Litecoin Price Forecast and Analysis – September 20, 2017

As investors move beyond the dismal Litecoin news from last week, it’s becoming clear that a recovery won’t happen overnight.

In the last 24 hours, the Litecoin to USD exchange fell 3.15% to $52.63, while simultaneously falling 1.68% against Bitcoin.

LTC trading volume came in far below average, with only $286.6 million worth of Litecoin changing hands in the last 24 hours. The biggest trading center was Bithumb, a South.

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Litecoin Price Forecast and Analysis – September 20, 2017

Bitcoin Price Forecast and Analysis – September 20, 2017

Bitcoin appears to have levelled off, showing gains of about $200.00 so far this week, but showing no signs of a massive swing one way or the other. The stability is a welcome respite from the movement the market witnessed over September, where the China ICO block caused Bitcoin prices to plummet, only for the currency to rally the following week.

While day traders and speculators may not like BTC’s current trajectory, long-term buy-and-hold investors should take comfort in a week where Bitcoin behaves somewhat calmly, although the loss of massive gains is, of course,.

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Bitcoin Price Forecast and Analysis – September 20, 2017

Ripple Price Forecast and Analysis – September 20, 2017

After a tumultuous week, investors are largely sitting on the sidelines, waiting for something to happen with Ripple prices. One juicy bit of Ripple news would likely spark a massive rally.

Funnily enough, that juicy bit of news may have come and gone without investors noticing.

In the middle of last week, we wrote that Ripple struck a truce with the Hyperledger consortium. Collaboration between the two parties is supposed to bridge a gap between permissioned and public blockchains, which would, in turn, make Ripple the center of the cryptocurrency universe.


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Ripple Price Forecast and Analysis – September 20, 2017

Ethereum Price Forecast and Analysis – September 20, 2017

On Tuesday, investors ignored bullish Ethereum news once again. Why? Because, like an angsty teenager, they are angry with the world. “How could China ban cryptocurrency exchanges? It’s not fair!”

It isn’t.

But that doesn’t erase any of Ethereum’s constructive developments.

For example, Ethereum started testing the long-awaited Byzantium fork, which took place yesterday when block 1,700,000 was mined.

It is a landmark moment.

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Ethereum Price Forecast and Analysis – September 20, 2017

This 19th Century Lady Doctor Helped Usher Indian Women Into Medicine – Smithsonian

Anandibai Joshee (left), Kei Okami and Tabat M. Islambooly, students from the Woman’s Medical College of Pennsylvania.

On February 24, 1883 18-year-old Ananabai Joshee announced her intentions to leave India and attend higher education in the United States. She would be the first Indian woman to do so. In my humble opinion, declared Joshee, addressinga packed room of Bengalese neighbors, acquaintancesand fellow Hindus who had gathered at Serampore College, there is a growing need for Hindu lady doctors in India, and I volunteer to qualify myself for one.

Though Joshee would indeed go on to become the first Indian woman to study medicine in America, she would not live long enough to fulfill her goal of serving Hindu women when she returned. However, her ambition and short-lived success would help blaze a new trail for future generations of Indian lady doctors: After Joshees educational victory, many medically-minded Indian women would follow in her footsteps.


Joshee was born with the name Yamuna on May 30, 1865 into a high-caste Brahmin family in Maharashtra, near Bombay. Her father Ganpatrao, straying from orthodox Hindu customs regarding women and girls, encouraged Joshees education and enrolled her in school from an early age. Joshees mother, however, was both emotionally and physically abusive. As Joshee would later recall: My mother never spoke to me affectionately. When she punished me, she used not just a small rope or thong, but always stones, sticks and live charcoal.

When Joshee was six, Ganpatrao recruited a distant family relative named Gopalrao Joshee to tutor her. Three years into this arrangement, her tutor received a job promotion at the postal service in another city. There are few records of this time, but at some point, Yamuna and Gopalraos tutoring relationship became a betrothal, and they married on March 31, 1874. As was Maharashtrian custom, Yamuna changed her name upon marriage to Ananabai, which means joy of my heart.

Joshee was only nine, but at the time it was not uncommon for a Hindu girl to be married so young. What was unusual was that one of Gopalraos terms for marrying Yamuna was that he continue to direct her education, as medical historian Sarah Pripasdocuments in her dissertation on international medical students in the U.S.Throughout their marriage, he took an active role in maintaining Joshees education, teaching her Sanskrit and English, and ultimately securing means to move her to America for higher education.

By the time Joshee was 15, it appears she was already interested in medicine. At that point Gopalrao wrote a letter to an American Presbyterian missionary stationed in Kolhapur, asking for assistance in bringing Joshee to America for medical study. Gopalraos correspondence asking for help from the Presbyterian Church was published in the Missionary Review, an American periodical. But the church declined to assist Joshee, because she had no intention to convert from Hindu to Christianity per request of the church to serve as a native missionary.

She would have to find another way. Still, this correspondence wasnt entirely fruitless:An American woman named Theodicia Carpenter read about Joshees situation in the Missionary Review and promptly began a long distance correspondence with Joshee. Later, when Joshee did travel to America, Carpenter would housed her and helped her pick a university.

Even though Gopalrao was deeply invested in Joshee, this relationship was also marked with physical abuse, which Gopalrao seemed to have wielded to keep Joshee focused on her education. Sociologist Meera Kosambi attempts to piece together Joshees public and private lives in her articleRetrieving a Fragmented Feminist Image,revealing a seeming ambivalence toward her husbands treatment. In a letter that Joshee wrote while studying in America, she tells Gopalrao that It is very difficult to decide whether your treatment of me was good or bad It seems to have been right in view of its ultimate goal; but, in all fairness, one is compelled to admit that it was wrong, considering its possible effects on a childs mind.

Despite her husbands role in motivating her education, Joshee was not merely a passenger to her own life. An 1880 letter to Carpenter shows that Joshees decisionto pursue study in womens medicine was her own, driven by personal experience with illness and observing the struggles of the women around her. As a rule we Indian women suffer from innumerable trifling diseases,” she wrote, “unnoticed until they grow serious fifty percent die in the prime of their youth of disease arising partly through ignorance and loathsomeness to communicate of the parties concerned, and partly through the carelessness of their guardians or husbands.

This belief echoed through the halls of Serampore College three years later when she announced her decision to study in abroad in the service of Hindu women. In her speech, she explained that Hindu women were reluctant to seek care from male physicians. And even though there were European and American missionary women physicians in India, they did not appreciate or honor the customs of Hindu patients. Together, as Joshee pointed out, these complications left Hindu women with inadequate medical care.

At the samet ime as she faced obstacles from American Protestants who wished to see her convert before studying in America, Joshee was also facing opposition from other Hindus who doubted that she would maintain Hindu customs while living in the West. Yet Joshees commitment to her religious beliefs remained firm. As she told the crowd at Serampore College, I will go as a Hindu, and come back here to live as a Hindu. As Pripas says, She wasnt just wanting to treat Indian women; she specifically wanted to serve Hindu women.

Joshees speech earned her the support of her Hindu community. And in light of her success, she received a donation of 100 Rupees, which, combined with the money she saved from selling the jewelry her father had given her afforded her passage to America. Finally, after years of planning, she set sail from Calcutta on April 7, 1883.

Joshee arrived in New York on June 4, 1883 where she was met by Carpenter. Joshee lived with Carpenter through the summer of 1883 while she decided which medical school to attend. She eventually decided on Womens Medical College of Pennsylvania, which had both a positive reputation and a robust international student body.

Though the college’sembrace of international students was an important factor in training foreign women as physicians when their home countries denied them that opportunity, Pripaswarnsagainst viewing itas an international beacon for progress and gender equality. International students attendance at the college was part of a larger effort at religious and imperial expansion as many of these students were brought to the college by American Protestant missionaries overseas. The end goal of educating these women was for them to return to their home counties after training and serve as native missionary physicians.

Joshee did not enroll as a Protestant; nor did she return to India as one. In this regard, Joshee was unique, says Pripas. Even throughout her studies in America, she continued to wear her sari and maintain a vegetarian diet. She was aware that Hindus in India would be watching to see if she kept her promise to return Hindu, and she was openly critical of missionaries and religious dogmatism. So by maintaining public display of her religion and culture, she both satisfied her Hindu community and subverted the religious imperialism embedded in the college’s mission.

At the college, Joshee focused on womens healthcare, specifically gynecology and obstetrics. Even in her studies, Joshee integrated non-Western medical practice. In her research, Pripas highlights that Joshee used her own translations of Sanskrit texts in her thesis, showing a preference for traditional womens knowledge over interventional birthing techniques, like use of the forceps. In 1886, at the age of 20, Joshee graduated with a U.S. degree in medicinean unprecedented achievement for an Indian woman.

Just before graduation day, Joshee received an offer from the governor minister of Kolhapur in India to serve as Lady Doctor of Kolhapur. In this position, she would receive a monthly salary and run the womens ward at Albert Edward Hospital, a local hospital in Kolhapur. Joshee accepted the position, which she intended to take up after further training in the United States. However, Joshee fell ill with tuberculosis sometime prior to graduation, and she was forced to return home before finishing her plans for further study.

Joshee returned to India in November of 1886 with rapidly declining health. Though she received a combination of Western and Ayurvedic treatment, nothing could be done to save her. She died in February 1887 at the age of 22, never having the chance to run the womens ward at Albert Edward.

Joshees graduation was soon followed by more Indian women. In 1893, seven years after Joshee,Gurubai Karmarkaralso graduated from Womens Medical College of Pennsylvania and returned to India, where she mainly treated women at the American Marathi Mission in Bombay. In 1901, Dora Chatterjee,described asa Hindu Princes Daughter, graduated from the college; back in India,sheestablished the Denny Hospital for Women and Children in Hoshiarpur. Though Joshee was the first, she certainly was not the last Indian woman to study abroad and return home to care for other women.

In herbiography of Joshee, 19th century writer Caroline Dall asked, If not yourself, whom would you like to be? Joshee simply answered, No one. Despite a short life marked by abuse and religious discrimination, Joshee accomplished what she set out to do: to become a Hindu lady doctor. And while Joshee would not have wished to be anyone but herself, there is no doubt that many Hindu women and girls would aspireto be like her and follow in the trail she had blazed.

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This 19th Century Lady Doctor Helped Usher Indian Women Into Medicine – Smithsonian

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Posted today in Medical

Land mines have maimed thousands and been condemned in 162 countries, but new research shows they have been supplanted by a far more dangerous explosive device. Scientists compared the injuries from both land mines and what are known as improvised explosive devices (IEDs). They found these newer devices, which are often perceived as crude or primitive,…

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Here are some of the latest health and medical news developments, compiled by the editors of HealthDay: Smoking Rates Drop When Cigarette Prices Climb: Study If you want to drive down smoking rates, raise the price of cigarettes, new research suggests. When the price of a pack of cigarettes jumped by $1, a 20 percent increase in quitting rates among…

Posted 3 days ago in New Drug Approvals

(BUSINESS WIRE)–Aug. 21, 2017– Ironwood Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (NASDAQ: IRWD) today announced Duzallo was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a once-daily oral treatment for hyperuricemia associated with gout in patients who have not achieved target serum uric acid (sUA) levels with a medically appropriate daily dose of allopurinol…

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— Lyme disease, caused by the bacterium B. burgdorferi, is transmitted by biting deer ticks that are quite small and may be difficult to see. Within 30 days of a deer tick bite, a circular red patch of about five inches’ diameter often appears. The rash, if it shows up at all, commonly resembles a bull’s eye, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration…

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Every year, roughly 1 in 6 Americans gets sick from contaminated food. That includes more than 1.2 million illnesses due to the bacteria salmonella. This nasty germ can cause a lot of unpleasant symptoms, including diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal cramps and fever, typically lasting for 4 to 7 days. And while foodborne illnesses in general have gone down…

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Many seniors may not hear everything their doctors tell them, new research suggests, and that could raise the risk of medical errors. “In our study of 100 patients 60 and older, 43 reported mishearing a doctor or nurse in an inpatient or community health care setting, lending vulnerability to unintended error,” said researcher Simon Smith, from the…

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Younger adults who use methamphetamine may be at greater risk for stroke, a new review suggests. With use of the stimulant increasing, particularly in more potent forms, doctors in many countries are seeing more meth-related disease and harms, the Australian study authors said. This is especially true among younger people, who are the major users of…

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— You can’t always prevent jet lag, but there are things you can do to minimize symptoms, the National Sleep Foundation says. Here’s the foundation’s advice: Once you get to your destination, get some rays to help sync your internal clock to the time zone. Don’t nap while traveling. Avoid caffeine and alcohol. Before you go to sleep at your…

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Only one in three heart attack survivors in the United States goes for outpatient cardiac rehabilitation, government health officials report. Despite guidelines that recommend rehab for reducing the risk of future heart attacks, it’s greatly underused, according to statistics released Thursday by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Each…

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What you eat, or don’t eat, affects the mix of germs in your digestive tract, new research indicates. Thousands of microbial species thrive in the human intestine, helping people digest fiber and make vitamins and other molecules. They also help strengthen the immune system and protect against potentially harmful bacteria, Stanford University School…

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REMS Overview Fact: Prescription drugs are complicated, and they are getting more complicated every day. Issues with complex drugs and side effects is not just a concern for the healthcare provider, it directly impacts the patient and caregiver, too. Weve all heard the long list of adverse effects and warnings that unfold during a primetime []

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Drugs.com is pleased to announce the introduction offull HTTPS encryption for all web site visitors. With this significant and important change, nearly 70 million monthly visitors will have access to critical health and medicine information in a safe, secure and private environment. Why HTTPS Encryption? Almost everything you do on the Internet leaves a digital []

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Drug giants are ripping off the public by selling the same medicines under different labels – The Sun

DRUG giants are ripping off the public by selling the same medicines under different labels, a probe has revealed.

And some big-name pills are ten times dearer than stores own brands with the same ingredients.

Otrivine nasal sprays come in three different boxes for allergies, congestion and sinusitis.

Yet a Which? probe claims all are medically identical.

They say Sudafed Day & Night Capsules for colds and flu cost 4.50 but are no different from store chain Wilkos 95p ones.

Pain pills Combogesic and Nuromol, which mix ibuprofen and paracetamol, are ten times pricier than separately buying own-brand versions of the ingredients.

And olive and almond oil work just as well as Earex ear drops.

The watchdog says there is little proof some products, such as Centrum vitamins and Benylin syrup, are necessary or effective.

Its editor Richard Headland said: Youre sometimes wasting money on medicines as theres a lack of evidence they work. And there are cheaper alternatives.

According to Which? some firms declined to show evidence of how their product worked.

They said, through a spokesperson or the manufacturers trade body, the Proprietary Association of Great Britain (PAGB), that the regulator had licensed the medicine, and therefore it is safe and effective.

Why wont the firms show their evidence? The PAGB says its because they dont want to give competitors “commercially sensitive” data.

CONSUMER group Which? has these tips when scrutinising over-the-counter remedies:

John Smith, PAGB chief executive, said: “Branded OTC medicines enjoy a long-standing heritage of trust and manufacturers invest heavily in research and product development.

“In order for a medicine to be granted a licence, manufacturers mustprovide robust evidence to show it is effective before it can be sold in pharmacies and other retail stores.”

Manufacturers have invested in research and new product development, and its rare for over-the-counter medicines to have patent protection once launched.

Some firms did share their data.The European Medicines Agency encourages this for pharmaceutical drugs and routinely publishes the clinical data submitted by companies.

Which? also called on firms to be equally transparent, so that shoppers can see if their medicines are really value for money.

Otrivine:FIRM makes three nasal sprays for allergies, congestion and sinusitis.

Experts say: All are identical.

Glaxo-SmithKline insists they are for different ailments so buyer can pick the product most suited.

Nuromol:NUROMOL and Combogesic include paracetamol and ibuprofen.

Experts say: Cheap version of ingredients would be 2.8p a dose instead of 29p and 25p respectively in these packets.

Sudafed:HAS phenylephrine, a decongestant, to help with colds and flu.

Experts say: Scant evidence phenylephrine beats placebo. Cheaper versions available.

Sudafed says regulators approved it.

Benylin:BENYLIN Chesty Coughs claims it works deep down to loosen phlegm.

Experts say: Theres no evidence active ingredient glycerol works.

Benylin says products are clinically proven.

Centrum Advance 50+:TABLETS are said to give dietary support to over-50s.

Experts say: Not needed on healthy diet. Own-label pills five times cheaper.

Maker Centrum says its claims meet EU rules.

Earex:MEANT to help shift stubborn ear wax.

Experts say: It works, but cheap olive and almond oils or saline solution do too.

Earex says government watchdogs recommend product.

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Drug giants are ripping off the public by selling the same medicines under different labels – The Sun

Medicine | Define Medicine at Dictionary.com

a specialized dictionary covering terms used in the health professions by doctors, nurses, and others involved in allied health care services. A dictionary with authoritative spellings and definitions is a particularly crucial resource in medicine, where a misspelling or misunderstanding can have unfortunate consequences for people under care. Print dictionaries in this field may be sorted alphabetically or may be categorized according to medical specializations or by the various systems in the body, as the immune system and the respiratory system. The online Medical Dictionary on Dictionary.com allows alphabetical browsing in the combined electronic versions of more than one authoritative medical reference, insuring access to correct spellings, as well as immediate, direct access to a known search term typed into the search box on the site:

A medical dictionary reveals that large numbers of medical terms are formed from the same Latin and Greek parts combined and recombined.

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Medicine | Define Medicine at Dictionary.com

Spotlight on acupuncture in laboratory animal medicine – Dove Medical Press

Back to Browse Journals Veterinary Medicine: Research and Reports Volume 8

Elizabeth R Magden

Department of Veterinary Sciences, Michale E Keeling Center for Comparative Medicine and Research, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Bastrop, TX, USA

Abstract: Acupuncture has been practiced for thousands of years, although it is only in the past century that science has worked to unravel the mechanisms behind its use. Literature supporting the efficacious use of acupuncture to treat a variety of conditions has been and continues to be published, including the randomized controlled studies we all appreciate when practicing evidence-based medicine. The use of acupuncture in veterinary medicine has paralleled the trends observed in people, with an increasingly common use to remedy specific medical conditions. These conditions are commonly related to neurological dysfunction or orthopedic pain. Although pain relief is the most common use of acupuncture, numerous other conditions have been shown to improve with this therapy. Laboratory animals are also benefiting from acupuncture. Its use is starting to be incorporated into research settings, although there is still further progress to be made in this field. Acupuncture has been shown to improve clinical conditions and quality of life in laboratory animals, and should be considered as a tool to treat laboratory animals with conditions known to benefit from therapy. Here we review the history, mechanisms of action, and use of acupuncture to treat veterinary patients and laboratory animals.

Keywords: acupuncture, laboratory animals, nonhuman primates

This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

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Spotlight on acupuncture in laboratory animal medicine – Dove Medical Press

Military Tropical Medicine Course Provides Valuable Training – Pentagram

The Military Tropical Medicine (MTM) Course, led by the Navy Medicine Professional Development Center (NMPDC) and taught by NMPDC Course Directors in conjunction with the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences trained 86 coalition and U.S. medical providers.

The six-week annual course started July 5 and went to Aug. 11, with four weeks of classroom training and two weeks of field application to sites in Africa, South America and the Pacific.

MTM educates medical providers on historic war-time diseases and emerging infectious diseases, such as diarrhea, as well as more severe viral event outbreaks from leishmaniasis, viral hemorrhagic fever, malaria, Zika virus and Ebola. The overarching goals of MTM are to increase Force Health Protection and readiness for our beneficiaries as well as supporting Military Stability Operations. The methods of achieving these goals is through helping medical professionals identify, diagnose and provide support in a Department of Defense or host nation environment for these tropical diseases.

As more military members are deployed globally, in smaller units and often without robust medical capabilities, the training is especially critical. Force Health Protection can be a driving factor in the continued health and well-being of service members deployed to regions of the world where tropical diseases are still prevalent and quality care may be a significant distance from the military base.

The MTM training opportunities can also be tools for health diplomacy and creating strategic partnerships with our partner nations. Military personnel are also able to obtain over 120 continuing medical education credits for attending. This is highly beneficial for members. It satisfies most medical professional annual educational requirements in one event. It is a significant cost savings to Navy Medicine, and provides medical professionals valuable training they can use immediately prior to a deployment or assignment at a remote location.

This years training took medical professionals from the Navy, Army, and Air Force, as well as Naval Academy Cadets, to Ghana, Honduras, Liberia, Peru and Tanzania. International military students from Cambodia, Liberia, Peru, India, Tanzania, and Canada join the class to learn and share their experiences. MTM students learned from the Walter Reed Military Medical Center staff that set-up the Ebola Unit to prepare for beneficiaries infected with the disease and hear from a doctor from the Armed Forces of Liberia regarding his experience in Liberia during the outbreak of Ebola.

Members of the medical community who cannot make it to the six-week training have other opportunities to receive this critical training. “Mini-MTM” classes are available at the request of the unit/command and the course director can take the class to the unit/command, if requested. Mini-MTM is a week-long classroom-only class geared toward enlisted and officer medical staff with key topics from the six-week course. This class has previously been given to members of the Chilean military, USNR and SOF medics. Another training option is the Just-in-Time MTM. This is also classroom-only and is typically a few days in length. This option has been highly successful for deploying or deployed units/commands, Flight Surgeons and Undersea Medical Officers.

Navy Medicine Professional Development Center is part of the Navy Medicine team, a global healthcare network of 63,000 Navy medical personnel around the world who provide high-quality health care to more than one million eligible beneficiaries. Navy Medicine personnel deploy with Sailors and Marines worldwide, providing critical mission support aboard ship, in the air, under the sea and on the battlefield.

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Military Tropical Medicine Course Provides Valuable Training – Pentagram

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Posted yesterday in Pharmaceutical News

Pfizer’s Besponsa FDA-Approved for Advanced Forms of ALL B-cell precursor ALL is a rapidly progressing bone marrow cancer that results in too many immature white blood cells Read More… Life expectancy after a return of acute lymphoblastic leukemia is low and treatment options are few. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approvedPfizer’s…

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ISSUE: Centurion Labs is voluntarily recalling 1 lot of Ninjacof (Lot# 200N1601) and 1 lot of Ninjacof A (Lot# 201NA1601) manufactured by Vilvet and distributed by Centurion Labs to the retail level due to potential contamination with Burkholderia cepacia. Centurion was notified by the FDA regarding the potential contamination as they discovered this…

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The choices you make during your lunch hour can make — or break — your “bottom” line. Picking smart carb and calorie options will help keep your weight loss efforts on track. First, ditch the soda. It contains a lot of sugar without providing any nutrients, says Rachel Begun, a registered dietitian and nutrition consultant. A 20-ounce bottle has…

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Mitochondria, the power plants of human cells, may play a significant role in autism risk, new research suggests. Not only that, ancient human migration patterns may have predisposed some groups to a greater risk for the developmental disorder, the scientists added. “Our findings show that differences in mitochondrial function are important in ASD…

Posted 2 days ago in New Drug Approvals

(BUSINESS WIRE)–Aug. 21, 2017– Ironwood Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (NASDAQ: IRWD) today announced Duzallo was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a once-daily oral treatment for hyperuricemia associated with gout in patients who have not achieved target serum uric acid (sUA) levels with a medically appropriate daily dose of allopurinol…

Posted today in Medical

A robotic exoskeleton attached to the lower leg may someday help kids with cerebral palsy maintain the ability to walk. Cerebral palsy is a lifelong disorder, characterized by impaired motor function and muscle control. By adulthood, half of those with cerebral palsy no longer walk, often because of a crippling gait pattern. Enter the motorized exoskeleton,…

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You go to the fair for corn dogs and cotton candy, not an infectious swine flu. Researchers are warning that flu can spread among pigs at agricultural fairs and then make the leap to humans, which could potentially lead to a swine flu epidemic. The good news is that people can take steps to protect themselves by doing simple things, including keeping…

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Doctors sometimes prescribe a steroid for patients with bronchitis or other troublesome chest infections, but a new British study says the approach isn’t warranted. “Our study does not support the continued use of steroids as they do not have a clinically useful effect on symptom duration or severity,” said study lead researcher Dr. Alastair Hay, who…

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For people at increased risk of heart disease, intensive blood pressure control may be just as safe as standard treatment, a new study finds. Experts said the results bolster the case for more aggressive treatment of high blood pressure. Two years ago, a U.S. government-funded trial called SPRINT challenged the standard approach to treating high blood…

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Even if local health officials say it’s safe, cloudy drinking water may have the potential to cause vomiting and diarrhea, a new research review finds. Researchers looked at past North American and European studies exploring the link between water cloudiness, or turbidity, and tummy troubles. “More than 10 studies found a link between water turbidity…

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The team at Drugs.com is humbled and heartened to have been recognized as the Health Information Website Brand of the Year in the 2017 Harris Poll EquiTrend Study. The annual Harris Poll EquiTrend Study measures and compares a brands health over time and against key competitors. Other categories measured include travel, financial, automotive and entertainment. []

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REMS Overview Fact: Prescription drugs are complicated, and they are getting more complicated every day. Issues with complex drugs and side effects is not just a concern for the healthcare provider, it directly impacts the patient and caregiver, too. Weve all heard the long list of adverse effects and warnings that unfold during a primetime []

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Medicine | Define Medicine at Dictionary.com

a specialized dictionary covering terms used in the health professions by doctors, nurses, and others involved in allied health care services. A dictionary with authoritative spellings and definitions is a particularly crucial resource in medicine, where a misspelling or misunderstanding can have unfortunate consequences for people under care. Print dictionaries in this field may be sorted alphabetically or may be categorized according to medical specializations or by the various systems in the body, as the immune system and the respiratory system. The online Medical Dictionary on Dictionary.com allows alphabetical browsing in the combined electronic versions of more than one authoritative medical reference, insuring access to correct spellings, as well as immediate, direct access to a known search term typed into the search box on the site:

A medical dictionary reveals that large numbers of medical terms are formed from the same Latin and Greek parts combined and recombined.

See the article here:

Medicine | Define Medicine at Dictionary.com

Medicine a family affair for young future physician – Winnipeg Free Press

The youngest member of the University of Manitobas newest cohort of medical students is just 19 years old.

The fresh-faced teenager shrugged on his first white coat Wednesday as part of the universitys annual white-coat ceremony, a symbolic start to medical school where some of the provinces big-name health officials applaud their future colleagues.


Henry Li, 19, is one of the 110 students of the Class of 2021 that were formally cloaked in their first white coats at the Max Rady College of Medicine.

In four years, Henry Li will get to add the letters M.D. to his name. Hell be 23 and a doctor.

But standing in the foyer of the Max Rady College of Medicine surrounded by more than 100 of his classmates, Li isnt quite ready to jump that far forward yet. He also isnt quite ready to pin down what kind of doctor he wants to be.

“Theres a lot of time. Im keeping an open mind and well see what happens,” he said.

Medicine is a Li family affair.

Lis father Mingyi Li was a family physician in China, while his brother Junli Li is a fourth-year medical resident at the University of Manitoba who wants to specialize in radiology.

But despite sharing their passion for medicine, Li said he never felt “gosh, I need to be a doctor.”

“It was kind of a gradual decision. Its always been something in the back of my mind, and I think as I matured it became more and more something that I wanted to do, something I committed to do,” he said.

The appeal is in the multidimensional nature of the work.

“You can carry out research, you can teach and, of course, the clinical aspect,” Li said. “I think this is something unique to the field of medicine and to the role of a physician you can do all of these things and you arent restricted.”

Traditionally, medical students are at least 22 or older, having finished an undergraduate degree first.

Li skipped first grade and then doubled up on advanced placement courses in high school that would count for university credit. He graduated from Richmond Collegiate in 2015 and finished a University of Manitoba science degree focusing on microbiology and biology in just two years.

Now, Li is one of 110 students who will make up the universitys class of 2021. His group is the second since the U of M began making a concerted effort to make sure the future physicians it’s training are ethnically and socio-economically diverse.

Li is part of the 95 per cent of this years class that are Manitoban. The majority of the group are women, with a third having some form of rural connection, and nearly a dozen self-declaring Indigenous ancestry.

Watching them all put on their white coats and reciting the physicians Hippocratic Oath was motivating, Li said.

“Its really awe inspiring seeing all these people that have committed themselves and dedicated themselves to this long path of learning and serving others.”

For at least one of his classmates, the decision to become a doctor has less to do with medicine and more to do with community.

Justin Feilberg wants to work as a family doctor in rural Manitoba, a position almost always in high demand.

“I think the best way to get physicians practising in rural communities is to get students from those rural communities into the medical profession,” said the 33-year-old married father of one. Committing to practising medicine in a rural area when you’re originally from a more urban centre can be “daunting,” he said, but not for him. Feilberg, who lives in Steinbach and plans to commute daily, was raised in East Braintree near the Ontario border.

“Access to medicine can be a very difficult challenge for some people, and I feel it would be a great way for me to help give back to the communities that helped shape me and made me who I am,” he said.


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Medicine a family affair for young future physician – Winnipeg Free Press

Turkey embraces alternative and complementary medicine – Daily Sabah

As medical practices become more and more advanced, many people are turning to traditional medicine and alternative therapies which are considered to have healing effects on the human body, despite not being scientifically proven. Recently, alternative medicine and complementary medicine is widely used around the world, and even accepted by the traditional medical practitioners.

Complementary medicine is a group of diagnostic and therapeutic disciplines that are used together with conventional medicine. Complementary medicine includes a large number of practices and systems of health care which have begun to be adopted by mainstream Western medicine as well. Complementary medicine includes a variety of products such as herbs, vitamins and minerals and probiotics. These items are widely marketed, readily available to consumers in local pharmacies without a prescription and are often sold as dietary supplements. Moreover, alternative medical practitioners tend to advise their patients to engage in therapeutic practices to renew the mind and body for good health.

In 2014, Turkish health care institutions and state medical schools made alternative medicine a part of their health care routine.

The head of Turkey’s Complementary and Alternative Medicine Practices Department of the Ministry of Health’s Directorate General for Health Services Zafer Kalayc stated that they are conducting studies to promote Turkey as full of “world cuisine” for alternative medicine.

Speaking to Anadolu Agency (AA), Kalayc provided information about traditional and complementary medicine. He said that, in addition to protecting people from and preventing physical and psychological diseases through alternative therapies, traditional and alternative medicine include experimental and proven practices, research and holistic approaches that are unique to various cultures and are being applied for sustaining good health.

Stating that traditional and complementary medicine is a new area of application both in Turkey and world, Kalayc said that Turkey is making strides in the world in this area. It is evident that Turkey now has well-coordinated, comprehensive regulations in alternative medicine that are the first of their kind in the world. In the context of this regulation, which is already in use in Turkey, educational standards are being enacted in the fields of reflexology, music therapy, osteopathy, prolotherapy, apitherapy, mesotherapy, homeopathy, phytotherapy, and acupuncture, along with larva, hypnosis, leeching, cupping and ozone applications.

For the application of these standards, traditional and complementary medicine centers were opened at 32 universities and training research hospitals across the country.

Noting that active education is ongoing at 14 of these centers, Kalayc added: “The regulation was issued in 2014; however, we were able to create the educational standards for the applications, as part of the series, in 2016. Up until now, 2,500 people have become certified at these branches. The demand for instruction from our physicians has been high and there is a waiting list for applicants. Currently, we have education centers in Ankara, Istanbul, zmir, Erzurum and Kayseri. Also, the University of Health Sciences of the Ministry of Health and training research hospitals working under its auspices have begun to offer education on these branches of treatment. The University of Health Sciences is planning to launch a master’s degree program in the area.”

Saying that they have made international connections as they continue to advance in this area, Kalayc said: “We are conducting one-to-one research with the World Health Organization (WHO). We also conduct joint studies with universities in the U.S., South Korea and China. Turkey is setting a new global standard in this area. We have begun to create new regulations which will make Turkey the gold standard in education in these fields. We are a shining star in the world arena now.”

Kalayc also stressed Turkey’s diversity in endemic plants, asserting that the country has 4,750 endemic plants. “When you calculate the number of endemic plants all around Europe, you see that their total number does not exceed that of Turkey. Here, we conduct research in cooperation with the Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock and the Ministry of Forestry. In addition to the fact that there are studies conducted by prominent academics and smart agriculture applications, the number of plants in Turkey has reached 12,000. We raised awareness by a lot, sharing this information with the world.”

Stating that Turkey has seriously important endemic plants, Kalaycsaid: “Every single one of the 81 provinces in Turkey has their own unique, endemic plants. We have to evaluate them. This situation is also gaining world-wide attention. Some products are imported to Turkey for between $45 and $50, while they are exported for $1.”

“At the Ministry of Health, our aim is to turn Turkey into a fountain of cuisine for the education and application process of traditional and complementary medicine. We are conducting sophisticated academic, clinical and laboratory studies in education in this area. We have a department known as the Directorate of Health Institutions, as well as six institutions bound to it. One of these is the Traditional and Complementary Medicine Application Institution. We are making progress in a well-organized way in all aspects,” he said.

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Turkey embraces alternative and complementary medicine – Daily Sabah

Harvard’s Continued Embrace of Integrative Medicine Finds a Partner and a New Conflict of Interest – American Council on Science and Health

The Osher Center for Integrative Medicine, Harvards outreach into complementary medicine recently announced a partnership where three researchers associated with the Harvard Osher Center will each summarize a top recent publication from the burgeoning mind-body literature and provide commentary on why they chose to shine a light on it. Harvard is not alone in this effort. Just Tuesday Wolters Kluver announced Ovid Insights,a current awareness service, citing the exponentially expanding volume of research.

As the volume of research worldwide continues to increase, staying current on the latest medical findings and practice guidelines is an overwhelming, yet necessary, task for healthcare professionals.

Ironically, the academics first filled, in the sense of a firehouse filling a cup, the journals with studies predicated on the concept of publish or perish. And having overwhelmed our attention, they now introduce a solution, the era of curated journal reading.

Harvards collaborative partner is the Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (JACM) considered to be in the top quartile of journals covering this area. To give you a sense of the journals academic reach you might considertwo reported measures of citation rates. The SJR, a size independent measure of scientific influence is 0.581, for comparison, the New England Journal of Medicine’s (NEJM) is 17.736. The SJR puts JACM 17th among their peers (96 journals) after the Journal of Natural Products and Journal of Ginseng Research. Citations per document reflect how often a journal is cited; it is a commonly used measure of the journals impact on research. Here JACM has a value of 1.537 (the NEJM is 33.902) placing it 22nd amongst its peers, just after Chiropractic and Manual Therapies but before Chinese Medicine [1]

The three Harvard faculty members [2], all JACM associate editors, select a theme and then choose one study from the literature to abstract and to comment upon. I read the articles they presented, while they are a bit too touchy feely for me, and have the usual problems that plague the literature (small sample size, p-hacking, and data mining), they were all thoughtful articles to read and consider. My concern was the descriptions of studies within their abstracts, for example:

Cherkin and colleagues’ beautiful randomized prospective studyThis powerful study demonstrates

In an elegantly designed and rigorously conducted comparative effectiveness trial supported by the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH)/National Institutes of Health (NIH)

Stephen Ross and colleagues conducted a small but methodologically elegant double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial

Perhaps it is me, but I detect a tone of advocacy, and with advocacy comes conflicted interests. I have no issue with knowledgeable people suggesting reading, but there is a fine line between organizing and sorting of information dispassionately and content curation that is, an editorial process. It’s a mix of art and science. It requires a clear and definable voice,and editorial mission,and an understanding of your audience and community.[3] Can we reliably expect these academics to cite articles that do not favor alternative and complementary medicine? So far, in the year of this collaboration, no article they have chosen has taken an unfavorable view. Are the Harvard faculty acting as fair witness or advocates, do they shed light or only increase the echo? The goals of JACMs editor, John Weeks, JACMs editor, provides additional clues when he states that his goal that JACM becomes an arbiter of the conversation and content that shapes the course of healthcare. Perhaps I am mistaken, but I want my journals to provide me with unbiased research so that I can form my own view and be the arbiter of my conversations.

[1] The SCImago Journal & Country Rank is a publicly available portal that includes the journals and country scientific indicators [that] can be used to assess and analyze scientific domains.

[2] Osher Center’s Director of Research Peter Wayne, PhD, Gloria Yeh, MD, MPH, Research Fellowship Director, and Darshan Mehta, MD, MPH, the center’s Director of Education

[3] Is Curation Overused? The Votes Are In

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Harvard’s Continued Embrace of Integrative Medicine Finds a Partner and a New Conflict of Interest – American Council on Science and Health

Integrative medicine residency program flourishes – Medical Xpress

August 23, 2017

Faculty at the University of Arizona Center for Integrative Medicine and their collaborators successfully demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of an online approach to train more family medicine residents in integrative medicine.

The American Board of Physician Specialties defines integrative medicine “as the practice of medicine that reaffirms the importance of the relationship between practitioner and patient, focuses on the whole person, is informed by evidence, and makes use of all appropriate therapeutic approaches, healthcare professionals and disciplines to achieve optimal health and healing.”

Effective online training in integrative medicine is important given the increased demand for physicians with expertise in integrative medicine coupled with the call from medical and public health organizations for alternatives to traditional medical approaches to such matters as pain management.

With that in mind, Dr. Patricia Lebensohn, professor of Family and Community Medicine at the UA College of Medicine-Tucson, directed the development of an Integrative Medicine in Residency program, a robust, online curriculum with the aim of establishing integrative medicine as a routine part of family medicine residency education throughout the country.

An in-depth evaluation of the project and its results was published in the July-August 2017 issue of the journal Family Medicine.

The study tested a 200-hour online curriculum, at eight sites offering integrative medicine residencies across the United States. Study subjects included 186 family medicine residents who participated in the IMR and 53 residents in other programs without integrative medicine training who served as controls.

Of the 186 IMR residents, 77 percent completed the program and tested significantly higher in their medical knowledge of integrative medicine than the control residents.

“Despite how busy the residents were, there was a very high completion rate,” says Dr. Victoria Maizes, executive director of UACIM. “The level of knowledge improves in those who complete the curriculum and doesn’t change in those who don’t.”

“When we started this study in 2008, it was a novel idea to deliver common curriculum online across eight sites,” says Maizes. “This curriculum is now shared at 75 residencies and has expanded well beyond family medicine. We started with this project in family medicine. Now, we’re in pediatrics, internal medicine, preventive medicine and we have a pilot program in psychiatry.”

“I am pleased with the results of the residents’ evaluation of the high clinical utility of the curriculum and the ease of navigating the online delivery,” says Lebensohn. “Most of the residents in an exit survey stated that they intend to utilize integrative medicine approaches in their future practice of family medicine.”

Explore further: BUSM identifies barriers to implementing complimentary medicine curricula into residency

Despite the fact that nearly two million women every year reach menopause (that’s equivalent to 6,000 women each day), many experts agree that OB/GYN residents are not being properly prepared to address menopause-related …

Integrative medicine is a quickly expanding field of health care that emphasizes nutrition as a key component. Dietitians and nutritionists have an opportunity to meet workforce demands by practicing dietetics and integrative …

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Integrative medicine residency program flourishes – Medical Xpress

Jay Ellis Talks ‘Hard Medicine’ Comedy Series & Dismantling Hypermasculinity On ‘Insecure’ – Vibe

Onscreen, people recognize him as the f**k n***a that thinks hes a good guy, thanks to Lawrences surprising storyline in season two of Insecure. But in real life, actor Jay Ellis is nothing more than a tireless, hard-working, good guy.

With the exception of the Lawrence Hive (who vigorouslystand in solitude with their fierce leader episode after episode), many fans of HBOs hit series haveturned their back on Issas ex-boyfriend. But theres plenty of reasons outside of the show, why we should be turning the spotlight on Ellis. The 35-year-old star wears multiple hats, as an actor by day and an executive producer by night for Hard Medicine, a new comedy series centered around a small medical clinic.

READ: Jay Ellis Says A Fan Cursed Him Out Because Of His Character On Insecure

Hard Medicine first premiered on Ellis Facebook page at the beginning of Aug. 2017. The show, which was created by Melissa Eno Effa (who also plays Clarice on screen), follows a quirky, yet beloved Dr. Harriet Moore (Nicole Slaughter) who is tasked with managing a team and caring for her patients at a low-income clinic.

Its subject matter is timely considering Trumps mission to repeal and replace Obamacare, potentially leaving millions without proper healthcare. But its humor and tone add a bit of comedic relief we so desperately need in our nations current political climate. More importantly, its story is told through the lens of black caregivers. Sure weve seen African-Americans behind surgical tables in shows before, but not in a story arc that is so authentic and truthful to the communitys actual experiences. What we get to do thats a bit different is bring an arc and a journey thats typically not seen, Ellis tells VIBE. Comedy wise, I see us in the same place as a lot of thoseprograms, but we get to do it with people of color that have the very best interest in the community theyre serving.

As EP on this rapidly growing project, Ellis says he has served as the big brother, working through scripts, scrubbing scenes, and polishing each episode. And with the help of his team, the show has accumulated more than one million viewers in a matter of weeks. Now, its found a homeon Urban Movie Channel (UMC), and Ellis only hopes that is just the beginning.

READ:Hella Happy: Insecure Will Return For A Third Season

VIBE chatted with Jay Ellis over the phone about Hard Medicine, Lawrences downward spiral, and the challenges with masculinity in the blackcommunity.

A new episode of Hard Medicine streams on UMC every Wednesday.

VIBE: Tell us about Hard Medicine and what peaked your interest in joining the project. Jay Ellis: Hard Medicine is Scrubs meets Parks and Recreation or The Office. Its the same kind of mockumentary style. We as black people havent seen ourselves use that style of comedy yet. So I was excited to see that same filmmaking being used with people of color. And then on top of that, its a medical setting where were not seen that often. And it wasnt in some big hospital with a multimillion dollar budget; it was a small community clinic. They have to fight for every dollar to stay open and to take care of its patients in the neighborhood. I fell in love with the character Dr. Moore, the story and staff, and her struggle. There was something that was aproposabout our healthcare system trying to be defunded by this guy who is currently running this country. And we now get to show that in some way in this series with a comedic tone, but stillhits to the centerof losing funding.

There are a number of medicine shows out there Scrubs, Greys Anatomy to name a few. Where do you think Hard Medicine fits in on that spectrum of medicine-based shows? Tonally, were rightthere with The Office. But I think what we get to do thats a bit different is bring an arc and a journey and community thats typically not seen. We get to have an authentic story and a world that hasnt been discovered. Comedy wise, I see us in the same place as a lot of those programs, but we get to do it with people of color that have the very best interest in the community that theyre serving and the patients theyre serving.

READ: We Want Everyone To Love Chewing Gums Michaela Coel The Way Jay Ellis Does

We commonly see artists balancing between being on screen and behind the screen as producers and directors. What was the experience like for you being in front of the camera on Insecureand jumping behind the scene as EP for Hard Medicine? Its a balancing act for sure. Im very fortunate that I have some great partners to pick up the slack when Im not able to be there. My mom produced the series with me, and I work with another producing partner as well. But I go from reading the script of Insecure to reading the script of Hard Medicine. And once we have episodes, editing Hard Medicine to working on another script. Youre wearing a lot of hats. But the really cool thing is youre constantly working with professionals. Whether thats the actors or my producers, Im working with people who are really good at what they do. They make the balancing act easy for me. I know exactly where I need to be, exactly what Im looking for, and I can make sure a voice is being preserved and that a story is being told [properly]. But its a lot; I wont lie. Its more than I could have ever thought it wouldve been, but I love it.

What is your favorite aspect of being part of bringing this story to life? Watching people fall in love with it. Knowing that we told a really good story, that we shot this on a shoestring budget, and knowing that we were able to put something together thats special, and people responded to it. I put this first episode on my Facebook, and within a week, we had over a million views. In that same amount of time, UMC called and said, we want this. This is great for us. For something like that to happen for a digital series, is what we all dream of. So to see it come full circle and see Angela and her team Theyve been so great at moving really fast on this. Because I preempted by posting that first episode, the precedent was set that another episode was going to come out every Wednesday. And literally in two weeks, their team has been able to turn around assets for us for promo and for pictures and press. But also, working with a young talented voice and making sure that she gets her story told is probably my favorite part. Its making sure we are making these unique, authentic voices come to life and were not trying to water them down or change them.

READ: Jay Ellis Discusses The Plight Behind Africas Child Sex Slavery Shown In Like Cotton Twines

That has to be exciting, whether youre an EP or an actor, just seeing the gradual hype surrounding a project. In my mind, Ive never thought about fame. Ive thought about fame in that I am so grateful for every single person who shows up for me and supports me. But I think the icing on the cake is when people relate to it and they love and feel one way or another about it, whether theyre mad at it or theyre happy. The emotional connection, the involvement with the material, thats the win. All the other things will come because the fans are tied to it. All those things are built in when people relate to the work and it touches them in a way.

The characters in Hard Medicine arent your picture perfect, clean-cut people. Theyre messy and awkward. Weve seen how TV is moving in a direction of building characters that have more flaws, but how would you say HMs particular storytelling and character development benefits its audience? Its more relatable. We may have aspirations of perfection or not being messy or being bourgeois. We all try, but were human and we make bad decisions. We overlook things, and I think thats just who we are as people. Theres something about embracing that and telling it from an honest perspective that is so relatable and real that people want to be a part of that and watch. Watching the perfect person isnt who we are every day. If we were, that would be boring as hell. I love every bad decision I mean, not every bad decision Ive made but Im grateful for some of the bad decisions Ive made because they helped me be who I am today.

What are you most looking forward to in this new chapter of Hard Medicine after finding a home on UMC? Watching [more] people find it and fall in love with it. Whether they heard it from word of mouth or just stumbled upon it, I love when people find good material and fall in love with it. [The black community] issuch a good community for supporting each other and our work and the things that are for the culture. And honestly, were looking forward to UMC cutting a check for the second season.

READ: Jay Ellis Admits To Being A Lovable Loser In Issa Raes Insecure

Transitioning to Insecure, obviously, the Lawrence Hive is very deep this season. But theres also a lot of people who would rather see him balled up in a corner and lonely for the rest of his life. How do you see Lawrence is he the villain or just a heartbroken dude trying to bounce back? The biggest thing is that hes heartbroken. Hes lost, confused, and hes running from dealing with whats happening and also not taking responsibility. I think those are things we all can relate to even if we dont want to. Hes not a bad guy; hes not doing anything malicious. I dont think hes meaning to break hearts or not perform in threesomes, but I think it [shows] his loss and not willing to confront where hes at. Men, especially black men, are beat over the head with masculinity, and I feel like no one tells us how to communicate. No one says, You got to use your words if you want to keep the people in your life that you love. You got to find a compromise. You got to be willing to be vulnerable and to open up. I think Lawrence doesnt know how to do those things. I hope that he finds them sooner or later.

Thats kind of a great parallel between Insecure and Hard Medicine. Both sets of characters are so vulnerable and in a sense broken. But particularly speaking on fragile masculinity, in the black community, that is such a frowned upon image and often covered up onscreen. Being a black man yourself, do you find that its hard to break down those barriers or tradition for a role? Hell yeah! I dont want to be vulnerable more than any other guy out there. Im a part of that generation, but what I love about this character is Ive never seen a black man this vulnerable on television before. Ive never seen a black male whos confused and not sure which way to go. Ive never seen a black man on TV have to go through all those layers and live through all that. Buthaving to go through all that as an actor is what you ask for. Getting to do it for a character on television when theres never been a representation of a millennial black man or any black man like that before, is such an honor. Fortunate for me, I get to work through some stuff through my work as an actor as well.

And on top of those challenges,you have all these people against you, which cant be easy to digest at times. I dont love when people yell f**k you when I walk down the street, but what I do know is that it made them feel something. And that to me, is the most important thing. I would like a little more love though.

READ: Issa Rae Says Insecure Will Do Better To Address The Issue Of Condoms

Just look up the Lawrence Hive on Twitter. Thats all the love you could ever need. The Lawrence Hive has my back. Theyre legit. I think a lot of that comes from [the fact that]young black men have not been represented, A) very well, B) very much. This is a dude that a lot of young black men can relate to because theyve never seen somebody that goes through all this in TV and film.

So the condoms situation. Whats your take on the controversy? Its something weve talked about on set. Like Issa [Rae] said, we know we have to do better. A lot of our sets in our show have time jumps, so there is a thought that our characters could have made the smart choice and put on condoms. And as someone who is an ambassador for amfARand talks about AIDS and HIV very often, its something thats super important to me. Its something that well make sure to do better [in the future]. Butkudos and mad respect to Issa for even putting that out there because most show-runners wouldnt have done that. She knows that this is for the culture and that means all those things have to be taken into consideration.

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Jay Ellis Talks ‘Hard Medicine’ Comedy Series & Dismantling Hypermasculinity On ‘Insecure’ – Vibe

Medicine | Define Medicine at Dictionary.com

a specialized dictionary covering terms used in the health professions by doctors, nurses, and others involved in allied health care services. A dictionary with authoritative spellings and definitions is a particularly crucial resource in medicine, where a misspelling or misunderstanding can have unfortunate consequences for people under care. Print dictionaries in this field may be sorted alphabetically or may be categorized according to medical specializations or by the various systems in the body, as the immune system and the respiratory system. The online Medical Dictionary on Dictionary.com allows alphabetical browsing in the combined electronic versions of more than one authoritative medical reference, insuring access to correct spellings, as well as immediate, direct access to a known search term typed into the search box on the site:

A medical dictionary reveals that large numbers of medical terms are formed from the same Latin and Greek parts combined and recombined.


Medicine | Define Medicine at Dictionary.com

medicine | science | Britannica.com

Alternative Title: medical practice

Medicine, the practice concerned with the maintenance of health and the prevention, alleviation, or cure of disease.

The World Health Organization at its 1978 international conference held in the Soviet Union produced the Alma-Ata Health Declaration, which was designed to serve governments as a basis for planning health care that would reach people at all levels of society. The declaration reaffirmed that health, which is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, is a fundamental human right and that the attainment of the highest possible level of health is a most important world-wide social goal whose realization requires the action of many other social and economic sectors in addition to the health sector. In its widest form the practice of medicine, that is to say the promotion and care of health, is concerned with this ideal.

It is generally the goal of most countries to have their health services organized in such a way to ensure that individuals, families, and communities obtain the maximum benefit from current knowledge and technology available for the promotion, maintenance, and restoration of health. In order to play their part in this process, governments and other agencies are faced with numerous tasks, including the following: (1) They must obtain as much information as is possible on the size, extent, and urgency of their needs; without accurate information, planning can be misdirected. (2) These needs must then be revised against the resources likely to be available in terms of money, manpower, and materials; developing countries may well require external aid to supplement their own resources. (3) Based on their assessments, countries then need to determine realistic objectives and draw up plans. (4) Finally, a process of evaluation needs to be built into the program; the lack of reliable information and accurate assessment can lead to confusion, waste, and inefficiency.

Health services of any nature reflect a number of interrelated characteristics, among which the most obvious, but not necessarily the most important from a national point of view, is the curative function; that is to say, caring for those already ill. Others include special services that deal with particular groups (such as children or pregnant women) and with specific needs such as nutrition or immunization; preventive services, the protection of the health both of individuals and of communities; health education; and, as mentioned above, the collection and analysis of information.

In the curative domain there are various forms of medical practice. They may be thought of generally as forming a pyramidal structure, with three tiers representing increasing degrees of specialization and technical sophistication but catering to diminishing numbers of patients as they are filtered out of the system at a lower level. Only those patients who require special attention either for diagnosis or treatment should reach the second (advisory) or third (specialized treatment) tiers where the cost per item of service becomes increasingly higher. The first level represents primary health care, or first contact care, at which patients have their initial contact with the health-care system.

Primary health care is an integral part of a countrys health maintenance system, of which it forms the largest and most important part. As described in the declaration of Alma-Ata, primary health care should be based on practical, scientifically sound and socially acceptable methods and technology made universally accessible to individuals and families in the community through their full participation and at a cost that the community and country can afford to maintain at every stage of their development. Primary health care in the developed countries is usually the province of a medically qualified physician; in the developing countries first contact care is often provided by nonmedically qualified personnel.

The vast majority of patients can be fully dealt with at the primary level. Those who cannot are referred to the second tier (secondary health care, or the referral services) for the opinion of a consultant with specialized knowledge or for X-ray examinations and special tests. Secondary health care often requires the technology offered by a local or regional hospital. Increasingly, however, the radiological and laboratory services provided by hospitals are available directly to the family doctor, thus improving his service to patients and increasing its range. The third tier of health care, employing specialist services, is offered by institutions such as teaching hospitals and units devoted to the care of particular groupswomen, children, patients with mental disorders, and so on. The dramatic differences in the cost of treatment at the various levels is a matter of particular importance in developing countries, where the cost of treatment for patients at the primary health-care level is usually only a small fraction of that at the third level; medical costs at any level in such countries, however, are usually borne by the government.

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Ideally, provision of health care at all levels will be available to all patients; such health care may be said to be universal. The well-off, both in relatively wealthy industrialized countries and in the poorer developing world, may be able to get medical attention from sources they prefer and can pay for in the private sector. The vast majority of people in most countries, however, are dependent in various ways upon health services provided by the state, to which they may contribute comparatively little or, in the case of poor countries, nothing at all.

The costs to national economics of providing health care are considerable and have been growing at a rapidly increasing rate, especially in countries such as the United States, Germany, and Sweden; the rise in Britain has been less rapid. This trend has been the cause of major concerns in both developed and developing countries. Some of this concern is based upon the lack of any consistent evidence to show that more spending on health care produces better health. There is a movement in developing countries to replace the type of organization of health-care services that evolved during European colonial times with some less expensive, and for them, more appropriate, health-care system.

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In the industrialized world the growing cost of health services has caused both private and public health-care delivery systems to question current policies and to seek more economical methods of achieving their goals. Despite expenditures, health services are not always used effectively by those who need them, and results can vary widely from community to community. In Britain, for example, between 1951 and 1971 the death rate fell by 24 percent in the wealthier sections of the population but by only half that in the most underprivileged sections of society. The achievement of good health is reliant upon more than just the quality of health care. Health entails such factors as good education, safe working conditions, a favourable environment, amenities in the home, well-integrated social services, and reasonable standards of living.

The developing countries differ from one another culturally, socially, and economically, but what they have in common is a low average income per person, with large percentages of their populations living at or below the poverty level. Although most have a small elite class, living mainly in the cities, the largest part of their populations live in rural areas. Urban regions in developing and some developed countries in the mid- and late 20th century have developed pockets of slums, which are growing because of an influx of rural peoples. For lack of even the simplest measures, vast numbers of urban and rural poor die each year of preventable and curable diseases, often associated with poor hygiene and sanitation, impure water supplies, malnutrition, vitamin deficiencies, and chronic preventable infections. The effect of these and other deprivations is reflected by the finding that in the 1980s the life expectancy at birth for men and women was about one-third less in Africa than it was in Europe; similarly, infant mortality in Africa was about eight times greater than in Europe. The extension of primary health-care services is therefore a high priority in the developing countries.

The developing countries themselves, lacking the proper resources, have often been unable to generate or implement the plans necessary to provide required services at the village or urban poor level. It has, however, become clear that the system of health care that is appropriate for one country is often unsuitable for another. Research has established that effective health care is related to the special circumstances of the individual country, its people, culture, ideology, and economic and natural resources.

The rising costs of providing health care have influenced a trend, especially among the developing nations, to promote services that employ less highly trained primary health-care personnel who can be distributed more widely in order to reach the largest possible proportion of the community. The principal medical problems to be dealt with in the developing world include undernutrition, infection, gastrointestinal disorders, and respiratory complaints, which themselves may be the result of poverty, ignorance, and poor hygiene. For the most part, these are easy to identify and to treat. Furthermore, preventive measures are usually simple and cheap. Neither treatment nor prevention requires extensive professional training: in most cases they can be dealt with adequately by the primary health worker, a term that includes all nonprofessional health personnel.

Those concerned with providing health care in the developed countries face a different set of problems. The diseases so prevalent in the Third World have, for the most part, been eliminated or are readily treatable. Many of the adverse environmental conditions and public health hazards have been conquered. Social services of varying degrees of adequacy have been provided. Public funds can be called upon to support the cost of medical care, and there are a variety of private insurance plans available to the consumer. Nevertheless, the funds that a government can devote to health care are limited and the cost of modern medicine continues to increase, thus putting adequate medical services beyond the reach of many. Adding to the expense of modern medical practices is the increasing demand for greater funding of health education and preventive measures specifically directed toward the poor.

In many parts of the world, particularly in developing countries, people get their primary health care, or first-contact care, where available at all, from nonmedically qualified personnel; these cadres of medical auxiliaries are being trained in increasing numbers to meet overwhelming needs among rapidly growing populations. Even among the comparatively wealthy countries of the world, containing in all a much smaller percentage of the worlds population, escalation in the costs of health services and in the cost of training a physician has precipitated some movement toward reappraisal of the role of the medical doctor in the delivery of first-contact care.

In advanced industrial countries, however, it is usually a trained physician who is called upon to provide the first-contact care. The patient seeking first-contact care can go either to a general practitioner or turn directly to a specialist. Which is the wisest choice has become a subject of some controversy. The general practitioner, however, is becoming rather rare in some developed countries. In countries where he does still exist, he is being increasingly observed as an obsolescent figure, because medicine covers an immense, rapidly changing, and complex field of which no physician can possibly master more than a small fraction. The very concept of the general practitioner, it is thus argued, may be absurd.

The obvious alternative to general practice is the direct access of a patient to a specialist. If a patient has problems with vision, he goes to an eye specialist, and if he has a pain in his chest (which he fears is due to his heart), he goes to a heart specialist. One objection to this plan is that the patient often cannot know which organ is responsible for his symptoms, and the most careful physician, after doing many investigations, may remain uncertain as to the cause. Breathlessnessa common symptommay be due to heart disease, to lung disease, to anemia, or to emotional upset. Another common symptom is general malaisefeeling run-down or always tired; others are headache, chronic low backache, rheumatism, abdominal discomfort, poor appetite, and constipation. Some patients may also be overtly anxious or depressed. Among the most subtle medical skills is the ability to assess people with such symptoms and to distinguish between symptoms that are caused predominantly by emotional upset and those that are predominantly of bodily origin. A specialist may be capable of such a general assessment, but, often, with emphasis on his own subject, he fails at this point. The generalist with his broader training is often the better choice for a first diagnosis, with referral to a specialist as the next option.

It is often felt that there are also practical advantages for the patient in having his own doctor, who knows about his background, who has seen him through various illnesses, and who has often looked after his family as well. This personal physician, often a generalist, is in the best position to decide when the patient should be referred to a consultant.

The advantages of general practice and specialization are combined when the physician of first contact is a pediatrician. Although he sees only children and thus acquires a special knowledge of childhood maladies, he remains a generalist who looks at the whole patient. Another combination of general practice and specialization is represented by group practice, the members of which partially or fully specialize. One or more may be general practitioners, and one may be a surgeon, a second an obstetrician, a third a pediatrician, and a fourth an internist. In isolated communities group practice may be a satisfactory compromise, but in urban regions, where nearly everyone can be sent quickly to a hospital, the specialist surgeon working in a fully equipped hospital can usually provide better treatment than a general practitioner surgeon in a small clinic hospital.

Before 1948, general practitioners in Britain settled where they could make a living. Patients fell into two main groups: weekly wage earners, who were compulsorily insured, were on a doctors panel and were given free medical attention (for which the doctor was paid quarterly by the government); most of the remainder paid the doctor a fee for service at the time of the illness. In 1948 the National Health Service began operation. Under its provisions, everyone is entitled to free medical attention with a general practitioner with whom he is registered. Though general practitioners in the National Health Service are not debarred from also having private patients, these must be people who are not registered with them under the National Health Service. Any physician is free to work as a general practitioner entirely independent of the National Health Service, though there are few who do so. Almost the entire population is registered with a National Health Service general practitioner, and the vast majority automatically sees this physician, or one of his partners, when they require medical attention. A few people, mostly wealthy, while registered with a National Health Service general practitioner, regularly see another physician privately; and a few may occasionally seek a private consultation because they are dissatisfied with their National Health Service physician.

A general practitioner under the National Health Service remains an independent contractor, paid by a capitation fee; that is, according to the number of people registered with him. He may work entirely from his own office, and he provides and pays his own receptionist, secretary, and other ancillary staff. Most general practitioners have one or more partners and work more and more in premises built for the purpose. Some of these structures are erected by the physicians themselves, but many are provided by the local authority, the physicians paying rent for using them. Health centres, in which groups of general practitioners work have become common.

In Britain only a small minority of general practitioners can admit patients to a hospital and look after them personally. Most of this minority are in country districts, where, before the days of the National Health Service, there were cottage hospitals run by general practitioners; many of these hospitals continued to function in a similar manner. All general practitioners use such hospital facilities as X-ray departments and laboratories, and many general practitioners work in hospitals in emergency rooms (casualty departments) or as clinical assistants to consultants, or specialists.

General practitioners are spread more evenly over the country than formerly, when there were many in the richer areas and few in the industrial towns. The maximum allowed list of National Health Service patients per doctor is 3,500; the average is about 2,500. Patients have free choice of the physician with whom they register, with the proviso that they cannot be accepted by one who already has a full list and that a physician can refuse to accept them (though such refusals are rare). In remote rural places there may be only one physician within a reasonable distance.

Until the mid-20th century it was not unusual for the doctor in Britain to visit patients in their own homes. A general practitioner might make 15 or 20 such house calls in a day, as well as seeing patients in his office or surgery, often in the evenings. This enabled him to become a family doctor in fact as well as in name. In modern practice, however, a home visit is quite exceptional and is paid only to the severely disabled or seriously ill when other recourses are ruled out. All patients are normally required to go to the doctor.

It has also become unusual for a personal doctor to be available during weekends or holidays. His place may be taken by one of his partners in a group practice, a provision that is reasonably satisfactory. General practitioners, however, may now use one of several commercial deputizing services that employs young doctors to be on call. Although some of these young doctors may be well experienced, patients do not generally appreciate this kind of arrangement.

Whereas in Britain the doctor of first contact is regularly a general practitioner, in the United States the nature of first-contact care is less consistent. General practice in the United States has been in a state of decline in the second half of the 20th century, especially in metropolitan areas. The general practitioner, however, is being replaced to some degree by the growing field of family practice. In 1969 family practice was recognized as a medical specialty after the American Academy of General Practice (now the American Academy of Family Physicians) and the American Medical Association created the American Board of General (now Family) Practice. Since that time the field has become one of the larger medical specialties in the United States. The family physicians were the first group of medical specialists in the United States for whom recertification was required.

There is no national health service, as such, in the United States. Most physicians in the country have traditionally been in some form of private practice, whether seeing patients in their own offices, clinics, medical centres, or another type of facility and regardless of the patients income. Doctors are usually compensated by such state and federally supported agencies as Medicaid (for treating the poor) and Medicare (for treating the elderly); not all doctors, however, accept poor patients. There are also some state-supported clinics and hospitals where the poor and elderly may receive free or low-cost treatment, and some doctors devote a small percentage of their time to treatment of the indigent. Veterans may receive free treatment at Veterans Administration hospitals, and the federal government through its Indian Health Service provides medical services to American Indians and Alaskan natives, sometimes using trained auxiliaries for first-contact care.

In the rural United States first-contact care is likely to come from a generalist. The middle- and upper-income groups living in urban areas, however, have access to a larger number of primary medical care options. Children are often taken to pediatricians, who may oversee the childs health needs until adulthood. Adults frequently make their initial contact with an internist, whose field is mainly that of medical (as opposed to surgical) illnesses; the internist often becomes the family physician. Other adults choose to go directly to physicians with narrower specialties, including dermatologists, allergists, gynecologists, orthopedists, and ophthalmologists.

Patients in the United States may also choose to be treated by doctors of osteopathy. These doctors are fully qualified, but they make up only a small percentage of the countrys physicians. They may also branch off into specialties, but general practice is much more common in their group than among M.D.s.

It used to be more common in the United States for physicians providing primary care to work independently, providing their own equipment and paying their own ancillary staff. In smaller cities they mostly had full hospital privileges, but in larger cities these privileges were more likely to be restricted. Physicians, often sharing the same specialties, are increasingly entering into group associations, where the expenses of office space, staff, and equipment may be shared; such associations may work out of suites of offices, clinics, or medical centres. The increasing competition and risks of private practice have caused many physicians to join Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs), which provide comprehensive medical care and hospital care on a prepaid basis. The cost savings to patients are considerable, but they must use only the HMO doctors and facilities. HMOs stress preventive medicine and out-patient treatment as opposed to hospitalization as a means of reducing costs, a policy that has caused an increased number of empty hospital beds in the United States.

While the number of doctors per 100,000 population in the United States has been steadily increasing, there has been a trend among physicians toward the use of trained medical personnel to handle some of the basic services normally performed by the doctor. So-called physician extender services are commonly divided into nurse practitioners and physicians assistants, both of whom provide similar ancillary services for the general practitioner or specialist. Such personnel do not replace the doctor. Almost all American physicians have systems for taking each others calls when they become unavailable. House calls in the United States, as in Britain, have become exceedingly rare.

In Russia general practitioners are prevalent in the thinly populated rural areas. Pediatricians deal with children up to about age 15. Internists look after the medical ills of adults, and occupational physicians deal with the workers, sharing care with internists.

Teams of physicians with experience in varying specialties work from polyclinics or outpatient units, where many types of diseases are treated. Small towns usually have one polyclinic to serve all purposes. Large cities commonly have separate polyclinics for children and adults, as well as clinics with specializations such as womens health care, mental illnesses, and sexually transmitted diseases. Polyclinics usually have X-ray apparatus and facilities for examination of tissue specimens, facilities associated with the departments of the district hospital. Beginning in the late 1970s was a trend toward the development of more large, multipurpose treatment centres, first-aid hospitals, and specialized medicine and health care centres.

Home visits have traditionally been common, and much of the physicians time is spent in performing routine checkups for preventive purposes. Some patients in sparsely populated rural areas may be seen first by feldshers (auxiliary health workers), nurses, or midwives who work under the supervision of a polyclinic or hospital physician. The feldsher was once a lower-grade physician in the army or peasant communities, but feldshers are now regarded as paramedical workers.

In Japan, with less rigid legal restriction of the sale of pharmaceuticals than in the West, there was formerly a strong tradition of self-medication and self-treatment. This was modified in 1961 by the institution of health insurance programs that covered a large proportion of the population; there was then a great increase in visits to the outpatient clinics of hospitals and to private clinics and individual physicians.

When Japan shifted from traditional Chinese medicine with the adoption of Western medical practices in the 1870s, Germany became the chief model. As a result of German influence and of their own traditions, Japanese physicians tended to prefer professorial status and scholarly research opportunities at the universities or positions in the national or prefectural hospitals to private practice. There were some pioneering physicians, however, who brought medical care to the ordinary people.

Physicians in Japan have tended to cluster in the urban areas. The Medical Service Law of 1963 was amended to empower the Ministry of Health and Welfare to control the planning and distribution of future public and nonprofit medical facilities, partly to redress the urban-rural imbalance. Meanwhile, mobile services were expanded.

The influx of patients into hospitals and private clinics after the passage of the national health insurance acts of 1961 had, as one effect, a severe reduction in the amount of time available for any one patient. Perhaps in reaction to this situation, there has been a modest resurgence in the popularity of traditional Chinese medicine, with its leisurely interview, its dependence on herbal and other natural medicines, and its other traditional diagnostic and therapeutic practices. The rapid aging of the Japanese population as a result of the sharply decreasing death rate and birth rate has created an urgent need for expanded health care services for the elderly. There has also been an increasing need for centres to treat health problems resulting from environmental causes.

On the continent of Europe there are great differences both within single countries and between countries in the kinds of first-contact medical care. General practice, while declining in Europe as elsewhere, is still rather common even in some large cities, as well as in remote country areas.

In The Netherlands, departments of general practice are administered by general practitioners in all the medical schoolsan exceptional state of affairsand general practice flourishes. In the larger cities of Denmark, general practice on an individual basis is usual and popular, because the physician works only during office hours. In addition, there is a duty doctor service for nights and weekends. In the cities of Sweden, primary care is given by specialists. In the remote regions of northern Sweden, district doctors act as general practitioners to patients spread over huge areas; the district doctors delegate much of their home visiting to nurses.

In France there are still general practitioners, but their number is declining. Many medical practitioners advertise themselves directly to the public as specialists in internal medicine, ophthalmologists, gynecologists, and other kinds of specialists. Even when patients have a general practitioner, they may still go directly to a specialist. Attempts to stem the decline in general practice are being made by the development of group practice and of small rural hospitals equipped to deal with less serious illnesses, where general practitioners can look after their patients.

Although Israel has a high ratio of physicians to population, there is a shortage of general practitioners, and only in rural areas is general practice common. In the towns many people go directly to pediatricians, gynecologists, and other specialists, but there has been a reaction against this direct access to the specialist. More general practitioners have been trained, and the Israel Medical Association has recommended that no patient should be referred to a specialist except by the family physician or on instructions given by the family nurse. At Tel Aviv University there is a department of family medicine. In some newly developing areas, where the doctor shortage is greatest, there are medical centres at which all patients are initially interviewed by a nurse. The nurse may deal with many minor ailments, thus freeing the physician to treat the more seriously ill.

Nearly half the medical doctors in Australia are general practitionersa far higher proportion than in most other advanced countriesthough, as elsewhere, their numbers are declining. They tend to do far more for their patients than in Britain, many performing such operations as removal of the appendix, gallbladder, or uterus, operations that elsewhere would be carried out by a specialist surgeon. Group practices are common.

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