Measuring the intelligence of AI is one of the trickiest but most important questions in the field of computer science. If you cant understand whether the machine youve built is cleverer today than it was yesterday, how do you know youre making progress?
At first glance, this might seem like a non-issue. Obviously AI is getting smarter is one reply. Just look at all the money and talent pouring into the field. Look at the milestones, like beating humans at Go, and the applications that were impossible to solve a decade ago that are commonplace today, like image recognition. How is that not progress?
Another reply is that these achievements arent really a good gauge of intelligence. Beating humans at chess and Go is impressive, yes, but what does it matter if the smartest computer can be out-strategized in general problem-solving by a toddler or a rat?
This is a criticism put forward by AI researcher Franois Chollet, a software engineer at Google and a well-known figure in the machine learning community. Chollet is the creator of Keras, a widely used program for developing neural networks, the backbone of contemporary AI. Hes also written numerous textbooks on machine learning and maintains a popular Twitter feed where he shares his opinions on the field.
In a recent paper titled On the Measure of Intelligence, Chollet also laid out an argument that the AI world needs to refocus on what intelligence is and isnt. If researchers want to make progress toward general artificial intelligence, says Chollet, they need to look past popular benchmarks like video games and board games, and start thinking about the skills that actually make humans clever, like our ability to generalize and adapt.
In an email interview with The Verge, Chollet explained his thoughts on this subject, talking through why he believes current achievements in AI have been misrepresented, how we might measure intelligence in the future, and why scary stories about super intelligent AI (as told by Elon Musk and others) have an unwarranted hold on the publics imagination.
This interview has been lightly edited for clarity.
In your paper, you describe two different conceptions of intelligence that have shaped the field of AI. One presents intelligence as the ability to excel in a wide range of tasks, while the other prioritizes adaptability and generalization, which is the ability for AI to respond to novel challenges. Which framework is a bigger influence right now, and what are the consequences of that?
In the first 30 years of the history of the field, the most influential view was the former: intelligence as a set of static programs and explicit knowledge bases. Right now, the pendulum has swung very far in the opposite direction: the dominant way of conceptualizing intelligence in the AI community is the blank slate or, to use a more relevant metaphor, the freshly-initialized deep neural network. Unfortunately, its a framework thats been going largely unchallenged and even largely unexamined. These questions have a long intellectual history literally decades and I dont see much awareness of this history in the field today, perhaps because most people doing deep learning today joined the field after 2016.
Its never a good thing to have such intellectual monopolies, especially as an answer to poorly understood scientific questions. It restricts the set of questions that get asked. It restricts the space of ideas that people pursue. I think researchers are now starting to wake up to that fact.
In your paper, you also make the case that AI needs a better definition of intelligence in order to improve. Right now, you argue, researchers focus on benchmarking performance in static tests like beating video games and board games. Why do you find this measure of intelligence lacking?
The thing is, once you pick a measure, youre going to take whatever shortcut is available to game it. For instance, if you set chess-playing as your measure of intelligence (which we started doing in the 1970s until the 1990s), youre going to end up with a system that plays chess, and thats it. Theres no reason to assume it will be good for anything else at all. You end up with tree search and minimax, and that doesnt teach you anything about human intelligence. Today, pursuing skill at video games like Dota or StarCraft as a proxy for general intelligence falls into the exact same intellectual trap.
This is perhaps not obvious because, in humans, skill and intelligence are closely related. The human mind can use its general intelligence to acquire task-specific skills. A human that is really good at chess can be assumed to be pretty intelligent because, implicitly, we know they started from zero and had to use their general intelligence to learn to play chess. They werent designed to play chess. So we know they could direct this general intelligence to many other tasks and learn to do these tasks similarly efficiently. Thats what generality is about.
But a machine has no such constraints. A machine can absolutely be designed to play chess. So the inference we do for humans can play chess, therefore must be intelligent breaks down. Our anthropomorphic assumptions no longer apply. General intelligence can generate task-specific skills, but there is no path in reverse, from task-specific skill to generality. At all. So in machines, skill is entirely orthogonal to intelligence. You can achieve arbitrary skills at arbitrary tasks as long as you can sample infinite data about the task (or spend an infinite amount of engineering resources). And that will still not get you one inch closer to general intelligence.
The key insight is that there is no task where achieving high skill is a sign of intelligence. Unless the task is actually a meta-task, that involves acquiring new skills over a broad [range] of previously unknown problems. And thats exactly what I propose as a benchmark of intelligence.
If these current benchmarks dont help us develop AI with more generalized, flexible intelligence, why are they so popular?
Theres no doubt that the effort to beat human champions at specific well-known video games is primarily driven by the press coverage these projects can generate. If the public wasnt interested in these flashy milestones that are so easy to misrepresent as steps toward superhuman general AI, researchers would be doing something else.
I think its a bit sad because research should about answering open scientific questions, not generating PR. If I set out to solve Warcraft III at a superhuman level using deep learning, you can be quite sure that I will get there as long as I have access to sufficient engineering talent and computing power (which is on the order of tens of millions of dollars for a task like this). But once Id have done it, what would I have learned about intelligence or generalization? Well, nothing. At best, Id have developed engineering knowledge about scaling up deep learning. So I dont really see it as scientific research because it doesnt teach us anything we didnt already know. It doesnt answer any open question. If the question was, Can we play X at a superhuman level?, the answer is definitely, Yes, as long as you can generate a sufficiently dense sample of training situations and feed them into a sufficiently expressive deep learning model. Weve known this for some time. (I actually said as much a while before the Dota 2 and StarCraft II AIs reached champion level.)
What do you think the actual achievements of these projects are? To what extent are their results misunderstood or misrepresented?
One stark misrepresentation Im seeing is the argument that these high-skill game-playing systems represent real progress toward AI systems, which can handle the complexity and uncertainty of the real world [as OpenAI claimed in a press release about its Dota 2-playing bot OpenAI Five]. They do not. If they did, it would be an immensely valuable research area, but that is simply not true. Take OpenAI Five, for instance: it wasnt able to handle the complexity of Dota 2 in the first place because it was trained with 16 characters, and it could not generalize to the full game, which has over 100 characters. It was trained over 45,000 years of gameplay then again, note how training data requirements grow combinatorially with task complexity yet, the resulting model proved very brittle: non-champion human players were able to find strategies to reliably beat it in a matter of days after the AI was made available for the public to play against.
If you want to one day become able to handle the complexity and uncertainty of the real world, you have to start asking questions like, what is generalization? How do we measure and maximize generalization in learning systems? And thats entirely orthogonal to throwing 10x more data and compute at a big neural network so that it improves its skill by some small percentage.
So what would be a better measure of intelligence for the field to focus on?
In short, we need to stop evaluating skill at tasks that are known beforehand like chess or Dota or StarCraft and instead start evaluating skill-acquisition ability. This means only using new tasks that are not known to the system beforehand, measuring the prior knowledge about the task that the system starts with, and measuring the sample-efficiency of the system (which is how much data is needed to learn to do the task). The less information (prior knowledge and experience) you require in order to reach a given level of skill, the more intelligent you are. And todays AI systems are really not very intelligent at all.
In addition, I think our measure of intelligence should make human-likeness more explicit because there may be different types of intelligence, and human-like intelligence is what were really talking about, implicitly, when we talk about general intelligence. And that involves trying to understand what prior knowledge humans are born with. Humans learn incredibly efficiently they only require very little experience to acquire new skills but they dont do it from scratch. They leverage innate prior knowledge, besides a lifetime of accumulated skills and knowledge.
[My recent paper] proposes a new benchmark dataset, ARC, which looks a lot like an IQ test. ARC is a set of reasoning tasks, where each task is explained via a small sequence of demonstrations, typically three, and you should learn to accomplish the task from these few demonstrations. ARC takes the position that every task your system is evaluated on should be brand-new and should only involve knowledge of a kind that fits within human innate knowledge. For instance, it should not feature language. Currently, ARC is totally solvable by humans, without any verbal explanations or prior training, but it is completely unapproachable by any AI technique weve tried so far. Thats a big flashing sign that theres something going on there, that were in need of new ideas.
Do you think the AI world can continue to progress by just throwing more computing power at problems? Some have argued that, historically, this has been the most successful approach to improving performance. While others have suggested that were soon going to see diminishing returns if we just follow this path.
This is absolutely true if youre working on a specific task. Throwing more training data and compute power at a vertical task will increase performance on that task. But it will gain you about zero incremental understanding of how to achieve generality in artificial intelligence.
If you have a sufficiently large deep learning model, and you train it on a dense sampling of the input-cross-output space for a task, then it will learn to solve the task, whatever that may be Dota, StarCraft, you name it. Its tremendously valuable. It has almost infinite applications in machine perception problems. The only problem here is that the amount of data you need is a combinatorial function of task complexity, so even slightly complex tasks can become prohibitively expensive.
Take self-driving cars, for instance. Millions upon millions of training situations arent sufficient for an end-to-end deep learning model to learn to safely drive a car. Which is why, first of all, L5 self-driving isnt quite there yet. And second, the most advanced self-driving systems are primarily symbolic models that use deep learning to interface these manually engineered models with sensor data. If deep learning could generalize, wed have had L5 self-driving in 2016, and it would have taken the form of a big neural network.
Lastly, given youre talking about constraints for current AI systems, it seems worth asking about the idea of superintelligence the fear that an extremely powerful AI could cause extreme harm to humanity in the near future. Do you think such fears are legitimate?
No, I dont believe the superintelligence narrative to be well-founded. We have never created an autonomous intelligent system. There is absolutely no sign that we will be able to create one in the foreseeable future. (This isnt where current AI progress is headed.) And we have absolutely no way to speculate what its characteristics may be if we do end up creating one in the far future. To use an analogy, its a bit like asking in the year 1600: Ballistics has been progressing pretty fast! So, what if we had a cannon that could wipe out an entire city. How do we make sure it would only kill the bad guys? Its a rather ill-formed question, and debating it in the absence of any knowledge about the system were talking about amounts, at best, to a philosophical argument.
One thing about these superintelligence fears is that they mask the fact that AI has the potential to be pretty dangerous today. We dont need superintelligence in order for certain AI applications to represent a danger. Ive written about the use of AI to implement algorithmic propaganda systems. Others have written about algorithmic bias, the use of AI in weapons systems, or about AI as a tool of totalitarian control.
Theres a story about the siege of Constantinople in 1453. While the city was fighting off the Ottoman army, its scholars and rulers were debating what the sex of angels might be. Well, the more energy and attention we spend discussing the sex of angels or the value alignment of hypothetical superintelligent AIs, the less we have for dealing with the real and pressing issues that AI technology poses today. Theres a well-known tech leader that likes to depict superintelligent AI as an existential threat to humanity. Well, while these ideas are grabbing headlines, youre not discussing the ethical questions raised by the deployment of insufficiently accurate self-driving systems on our roads that cause crashes and loss of life.
If one accepts these criticisms that there is not currently a technical grounding for these fears why do you think the superintelligence narrative is popular?
Ultimately, I think its a good story, and people are attracted to good stories. Its not a coincidence that it resembles eschatological religious stories because religious stories have evolved and been selected over time to powerfully resonate with people and to spread effectively. For the very same reason, you also find this narrative in science fiction movies and novels. The reason why its used in fiction, the reason why it resembles religious narratives, and the reason why it has been catching on as a way to understand where AI is headed are all the same: its a good story. And people need stories to make sense of the world. Theres far more demand for such stories than demand for understanding the nature of intelligence or understanding what drives technological progress.
- Why Neuro-Symbolic Artificial Intelligence Is The AI Of The Future - Digital Trends - January 5th, 2020
- Welcome to the roaring 2020s, the artificial intelligence decade - GreenBiz - January 5th, 2020
- Top five projections in Artificial Intelligence for 2020 - Economic Times - January 5th, 2020
- A reality check on artificial intelligence: Can it match the hype? - PhillyVoice.com - January 5th, 2020
- Can medical artificial intelligence live up to the hype? - Los Angeles Times - January 5th, 2020
- Illinois regulates artificial intelligence like HireVues used to analyze online job Interviews - Vox.com - January 5th, 2020
- How This Cofounder Created An Artificial Intelligence Styling Company To Help Consumers Shop - Forbes - January 5th, 2020
- The U.S. Patent and Trademark Office Takes on Artificial Intelligence - JD Supra - January 5th, 2020
- Baidu looks to work with Indian institutions on AI - BusinessLine - January 5th, 2020
- Top Movies Of 2019 That Depicted Artificial Intelligence (AI) - Analytics India Magazine - January 5th, 2020
- Shocking ways AI technology will revolutionise every day industries in YOUR lifetime - Express.co.uk - January 5th, 2020
- Artificial intelligence takes scam to a whole new level - The Jackson Sun - January 5th, 2020
- Global Industrial Artificial Intelligence Market 2019 Research by Business Analysis, Growth Strategy and Industry Development to 2024 - Food &... - January 5th, 2020
- IIT Hyderabad to collaborate with Telangana government on artificial intelligence - India Today - January 5th, 2020
- THE AI IN TRANSPORTATION REPORT: How automakers can use artificial intelligence to cut costs, open new revenue - Business Insider India - January 5th, 2020
- Revisiting the rise of A.I.: How far has artificial intelligence come since 2010? - Digital Trends - December 30th, 2019
- Artificial intelligence is helping us talk to animals (yes, really) - Wired.co.uk - December 30th, 2019
- Artificial Intelligence Identifies Previously Unknown Features Associated with Cancer Recurrence - Imaging Technology News - December 30th, 2019
- AI IN BANKING: Artificial intelligence could be a near $450 billion opportunity for banks - here are the strat - Business Insider India - December 30th, 2019
- Artificial Intelligence Is Rushing Into Patient Care - And Could Raise Risks - Scientific American - December 30th, 2019
- Quantum leap: Why we first need to focus on the ethical challenges of artificial intelligence - Economic Times - December 30th, 2019
- In 2020, lets stop AI ethics-washing and actually do something - MIT Technology Review - December 30th, 2019
- The Power Of Purpose: How We Counter Hate Used Artificial Intelligence To Battle Hate Speech Online - Forbes - December 30th, 2019
- The skills needed to land the hottest tech job of 2020 - Business Insider Nordic - December 30th, 2019
- In the 2020s, human-level A.I. will arrive, and finally ace the Turing test - Inverse - December 30th, 2019
- Samsung to announce its Neon artificial intelligence project at CES 2020 - Firstpost - December 30th, 2019
- How Artificial Intelligence Is Totally Changing Everything - HowStuffWorks - December 26th, 2019
- Artificial intelligence jobs on the rise, along with everything else AI - ZDNet - December 26th, 2019
- Why Cognitive Technology May Be A Better Term Than Artificial Intelligence - Forbes - December 26th, 2019
- What Is The Artificial Intelligence Of Things? When AI Meets IoT - Forbes - December 26th, 2019
- One key to artificial intelligence on the battlefield: trust - C4ISRNet - December 26th, 2019
- How is Artificial Intelligence (AI) Changing the Future of Architecture? - AiThority - December 26th, 2019
- Who will really dominate artificial intelligence capabilities in the future? - Tech Wire Asia - December 26th, 2019
- For Telangana, 2020 will be year of artificial intelligence - BusinessLine - December 26th, 2019
- Chanukah and the Battle of Artificial Intelligence - The Ultimate Victory of the Human Being - Chabad.org - December 26th, 2019
- AI-based health app: Putting patients first - ETHealthworld.com - December 26th, 2019
- Fels backs calls to use artificial intelligence as wage-theft detector - The Age - December 26th, 2019
- China should step up regulation of artificial intelligence in finance, think tank says - Reuters - December 26th, 2019
- Law must be adapted for the Fourth Industrial Revolution | TheHill - The Hill - December 26th, 2019
- What is Artificial Intelligence? How Does AI Work? | Built In - December 21st, 2019
- Artificial Intelligence, Foresight, and the Offense-Defense Balance - War on the Rocks - December 21st, 2019
- Finland offers crash course in artificial intelligence to EU - The Associated Press - December 21st, 2019
- 7 tips to get your resume past the robots reading it - CNBC - December 21st, 2019
- The Machines Are Learning, and So Are the Students - The New York Times - December 21st, 2019
- How Artificial Intelligence Is Humanizing the Healthcare Industry - HealthITAnalytics.com - December 21st, 2019
- Zebra Medical Vision Announces Agreement With DePuy Synthes to Deploy Cloud Based Artificial Intelligence Orthopaedic Surgical Planning Tools -... - December 21st, 2019
- Top Artificial Intelligence Books Released In 2019 That You Must Read - Analytics India Magazine - December 21st, 2019
- New Findings Show Artificial Intelligence Software Improves Breast Cancer Detection and Physician Accuracy - P&T Community - December 21st, 2019
- Tommie Experts: Ethically Educating on Artificial Intelligence at St. Thomas - University of St. Thomas Newsroom - December 21st, 2019
- Artificial intelligence predictions for 2020: 16 experts have their say - Verdict - December 21st, 2019
- Beethovens unfinished tenth symphony to be completed by artificial intelligence - Classic FM - December 21st, 2019
- Innovations in Artificial Intelligence, Cloud, Blockchain, and Analytics, 2019: Advances in AI, Blockchain, and Business Intelligence -... - December 19th, 2019
- Innovations in Artificial Intelligence, Natural Language Processing, IoT, and Analytics, 2019 Study - ResearchAndMarkets.com - Business Wire - December 19th, 2019
- Military Applications of Artificial Intelligence - Ethics Project Now Funded - Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO) - December 19th, 2019
- Artificial Intelligence might be a factor behind the Climate Change - Digital Information World - December 19th, 2019
- Tech experts agree its time to regulate artificial intelligence if only it were that simple - GeekWire - December 19th, 2019
- Latest Innovations in Wound Care, Ophthalmic Devices, and Artificial Intelligence-enabled Diagnostics, 2019 Research Report - ResearchAndMarkets.com -... - December 19th, 2019
- Innovations in Radar-on-Chip, Wireless Electric Vehicle Charging Systems, Artificial Intelligence, and In-vehicle Sensing Solutions, 2019 Study -... - December 19th, 2019
- Ume University: Master all areas of Artificial Intelligence - Study International News - December 19th, 2019
- Artificial intelligence must be used with care - The Australian Financial Review - December 19th, 2019
- Accountability is the key to ethical artificial intelligence, experts say - ComputerWeekly.com - December 19th, 2019
- The impact of artificial intelligence in the banking sector & how AI is being used in 2020 - Business Insider India - December 19th, 2019
- 8 Tools: How To Think About Artificial Intelligence In The Music Industry - hypebot.com - December 19th, 2019
- How Artificial Intelligence Is Reshaping the Future of Stock Picking - InsideHook - December 18th, 2019
- Artificial Intelligence (AI) Solutions and Market Opportunities to 2024: A Comprehensive 10-Report Research Bundle - Yahoo Finance - December 18th, 2019
- It's artificial intelligence to the rescue (and response and recovery) - GreenBiz - December 18th, 2019
- Schlumberger inks deal to expand artificial intelligence in the oil field - Chron - December 18th, 2019
- Boschs A.I.-powered tech could prevent accidents by staring at you - Digital Trends - December 18th, 2019
- New Solar Estimator Shows How AI Will Transform the Home Improvement - AiThority - December 18th, 2019
- 8 Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning and Cloud Predictions To Watch in 2020 - Irish Tech News - December 18th, 2019
- Joint Artificial Intelligence Center Director tells Naval War College audience to 'Dive In' on AI - What'sUpNewp - December 18th, 2019
- Artificial intelligence: The rising star of education - Daily Sabah - December 3rd, 2019
- Asia-Pacific Digital Transformation Markets 2019-2024: Focus on 5G, Artificial Intelligence, Internet of Things, and Smart Cities -... - December 3rd, 2019
- Opinion | The artificial intelligence frontier of economic theory - Livemint - December 3rd, 2019
- Seminar - Artificial Intelligence and its Impact on Young People - Council of Europe - December 3rd, 2019
- Triple your CX impact with artificial intelligence and these five tactics - CXNetwork - December 3rd, 2019
- BioSig Technologies Announces New Collaboration on Development of Artificial Intelligence Solutions in Healthcare - GlobeNewswire - December 3rd, 2019
- Amazon makes three major AI announcements during re:Invent 2019 - AI News - December 3rd, 2019
- The impact of artificial intelligence on humans - Bangkok Post - December 3rd, 2019
- What Jobs Will Artificial Intelligence Affect? - EHS Today - December 3rd, 2019