-time protection) is to follow those steps:

Opening Local Group Security Policy

Windows Defender Antivirus Disable Option

Turning On the Disable of Windows Defender

Claymore runs through its start.bat file. In the start.bat (you can open it with the notepad) youJUST NEED TO WRITE THE FOLLOWING (NO SETX COMMANDS BEFORE THAT):

EthDcrMiner64.exe -epool yourMiningPool -ewal yourEthAddress -epsw x -dcri 6

-epool is the mining pool you are mining on, its just a persona preference, some people like to use nanopool, some like dwarfpool, ethermine, you can use whatever pool you like. Be careful what pool you are using, it should be based on your location, it would make no sense to mine on an European pool if you are in America because of the high ping. Always use the pool that is close to you (nanopool,dwarfpool,ethermine and others have mostly location specific pools, you cant miss them, they mostly start with eu, us or asia. After that you can write your own ethereum address which is used to collect your ethereum shares. You can view statistics on the mining pool by searching it with your address, for example if you are using the nanopool pool you can see your current active statistics with: example using Nanopool:

EthDcrMiner64.exe -epool -ewal yourEthAddress -epsw x -dcri 6

Do not add SETX commands at start, they are not needed.

I use nanopool to mine Ethereum, you can use ethermine or dwarfpool also, but ethermine gives most reliable statistics. Go to Chapter 11 to see why I use nanopool.

-ewall is your ethereum address, be careful because you will always need to write only an ETHEREUM wallet address, not a bitcoin or any other address. Most easy way to create an ethereum wallet and keep it safe is to use the exchange sites like Bitfinex or Bittrex. They will offer you high security and you can use the Two Factor Authentication which makes it very secure. For big amounts I would recommend to use offline wallets like Trezor Bitcoin Wallet.

Ethereum is mined just by using the memory of your GPU, so the GPUs core is almost not affected by the ethereum mining at all. This gives a possibility to utilize the GPU core for mining some other coins in the same time as you mine ethereum without affecting its hashrate. Of course if you would mine the dual coin at full potency, it would affect the ethereum hashrate, thats why we will need to optimize the intensity of the dual coin, lowering it at such degree that its not affecting the ethereum hashrate.


EthDcrMiner64.exe -epool yourMiningPool -ewal yourEthAddress -epsw x -dpool dualCoinMiningPool -dwal dualCoinWalletAddress -dpsw x -dcri 25

The part before the -dwal is the same as for the solo ethereum mining described above. The -dwal has the same representation as -ewal, it just is the mining pool of the dual coin. I would recommend to mineONLYDecred as a dual coin, because it has the highest efficiency of all of them . As described above the Dual coin uses the GPUs core for mining and not all dual coins give the same results. For RX 5xx cards the best way would be to go with Decred. I use the Supernovadecred mining pool. You need to create an account there, and the account name will serve you as a decred mining pool address. This way it gives you one more security improvement, because you dont show people your address, instead just your account name. On your account you will need to create a worker and give it a name for example: worker1, and leave its password as it is (password). Now to connect properly to the decred mining pool you would need to put -dwal supernovaAccountName.supernovaWorkerName

You can create a decred wallet at Bittrex.Its a very good trading site featuring a lot of altcoins including decred. You can cash out your decred at your account page in supernova, under My Account -> Edit Account -> Payment Address and you need to type your bittrex address there. And now you just need to set Automatic Payout Threshold to your desired value, I use 0.5 as my payout cap. I convert my mined decred to ethereum at a bittrex exchange site, and store my value like that. Its safe if you use a 2FA (authenticator).


As you can see in the dual mining configuration, the last part is -dcri 25. That means that the dual coin is set to mine intensively , and it shows how much GPU core is assigned for that task.Yes its needed for solo mining too, and needs to be set to 6!This is a very important part because itsDEPENDANT ON THE GPU SERIES. The only noticeable difference between theRX 570andRX 580series is theirGPU Core. The memory (used for ethereum mining) is almost the same on those cards, so there is basically no difference in the ethereum hashrate, but the big difference comes in the GPU Core. The RX 580 series can handle around -dcri 25, dont go above that because it can reduce your ethereum hashrate. For RX 570 series the optimal -dcri is around 19-22. For some cards even lower as 13, this needs to be tested by yourself. The proper way would be to start with -dcri 10. Then using your keyboard press + or -, that way you can increase or decrease -dcri by 1, as you will see on the claymore miner. By going up you will see the dual coin hash rate going up, repeat that until you can start to see the ethereum hashrate decrease, then, after you find that spot reduce -dcri by 3, so you are not pushing the GPU to the limit.On the RX 570 series its possible to get a higher hashrate on ethereum with dual mining rather than just solo mining.Optimal for RX 570 is around -dcri 19 , optimal for RX 580 series is around -dcri 25. For some cards its possible to go even further, but its not worth it to stress the GPU too much.

This is the most important part of this guide, its very important for you to learn the right way of overclocking and undervolting to optimize the GPU as much as possible.

Now after your GPUs are at their default settings, well be using OverdriveNtool to handle the overclocking,target the GPUs temperature and its undervolting. There is no other tool where you can have full control of your GPU and the ability to quickly optimize the GPUs. You cant be 100% sure the overclock/undervolt settings are working properly. This is a special software that gives you FULL access to your AMD GPUs and its very easy to use once you know the basics.

This software may seem confusing or complicated at first, but its very easy to understand. I will explain it through the following picture:

GREEN this is the target temperature of your GPU. OverdriveNtool will automatically keep your GPUs at their desired temperature by increasing/decreasing the fan speed, as its needed to stay at those temperatures. The optimal value would be60C. You can check this during the mining in Claymore, by seeing how much the current fan speed is in percentage. If the fans speed goes over70%increase the target temperature to65C, but that can only happen if you have a high room temperature, probably because of no cooling or a weak air flow.

PROFILES This serves to save current overclock settings for further use. For example after you turn on your PC, you can automatically load all the overclock settings to the desired GPUs.We will have1 profile per GPU on your mining rig. First make a new .txt file in the folder in which you have the OverdriveNtool.

After that go to Save As and change the Save as type to All Files and then name the script overclock.bat. That way you will create a Batch file the same type as Claymores start.bat and it will work in very similar way.

Now after that open the overclock.bat file with notepad and write in the following:

OverdriveNTool.exe -r1 -p1gpu1 -r2 -p2gpu2 -r3 -p3gpu3 -r4 -p4gpu4 -r5 -p5gpu5 -r6 -p6gpu6

As you can see in the following picture:

This will make a batch script that will run the OverdriveNtool.exe and set the each gpu (-p) to a predefined profile (profileName)

If you have 10 or more GPUs you need to have double digits to numerize them (-p01,-p02,,-p11,-p12 and -r01,-r02,.,-r11,-r12) or else the 10-12 GPU wont be recognized.

Carefull,as you can see in the displayed image in my case, I have on this mining rig 7 GPUs enabled. The first one is anINTEGRATED GPUand its ID is -p0 , all others are mining gpus (p1,p6). So if you have your integrated GPU disabled or for some reason you use a motherboard that does not have it, then your mining GPU ids start from p0, but you can see the GPUs order as displayed in the picture below. The GPUs order in OverdriveNtool is thesameas in the GPU-Z and Claymore 11.8.

Now make6 Newprofiles and name themgpu1, gpu2 gpu6and each profile will represent the GPU its attached to, so for example, we are using the -p1 GPU to the profile gpu1 and so on. You need to make so many profiles as you have mining GPUs (all GPUs except the Integrated one)

RED this part shows you the real GPUs core clock rates and its voltages. In other overclocking tools you will only see the last one, in this case 1340 Mhz. Asyou noticed there are 8 of them (P0,P1.P7) and that are the GPUs core states. This means the GPU switches automatically to default between those states, depending on how much you use the GPU. From all those 8 states, we dont want the GPU to switch between them, we want it to run stable at the fixed clock rates we put it on. To do that we will need toDISABLEall the GPUs states except the last one (P7). You can disable every state from P0 till P7 simply by double clicking on its name (just go with the mouse over P0 and doubleclick), you will know if you are successful if that state changes colour.

GPU CORE OVERCLOCK/UNDERVOLT we need to do two things to the GPU core. First, we will need to set P7 clock rate and its voltage. You need to remember that the GPUs core is not used to mine ethereum a lot, it just helps the memory to do the hashrate. The GPUs core generates the most heat on the GPU and uses the most power, so our intention is to push the GPUs core down as much as possible to save power and lower the temperature on the GPU without losing ethereum hashrate, or lose some hashrate because we save more on the power cost reduction than the small ethereum hashrate drop. It would be very recommended to haveWattmeterto make your own calculations to see whats more worth for you. In general most optimal clock rates for ALL GPUs is around1150mhz. Some RX 570 can even work at around 1100mhz without losing any, or very low hashrate reduction on ethereum and that will reduce the power draw drastically. Some RX 580 need 1200mhz to have the optimum hashrate, but most of them work best at 1150mhz. In general never go above 1200mhz because it will start to use much more power, and you can will that with your Wattmeter. For the Voltage part, its best to keep them at850mV. You can try to reduce the voltage to 825mV or 800mV if you are going to keep the GPUs at 1100mhz, but it is possible to get a freeze or crash. The best way for you is to test your hashrate with those values described and see what effect it has for your GPU to run it at 1100mhz, 1150mhz, 1200mhz with 850mV voltage in all cases. Then compare the power draw with the hashrate and calculate whats more profitable for you. In most cases1150mhz/ 850mVis optimal.

MEMORY This works identically as the GPU core, except its for the memory. This is the holy grail, this is the most important part of GPU mining and its veryRANDOM. There is no fixed values from which you can know that it will work 100% on your GPU. There is just one proper way of doing it without risking any problems. We will need to disable P0 and P1 by double clicking on them.


We will need to repeat the process for each GPU individually, its very important to test it that way so if you end up getting a crash or reset, you will know exactly at what part that happened so that you can reverse the crashing settings.

First we will need to test thefirst mining GPUonly, not all at once:

As you can see in the picture, you will need to have values set exactly like that. Apply settings first, then click on the Save button near the profile or else the profile settings wont be applied properly. You have your first GPU all set and ready to make theFINAL STEP

This is the most important question people want to have an answer for and its the most tricky one. There are no optimal or universal values, because on the identical GPUs the same Overclock/Undervolt settings dont work the same way. Each GPU is unique and requires individual testing to optimize it properly.

Download a tool called HWinfo64.

Install it and run it in Sensors only mode as displayed in this picture:

After that scroll all the way down till you see your GPUs, they are located at the end. Now after you found the GPUs, select all sensors except Memory Errors and HIDE them (right click on the sensors and press hide). Ater that, you will have something as in the image below:

In my case there are 6 AMD GPUs and I have disabled all other sensors because they dont interest me.We only want to have GPU Memory Errors displayed, this will tell you if your GPU is overclocked too much.Now this is the way we will test your GPUs optimal settings.

Now after you found the optimal value for your GPU you can do the following:

After you done all that for the FIRST GPU, you can repeat the process for each other GPU, always keep an eye in HWinfo64 for memory errors, so that you dont have an unstable rig. The rig can work with a bunch of memory errors but that can cause:

If all of your GPUs on the RIG are the same, you can try to apply the profile settings that worked for the first GPU to the next GPU and test if it works, then try to adjust the small settings to reduce memory errors if you get them. Its possible that the same GPU with the same settings will crash the PC or cause a freeze, thats why you testone GPU at a time.

Read more here:

Ethereum Mining Guide for AMD and NVidia GPUs - Windows ...

What is Ethereum? | The Ultimate Beginners’ Guide

With the second largest market cap in the cryptocurrency world, Ethereum has drawn a lot of attention from investors and crypto enthusiasts alike.

This relatively new cryptocurrency not only presents a significant change to the status quo, it also allows for the quick development and deployment of new applications. Ethereum essentially enables dozens of new and extremely innovative cryptocurrencies to exist.

While Ethereums utility is obvious to programmers and the tech world at large, many people who are less tech-savvy have trouble understanding it. Weve designed this guide to appeal to both crowds and expose anyone from complete crypto beginners and intermediates to this potentially game-changing cryptocurrency.

If youre interested in Ethereum, chances are you have some sort of foundational knowledge of Bitcoin.

All cryptocurrencies inevitably get compared to Bitcoin, and it frankly makes understanding them much easier.

Bitcoin launched in 2009 as the worlds first cryptocurrency, with the single goal of creating a decentralized universal currency. This currency would not require any intermediary financial institutions, but would still ensure safe and valid transactions. This was made possible by a revolutionary technology called the blockchain.

The blockchain is a digital ledger, continuously recording and verifying records. Its used to track and verify Bitcoin transactions. Since the global network of communicating nodes maintains the blockchain, its pretty much incorruptible. As new blocks are added to the network, they are constantly validated.

Similar to Bitcoin, Ethereum is a distributed public blockchain network. While both Ethereum and Bitcoin are cryptocurrencies that can be traded among users, there are many substantial differences between the two.

Bitcoin, for example, utilizes blockchain to track ownership of the digital currency, making it an extremely effective peer to peer electronic cash system. Ethereum, on the other hand, focuses on running the programming code of an application. Application developers largely use it to pay for services and transaction fees on the Ethereum network.

Both Bitcoin and Ethereum are decentralized, meaning they have no central control or issuing authority. Respective miners run each network by validating transactions to earn either bitcoin (for Bitcoin) or ether (for Ethereum).

If youre still having trouble making the distinction, the words of Dr. Gavin Woodone of Ethereums Co-Foundersmight help:

Bitcoin is first and foremost a currency; this is one particular application of a blockchain. However, it is far from the only application. To take a past example of a similar situation, e-mail is one particular use of the internet, and for sure helped popularise it, but there are many others.

Ethereum is simply the application of blockchain for a completely different purpose.

Simply put, Ethereum is a blockchain-based decentralized platform on which decentralized applications (Dapps) can be built.

Ethereums appeal is that it is built in a way that enables developers to create smart contracts. Smart contracts are scripts that automatically execute tasks when certain conditions are met. For example, a smart contract could technically say, pay Jane $10 if she submits a 1000 word article on goats by September 15, 2018, and it would pay Jane once the conditions are met.

These smart contracts are executed by the Turing-complete Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM), run by an international public network of nodes.

The cryptocurrency of the Ethereum network is called ether. Ether serves two different functions:

If youre still a little confused, dont worry. The underlying technology is complicated even at a surface level.

By the end of this guide, youll have a better understanding of Ethereum than 99.999% of people out there and thats a pretty good start!

Well go over things such as how Ethereum functions, Ethereums history, and some of the exciting dapps running on the Ethereum platform.

In 2011, a 17 year old Russian-Canadian boy named Vitalik Buterin learned about Bitcoin from his father.

In 2013, after visiting developers across the world who shared an enthusiasm for programming, Buterin published a white-paper proposing Ethereum.

In 2014, Buterin dropped out of the University of Waterloo after receiving the Thiel Fellowship of $100,000 to work on Ethereum full-time.

In 2015, the Ethereum system went live.

In 2017, Ethereum hit a cap rate of $36 billion dollars.

Whether youre looking at this from an investment standpoint, tech perspective, or witness to history; Ethereum is extremely exciting.

Buterins goal was to bring the same decentralization from Bitcoin to more than just currency. This could be accomplished by building a fully-fledged Turing-complete programming language into the Ethereum blockchain.

The Ethereum white paper goes into detail for some of the potential use cases, all of which could be built through decentralized apps on the Ethereum network. The list goes on and on:

By building these apps on the Ethereum network, these dapps can utilize Ethereums blockchain instead of having to create their own.

Early blockchain applications like Bitcoin only allowed users a set of predefined operations. For example, Bitcoin was created exclusively to operate as a cryptocurrency.

Unlike these early blockchain projects, Ethereum allows users to create their own operations. The Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) makes this possible. As Ethereums runtime environment, the EVM executes smart contracts. Since every Ethereum node runs the EVM, applications built on it reap the benefits of being decentralized without having to build their own blockchain.

Smart contracts are strings of computer code capable of automatically executing when certain predetermined conditions are met.

Instead of requiring a single central authority to say yay or nay, these contracts are self-operated. This not only makes the entire process more effective, it also makes it more fair and objective.

For example, a simple smart contract use case would be:

Using the smart contract, theres no need for Jim and Sarah to trust each other. They just have to trust the data feed.

Keep in mind that this is only a very simple example. Many smart contracts are extremely complex and can work wonders.

The takeaway: Smart contracts can automate a variety of tasks, without requiring intermediaries. All a smart contract needs is the arbitrary rules written into it.

Now, lets move on to the Dapps.

Most of us have a pretty good understanding of what an application (app) is. An application is formally defined as a program or piece of software designed and written to fulfill a particular purpose of the user. We use apps every day: Apps allow us to check our bank balance, scroll through a live feed of pictures, or even launch a Flappy Bird into oblivion.

Now take this definition and ~*~decentralize~*~ it. Dapps serve similar functions, but run on an entire network of nodes rather than a central source. The fact that they are decentralized gives dapps an enormous advantage over traditional apps.

You know when Instagram is down because the server is down? This doesnt happen with dapps. How about when Zomato got hacked and exposed the information of 17 million people? This doesnt happen either.

Moreover, Dapps are:

In many cases, front-end users cant even distinguish dapps from regular apps. Dapps typically use HTML/JavaScript web applications to communicate with the blockchain, appearing the same to users as many applications youre already using today.

Fasten your seatbelts and get your Twitter-fingers ready, its finally time for the most exciting part of this guide.

Ethereums intersection with the real world is paved with innovation and disruption. There are already a huge number of projects, both live and in development, built on the Ethereum network. Here are just some of the most successful and promising of these dapps.

Golem: The Golem project aims to make a global supercomputer easily accessible to anyone. Its essentially the first decentralized sharing economy of computing power. As a global market, users would be able to make money by renting out their idle computing power, or spend money to have access to a supercomputer. Hold up, have you ever used a supercomputer? Supercomputers cost between a million dollars and a good fraction of a billion dollars. The modern Tianhe-2 Supercomputer has the power of roughly 18,400 Playstation 4s. Golems goal is to make this sort of power easily accessible anywhere in the world at an infinitesimal cost.

Augur: Augurs goal is to utilize a decentralized network to create a powerful forecasting tool using prediction markets. Augur would reward users for correctly predicting future events. While at a surface level it may just seem like a decentralized betting platform (which is still worth a lot), Augur could potentially provide provide powerful predictive data for virtually any industry. Prediction markets are more accurate at forecasting than individual experts, traditional opinion polling, and surveys.

Civic: Civic aims to protect users identities and provide blockchain-based, secure, low-cost, on-demand access to identity verification. This would not only prevent and provide users with assistance for identity fraud, but it would also remove the need for constant personal information and background verification checks. Think about how many times youve left your social security number with someones assistant and you can see the benefits of Civic.

OmiseGO: OmiseGO vision is to solve the problems and inefficiencies of financial institutions, processors, and gateways by enabling decentralized exchange on a public blockchain at a lower cost and high volume. This means anyone will be able to conduct financial transactions such as payments, payroll deposits, B2B commerce, supply-chain finance, asset management, and loyalty programs without having to rely on a single server and without exorbitant fees! The system is built in a way that allows the best currency (whether fiat or decentralized) to win.

Storj: Storjs aim is to make it possible for users to rent out their excess hard drive space in exchange for the crypto STORJ. Users could therefore also use Storj to rent additional hard drive space.

These are only a handful of different dapps all running on the Ethereum platform. What really stands out with dapps is how their founder are able to raise real capital by selling tokens. Whereas traditional apps have to seek outside investment or IPO, a dapp can simply ICO and raise the capital they need to build their company. While this removes friction from the financing processes, it has unfortunately also made it possible for many sub-par dapps to ICO and take advantage of eager speculators.

For more dapps, check out the State of the Dapps. You find some upcoming ICOs here.

Now that you have a decent understanding of what Ethereum is and how it functions, its useful to revisit how it compares to Bitcoin at a technical level.

While the two cryptocurrencies serve different purposes, Ethereum provides a number of benefits over Bitcoin:

Ethereum arguably currently functions better than Bitcoin as a currency. With Ethereum, you can reliably send transactions faster, pay lower transaction fees, and mine at a more profitable rate (although it still has its downfalls for miners).

Read: Is Ethereum Mining Profitable?

However, Bitcoin does have a relatively more stable priceand therefore functions as a better value storage optionfrom a trading and value storage perspective. Ethereum is much younger but has covered a substantial amount of ground in recent years. Although Ethereum certainly shows promise as a currency, its true potential lies in features nonexistent in Bitcoins code.

The most famous DAO was simply known as The DAO. The nearly identical name causes a lot of confusion for people and gives DAOs a bad reputation.

The DAO was a decentralized autonomous organization primarily functioning as its own investor-directed venture capital fund. It didnt have the conventional management structure or board of directors, was not tied to any particular government, and instead ran on open source code. The DAO was set up to give funders the power to vote for which dapps deserved investment through DAO tokens.

Dapps had somewhat of an approval process:

The DAO is most famous for the largest crowdfunding campaign in history, raising over $150 million in ether from more than 11,000 investors. The DAO is also most infamous for getting hacked for $50 million. This hack inevitably caused a split in the Ethereum community, creating what we now know as Ethereum (ETH) and Ethereum Classic (ETC).

The hack happened because of The DAOs Split Function. Funders who wanted to exit The DAO could use its Split Function, which would give them back the ether they had invested. The only stipulation was that existing funders had to hold their ether for 28 days before they could withdraw them.

On June 17th 2016, an unknown person or group of people took advantage of a lapse in the Split Functions security with a simple recursive function. This frustratingly easy hack allowed the hacker(s) to repeat their request to withdraw the same DAO tokens multiple times before the system registered it as $50 million.

The news of this hack created chaos in the Ethereum community. While this hack had nothing to do with the Ethereum platform and everything to do with The DAO platform, many members of the Ethereum community were invested in The DAO. The community as a whole had 28 days to come up with a solution, which ended up being to forkstop the current blockchain entirely and create something new from scratch.

The new Ethereum (ETH) is the result of the fork, and is essentially the blockchain before the hack. The old Ethereum (Ethereum Classic ETC) is still running the original blockchain with the hack included.

The vast majority of the Ethereum community including the Ethereum founders pivoted along with ETH, with a small minority staying loyal to the original blockchain.

The future for Ethereum is bright, but it is not without its potential uncertainty.

A notable event on the horizon is the Metropolis hard fork that is set to occur in late September. This hard fork indicates some major upgrades for the platform including:

We wont know how this hard fork will affect the price of Ethereum as markets could adjust in a variety of ways. If the upgrades attract more users, the price could rise. However, if mining becomes more difficult and slows, the price could fall.

The next upgrade after Metropolis is referred to as Serenity, which should increase stability and encourage more investment.

While there is a lot of speculative interest around Ethereum, its important to note that the Ethereum and dapp communities are very much focused on building a tangible future.

Ethereum is a phenomenal application of the blockchain and has made it possible for hundreds of projects to exist.

Blockchain solves the problem of manipulation. When I speak about it in the West, people say they trust Google, Facebook, or their banks. But the rest of the world doesnt trust organizations and corporations that much I mean Africa, India, the Eastern Europe, or Russia. Its not about the places where people are really rich. Blockchains opportunities are the highest in the countries that havent reached that level yet.

The primary goal of Ethereums founders isnt to create a cryptocurrency that makes speculators a ton of money; its to change the world. The Ethereum community attracts ideological supporters in the same way Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies do, but its use cases give it life far beyond that of other coins.

The easiest way to invest in Ethereum is by using a cryptocurrency exchange. Weve compiled a list of the best exchanges where you can buy Ethereum. On this page you can find key details of these exchanges, as well as links to their individual reviews and user guides.

If youre new to the world of cryptocurrency, Coinbase offers one of the simplest ways to buy, sell, and store Ethereum.

For those interested in regular trading, the following exchanges may be more suited to your needs:

How to Buy Ethereum

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What is Ethereum? | The Ultimate Beginners' Guide

Everything we know about Cyberpunk 2077 – PC Gamer

Cyberpunk 2077 was announced all the way back in 2012, but with The Witcher 3, its expansions, and Gwent at the top of the order back then, we only heard scraps about CD Projekt REDs next open world RPG. All combined, though, the past six years of interview snippets paint Cyberpunk 2077 as a behemoth of a game, even bigger that The Witcher 3 and with possible multiplayer features on top of hundreds of hours of single-player roleplaying. And, as we've learned, first-person shooting.

The time has finally come for Cyberpunk to take the spotlight, beginning with a big cinematic trailer revealed at E3 2018 (scroll down a bit for that). We'll be updating this post with new details throughout E3 and beyond.

CD Projekt has mostly stuck with the "when its done" line, but we know that it plans to release Cyberpunk 2077 between 2017 and 2021, along with another, still unannounced RPG. Weve been hearing about Cyberpunk since 2012, so the expectation is that itll be the first of the two to release. Our guess, then, is that Cyberpunk 2077 will release in 2019.

This is backed up by comments from a March 2017 financial results conference during which CD Projekt developers said that progress on Cyberpunk is "quite advanced." That said, the "when it's done" motto is something CD Projekt is serious about (recall it delaying The Witcher 3). If it isn't ready in 2019, it could be 2020, or 2021. We'd be really surprised if it released this year, but anything's possible.

It's more playful than we expected, but also just as violent as we expected.

Yes, so long as you understand 'FPS' literally: first-person shooter. Cyberpunk 2077 is an RPG, as CD Projekt has been saying, but it is an RPG played from a first-person perspective with guns. There's cover, there's sliding, there's wall-runninglots of things we associate with, say, Titanfall 2. So while it's a big open world RPG with stats and dialogue, it's an FPS, too.

You will have a third-person view in vehicles and cutscenes, but other than that, this is a first-person game. That's a surprise!

Yep. You can play as a woman or a man, and also customize your look a bit, such as by choosing a hairstyle, tattoos, makeup, and clothing. There are also stats: strength, constitution, intelligence, reflexes, tech, and "cool," which as we understand it from the tabletop game is how you perform under pressure.

This is another departure from The Witcher seriesof course, those games were based on books, while this is based on a tabletop roleplaying game with its own rules and ideas.

However you customize your character, you're still one specific person: V. Not 'Vee.' Just V. You're a mercenary, and that's most of what we know so far.

While guns seem to be your primary weapons, we saw lots of cool abilities in the E3 gameplay demonstration we saw.

It shouldn't come as a big surprise that a giant open world shooter-RPG has cars. You can indeed drive in Cyberpunk 2077, from either a first or third-person perspective. There's vehicular combat, tooin the demonstration we saw, the player leaned out a window to shoot.

We haven't. But we did get to see a jam-packed gameplay demonstration at E3. The footage hasn't been made public yet, but you can read all about it here.

Back in September 2016, we learned that CD Projekt applied for grants which suggest Cyberpunk 2077 could feature a huge living city and seamless multiplayer.

Thats backed up by this story from 2015, in which we learn that Cyberpunk 2077 will be far bigger than anything else that CD Projekt Red has done before, including The Witcher 3. So, if we take CD Projekt RED at its word, Cyberpunk 2077 will be exceptionally large and, hopefully, full of sidequests.

We first heard about multiplayer features back in 2013, but CD Projekt RED clearly knew the word could agitate its fans. "It will be a story-based RPG experience with amazing single-player playthroughs," reassured managing director Adam Badowski in a 2013 talk with Eurogamer, "but we're going to add multiplayer features."

In 2017, CD Projekt CEO Adam Kiciski said that the multiplayer features would ensure Cyberpunk's "long-term success," which caused some concerns given the current kerfuffle over microtransactions, especially with Star Wars Battlefront 2's loot box progression system going over so poorly.

CD Projekt responded to the concerns with a tweet meant to reassure fans that they'll still be getting a Witcher 3-style singleplayer epic. "Worry not," it said. "When thinking CP2077, think nothing less than TW3huge single player, open world, story-driven RPG. No hidden catch, you get what you pay forno bullshit, just honest gaming like with Wild Hunt. We leave greed to others."

As of March of this year, they still weren't keen to talk much about it.

No. The E3 2018 trailer contains a little Easter egg which confirms that there will be no microtransactions in Cyberpunk 2077. (Enlarge the image and read the red text, in which CD Projekt responds to the question: "In a single player role-playing game? Are you nuts?")

The cover of the Night City sourcebook. Click here to enlarge.

Cyberpunk 2077 takes place in the year 2077which you probably didnt need us to tell youin the sandbox environment of Night City, a fictional city between San Francisco and LA (as described here, although if it's really in Del Coronado Bay it would be well south of LA) that already exists in the Cyberpunk pen and paper RPG created by Mike Pondsmith. Heres an except from the Night City sourcebook, describing Night City as it exists in Cyberpunk 2020:

"A planned urban community founded in 1994 by the late entrepreneur Richard Alix Night (1954 - 1998). Established at the head of the Del Coronado Bay (dredged to current capacity in 1999), and facing the Pacific Ocean to the west, Night City is a modern city of the twenty-first century. Its wide streets and ultra-modern towers are home to over a million people, with another four-and-a-half million living in the greater Night City areas of Westbrook, North Oak, Heywood, Pacifica, South Night City and Rancho Coronado.

An exciting and vibrant place to live, Night City is even more fun to visit; world famous for its slogan "The City on the Edge of Tomorrow," the area hosts almost nine million tourists, conventioneers and corporate travellers every year. A planned community with an advanced rapid transit system, its own Net LDL, and a Corporate Center boasting representatives from over a dozen of the world's most powerful megacorps, Night City is a shining example of Technology Triumphant over the Trouble of the Past."

Thats an optimistic description, of course, leaving out the mucky, nasty parts of Night City, as Pondsmith puts it in the video above. Punks and corporate stooges of all varieties wander these foggy, once Mob-ruled streets, and by 2023, corporations are openly warring for them. Cyberpunk 2077 will show us what happened to the city in the aftermath of that war.

People have wondered whats going to happen, there are clues and hintsif we told you more wed have to kill you, as usual, said Pondsmith during Cyberpunk 2077s reveal in 2012, which you can watch below. One of them is a big hint I left for everybody at the end of the fourth Corporate War, when I dropped a small pocket tactical nuke in the middle of the Arasaka Towers, and that left kind of a really large real estate space that were gonna be playing around with.

The event hes referring to happened in 2024 on the Cyberpunk timeline, which means we step into Night City a little over 50 years after part of the downtown was destroyed and, presumably, rebuilt.

The announcement video doesnt reveal much more, except that CD Projekt RED and Pondsmith are using Cyberpunks pen and paper combat systemthough exactly how thatll be implemented is unclearand inventing new weapons and technology for the year 2077.

In a 2017 interview with Rock Paper Shotgun, Pondsmith said that the CD Projekt developers "get it," which is why he's happy to work with them on the game, and explained a little about his approach to cyberpunk themes.

We expect to hear more as 2019 approaches, so drop by our hub of all things Cyberpunk anytime you're curious about the latest updates. There's also a newsletter signup on the official site.

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Everything we know about Cyberpunk 2077 - PC Gamer

Private Island Holidays & Resorts | Oxford Private Travel

When thinking of luxury holiday destinations, nothing else sounds quite as exclusive (or peaceful!) as the thought of renting your own private island. This must surely be the ultimate way to get away from it all. So let us help you live out your Robinson Crusoe fantasies and play at being a castaway by escaping to one of our heavenly paradise locations.

The beautiful private islands in our portfolio offer you the chance to immerse yourself in your own little universe, after all who wants neighbours when you're on holiday? We've all dreamt of being marooned on a deserted beach and this can now be very much a reality. Whether arriving by helicopter or by boat, the sugar soft sands and turquoise waters lapping against the shore are bound to excite the senses. What better way is there to escape the real world?

Of course, in addition to natural beauty, the private islands and private island resorts in our collection all offer an exceptional standard of accommodation. From super-slick, contemporary and stylish masterpieces, through to something a little more 'barefoot luxury' and authentic, there is an island for every taste and requirement. Private Islands can accommodate from 2 to 200, and whether you're interested in getting back to nature in a pristine wildlife reserve, or you have slightly more sybaritic requirements , we can guide you towards your ultimate island experience.

Private Island resorts are a great choice for those looking to maintain a high level of privacy and exclusivity - as well as being in a stunning setting - but also have the opportunity of being able to mingle with fellow guests on a smaller scale than standard resorts. These wonderful resorts tend to offer a more personalised and unique island experience than conventional hotel resorts, and we have scoured the seas for the world's best. We understand why you might prefer a private island resort for your holiday - and we understand the specific logistics and arrangements that might be required.

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Roger Ver lawsuit –

Matthew Hrones April 27, 2018 10:35 am

A community movement that has grown to over 600 individuals in just two days is pursuing legal action against and its owner, Roger Ver, for deliberately misleading new users into buying Bitcoin Cash (BCH) instead of Bitcoin (BTC). is undoubtedly a prized domain in the Bitcoin space. Its likely that anyone interested in finding out about the worlds first, and most valuable, cryptocurrency will instinctively type it into their browser or immediately see it as a top result in a Google search.

In fact, when Googling buy bitcoin, the first result is

Upon clicking the link, a user is greeted with the following screen.

The logos are not only very similar and even the same color (BCH logo is typically green on most platforms to avoid confusion), but is the only website that refers to Bitcoin (BTC) as Bitcoin Core.

The Bitcoin Core name refers to the Bitcoin software client (also known as the Satoshi client), which was originally called simply Bitcoin, but was later renamed to distinguish it from the Bitcoinnetwork and currency.

Whats more, the Bitcoin Cash option is presented at the top without their respective BTC and BCH tickers. Anyone unfamiliar with the difference between the two will very likely be confused, if not completely fooled into believing that the top choice is, in fact, Bitcoin.

One user wrote in the Telegram group that its like advertising youre selling gold and then giving customers a piece of coal instead, while also referencing stories of people who mistakinglysent BTC to a BCH addressand vice versa.

Earlier this week, underwent changes to present Bitcoin Cash as Bitcoin. Most notably the block explorer, which changed from Bitcoin (BTC) and Bitcoin Cash (BCH) to Bitcoin Core (BTC) and Bitcoin (BCH).

This change has especially outraged the Bitcoin community. It was also a topic of controversy among Bitcoin Cash supporters, many of whom believe Bitcoin Cash can compete on its own merit rather than attempting to steal the Bitcoin name.

Parabullic Troll (@Crypto_God) April 26, 2018

Another example includes the websites Bitcoin Course, intended to help new users understand what Bitcoin is and how it works. However, the line between the two is blurred in a few places. It references Bitcoin Cash only several times, with most of the graphics in the course displaying Bitcoin and the Bitcoin logo.

Meanwhile, long time associate of Roger Ver and Shapeshift CEO, Erik Voorhees, has also distanced himself from Vers latest attempts to present Bitcoin Cash as the real Bitcoin.

Erik Voorhees and Roger Ver

Roger please stop referencing me to back up your opinion that Bitcoin Cash is Bitcoin, he tweeted. It isnt. Bitcoin is the chain originating from the genesis block with the highest accumulated proof of work.

The Bitcoin Cash fork failed to gain majority, thus it is not Bitcoin.

The lawsuit is gaining steam in aTelegram group chatcreated by user @MoneyTrigz,an admin at CoinTimes and co-owner of CoinDaily, and has grown to over 600 members in just a couple of days.

The group says it has attracted some community bigwigs, some of which include Bitcoin entrepreneurs Charlie Shrem and Richard Heart,Xotika.TVCEOJohn Carvalho, and founder Ragnar Lifthrasir, whos been urging peopleto report the Bitcoin dot com wallet for fraud.

MoneyTrigz, however, has made it clear that no one is in charge of this initiative.

Its more of a community movement, cuz thats what it is, he explains. Its not led by me. Ijust sparked the flame thats all.

The consensus on this matter is the same, he continues.

Everybody is frustrated and outraged plus you have victims now losing money because of it. [] crossed the line, and were pushing back legally.

At the same time, one user questioned the pursuit of legal action saying that using any government entity in this dispute seems backward, adding that ultimately the markets will decide.

To which John Carvalho responded:

Were all the market. This isnt asking the government to do something. Its using tools the government provides. This *is* the market deciding. Its literally putting money into a solution.

The group is yet to disclose which law firm is being contacted, only revealing that its one from the Caribbean island of St. Kitts, where the company is registered. The reason given is that it is a public group, and numerous people directly linked to Bitcoin dot com have already been banned from the chatroom.

MoneyTrigz, along with other group admins, have also stressed that it is not a discussion group, but rather for victims of the deceit to come forward and share their experience.

The legal angles are being discussed with lawyers, not up for discussion here, this is public, [] have eyes here, Money Trigz announced in the group.

An official website calledbitcoincomlawsuit.infohas also launched today, where people who have lost money from the scheme can submit their evidence and join in on the lawsuit.

A group of 600+ participants from influential industry leaders to community volunteers & contributors who devote to protect users from fraudulent businesses and help victims recover lost funds, the website description reads.

However, is not accepting donations just yet.

We have things going on behind the scenes and ALOT of industry people dm us to help with lawyer firm recommendations and in different jurisdictions. There seems to be some serious merit with a few of the approaches. Cant say more now. Send everybody to us that lost money using bitcoincom platform or wallet, he added.

Is committingfraud? Who do you think would win this lawsuit? Let us know in the comments below!

Images courtesy of Bitcoinist archives, Shutterstock, and Twitter/@Ragnarly.

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Roger Ver lawsuit -

Southwest Pilot Was As Cool As A Cucumber During Engine …

The Southwest pilot who had to land her plane after an engine failure was shockingly cool, calm, and collected as she placed various calls to air traffic control.


One of the planes engines exploded and detached in midair, with some of the engine parts smashing open a window. A passenger was partially sucked out of the open window and later died from severe head trauma, and other passengers were injured.

However, the pilot in charge of the plane,Tammie Jo Shults, sounded like she was totally in control as she planned her emergency landing.

Shults was formerly a fighter pilot in the U.S. Navy.

Southwest 1380, were single engine, Shults said over the radio. Wehave part of the aircraft missing, so were going to need to slow down a bit.

Weve got injured passengers, she said.

No, its not on fire, but part of its missing, Shults said when asked if the plane was on fire. They said theres a hole, and uh, someone went out.

Passengers later praised Shults nerves of steel and said she helped keep them calm throughout the ordeal.

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Hedonism Community – Castaways Travel

Hedonism II Photo Album Negril, Jamaica

The photos in our Hedonism ii Photo Album wereeither shot by us, our clients or provided by the resort. If you have recently visited Hedonism ii we invite you to send in your photos for us to display.To contribute you own photos (or trip reports),go to our Contribute Trip Report / Photographs page.

Return to:Hedonism II Resort ReportHedonism 2Trip Reports Hedonism II Group Trips

Before we get to our Hedonism ii Photo Album below, heres something new. If youre one of the thousands upon thousands of Hedo loyalists then you might want to join the Hedonism Community to interact with other folks just like you. It does cost a minimum of $10 per month, but you earn 1000 Passion Points that you redeem dollar for dollar against your next Hedo vacation. so if you plan to go back in effect your membership is FREE Woo Hoo Click here to join.

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Hedonism Community - Castaways Travel

UNESCO World Heritage Centre – World Heritage List

Extension of the "Australian East Coast Temperate and Subtropical Rainforest Park".

name changed 2007 from 'Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves (Australia)'

Renomination of "Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park" under cultural criteria.

The Belfries of Flanders and Wallonia which were previously inscribed on the World Heritage List, are part of the transnational property The Belfries of Belgium and France.

Extension of "Ja National Park".

Extension of the "Glacier Bay/Wrangell/St Elias/Kluane" property.

The "Burgess Shale" property, which was previously inscribed on the World Heritage List, is part of the "Canadian Rocky Mountain Parks".

Extension of "The Potala Palace and the Jokhang Temple Monastery, Lhasa" to include the Norbulingka area.

The Belfries of Flanders and Wallonia which were previously inscribed on the World Heritage List, are part of the transnational property The Belfries of Belgium and France.

The "Chateau and Estate of Chambord", which was previously inscribed on the World Heritage List, is part of the "Loire Valley between Sully-sur-Loire and Chalonnes".

The Hadrians Wall which was previously inscribed on the World Heritage List, is part of the transnational property Frontiers of the Roman Empire.

At the time the property was extended, cultural criterion (iv) was also found applicable.

The "Brihadisvara Temple, Tanjavur", which was previously inscribed on the World Heritage List, is part of the "Great Living Chola Temples".

At the time the property was extended, cultural criterion (iv) was also found applicable.

At the time the property was extended, criteria (iii) and (v) were also found applicable.

The Committee decided to extend the existing cultural property, the "Temple of Ggantija", to include the five prehistoric temples situated on the islands of Malta and Gozo and to rename the property as "The Megalithic Temples of Malta".

The Westland and Mount Cook National Park and the Fiordland National Park, which were previously inscribed on the World Heritage List, are part of the "Te Wahipounamu - South West New Zealand".

The "Convent Ensemble of San Francisco de Lima", which was previously inscribed on the World Heritage List, is part of the "Historic Centre of Lima".

Extension de Sites d'art rupestre prhistorique de la valle de Ca , Portugal

Extension of "Biertan and its Fortified Church".

At the time the property was extended, natural criterion (iv) was also found applicable.

Extension of the "Alhambra and the Generalife, Granada", to include the Albayzin quarter.

Extension of the "Mosque of Cordoba".

The property Parque Gell, Palacio Gell and Casa Mila in Barcelona, previously inscribed on the World Heritage List, is part of the Works of Antoni Gaud.

Extension of the "Churches of the Kingdom of the Asturias", to include monuments in the city of Oviedo.

Extension of the "Mudejar Architecture of Teruel".

Extension de Sites d'art rupestre prhistorique de la valle de Ca , Portugal

Following a survey of ownership carried out in the late 1960s, ownership of the totality of the walls was vested in 1973 in the Spanish State, through the Ministry of Education and Science. It was transferred to the Xunta de Galicia by Royal Decree in 1994.

The Spanish Constitution reserves certain rights in relation to the heritage to the central government. However, these are delegated to the competent agencies in the Autonomous Communities, in this case the Xunta de Galicia. For the Lugo walls the Xunta is in the position of both owner and competent agency. Under the Galician Heritage Law the Xunta is required to cooperate with the municipal authorities in ensuring the protection and conservation of listed monuments, and certain functions are delegated down to them. The Xunta operates through its General Directorate of Cultural Heritage (Direccin General de Patrimonio Cultural), based in Santiago de Compostela.

The Master Plan for the Conservation and Restoration of the Roman Walls of Lugo (1992) covered proposals for actions to be taken in respect of research and techniques of restoration. This was followed in 1997 by the Special Plan for the Protection and Internal Reform of the Fortified Enceinte of the Town of Lugo, which is concerned principally with the urban environment of the historic town. However, it has a direct impact on the protection afforded to the walls, in terms of traffic planning, the creation of open spaces, and regulation of building heights. Another planning instrument which affects the walls is the Special Plan for the Protection of the Mio [river], approved by the municipality at the beginning of 1998.

There is at the present time no management plan sensu stricto for the walls in operation in Lugo: work is continuing on the basis of the 1992 plan. Nor is there a technical unit specifically responsible for the conservation and restoration of the walls. It is against this background that serious consideration is being given to the creation of an independent foundation, under royal patronage and with representatives from government, academic, voluntary, and business institutions, to work with the General Directorate of Cultural Heritage of Galicia. The work plan of this body would include the development and implementation of integrated conservation, restoration, and maintenance programmes.

The WH area is managed directly by the Divisional Forest Officer from the Forest Dept. A national steering Committee co-ordinates institutions for Sinharaja as a National Wilderness Area, Biosphere Reserve (1988), and WH site. There are two management plans, prepared in 1985/86 and 1992/94, which emphasise conservation, scientific research, buffer zone management, benefit-sharing, and community participation.

In 1979, the Committee decided to inscribe the Ohrid Lake on the World Heritage List under natural criteria (iii). In 1980, this property was extended to include the cultural and historical area, and cultural criteria (i)(iii)(iv) were added.

The Hadrians Wall which was previously inscribed on the World Heritage List, is part of the transnational property Frontiers of the Roman Empire.

Extension of "Gough Island Wildlife Reserve".

(renomination under cultural criteria)

Extension of the "Glacier Bay/Wrangell/St Elias/Kluane" property.

#: As for 19 Natural and Mixed Properties inscribed for geological values before 1994, criteria numbering of this property has changed. See Decision 30.COM 8D.1

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UNESCO World Heritage Centre - World Heritage List

The Abolition of Man | work by Lewis |

The Abolition of Man, in full The Abolition of Man; or, Reflections on Education with Special Reference to the Teaching of English in the Upper Forms of Schools, a book on education and moral values by C.S. Lewis, published in 1943. The book originated as the Riddell Memorial Lectures, three lectures delivered at the University of Durham in February 1943. Many people regard this as Lewiss most important book. In it he argues that education, both at home and in schools, needs to be conducted in the context of moral law and objective values.

Throughout the book Lewis argues for an objectivist position in aesthetics and morality, contending that qualities and values inhere in things and positions and are not just projected onto them. Two objectivists may disagree about whether a work of art or a human act is good or not, but both believe there are agreed-upon standards by which the work or act is to be judged. Unlike subjectivists, objectivists hold common principles on which to base their judgments.

The doctrine of objective values, which Lewis calls the Tao, is the belief that certain attitudes are really true, and others really false, to the kind of thing the universe is and the kind of things we are. Lewis uses the Chinese term Tao for what he elsewhere in The Abolition of Man refers to as Natural Law or Traditional Morality in order to emphasize the universality of traditional values: people throughout history and around the world believe in the same objective values. (Lewis also explores these ideas in the first chapter of Mere Christianity.) He illustrates such universality in an appendix that offers quotations from widely varying cultures, ancient and modern, Eastern and Western, showing agreement on the need for general beneficence and on specific duties to parents, elders, and children, and agreement that loyalty and justice are consistently praised while disloyalty, lying, theft, and murder are consistently condemned.

The first lecture begins with a critique of a composition textbook published a few years earlier. Lewiss concern about the book is that while it teaches writing, it also subtly advocates subjectivism. Such moments occur, for example, when the textbook refers to an observer who calls a waterfall sublime; Lewis quotes the textbooks claim that, in such observations, [w]e appear to be saying something very important about something, and actually we are only saying something about our own feelings. Lewis points in particular toward the textbooks use of the words appear and only: dismissive words such as these suggest that predicates of value are merely projections of the inner state of the speaker and have no significance. Lewis replies that the speaker is not just expressing his own feelings but asserting that the object is one that merits those emotions.

On this ground Lewis argues the importance of objectivism for education. Children are not born with knowledge of appropriate reactions; those reactions must be nurtured. According to Lewis, The little human animal will not at first have the right responses. It must be trained to feel pleasure, liking, disgust, and hatred at those things which really are pleasant, likeable, disgusting, and hateful. Thus, teachers and parents who are objectivists teach their children principles of right and wrong, because if a child knows right principles, Lewis claims, he or she will respond in particular situations with the right sentiments and will know the right thing to do.

Right sentiments is a key concept in the book: by it Lewis means emotions conform[ing] to Reason. As he explains it, The heart never takes the place of the head: but it can, and should, obey it. When childrens emotions have been so trained, their moral impulses can be trusted to lead them correctly. For Lewis the ability to have right sentiments is what separates humans from animals, but such training of the hearttraining of the emotions, what Lewis refers to as the chestis lacking in modern education, with its emphasis on the intellect. The failure to nurture right sentiments ultimately results in the abolition of man, Lewis contends, because modern education produces what may be called Men without Chests.

Lewis goes on to argue that the lack of sentiment in modern thought is particularly dangerous when it is extended to science and the social sciences. The modern sciences teach people how to analyze natureto dissect it, literally and figuratively. Thus does science turn nature into an object, Lewis laments, instead of treating it with respect or care as a living being. What worries Lewis most is the tendency for the sciences to regard human beings as a part of nature. Such an understanding of people allows them to be treated as things to analyze and experiment on. That allows some people to gain power over other people. If that happens, Lewis asks, what principles will guide their use of such power? If they are objectivists, the Tao will guide them. If they are not, Lewis fears, they will have no absolute guidelines or trained sentiments to restrain them. (Lewis later embedded these ideas in a novel, That Hideous Strength [1945], which depicts England being taken over by a totalitarian force that has almost unlimited power and uses it without moral principles of restraint.)

In The Abolition of Man, Lewis urges a new attitude for sciencetreating it as a Thou (citing the philosopher Martin Buber), not an It having a personal relationship with nature, a love of Truth rather than a desire for power. The degree of power humankind has attained makes such a change in attitude necessary and makes it crucial, Lewis argues, that the world return to having the Tao at the centre of education.

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The Abolition of Man | work by Lewis |

Abolitionism – United States American History

The abolitionist movement called for the end of the institution of slavery and had existed in one form or another since colonial times; the early case had been stated most consistently by the Quakers. Most Northern states abolished the institution after the War for Independence, reacting to moral concerns and economic unfeasibility.

The movement gained new momentum in the early 19th century as many critics of slavery hardened their views and rejected their previous advocacy of gradualism (the slow and steady progress towards the goal of freedom for slaves) and colonization (finding land in Africa for former slaves). As the movement grew and became more formally organized, it sparked opposition in both the North and the South; Northern mill owners depended upon slave-produced cotton every bit as much as the Southern plantation owners.

Undeterred, many abolitionists defied the original Fugitive Slave Act of 1793, as well as the later Fugitive Slave Act of 1850, and actively sought to assist runaway slaves in their quest for freedom, most notably through the auspices of the Underground Railroad.

Abolitionist leaders included such figures as William Lloyd Garrison, Frederick Douglass, Harriet Tubman and William Lloyd Still.

Garrison adopted a militant tone which differed strikingly from the more timid proposals of prior abolitionists, who generally favored "colonization" of blacks away from white society. Garrison demanded the immediate end of slavery without compensation to slaveowners and equal rights within mainstream society for everyone, regardless of race.

Garrison`s efforts led to the formation of the American Anti-Slavery Society in 1833. He wrote its initial declaration, which appeared on December 14, 1833, reading in part:

Within five years, the society had 1,350 local chapters. The success of the abolition movement in the North, and the large amount of propaganda that it generated, enraged the South. South Carolina took the step of declaring that

They further petitioned the federal government to have the post office stop the distribution of abolitionist literature. Congress decided that this would be unconstitutional, but in practice it was not unusual for Southern postmasters to prevent the delivery of offending material.

After the Reverend Elijah Lovejoy, editor of an Abolitionist newspaper in St. Louis, moved it in 1836 to Alton, Illinois, the citizens of Alton destroyed in on three occasions. On the fourth, on November 7, 1837, the mob murdered Lovejoy. His associate Edward Beecher, brother of Henry Ward Beecher, wrote in the narrative of the Alton riots, which appeared in 1838, "The true spirit of intolerance now stood exposed. Events were so ordered by the Providence of God as to strip off every disguise. It now became plain that all attempts to conciliate and to discuss were vain; and nothing remained but to resist or to submit."

One of the early leaders of the Abolitionist movement was Theodore Weld, who helped organize the American Anti-Slavery Society in 1833, and whose 1839 work, Slavery As It Is, inspired Harriet Beecher Stowe to write Uncle Tom`s Cabin.

Although some in the Abolitionist Movement, especially Garrison, felt that women should play a prominent role, that position was resented by many. When in 1840, Garrison and his followers elected a woman to the American Anti-Slavery Society`s business committee, a split in the organizations resulted. The departing members explained themselves:

It is interesting to note that abolitionists anticipated an argument later used by the Confederacy. Just as Southerners eventually concluded that their institution of slavery could not be protected under the Constitution while the number of free states grew, abolitionists argued that since slavery could not be abolished under the existing Constitution, it was the obligation of the north to secede! In 1843, the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society endorsed disunion by a vote of 59 to 21. They argued that no principled abolitionist could either vote or hold office under the Constitution as it then existed. In 1845, the group published a pamphlet to that effect with an introduction by Wendell Phillips.

---- Selected Quotes ----

Quotes regarding Abolitionism.

By Stephen A. DouglasAbolitionism proposes to destroy the right and extinguish the principle of self-government for which our forefathers waged a seven years' bloody war, and upon which our whole system of free government is founded. Speech in the U.S. Senate, March 3, 1854By Susan B. AnthonyMany Abolitionists have yet to learn the ABC of woman's rights. Written in her journal, 1860By John C. CalhounAbolition and the Union cannot exist. As the friend of the Union, I openly proclaim it, and the sooner it is known the better. The former may now be controlled, but in a short time it will be beyond the power of man to arrest the course of events.Senate Speech in 1837By Jefferson DavisDo they find in the history of St. Domingo, and in the present condition of Jamaica, under the recent experiments which have been made upon the institution of slavery in the liberation of the blacks, before God, in his wisdom, designed it should be done do they there find anything to stimulate them to future exertion in the cause of abolition ? Or should they not find there satisfactory evidence that their past course was founded in error? 1850 speech

- - - Books You May Like Include: ----

Abolitionism and the Civil War in Southwestern Illinois by John J. Dunphy.Southwestern Illinois played a fierce and pivotal role in the national drama of a house divided against itself. St. Clair County sheltered Brooklyn, f...From Midnight to Dawn: The Last Tracks of the Underground Railroad by Jacqueline L. Tobin.The Underground Railroad was the passage to freedom for many slaves, but it was full of dangers. There were dedicated conductors and safe houses, but ...Freethinkers: A History of American Secularism by Susan Jacoby.At a time when the separation of church and state is under attack as never before, Freethinkers offers a powerful defense of the secularist heritage t...Narrative of Sojourner Truth by Sojourner Truth.This inspiring memoir, first published in 1850, recounts the struggles of a distinguished African-American abolitionist and champion of women's rights...Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party Before the Civil War by Eric Foner.Since its publication over four decades ago, Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men has been recognized as a classic, an indispensable contribution to our u...Bound for Canaan: The Epic Story of the Underground Railroad, America's First Civil Rights Movement by Fergus M. Bordewich.Interweaving thrilling personal stories with the politics of slavery and abolition, this work shows how the Underground Railroad gave birth to America...Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass by Frederick Douglass.Born into a family of slaves, Frederick Douglass educated himself through sheer determination. His unconquered will to triumph over his circumstances ...A Shopkeeper's Millennium: Society and Revivals in Rochester, New York, 1815-1837 by Paul E. Johnson.A quarter-century after its first publication, A Shopkeeper's Millennium remains a landmark work--brilliant both as a new interpretation of the intima...

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Abolitionism - United States American History

Cryptocurrency Price Forecast: Trust Is Growing, But Prices Are Falling

Trust Is Growing...
Before we get to this week’s cryptocurrency news, analysis, and our cryptocurrency price forecast, I want to share an experience from this past week. I was at home watching the NBA playoffs, trying to ignore the commercials, when a strange advertisement caught my eye.

It followed a tomato from its birth on the vine to its end on the dinner table (where it was served as a bolognese sauce), and a diamond from its dusty beginnings to when it sparkled atop an engagement ring.

The voiceover said: “This is a shipment passed 200 times, transparently tracked from port to port. This is the IBM blockchain.”

Let that sink in—IBM.

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Cryptocurrency Price Forecast: Trust Is Growing, But Prices Are Falling

Ripple Price Forecast: XRP vs SWIFT, SEC Updates, and More

Ripple vs SWIFT: The War Begins
While most criticisms of XRP do nothing to curb my bullish Ripple price forecast, there is one obstacle that nags at my conscience. Its name is SWIFT.

The Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication (SWIFT) is the king of international payments.

It coordinates wire transfers across 11,000 banks in more than 200 countries and territories, meaning that in order for XRP prices to ascend to $10.00, Ripple needs to launch a successful coup. That is, and always has been, an unwritten part of Ripple’s story.

We’ve seen a lot of progress on that score. In the last three years, Ripple wooed more than 100 financial firms onto its.

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Ripple Price Forecast: XRP vs SWIFT, SEC Updates, and More

Ethereum Price Forecast: G20 Regulations Would at Least Bring Certainty

Ethereum News Update
Investors tend to panic when international organizations talk about cryptocurrency regulation, but is that really the nightmare scenario?

What we have at the moment seems worse.

With each country or state striking its own path on crypto regulation, investors are left without a clear sense of direction. “Where is the industry headed?” they keep wondering. All the while, a technology that was supposed to transcend borders becomes limited by them.

Just look at the difference around the world.

In the U.S., you have the head of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) saying that blockchains have “incredible promise,” whereas in China and.

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Ethereum Price Forecast: G20 Regulations Would at Least Bring Certainty

Ripple Price Prediction: xRapid Shows Success, But SEC Still Holds Power

XRP Prices Hang in the Balance
Ripple bears like to claim that XRP “serves no purpose” in its technology, but recent success with the "xRapid" software says otherwise. That—plus the continual “Is XRP a security?” debate—drove Ripple prices round and round in circles last week.

I see these two forces working in opposite directions.

Investors should be happy that xRapid is providing genuine benefits to businesses that dared to take a chance on XRP. But does it matter if the U.S. Securities & Exchange Commission (SEC) designates XRP a security?
xRapid Success
For the uninitiated, Ripple has multiple offerings. One is "xCurrent," a.

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Ripple Price Prediction: xRapid Shows Success, But SEC Still Holds Power

The Epic Relation Between Bitcoin and the Stock Market

Bitcoin Prices Are Less Independent Than You Think
Inside the world of cryptocurrencies, some truths go unquestioned: 1) centralization is terrible, 2) fixed money supplies are great, 3) cryptocurrencies are uncorrelated from stocks.

The last “truth” is now in question.

Many analysts, myself included, have raised questions about Bitcoin following the stock market before, but none of us made the case as strongly as Forbes contributor Clem Chambers.

Chambers recently used intraday trade charts to show that Bitcoin prices often follow the same patterns as the Dow Jones Index. (Source: ".

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The Epic Relation Between Bitcoin and the Stock Market

Litecoin Price Forecast: “Tokyo Whale” Continues to Drive Crypto Sell-Off

Litecoin News Update
Remember when hackers broke into the Mt. Gox exchange? That security breach—which took place several years ago and resulted in the loss of billions in Bitcoin—continues to roil cryptocurrency markets to this day.

In order to understand the story, you have to know the history.

So let’s start with what happened after Mt. Gox was hacked. To begin with, investors were compensated for their loss in fiat currency. Yen instead of Bitcoin, as it were. But then some of the missing Bitcoin were recovered. Over time,.

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Litecoin Price Forecast: “Tokyo Whale” Continues to Drive Crypto Sell-Off

Ripple Price Prediction: xRapid Shows Success, But SEC Still Holds Power

XRP Prices Hang in the Balance
Ripple bears like to claim that XRP “serves no purpose” in its technology, but recent success with the "xRapid" software says otherwise. That—plus the continual “Is XRP a security?” debate—drove Ripple prices round and round in circles last week.

I see these two forces working in opposite directions.

Investors should be happy that xRapid is providing genuine benefits to businesses that dared to take a chance on XRP. But does it matter if the U.S. Securities & Exchange Commission (SEC) designates XRP a security?
xRapid Success
For the uninitiated, Ripple has multiple offerings. One is "xCurrent," a.

The post Ripple Price Prediction: xRapid Shows Success, But SEC Still Holds Power appeared first on Profit Confidential.

Continue reading here:

Ripple Price Prediction: xRapid Shows Success, But SEC Still Holds Power

Ripple Price Forecast: XRP vs SWIFT, SEC Updates, and More

Ripple vs SWIFT: The War Begins
While most criticisms of XRP do nothing to curb my bullish Ripple price forecast, there is one obstacle that nags at my conscience. Its name is SWIFT.

The Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication (SWIFT) is the king of international payments.

It coordinates wire transfers across 11,000 banks in more than 200 countries and territories, meaning that in order for XRP prices to ascend to $10.00, Ripple needs to launch a successful coup. That is, and always has been, an unwritten part of Ripple’s story.

We’ve seen a lot of progress on that score. In the last three years, Ripple wooed more than 100 financial firms onto its.

The post Ripple Price Forecast: XRP vs SWIFT, SEC Updates, and More appeared first on Profit Confidential.

See the original post here:

Ripple Price Forecast: XRP vs SWIFT, SEC Updates, and More

Ripple Price Forecast: XRP vs SWIFT, SEC Updates, and More

Ripple vs SWIFT: The War Begins
While most criticisms of XRP do nothing to curb my bullish Ripple price forecast, there is one obstacle that nags at my conscience. Its name is SWIFT.

The Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication (SWIFT) is the king of international payments.

It coordinates wire transfers across 11,000 banks in more than 200 countries and territories, meaning that in order for XRP prices to ascend to $10.00, Ripple needs to launch a successful coup. That is, and always has been, an unwritten part of Ripple’s story.

We’ve seen a lot of progress on that score. In the last three years, Ripple wooed more than 100 financial firms onto its.

The post Ripple Price Forecast: XRP vs SWIFT, SEC Updates, and More appeared first on Profit Confidential.

Read more here:

Ripple Price Forecast: XRP vs SWIFT, SEC Updates, and More

The Epic Relation Between Bitcoin and the Stock Market

Bitcoin Prices Are Less Independent Than You Think
Inside the world of cryptocurrencies, some truths go unquestioned: 1) centralization is terrible, 2) fixed money supplies are great, 3) cryptocurrencies are uncorrelated from stocks.

The last “truth” is now in question.

Many analysts, myself included, have raised questions about Bitcoin following the stock market before, but none of us made the case as strongly as Forbes contributor Clem Chambers.

Chambers recently used intraday trade charts to show that Bitcoin prices often follow the same patterns as the Dow Jones Index. (Source: ".

The post The Epic Relation Between Bitcoin and the Stock Market appeared first on Profit Confidential.

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The Epic Relation Between Bitcoin and the Stock Market